TYPOLOGY OF THE ACTORS OF THE E-COMMERCE

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1 Hubert BITAN Courriel : Docteur en Droit Ingénieur Télécoms et Informatique Expert en Informatique agréé par la Cour de cassation Expert près la Cour d'appel de Paris et les Cours Administratives d appel de Paris et de Versailles Chargé d'enseignement à l'université Paris 2 TYPOLOGY OF THE ACTORS OF THE E-COMMERCE 1

2 Typology of the actors of the E-Commerce Technical Provider (Internet Service Provider and hosting) Content Provider(editor) Internet User Intermediation Service Provider Cyber- Merchant 2

3 Technical Providers Internet Service Provider Web Hosting Service 3

4 Internet Service Provider Legal definition: article 6-I-1 of the CDE Law: The activity of internet service providers consists in allowing public to access communication services online 4

5 Web Host Legal definition: article 6-I-2 of the CDE Law: «a web host is a person who, even for free, ensures a host service (of signals, documents, pictures, sounds or messages provided by services recipients) and an administration service of content and makes available to users the technical means required to make contents, online, available to the public» The web host makes websites supervised by others available to Internet users. 5

6 A subtle border An Internet service provider can initiate a data storage service. According to the situation and the services proposed, he will take on the responsibility provided by the CDE Law, which is the web host s liability. 6

7 Content Provider (editor) Legal definition: article 6-III CDE Law: The content provider is an individual, or a legal entity, who makes available an online content to public. He provides information available on the websites to public. The main content provider is the editor who can be defined as an individual or legal person introducing information on logical and/or physical support available to the Internet users. 7

8 About the intellectual implication It is sometimes difficult to make a distinction between the web host and the editor. An Internet service provider who provides a host service may be qualified of editor. 8

9 Intermediation service provider They act as intermediaries between providing of content and providing of means. For example, this is the case of the operator of a forum or of a provider of hyperlinks or searching tools. 9

10 Cyber-Merchants Electronic Commerce legal definition: article 14 of the CDE Law: economic or business activity under which a person remotely or by electronic means provides for products and services. E-Commerce includes services such as services allowing to provide for information online, business communications and tools for searching, accessing to and recovering data, tools for accessing to a communication network or to an hosting data network, including services that are not paid by the person who access to them 10

11 Cyber-Merchants Legal System Article 15-I alinéa 1 CDE Law : The CDE Law provides for a mandatory liability of the professional towards the consumer for the full completion of the commitments resulting from the remote agreement, whether the commitments are fulfilled by the professional who concluded the contract or by other service providers, without any prejudice to their rights of appeal against the latter. 11

12 Internet User Definition: The Internet user is the person who logs in the network to get or transmit information. Thus, he is a consumer, or an information provider and can be both object and subject of liability. 12

13 Internet User Legal System On the one hand, the Internet user is bound by contract to the telecommunication operator for his telephone subscription and to the service provider for the access to the Internet. On the other hand, he has no legal link with the other users with whom he exchanges information. As an information transmitter, basically via messenger services ( s ), the Internet user is liable, towards third parties, for the information he communicates, notably for its accuracy, veracity, and completeness. 13

14 Which legal system for tomorrow? To a modification to the CDE Law? To a CDE Law II? Which legal system for the next Web 3.0? 14

15 Structure of Professor Azzi s presentation: The international aspects of the Internet actors civil liability I. The relevant Court A. The Supreme Court position B. The other Courts II. The applicable Law A. The actual French Jurisprudence B. The Roma II rule of July, 11 th 2007 Plan de la présentation du Professeur Tristan Azzi : Les aspects internationaux de la responsabilité civile des acteurs de l Internet I. Le tribunal compétent A. Selon la Cour de cassation B. Selon les juridictions du fond II. La loi applicable A. La jurisprudence française actuelle B. Le règlement Rome II du 11 juillet 2007

16 La responsabilité au plan pénal des acteurs de l Internet marchand Alexandre MENAIS, Directeur Europe, ebay

17 Agenda I. Introduction i. Responsabilité pénale liée à la qualification du statut d intermédiaire marchand de l Internet. ii. Qualifications pénales susceptibles d être invoquées en droit français. II. Critères généraux de mise en œuvre de la responsabilité pénale Eléments matériels/objectifs des principales qualifications pénales susceptibles d être invoquées. Elément intentionnel/subjectif: l intentionnalité. III. Régime de la preuve de l intentionnalité : distinction selon les statuts IV. Le régime spécifique instauré par l article 6 de la LCEN. i. La connaissance effective de l activité ou de l information illicite ii. L action prompte de l hébergeur ebay Inc. confidential 2

18 Responsabilité pénale liée à la qualification du statut d intermédiaire marchand de l Internet. En l absence de statut spécifique: En présence d un statut spécifique: Le statut d hébergeur Application de la réglementation pénale générale du Code pénal français Application de la règlementation spécifique issue de la Directive européenne du 8 juin 2004 Transposée en droit français par la loi du 21 juin 2004, dite LCEN ebay Inc. confidential 3

19 Qualifications pénales susceptibles d être invoquées en droit français. Complicité de contrefaçon : article 11-7, al.1er Code pénal «Est complice d un crime ou d un délit la personne qui sciemment, par aide ou assistance, en a facilité la préparation ou la consommation». Recel de contrefaçon : article du Code pénal «Le recel est le fait de dissimuler, de détenir ou de transmettre une chose, ou de faire office d intermédiaire afin de transmettre, en sachant que cette chose provient d un crime ou d un délit.» ebay Inc. confidential 4

20 Critères généraux de mise en jeu de la responsabilité pénale. 1/ Critère objectif: l élément matériel 2/ Critère subjectif: l élément intentionnel ebay Inc. confidential 5

21 1/ Eléments matériels des principales qualifications pénales susceptibles d être invoquées. En matière de complicité de contrefaçon : l aide ou l assistance à la réalisation des faits litigieux. - Principe : «l aide et l assistance complices correspondent à des actes positifs» (Crim., 8 mars 1951) - Exception : lorsque l auteur de l aide et assistance supporte une obligation professionnelle dont l abstention en cause réalise la méconnaissance (Crim., 27 oct mais aussi Crim., 15 janv.1979 ou encore Crim., 30 juin 1999) - Limite : la jurisprudence retient des abstentions qui ne correspondent pas à la méconnaissance d une obligation professionnelle. Exemple : Crim., 22 janv.1992 : sanction de l abstention d action à l encontre d une infraction dont la connaissance était acquise. ebay Inc. confidential 6

22 Eléments matériels des principales qualifications pénales susceptibles d être invoquées. En matière de recel de contrefaçon: l intermédiation dans la transmission des informations litigieuses. NB: La simple intervention entre les vendeurs et acheteurs de produits contrefaits répond à l exigence d élément matériel. ebay Inc. confidential 7

23 2/ Elément intentionnel : l intentionnalité Définition du critère d intentionnalité «Conscience de participer matériellement à la commission d une infraction» (Crim., 1 er oct. 1984) Conscience = connaissance de la commission d une infraction Comportements concernés: - L introduction d une annonce - Le retrait d une annonce ebay Inc. confidential 8

24 Responsabilité pénale liée qualification du statut l intermédiaire marchand de l Internet. En l absence de statut spécifique: Principe de la liberté de la preuve - Circonstances de fait déduisant la connaissance de la mise en vente d objets contrefaisants (complicité de contrefaçon) En présence d un statut spécifique: le statut d hébergeur Limitation/ Encadrement strict de la liberté de la preuve. - Circonstance de fait déduisant la connaissance de la réalisation d activités illicites (recel de contrefaçon) Exemples : - réception de notifications quelconque de tiers, sous quelque forme que ce soit suffit à caractériser la connaissance - circonstances de fait faisant apparaître la possibilité pour l intermédiaire d avoir un «doute» ebay Inc. confidential 9

25 Le régime spécifique instauré par l article 6 de la LCEN. Conditions légales cumulatives de mise en œuvre de la responsabilité pénale des hébergeurs : a) élément intentionnel : la connaissance effective de l activité ou de l information illicite b) fait justificatif : défaut d action prompte pour retirer les informations en cause ou en rendre l accès impossible dès que l hébergeur en a eu connaissance. Condition ajoutée par le Conseil constitutionnel : décision n DC : caractère manifestement illicite de l information dénoncée par tiers ebay Inc. confidential 10

26 1/ La connaissance effective de l activité ou de l information illicite 1/ Le régime légal Principe : le caractère «effectif» de cette connaissance conduit à exclure qu elle puisse résulter de circonstances susceptibles de la révéler. + s ajoute à cela : absence d obligation générale de surveillance a priori des contenus Exception : présomption de connaissance effective de l activité ou de l information dans 2 cas : - notification dans les conditions prévues par l article 6 I 5 de la LCEN - information par les autorités judiciaires ou de police ebay Inc. confidential 11

27 La connaissance effective de l activité ou de l information illicite 2/ Interprétation restrictive du Conseil constitutionnel: décision n DC Réserve d interprétation de l article 6 LCEN : «ces dispositions ne sauraient avoir pour effet d engager la responsabilité d un hébergeur qui n a pas retiré une information dénoncée comme illicite par un tiers si celle-ci ne présente pas manifestement un tel caractère ou si son retrait n a pas été ordonné par un juge» ebay Inc. confidential 12

28 La connaissance effective de l activité ou de l information illicite Interprétation restrictive du Conseil constitutionnel: décision n DC Ainsi, limitation de la mise en œuvre de la responsabilité pénale de l hébergeur à 2 cas : - non retrait de l information ou de l activité notifiée et justifiée comme étant manifestement illicite - non retrait de l information ou de l accès à l information sur ordre du juge Difficulté : absence de définition de la notion de «caractère manifestement illicite» auquel l hébergeur doit faire face. Sanction de l hébergeur en cas de retrait d une information non manifestement illicite? ebay Inc. confidential 13

29 L action prompte de l hébergeur Portée de cette obligation : constitutive d un fait justificatif d exonération de responsabilité pénale de l hébergeur. Solution pour l hébergeur : retrait dès notifications. La question du délai laissé à l hébergeur pour agir. - Absence de délai objectif - Détermination par le juge pénal ebay Inc. confidential 14

30 MERCI!

31 Civil and Criminal Liability of Internet Operators: An Indian Perspective Stephen Mathias Kochhar & Co, Bangalore

32 Summary of Laws Europe European Directive Mere conduit - no liability Hosting lack of knowledge, obligation to take down content USA Communications Decency Act Cannot be treated as publisher of information provided by another information content provider + protection against good faith take down actions. DMCA detailed rules on take down, objections by parties, etc Recent case law on participatory content and whether it is really information provided by another provider. UK defamation laws no liability but take down obligation to be met Singapore No liability for mere conduit and caching. Hosting situations not covered Exception to defense relating to obligations under telecom laws.

33 Summary of Issues Mere Conduit largely settled, no liability. Generally, no obligation to remove content or disconnect Hosting Largely settled, no liability. Obligation to remove content very likely Obligation to remove content/access Can intermediaries judge issues of law and fact? Liability for removal of content/access Others: Liability under telecom regulations

34 India Jurisprudential background By and large, strong democratic, freedom oriented, common law values Differs substantially from other common law countries on freedom of certain types of speech and substantially from USA Acceptable critical speech Against celebrities, politicians, government Unacceptable critical speech Against communities, religions, legends Obscenity standards sought to be quite strict Cases filed for public display of kissing, revealing dress, etc Increasing frivolous complaints against celebrities Political groups commit violence while protesting

35 India current provision Section 67, Information Technology Act Publishing of information which is obscene in electronic form. Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published in the electronic form, any material which is lascivious or appeal to the prurient interest Section 79, Information Technology Act No person providing any service as a network service provider shall be liable under this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder for any third party information or data made available by him if he proves that the offence or contravention was committed without his knowledge or that he had exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence or contravention. Applies only to offences under the IT Act, not to other offences Knowledge or due diligence defense required even for mere conduit Creates requirement to remove content in all situations

36 Ebay/Avnish Bajaj Case Facts: Student took MMS of girlfriend in compromising position and started selling it on the Indian version of Ebay. Case filed under Indian obscenity laws. The video could not be viewed on the site. Ebay removed the video after 36 hours. Police arrested CEO of Ebay. Finally given bail. Law covers publishes or transmits obscene content Police action had no idea what to do Initial action can do extraordinary harm Resulted in high level political lobbying by US government Main reason for move to amend Section 79. Ebay filed case for quashing the prosecution Lost the case last week matters goes to trial now.

37 FFI/XS4ALL Case Facts Netherlands group publish information about poor labor policies of Indian garment manufacturer with substantial Dutch customers. Indian companies files criminal negligence case against Netherlands group, web host and ISP. ISP replies to legal notice that it is protected under European directive. Main issue Who is a publisher? Cause and effect: can ISP who provides internet connectivity be liable; If so, what about other providers? No way to prove which ISP was used to transmit the content Indian courts avoided deciding on matter due to lack of understanding. Case finally settled. Indian criminal cases personal presence of accused required English case: Bunt v Tilley went against accused. Business ramifications criminal case, potential punishments, international arrest warrants, deportations, time, cost and efforts spent

38 Other developments Orkut Has some hate communities. Government contemplated fire walling Orkut through ISP s. No action taken. Constant threats by political groups against Orkut communities. Lakshmana Kailash Orkut user published insulting language against Maratha legend Shivaji. ISP Airtel gave wrong information on IP address. Software programmer pulled out of bed by police and jailed for 40 days. Found to be completely innocent. ISP gave wrong IP address information. Sued Airtel and police for US$ 5 million.

39 India Proposed new provision Proposed new Section 79 An intermediary shall not be liable under any law for the time being in force for any third party information, data or link made available by him except when the intermediary has conspired or abetted in the commission of the unlawful act. It shall apply where intermediary s function is limited to giving access to a communication network over which information made available by third parties is transmitted or temporarily stored or the intermediary (i) does not initiate the transmission; (ii) does not select the receiver of the transmission; and (iii) does not select or modify the information contained in the transmission. The above sub section shall not apply if upon receiving actual knowledge of or being notified by the central government or its agency that information, data or link residing on a computer resource controlled by the intermediary is being used to commit the unlawful act, the intermediary fails expeditiously to remove or disable access to that material on that resource.

40 Concerns in India Increasingly insensitive approach makes life difficult for service providers Telecom authorities can order ISP s to do anything they want Indian middle class are internet savvy and very vocal on the net Inherent regional prejudices surface regularly on the net Initial police action may do the most harm Courts are slow, don t understand the internet Moral positions and antagonism against the content influence decisions Need for all laws solution Government should stay out of content disputes Creating different legal standards for different scenario s.

41 Towards a model regime Mere conduit no liability Hosting or social website owner should not be liable Type of notice that triggers take down obligation Complainants notice? Government? Court order? Telecom authority s regulation of content Exists in India, is an exception to defense in Singapore government should stay away and leave it to the courts Publisher only for own content, not third party content Controlling content should not turn into a punishment Take down of content no liability for good faith actions Participatory content Purpose of website or encouragement to post objectionable content

42 Thank You Kochhar & Co 202 Prestige Meridian II 30 MG Road, Bangalore

43 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde Steven L. Nichols RADER, FISHMAN & GRAUER PLLC Tel

44 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW Defamation IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde

45 Defamation Media3 Technologies LLC v. Mail Abuse Prevention System LLC, (D. Mass., 00-CV MEL, Jan. 2001) Mail Abuse publishes an on-line list of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that are spam-friendly so that other ISPs can block from the spam-friendly services. Media3 was listed and sued Mail Abuse for defamation, interference with business relationships and unfair competition. The court held that Mail Abuse appears to have an absolute defense of truth. Truth is an absolute defense to a charge of defamation. Case settled in 2001 on confidential terms.

46 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW Communications Decency Act 45 U.S.C. 230(c)(1) IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde

47 Communications Decency Act 45 U.S.C. 230(c)(1) (c) Protection for Good Samaritan blocking and screening of offensive material (1) Treatment of publisher or speaker No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by another information content provider.

48 Communications Decency Act Blumenthal v. Drudge, 992 F., Supp. 44 (D.D.C. 1998) Sidney Blumenthal and his wife sued Matt Drudge, the author of an online gossip newsletter called the Drudge Report, for allegedly defamatory statements made in the Report about the Blumenthals. Mr. Blumenthal was accused of abusing his wife in the Drudge Report. America On-Line (AOL), publisher of the Drudge Report, was also named as a defendant. However, the court dismissed the case against AOL relying on 47 U.S.C. 230(c)(1). Congress has conferred immunity from tort liablity as an incentive to Internet service providers to self-police the Internet for obscenity and other offensive material, even where the self-policing is unsuccessful or not even attempted (Id.).

49 Communications Decency Act 45 U.S.C. 230(c)(2)(A) (2) Civil liability No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be held liable on account of (A) any action voluntarily taken in good faith to restrict access to or availability of material that the provider or user considers to be obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, excessively violent, harassing, or otherwise objectionable whether or not such material

50 Communications Decency Act Zango v Kaspersky Lab, Inc., Case No. C JCC (WDWA Aug 28, 2007) When Kaspersky Lab configured its spyware blocking products to prevent the installation of Zango s software, Zango sued on a number of grounds. Essentially, Zango objected to being implicitly categorized as spyware by Kaspersky Lab s products, arguing that Kaspersky was thus both defaming Zango and illegally interfering with Zango s business. The court dismissed the case, finding that Kaspersky was an "interactive computer service" within the meaning of the Communications Decency Act and qualified for the immunity from liability provided by the Act.

51 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW Trespass IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde

52 Trespass ebay, Inc. v. Bidder s Edge, Inc. 100 F. Supp. 2d 1058 (N.D. Cal. 2000). The court enjoined Bidder s Edge from accessing the ebay website. The court found that even though the website was publicly accessible, Bidder s Edge s use was non-permissive. Bidder s Edge violated EBay s terms of use and ignored EBay s requests to stop using robots on EBay s system. The court also found that although the interference was not substantial, any intermeddling with or use of another s personal property is sufficient to establish possessory interference on a claim of trespass. See also Register.com, Inc. v. Verio, Inc., 126 F.Supp.2d 238 (S.D.N.Y., 2000)

53 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW Trademark Infringement IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde

54 Trademark Infringement Site Pro-1, Inc. v. Better Metal, LLC, (06-CV-6508 (ILG) (RER) (E.D.N.Y. May 9, 2007). Better Metal purchased a "sponsored search" from Yahoo! that caused its website to be included among the results listed when a Yahoo! search user searched for some combination of the terms "site, pro, and 1. The court found no trademark infringement because, in the court s view, there was not presentation of the plaintiff s trademark in connection with advertisement of the defendant s goods.

55 Trademark Infringement Orion Bancorp, Inc. v. Orion Residential Finance LLC (M.D. Florida, No: 8:07-cv-1753-T-26MAP, March 2008). Defendant was found to have infringed Plaintiff s trademark Orion for financial services. The court order prohibited the defendant from further infringement including using the plaintiff s mark as a keyword triggering defendant s on-line advertising. The court order further required the defendant to use the plaintiff s mark as a negative keyword preventing the display of defendant s on-line advertising.

56 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW Copyright Infringement IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde

57 Copyright Infringement Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) v. Valence Media dba TorrentSpy (http://www.macworld.com/article/ /2008/05/torrrentspy.html) TorrentSpy was a popular indexing website that tracked torrent files (which were hosted externally) and provided for peer-topeer copying. Many of the indexed files were unauthorized copies of movies and television programs. On May 7, 2008, a federal judge ordered TorrentSpy to pay the Motion Picture Association of America $110 million for infringement of thousands of copyrighted film and TV shows. The judgment found the defendant s guilty of willfully inducing, contributing and vicariously allowing copyright infringement on their website. The TorrentSpy website was shut down March 24, 2008.

58 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW Privacy Policies IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde

59 Privacy Policies Violations of self-imposed privacy policy Federal Trade Commission Act, Sec. 5(a) It is unlawful for one to engage in unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce. In re Toysmart.com (FTC 2000), The FTC instituted charges against Toysmart, which was in bankruptcy, for planning to sell a customer list (one of its few assets) in violation of its online privacy policy. Toysmart settled the case.

60 POTENTIAL LIABILITY FOR INTERNET ACTIVITY UNDER U.S. LAW Electronic Communications Privacy Act (1986) 18 U.S.C IFCLA 2008 Conference June 2008 Paris, Place de la Concorde

61 Electronic Communications Privacy Act 18 U.S.C Sec Interception and disclosure of wire, oral, or electronic communications prohibited (1) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter any person who - (a) intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures any other person to intercept or endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral, or electronic communication;... shall be punished as provided in subsection (4) [fined and jailed up to 5 years] or shall be subject to suit as provided in subsection (5) [civil suit by injured party or government].

62 Electronic Communications Privacy Act 18 U.S.C In re Pharmtrak, Inc. Privacy Litigation 329 F. 3d 9 (1 st Cir. 2003) A number of well-known pharmaceutical companies purchased Pharmatrak s NETcompare service in which Pharmatrak collected information about visitors to the client s websites using cookies placed on the visitor s computers. Pharmtrak asserted that it s service did not collect personal information. Some of the pharmaceutical companies condition their participation on this fact. Pharmatrak and the pharmaceutical companies were sued by angry internet users. Suit was brought under the federal Electronic Communications Privacy Act which provides a private right of action against one who intentionally intercepts, endeavors to intercept, or procures any other person to intercept of endeavor to intercept, any wire, oral or electronic communication. 18 USC Sec. 2511(1)(a). Pharamtrak argued that it had the consent of its clients, the pharmaceutical companies, to divert data from the internet communications between those clients and visitors to their website. The court disagreed, holding that Pharamtrak had intercepted electronic communication without any defense. On remand, the pharmaceutical companies were absolved of liability for lacking the requisite intent to cause Pharmatrak s illegal interception

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