1 STRAIT OF CANS0 INDUSTRIAL 3 DEVEL-OPMENT AUTHORITY (SCIDA) Canso Superport PORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS STUDY FENCO CONSULTANTS LTD.
2 Suite 1020, Cogswell TO\VL-' 2000 Barrington Street Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3Ki Cable 'FENCOENG' Telex May 15, 1980 Strait of Canso Industrial Development Authority (SCIDA) P. 0. Box 610, Church Street Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia BOE 2V0 Attention: Mr. J. Lansky, P.Eng. Executive Director Dear Sirs, PORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS STUDY We are pleased to submit 12 copies of our final Report on the above study. This Report which is a follow-up of our Interim Report submitted in March 1980, incorporates comments made by Mr. R.E. Innes and views expressed during the study by various organizations and individuals. The Report provides a port profile documenting existing situation of facilities, operations and other activities in the area; reviews and analyses various port administration systems in Canada and overseas, and finally recommends an optimum system of port management and promotion structure for Canso Superport to be implemented in stages. The input on Canada's port policy, legislative intent and port administration systems ar~alysis has been contributed by Mr. Brian Flemming, of Eastern Policy Research Associates Ltd., who has been our collaborating advisor on all matters pertaining to these aspects of the study. We hope that this Report will provide a useful basis for a decision to improve the port administration and management system at Canso Superport. FENCO CONSULTANTS Vancouver. Calgary - Edmonton. Savlt St.. Marie. Hamilton. Toronto Ottawa. Montreal. Fredericton Halifax - St. John's
3 STRAIT OF CANS0 INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY May 15, 1980 Page 2 We wish to acknowledge valuable advice and guidance given by Mr. P. Bates, Ex-Executive Director, SCIDA and Mr. R.E. Innes of R.E. Innes Ltd. during the course of the study. Should you require us to assist further in the implementation prodecure of our recommendations, we would be pleased to respond. Yours very truly, FENCO CONSULTANTS LTD. V. Zahorski, P.Eng. Vice President
4 CANSO SUPERPORT PORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS STUDY MAY FENCO
5 CANS0 SUPERPORT PORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS STUDY INDEX PAGE 1. INTRODUCTION Background Objectives Methodolody Report Contents 2. PORT PROFILE Location & Harbour Characteristics Port Facilities Port-Oriented Industries Services Cargo Traffic Ship Traffic Port ~dministration/management Revenues & Expenditures Socio-Economic.Data Summary 3. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS Canadian Ports Pol icy Ports Policy in the United States of America European Ports Policies Possible Systems Specified in the Terms of Reference 4. CONSLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. APPENDICES Schedule of Harbour Dues and Port Charges National Harbours Board Act, 1936 Harbour Commissions Act, Short Review of Gibb Report, 1932 List of Persons Contacted References
6 INTRODUCTION Background The creation of Canso Superport through the combined effects of the building of the Canso Causeway and developments in shipping have created new growth opportunities for the Strait of Canso region. The coming of large tankers and the prospect of oil and gas discoveries on the eastern continental shelf have created new growth prospects for the Strait area. While technology has advanced rapidly in the past decade, the policy underpinning port administration and development has generally lagged behind in Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. ~t was against this general kackdrop that the Strait of Canso Industrial Development Authority (SCIDA), in the implementation of their mandate to promote the industrial growth of the Strait of Canso area and the Canso Superport, came to realise that the present management and administration system was probably inadequate and might even be an impediment to the orderly growth and development of the port.
7 Furthermore, it came to the attention of SCIDil. that a1 thou9h a large number of studies relating to the Strait of Canso area have been carried out in the past, there has been scant attention paid to the port management and administration, and more particularly its promotion, such that the principal ob~ectives and strategies of SCIDA and the Province of Nova Scotia relating to the development of the area have been constrained. Accordingly, SC I DA commissioned FENCO CONSULTANTS LTD. in December 1979 to carry out an examination of the various Port Management Systems and from the examination to recommend the optimum Port Management arrangement for Canso Superport. Objectives As the principle objective of the study FENCO set out to develop and recommend a Port Management System for Canso Superport which would be: (a) Compatible with the aims and objectives of SCIDA. (b) In concert with the development plans of the Province of Nova Scotia. (c) Within the present or future ports policy framework established or planned by the Federal Government. (d) In accord with the power which may be given to the port to plan, develop, operate and control land use and water facilities which are needed to stimulate the flow of commerce through the port. (e) Eligible for funding from all levels of government in order to achieve - its objectives. (f) Able to be as self-sufficient as possible through the ability to use its earnings and resources. The important facet of this study is the Government's intention with respect to the porks in Canada. There has been increasing interest in past years both on the part of the provinces and industry for an overhaul of the existing port legislation in Canada. A need is seen for an administration system that would eliminate the present fragmentation of the port pol icy, planning and operations. Particularly a structure which would allow meaning f ul participation at the regional and local port levels is seen as a requirement, and in addition there is an administrative need to integrate the port system with the overall marine functions of Transport Canada. We have therefore tried to relate the requirements of the Canso Superport to the present thinking in the formulation of Canada's port pol icy.
8 Mcthodoloqv In order to achieve the above objectives, the study was carried out in the following steps: (a) (b) Compile data on the existing situation to proviclt? an overall view of the facilities, operations zr:!! other activities taking place in the Canso Superport region and thus to determine the level of present activity and future potential so that the resulting administrative requirements are assessed. Analyse and evaluate various systems of port administration to examine how far they are applicable in the case of Canso Superport. (c) Using input from (a) and (b) above, develop recommendations for a possible administration system for Canso Superport. Report Contents Following the above methodology, the 01 lowing chapters: the Report is presented in - Chapter 2, Port Profile, documents port and harbour f ac il ities, port-oriented industries located in the area, existing services, cargo and ship traffic, present port administrative structure, socioeconomic data etc. - Chapter 3, Applicability Analysis (Port Administration Systems Analysis) reviews the history of the Canadian experience in ports policy leading to the Canadian ports followed at present and proposed in the future. It also reviews port policy in the United States of America and other countries. In the light of these reviews, various possible systems for Canso Superport are evaluated. - Chapter 4, Conclusions and Recomaendat ions draws inferences from port profile and port administration systems analysis and describes suitable system of port management and promotion structure compatible with the aims and objectives of SCIDA on one hand and the Canadian Ports pol icy framework on the other.
9 PORT PROFILE The Strait of Canso is a natural deep water area dividing mainland Nova Scotia from Cape Breton Island. The Str-ait is spanned by the Canso Causeway. The towns and communities of Port Hawkesbury, Port Hastings and Point Tupper are situated on the isl'and side, and Auld Cove and Mulgrave are on the mainland side, all within the immediate area of interest of this study (see Fig 2.1). Existing industries of a port-related nature in the area include: - Gulf Refinery - Nova Scotia Forest Products M i l l - Georgia Pacific Corporation's Gypsum Plant and mad ing Facilities - Breton Industrial and Marine Shipyard
10 The Strait of Canso is a sizeable and significant industrial port, with approximately 7.3 mill ion tonnes of throughput in The Strait is designated as the province's deepwater industrial growth area, and it has very substantial potential for future development. At present the port area is managed under the Ports and Harbours Division of Canadian Coast Guard (Ministry of Transport). This profile of the existing port facil ities and operations is presented in the following sections: Location and Harbour Characteristics Port Facil ities port-or iente'd Industries Serv ices Cargo Traffic Ship Traffic Port Arndinistration/Management Revenues and Expenditures Socioeconomic Data
11 STRAIT OF CANS0 SOUNDINGS IN FATHOMS -,,I _I.,."...a I..,.,.J"..J,.I L.,.." h".l>..l 1aA.l
12 LOCATION AND HARBOUR CHARACTERISTICS The Strait of Canso is a natural sheltered deep water harbour 14.5 miles (23.2 km) long and from a half-mile (0.8 km) to more than a mile (1.6 km) in width. The Canso Causeway, constructed in 1954, connects the mainland with Cape Breton Island carrying a two-lane highway and CN main line rail track to Sydney. There is a toll charge ($1.50 for cars, return) to use the causeway road. There is a Seaway size lock in the causeway. The width of the main harbour channel between deep water contours of 110 f t (33.5 m) narrows from 2,000 f t (610 m) at the South entrance to 1,000 f t (305 m) towards the causeway end of the Strait. A local widening between the 110 it (33.5 m) contours in the vicinity of Pirate Harbour provides a turning basin located beyond all existing deep water wharves. The width of the entrance channel from Chedabucto Bay in the South exceeds 1800 ft (550 m) and with one exception the water depth exceeds 90 f t (27.4 m) throughout. The exception is a ledge some 5 miles (8 km) to. the seaward of Eddy Point where the depth restriction is approximately 90 f t (27.4 m) below low water. Average tide ranges in the Strait are 5.2 ft (1.5 m) springs and 2.8 ft (0.8 m) neaps. The Strait of Canso possesses all essential ingredients for a major deep water port capable of handling virtually any type and size of ship; i.e. protected natural deep water in close proximity to the land, low tidal range, small currents, essentially ice and sedimentation free conditions, and approximately 22 miles (35 km) of shoreline providing deep water interface possibil ities.
14 PORT FACILITIES The existing port facilities in the Strait of Canso are in three areas: - Cape Breton side on the eastern shore of the Strait - The Mainland side on the western shore of the Strait - The Causeway connecting Cape Breton Island with mainland Nova Scotia Within the last 20 years or so, major activity has largely been concentrated on the Cape Breton side of the Strait. The mainland side of the Strait is not yet developed except for a few relatively minor facilities. An inventory of the physical port facil ities Is and summarized below (a1 so see Fig. 2.2): CAPE BRETON MAINLAND 1. Government Wharf, Port Hawkesbury 2. Fina Wharf, Port Ha wkesbury 3. Breton Industrial and Marine Facilities, Point Tupper 4. Georgia Pacific Corporat ion, Gyps um Load ing Facilities, Point Tupper 5. Nova Scotia Forest Products Terminal, Madden Point 6. Gulf Canada Limited Oil Products Terminal, Pebbles Point (to be demo1 ished) 7. Gul f Canada Limited ma in Oil Terminal, Wright Point Government Fisheries Wharf, Aulds Cove Construction Aggregates Ltd. Barge Wharf, Cape Porcupine Acadia Fisheries Wharf, Venus Cove (adandoned) Irving Oil Wharf, Venus Cove (abandoned) Government Wharf, Mulgrave CN Ro-Ro Mulgrave Facility, Government Fisheries Wharf, Pirate Harbour Government Wharf, Sand Point The salient features of the above facilities and the Canso Ship Lock are briefly described below:
15 CAPE BRETON SIDE The port facilities on this side are located in the Port Hawkesbury and Point Tupper area. All the facilities are privately owned except the Government Wharf at Port Hawkesbury, operated by Canadian Coast Guard (Ministry of Transport). From north to south the main wharves are: Government Wharf located at Port Hawkesbury has a length of 498 f t (154 m) with an L-Head 110 f t x 65 f t (33.5 m x 19.8 m), 22 f t (6.7 m) width and 18 f t (5.5 m) depth alongside at L.W. The public wharf facility is used for miscellaneous small boat purposes, at present, and is also used by vessels for winter and summer lay-up. Along side this wharf are the facilities of the Port Hawkesbury Yacht Club, which has a very small timber wharf and a boat mooring area. Fina Wharf, an old abandoned wharf is located east of the Government Wharf. It was built during the last war by the Armed Forces for boom defence purposes. The wharf area, which is in poor repair, has recently been bought by a private concern for boat building and possibly for establishing a yacht club. Breton Industrial and Marine Ltd. facilities for boat building are located at Point Tupper. The facilities of this very active company comprise: - Two wharves, 250 f t x 30 f t (76.2 m x 9.l'm) with 30 f t (9.1 m) depth-and 162 f t x 25 ft (49.4 m x 7.6 m) with 18 f t (5.5 m) depth. - One floating dry dock of 1,000 tons capacity designed for ships up to 200 f t (61 m) length (under construction). - Slipway with 2 cradles, one of 1,000 ton and another of 100 ton capacities. - One shipbuilding and fabrication shop 175 ft (53.4 m) long, 80 f t (24.4 m) wide, and 40 f t (12.2 m) high. The Gypsum Loading Wharf owned and operated by the Georgia Pacific Corporation, Gypsum Division, is located at Point Tupper. 0 FENCO
16 The wharf is 1,100 f t long consisting of 7 concrete crib dolphins with catwalks in between; there are 5 breasting dolphins and 2 mooring dolphins. The central dolphir, carries the fixed loading equipment. The water depth is 31 ft (9.5 m) below mean low water. Annual tonnage throughput is 770,000 tons ( 1979); The Forest Products Terminal owned and operated by Nova Scotia Products Industries Ltd. is also located at Madden Point (Point Tupper). The wharf was constructed in 1960 at a capital cost of $480,000. The wharf can take ships up to 650 f t (198 m) length and 28 f t (8.5 m) in depth. In 1979, 51 general cargo ships (forest products), 10 tankers and 1 caustic ship used the wharf. Ships using the terminal vary, in general, from 4,000 to 30,000 dwt with an average of about 7,000 dwt. The Tanker Terminal owned and operated by Gulf Canada is located at Wright Point. The wharf is 1,918 f t (5.85 m) in overall length with a depth of 100 (+) ft (30 m) at the outside and 60 (+) ft (18 m) inside berth. The terminal has taken crude oil tankers up to a maximum of 360,000 dwt (AL ANDALUS), the largest tanker to visit N. America. The annual tonnage throughput has varied from 7.28 million tons in 1977 to 5.35 million tons in Gulf Canada Limited has another minor oil terminal for product loading, at Pebbles Point, but it is now due for demolition.
18 PUBLIC WHARF, PORT HAWKESBURY PORT HAWKESBURY YACHT CLUB AREA (ADJACENT TO PUBLIC WHARF)
19 GYPSUM LOADING WHARF, POINT TUPPER BRETON INDUSTRIAL & MARINE FACILITIES, POINT TUPPER
20 GULF WHARF NOVA SCOTIA FOREST INDUSTRIES WHARF'
21 MAINLAND SIDE WHARF FACILITIES The existing facilities, from north to south, comprise the following : A Fisheries Wharf owned and operated by Fisheries and Oceans Canada is located at Auld Cove north of the causeway. The wharf is 230 ft (70 m) long, and 20 f t (6 m) wide with a depth of 10 f t (3 m) below LWOST. A Barge Wharf owned and operated by Construction Aggregates Limited is located just south of the causeway and is used for loading sand and aggregates, mainly for PEI but some shipments have been sent to Bermuda. The wharf is 150 f t (46 m) long with a depth of about 10 f t (3 m) alongside. Three Acadia Fisheries Wharves located on the' north side of Venus Cove were owned and operated by Acadia Fisheries Ltd. These wharves are in ruins, two of them together with the fish processing plant were destroyed by fire in 1970 and the third is derelict. The Irving Oil Wharf is 201 ft (61.3 m) long, with a 17 f t (5 m) square wharf at its outer end with least depth of 11 ft (3.4 m) and is situated on the south'side of Venus Cove. - Two oil pipes lead from the wharf to eight oil storage tanks on the hill behind the wharf. The wharf is not used presently, The Goverment Wharf used as a general cargo wharf is located at Mulgrave on the south point of Murray Cove. The wharf is operated by Canadian Coast Guard. The wharf is 905 f t (276 m) long, with a depth varying from f t (4.3 m) to + 25 ft (7.6 n) below LWOST. The wharf is provided with rail Tacilities by the CNR. A warehouse 120 f t by 72 f t (36.6 m x 22 m) is located on the wharf which is mainly used by the Canadian Coast Guard, Emergency Services. A CN Ro-Ro Ramp located at the southern extremity of the Mulgrave ~overnment wharf, was built by CN as a ferry ~kiarf to service and load - ferry vessels carrying rail cars or trucks to Newfoundland, It is considered as an alternative berth to the N. Sydney ferry facilities on the infrequent occasions when the latter are blocked by ice or when extra ferries are operated to clear occasional rail traffic backlogged at the N. Sydney docks. It is understood that the ramp has not yet been used by CN.
22 A small Fisheries Wharf is located at Pirate Harbour, south of the town of Mulgrave. It is administered by by Fisheries and Oceans. This facility is a finger wharf 85 f t by 30 ft (25.9 m x 9.1 m) with a depth of 11 ft (3.4 m) at the face at low water. It can accommodate two or three small fishing boats. The Government Wharf at Sand Point, just north of Eddy Point. CANS0 SHIP LOCK A ship lock is located on the east side of the Causeway to permit passage of vessels through the Strait. The lock is owned by Canadian Coast Guard. The dimensions of the lock and maximum dimensions of ships allowed in the lock are: LOCK DIMENSIONS SHIP DIMENSIONS Length 800 f t (244 rn) 735 f t (224 m) Width/Beam 80 f t (24.4 m) 76.5 ft (23.3 m) Depth/Draf t 32 f t (9.8 m) 28.0 ft (8.5 m) Vessels with a draft greater than 28 f t (8.5 m) and not more than 30 f t (9 m) may proceed through the lock when tidal conditions are favourable. The tidal difference at the lock is 2.5 f t (0.8 m). The largest ship which has so far used the lock is the ONTARIO POWER of 30,149 dwt having a length of 711 ft (216.9 m) and beam of 75.5 f t (23 m). The lock is used from April 15 to middle of January. The non-navigable days are generally 81 days/year, when ice blocks the area north of the Causeway. So far, 41,000 vessels have used the lock since- its construction in In 1979, 3,200 vessels used the lock, more than any other year, due to increased traffic of tuna boats. (The area north of the causeway was re-opened for tuna fishing in ) The roadway swing bridge on the south of the lock is owned by CN and operated on the instructions of the Lock Master. Navigation has priority over road and rail traffic.
23 SITE OF FORMER FISH PLANT, MULGRAVE IRVING WHARF, MULGRAVE
24 MULGRAVE PUBLIC WHARF COAST GUARD WAREHOUSE AXD OFFICES, & TRANSIT SHED, MULGRAVE PUBLIC WHARF
25 MULGRAVE PUBLIC WHARF
26 MULGRAVE PUBLIC WHARF CN MARINE RAMP, MULGRAVE
27 FISHERIES WHARF, PIRATE HARBOUR
28 FISHERIES WHARF, SAND POINT
29 CANS0 LOCK
30 PORT-ORIENTED INDUSTRIES The principle port-oriented the Strait of Canso area are: industries presently located in - Pulp and paper m i l l (Nova Scotia Forest Industries Limited) - Heavy water plant (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd). - Electric Power Plant (Nova Scotia Power Corporation) - Oil Refinery (Gulf Canada Limited) In addition to the above four major industries which form a sizeable industrial complex in the Point Tupper area, the Bestwall Division of the Georgia Pacific Corporation has established gypsum stock-pile and loading facilities and Breton Industrial and Marine Limited are operating a relatively small but very active shipbuilding and repair yard. PULP AND PAPER MILL Major industrial growth in the Strait of Canso commenced with the construction of a pulp m i l l at Point Tupper in 1961, by Nova Scotia Forest Industries Ltd. A paper m i l l was added in 1971 The total investment in the site, plant and equipment amounted to $133 million. The plant capacity is 150,000 tonnes per year of pulp and 146,000 tonnes per year of newsprint. These products are exported mainly to the UK, Europe, India and Brazil. The export figures for 1977, 1978 and 1979 were as follows: Newsprint Woodpulp Total ( tonnes) (tonnes) ( tonnes) The plant occupies an area of acres (+ 50 ha), and employs about 2,000 people (1,066 in the mill-and 1,000 in the woods and trucking) with a total salary over $20 million. HEAVY WATER PLANT The plant was constructed in 1969/7O at Point Tupper by Canadian General Electric for production of heavy water for use in nuclear reactors, at a total investment cost of $75 million. It was taken over by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. in The plant produces approximately 400 tons (363 tonnes) of heavy water per year, most of which is used in Canada. The labour force at the plant includes some 200 people.
31 ELECTRIC POWER PLANT The Nova Scotia Power Corporation established a thermal electricity generating plant west of the heavy water plant at Point Tupper in The plant began operation in 1970 with a capacity of 80 megawatts, later expanded to 230 megawatts in By 1974, the total investment was $50 million on the generating plant and another $15 million on transmission facilities. It employs 90 people at the plant. GULF REFINERY Gulf Canada ~imited established an oil refinery at Point Tupper, and it began full scale operations in 1971 after a total investment of $105 million on the refinery and terminal facilities. The production capacity of the refinery is 87,000 barrels per day. Almost all of this production is now used in Canada, although in the early years of operation (before 1973), about half the oil processed was exported to the USA. The tank farm capacity is 7.3 million barrels, 50% for products and 50% for crude oil. The area occupied by the refinery is 1,820 acres (737 ha.) of' which 547 acres (221 ha) is built-up and the remaining -area is undeveloped. The refinery employs -some 200 to 220 people of which 143 are Gulf employees while are on maintenance contracts. GYPSUM LOADING FACILITIES The Bestwel.1 Division of the Georgia Pacific Corporation established gypsum facilities at the northern tip of Point Tupper in Their gypsum quarries are located inland at River Denys in Cape Breton from where the material is transported by rail to their stockyard at Point Tupper for shipment abroad. In 1978 and 1979 Georgia Pacific exported 760,000 tons (690,000 tonnes) and 770,000 tons (700,000 tonnes) respectively. The stockyard covers an area of about 12 acres (5 ha). men are employed at the terminal. Four
32 SHIPYARD AND SHIP REPAIK FACILITIES At Point Tupper, Breton Industrial and Marine Ltd. have been operating a small dynamic shipyard since 1970, when it was purchased by the present owner from Canso Marine Railway Company. The firm has a new floating dock of 1,000 tons capacity designed for ships up to 200 ft (61 m) length and two cradles of 1,000 tons and 100 tons capacities, with a covered shipbuilding and fabrication shop 175 f t (53 m) long and 40 f t (12 m) wide. Although this firm has a lengthy background, it grew under new ownership from an initial 5 man shipyard in 1970 to 150 people now with a payroll of about $3 million in In , the labour force is expected to be increased to about 200 men. This flourishing firm builds many types of small boats and specializes in a1 uminurn construction. It has exported a number of vessels and could expand further if there was more good labour available. AGGREGATE QUARRY Construction Aggregates Limited have a quarry just south of the Causeway on the Mulgrave side. They produce aggregates for construction purposes and ship some of their products (sand and gravels) to PEI by barge. FISHING Fishing in the port area is a minor activity only. However there are a number of fishing harbours in areas bordering the Strait, both to the north and' south. Fish landing statistics for the Strait area are given under Socioeconomic Data, later in the Profile.
33 SERVICES The main port services provided at the Strait of Canso are: - Vessel Traffic Control and Aids to Navigation - Pilotage - Tug Service - Stevedoring - Shipping Agency - Ship Chandlery - Fire Fighting - Customs and Immigration - Environmental Services - Road and Rail Links VESSEL TRAFFIC CONTROL AND AIDS TO NAVIGATION In the interest of safe navigation within the area of the Strait of Canso and its approaches, the Canadian Coast Guard has established a Vessel Traffic Management Centre at Eddy Point to regulate ship movement in the Strait of Canso and Chedabucto Bay. This centre is manned on a 24-hour basis and is equipped with radar, VHF, MF and RT transmitting and receiving communications equipment. An unmanned subsidiary station is located near Canso to provide supplementary coverage in the approaches to Chedabucto Bay. This station is hooked-up with the main station at Eddy Point. The shipping in this area is regulated on a two-tier basis: - The Eastern Canada Traffic Regulatory System (ECAREG Canada), introduced in July 1976, provides widespread coverage to ships entering or moving within the Canadian territorial waters, through the regional centres at Dartmouth, St. John's, and Montreal. All vessels over 500 grt and all vessels carrying pollutants or other dangerous goods or any vessel towing such craft are required to report to ECAREG Canada to enter Canadian Waters 24 hours in advance. Reporting is msndatory. - The local Vessel Traffic Management System (VTM) located at Eddy Point monitors ship movements in Chedabucto Bay and the Strait of Canso area using radar surveillance and direct VHF radio communication. All vessels 20 metres or over in length are required to report to this centre as soon as they approach within 5 nautical miles of the specified zone. Reporting is mandatory.
34 About 14 regular employees are located at the VTM Eddy Point. centre at The channel dimensions and the present system of aids to navigation (buoys and beacons) establ ished in 1970 prov iding for a channel depth of 91 ft below datum (draft 85 f t to 86 ft generally) are quite adequate for. supertankers up to about 400,000 dwt. PILOTAGE The Atlantic Pilotage Authority provides pilotage service in the Strait of Canso. Pilotage is compulsory for all ships not registered in Canada and for ships of more than 1,500 grt registered in Canada with a few exceptions as specified in the Atlantic Pilotage Authority Regulations (1974). The Authority maintains 5 pilots at Port Hawkesbury 'and 4 pilots at Sydney. The pilots are interchangeable during peak requirements for pilotage in the Strait of Canso, Sydney and Bras d'or Lake zones as part of the Cape Breton Compulsory Pilotage area. The dispatch of pilots is through the Vessel Traffic Management Centre at Eddy Point. The Pilot boarding station for the' Strait of Canso is: Northern Limit: ( Mouth of Strai t) Lat. 45O42'42" N Long. 62O29'12" W Southern Limit: Lat. 45O24'00" N ( Mouth of Chedabuc to Long '00" W Bay) In 1978, out of the total jobs of 2058 for the combined Cape Breton area comprising Strait of Canso, Bras dlor Lake and Sydney, about 1,200 assignments were for the Strait of Canso. The pilotage is at present being subsidized by the Government. Efforts are made by the Authority to be selfsufficient by raising tariffs in 1980.
35 TUG SERVICE Tug service is provided by Eastern Canada Towing Limited through a charter arrangement with Gulf Canada. Two tugs of 300 gross tons each (M.T. Point Tupper and M.T. Point Melford) are permanently stationed at the Gulf Refinery dock. The tugs each have 4,200 hp with 50 ton bollard pull. Additional tugs,. if required by VLCC's, are sent from Halifax. Two tugs provide assistance to all vessels in excess of 15,000 dwt arriving and departing, and to ships smaller if deemed necessary by the master of terminal staff, due to inclement weather or otherwise, and whenever a stern- in docking may be required. For vessels of 110,000 dwt to 160,000 dwt, three tugs are required, and for vessels over 160,000 dwt four tugs are generally required. The tug charges have recently been revised (April 15, 1979). These are based on summer deadweight tons as reported in Lloyd's Register. STEVEDORING Stevedoring on private wharf facil ities at Nova Scotia Fo-rest Products and Georgia Pacific Corporation are provided by the industries themselves util izing non-unionized labour. The cargo at Mulgrave Government Wharf is handled by ILA workers who have formed a Local headed by a president. The union has 14 full-time stevedores. and about 300 men parttime. The unionized workers also handle lines at the Gulf terminal which utilizes about 14 men as and when required. On occassions unionized workers also handle stores for the tankers. SHIPPING AGENTS I.H. Mathers and Sons Limited and F.K. Warren Limited are shipping agents which operate jointly from Port Hawkesbury and have two permanent employees based at Port Hawkeshury.
36 SHIP CHANDLERY Ship chandlery is provided by Mattie's Ship Chandler: Services Limited which employs 6 people. The provisions, stores and spare parts required by ships are drawn fron Sydney and Halifax if not available locally. In addition to Mattie's, there are two other ship chandlers which provide provisions etc. to.some of the ships. These are Hawco's Meat and Ship Chandlers located at Port Hawkesbury, and Salter's and Sons Limited which operate from N. Sydney. FIRE FIGHTING Fire fighting services at various wharves are provided by the Fire Departments of Port Hawkesbury and Mulgrave. Gul f Canada Limited have elaborate fire fighting arrangments on the terminal. The tugs M.T. Point Tupper and M.T. Point Me1 ford are also equipped with fire fighting equipment. CUSTOMS Port Hawkesbury is considered 3s a Port of Entry for the Straqt of Canso as far as Customs and Immigration are cci3- cerned. The customs office is located at Port Hawkesbury with three permanent employees. They also look after immigration. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES Canadian Coast Guard runs the Mulgrave Marine Bnergency Response and Repair Centre at the Mulgrave public wharf. The pollution abatement equipment is stored in about 3,000 sq ft of shed space (part of the transit shed), and a small annex provides about 1,000 sq f t of office space. The equipment consists of a variety of small vessels and booms, solvents, \ pumps, skimmers, vehicles etc. Nine People are employed at the Centre, which serves the entire Maritime Area in conjunction with smaller regional depots. The Centre is in the charge of the Regional Ehergency Operations Of flcer who reports to the Regional Manager Marine Emergencies in Dartmouth. ROAD AND RAIL LINKS The Trans Canada Highway and the Canadian National railway connect Canso Superport with the national and provincial transportation system. The causeway, connecting Cape Breton Island and the mainland of Nova Scotia, has been a vital link between the southern and northern shores of the Strait of Canso transforming the southern portion into one of the major deep water port-oriented industrial complexes of the Atlantic Prov inces.