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1 The C a n a d i a n Learning j o u r n a l The Official Publication of the Canadian Society for Training and Development volume 12, number 2 FALL 2008 Special Section Pages The New Face of Leadership: How younger leaders are redefining success How Do We Learn? An interview with Dr. Richard Clark Page 12 Meeting the Productivity Challenge: Investing in People Update Page 25 CSTD Annual Conference and Trade Show: Schedule at a Glance Page 6 Page 21 Special Feature Page 32-34

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3 The Canadian Learning Journal Volume 12 Number 2 Fall 2008 CSTD ADVISORY BOARD Lynette Gillis, ctdp, Learning Designs Online Robert Hedley, ctdp, Maple Leaf Foods Hugh MacDonald, ctdp, HR MacDonald Training and Development Inc. David Weiss, ctdp, Weiss International Ltd. editors Lynn Johnston, CSTD Lee Weisser, Lee Weisser Communications CSTD Board of Directors Hugh MacDonald, ctdp, Chair HR MacDonald Training and Development Inc David Connal, Treasurer Atomic Energy of Canada Mohamed Ally, ctdp Athabasca University Shaun Belding The Belding Group of Companies Inc. Saul Carliner, ctdp Concordia University Isabel Feher-Watters Pink Elephant Inc. Jacinthe Higgins Business Development Bank of Canada Regan Legassie, ctdp Canadian Forces Training Development Centre Ramona Materi, ctdp INGENIA Consulting Ajay Pangarkar, ctdp Robert Pearson, ctdp Maritz Sheri Phillips Novopharm Ltd. Murray Richmond, ctdp e-training Group Stan White, ctdp ArcelorMittal Dofasco Inc. CSTD staff Lynn Johnston, cae President Danielle Lamothe, Manager, Marketing and Events Jane MacDonald, Manager, Marketing and Events (maternity leave) Debra Bellamy, ctdp Manager, Certification and Chapter Relations Elsa Lee, Financial Coordinator Janel Matheson, Events and Marketing Coordinator Heidi Hehn, Membership Coordinator Antidio Fernandez, Finance Assistant Published by: C A N A D I A N S o c i e t y f o r Training and Development 720 Spadina Avenue, Suite 315 Toronto, Ontario M5S 2T9 Tel Toll-free: Fax: Web: Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the Canadian Learning Journal are those of the writers themselves and do not necessarily reflect those of the journal s advisory board, its editors or the Canadian Society for Training and Development (CSTD). For marketing opportunities, contact Danielle Lamothe , ext CSTD contents Features 6 The New Face of Leadership By Daneal Charney 9 Le nouveau visage du leadership Par Daneal Charney 12 How Do We Learn? An interview with Dr. Richard Clark 15 Work Week in Action 25 Meeting the Productivity Challenge By Allan Bailey, Investing in People Project 28 Le défi du Canada sur le plan de la productivité Par Allan Bailey, Investir dans les gens Departments 4 Message from the CSTD Chair / Message du président du conseil de la CSTD 5 Message from the CSTD President / Message de la présidente de la CSTD 21 CSTD Annual Conference and Trade Show Schedule at a Glance 20 CTDP Update A profile of Jim Clemmer, CTDP Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l

4 MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR I m writing this on a warm and clear evening as the birdsong dies and the stars rise over cottage country. It promises to be a great night for seeing the Milky Way and looking for meteorite trails. Since my mid-winter message, the board of directors and dozens of other volunteers have been busy developing strategies, tactics and plans for the next few years. Much of that work has been based on a membership survey conducted a few months ago. We thank you for participating and being so generous with your time and your ideas. Perhaps the most important development, and one of the simplest, is that there is a broad consensus that we should be guided by and think of CSTD as a professional association, one that exists to advance the interests and development of its members. In other words, while it certainly means that we care about the growth and expansion of the training industry in Canada, we are not primarily an industry or trade association. From this basic premise flow the answers to many of the issues and decisions that we face as we expand nationally and make the best use of our resources and capital financial, social and intellectual. We are beginning to think of our Training Competency Architecture (TCA) as part of a larger training body of knowledge. We are looking at improving the links to our certification program and the processes for individuals to be recognized as training and development professionals. In the short term, we are also looking at improvements to the existing program in terms of marketing and preparation workshops or other learning aids. We have also decided to significantly improve our Internet presence. This will not only involve the look and feel of CSTD s website but includes added functionality and tools to improve existing membership services and add new ones. On your behalf, I d like to thank everyone who has stepped forward to work on the committees and project teams we have set up. I especially want to thank the committee chairs and board members for their leadership and extra efforts. If you have any interest in volunteering to work for CSTD please contact our President, Lynn Johnston at the CSTD office. I just saw my first shooting star of the night. So, I guess it s time to turn off the computer. Questions, comments and advice are always welcome. Hugh MacDonald, CTDP is Chair of the Board of Directors of CSTD. He can be reached at MESSAGE DU PRÉSIDENT DU CONSEIL J écris ce message par une soirée douce et sous un ciel dégagé, à l heure où le chant des oiseaux s estompe et où les étoiles commencent à luire dans la campagne, promesse d une nuit magnifique pour observer la Voie lactée et chercher les traînées des météorites. Depuis mon message du milieu de l hiver, le conseil d administration et des douzaines d autres bénévoles se sont affairés à mettre au point des stratégies, des tactiques et des plans pour les années à venir, se fondant, pour une bonne partie de ce travail, sur un sondage mené auprès des membres il y a quelques mois de cela. Nous vous remercions d y avoir pris part et de nous avoir fait don aussi généreusement de votre temps et de vos idées. L un des éléments nouveaux les plus marquants - et l un des plus simples aussi - est peut-être le fait que tous s accordent à dire qu il faudrait que nous soyons guidés par l idée que la CSTD est une association professionnelle, une organisation dont la raison d être est de promouvoir les intérêts et le perfectionnement de ses membres. En d autres termes, même si cela veut dire bien sûr que nous nous soucions de la croissance et de l expansion de l industrie de la formation au Canada, nous ne sommes essentiellement pas une association de nature industrielle ou commerciale. De cette prémisse fondamentale découlent les réponses à un grand nombre des problèmes que nous devons régler et des décisions que nous devons prendre dans le cadre de notre expansion nationale et ce, en faisant le meilleur usage possible de nos ressources et de notre capital sur le plan financier, social et intellectuel. Nous commençons à considérer notre Architecture des compétences en formation (ACF) comme faisant partie d un vaste «ensemble de connaissances» en matière de formation. Nous visons à améliorer les liens qui mènent à notre programme d agrément ainsi qu aux processus qui permettent à des particuliers d être reconnus comme des professionnels de la formation et du perfectionnement. À court terme, nous cherchons aussi à améliorer les programmes existants, en mettant sur pied des ateliers portant sur la mise en marché et la préparation, ainsi que d autres aides pédagogiques. Nous avons également décidé d améliorer considérablement notre présence Internet. Cela consistera non seulement à améliorer l aspect et la convivialité du site Web de la CSTD, mais aussi à y ajouter des fonctions et des outils permettant d améliorer les services actuellement fournis aux membres et d en ajouter de nouveaux. En votre nom, je tiens à remercier tous suite à la page 20 4 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

5 Message FROM THE PRESIDENT Week is upon us! I am thrilled to see so much enthusiasm and support for the concept of week. Many of our members are taking the opportunity to showcase the impact that learning and development is making on their organizations. Celebrations are happening all over the country and members have found some truly creative ways to draw attention to what they are doing. Member companies and CSTD chapters have formed a national celebration, providing a living example of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. I am also pleased to see the support of many local municipalities across the country. At time of writing, over 100 municipalities have signed on, proclaiming September Week! From the Town of Springhill in Nova Scotia to the City of Vancouver, there is broad recognition of the value that workplace learning can provide, not only to organizations involved but to local communities as well. We have added to the festivities this year by recognizing Learning Leaders senior managers who walk the talk and understand the value of the work of the workplace learning professional. You will find more about our Learning Leaders in the Week section of the magazine. I urge you to get out and celebrate Week and support your chapter leaders who are working so hard to make this happen. Our website has a list of all of the events planned for the week. Thanks to these leaders for their work. And Happy Week! Hard on the heels of Week is the Annual Conference and Trade Show, October 15-17th. The conference is earlier this year we promise no travel challenges due to snow or freezing rain! The intent of the conference is to cover the latest in all aspects of workplace learning, so there are sessions in performance improvement, facilitation and instruction, design, measurement and evaluation, leadership and change, research, coaching and mentoring and managing the training function. I am particularly proud to announce that we are honouring the life and work of Jean Vanier, who as the founder of L Arche International, brings together people with developmental disabilities who live in community with staff and volunteers. This wonderful Canadian still serves as the Founder of L Arche International and lives in the original community in France. He has been awarded the Companion Order of Canada and the French Legion of Honour, among many other awards. He is indeed a worthy recipient of our President s Award. Denise Donlon, former VJ for Much Music and the former CEO of Sony Music Canada will also be at the dinner as our speaker/mc. Denise brings a wealth of experience from her work in the corporate world, and has a powerful message around giving back to the community. I know you will enjoy her. I look forward to seeing you there! Lynn Johnston, CAE President MESSAGE DE LA PRÉSIDENTE La Semaine de l apprentissage au travail arrive à grands pas, et je suis emballée de voir que ce concept suscite autant d enthousiasme et d appui. Nombreux sont nos membres qui profitent de cette occasion pour mettre en évidence l impact qu ont l apprentissage et le perfectionnement sur leur organisation. Des célébrations sont organisées d un bout à l autre du pays, et il y a des membres qui ont trouvé des façons vraiment originales d attirer l attention sur ce qu ils accomplissent. Des sociétés membres et des sections locales de la CSTD ont mis sur pied une célébration d envergure nationale, ce qui illustre de manière vivante le principe selon lequel «le tout est plus grand que la somme de ses parties». Quel plaisir aussi de constater l appui dont nous bénéficions de la part de nombreuses municipalités du pays tout entier. Au moment de la rédaction du présent message, plus de 70 municipalités se sont inscrites, proclamant la semaine du 22 au 26 septembre «Semaine de l apprentissage au travail»! Depuis Springhill, en Nouvelle-Écosse, jusqu à Vancouver, on reconnaît de manière générale la valeur que peut avoir l apprentissage au travail, non seulement pour l organisation concernée, mais aussi pour la collectivité locale, par l incidence qu il a sur l économie. Nous avons ajouté aux festivités de cette année en rendant hommage aux «leaders de l apprentissage» - des gestionnaires d expérience qui «prêchent par l exemple» et sont conscients de la valeur des efforts qu accomplit le professionnel de l apprentissage au travail. Vous en saurez davantage sur nos leaders de l apprentissage en lisant dans la revue la section «Semaine de l apprentissage au travail». Je vous encourage à célébrer la Semaine de l apprentissage au travail et à soutenir les dirigeants de votre section locale qui travaillent d arrache-pied pour que cette activité soit une réussite. Notre site Web présente la liste de toutes les activités prévues dans le cadre de cette semaine. Merci à ces personnes pour les efforts suite à la page 20 Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l

6 The New Face of Leadership How younger leaders are redefining success There are hundreds of books on leadership, but the term becomes meaningless if leaders become placeholders, people dedicated to preserving the status quo. An historical view reveals that leadership over time was first and foremost about the nurturing of powerful new ideas to make society better. The Anatomy of Fire by Thomas L. Brown by Daneal Charney If leadership is about the power of ideas in action, then Matt Zuckerberg is a leader. At the cool age of 22 years old, this Facebook owner has reached a pinnacle of success following an unconventional path. When I was growing up, conventional wisdom said that you had to be practical in your job choice, work your way up systematically, and do your time. These days the owners of many successful smalland medium-size enterprises (SMEs), especially in the technology sector, have gone from garage-based businesses to successful players at warp speed. Think top 40 under 40 list Anthony Lacavera, Brian Scudmore, and Justin Belobabas, to name a few. Many of these young CEOs were serial entrepreneurs right out of university, willing to step out of their comfort zone to leverage opportunities. Their success stories are creating entirely new options for business grads. They can join a larger, more traditional organization, or sign up with a start-up or emerging business, or create their own business. There is also the option of creating a portfolio career ( wiki/portfolio_career), where a person might pursue all three options on a part-time basis to create a full porfolio. One of the reasons the leadership landscape has changed is because the barriers to taking a business to the next level are substantially lower. Consider the following: 1. Online marketplaces provide a place to source, find and purchase just about anything, including people s services. 2. Social networking can be leveraged to find new business opportunities quickly. 3. Blogs, YouTube, and Facebook provide free advertising space. 4. Web 2.0 allows virtual teams to collaborate easily and quickly online to create innovative products and services. What s new about millennial leaders? If you want to meet some of Canada s most exciting leaders, you need to start with the Profit Magazine lists. Twenty percent of Profit s Fast 50 list in 2007 are under 30 years old and have been involved in multiple ventures. The lines between a start-up entrepreneur and a leader have blurred because of the rate of growth of these new companies. Profit Hot 50 list employers have an average of 32 employees but generate, on average, $9.6 million. Many of them have created very fluid organizations with virtual teams and contractors all over the globe. This new generation of leaders/sme owners is imprinting their own values on the business world and changing old rules. They are lovers of meritocracy, social networking, grass-roots participation, on-demand approaches, mixing work and play, and being connected at all times. They hate titles, structures, and expert-led learning. Unlike their predecessors they are far more likely to feel comfortable incorporating open people practices from day one of their businesses, such as openbook management (44%), profit-sharing plans (32%), formalized flex time (32%), bonuses for individual performance (84%), and formal telecommuting programs (18%) (Profit report on Canada s emerging companies). One of the best examples of this more open, flexible style is Google s 70/20/10 approach to job roles. This means that 70 percent of an employee s role is fixed, and 30 percent is fluid (a mix of projects they choose to work on and blue sky thinking). The payoff according to Google s Eric Schmidt is that virtually all 6 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

7 Paul Salvini: Leading through Green Energy Paul surrounds himself with smart people. This makes his job easy. The job of a leader, as the CTO of Side Effects Software sees it, is to harness the ideas and energy from the people around him for the sake of the company. This approach seems to pay off Side FX has virtually no attrition and a long line up of candidates from the university grad job pool. Career Path: As a guy who loved too many things (journalism, math, computer science, engineering and business), Paul sought an academic program that was broad and integrated. When there was no such thing, he pursued four degrees: one in math and computer science, two in engineering, and one in business. Unsure where to take his career when in high school, he was encouraged by a high school teacher to channel his energy into math as it is a great foundation for all kinds of great careers. After graduating from the University of Waterloo, I wanted to continue to stay connected to learning, says Paul, who continued his studies at the University of Toronto and is now an adjunct professor in the university s engineering faculty. Teaching is where I learned the most about being an effective leader... everyone s needs and styles are different, calling for a flexible approach. Key people philosophies: In leading and in teaching, we have a tremendous opportunity to change people s lives for the better. If you work with someone individually and encourage and inspire them, then you can take a detached individual and turn them into someone passionate about life and their work. When individuals feel productive, feel a sense of accomplishment, and feel encouraged, they can perform at a very high level. Biggest Ah Ha: That you could have so many possible career options with a math degree! Workplace 2.0: A world where having a globalfocus and being creative and adaptable will be paramount. People will need to be able to share and communicate their ideas more effectively through technology. Likes: Meeting new people, learning new things, family stuff, watching my kids grow, keeping life balanced and fun. Hobbies: Flying, fishing, skiing, golfing (newbie: tough sport!) Be in demand Where can you find millennial leaders? Airports they fly an average of 9 business trips per year With their Families Golf courses Online Social networks Online conferences Trends they love Freemium Crowd sourcing Open source collaboration Digital toys Flex job roles Social media Wikipedia What rules do they break? Traditional management practices; they fly by the seat of their pants, are intuitive That you have to do your career time That success is a straight path That planning your career is key Must Have Competencies Managing ideas in order to further the business Leveraging technology to enhance performance, collaboration, innovation Managing the horizontal organization Recruiting non like-minded individuals Routinely questioning current business models and practices Balanced view of risk taking Strategic forward thinkers Managing multiple generations Favourite Reads A Whole New Mind by Daniel Pink (Penguin Group, 2006) The World is Flat 3.0 by Thomas L. Friedman (Farrar, Straus, Giroux Publishers August 2007) The Purple Cow: Transform Your Business into Being Remarkable by Seth Godin (Penguin Group, 2003) The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More by Chris Anderson (Hyperion Books, 2006) Wired, Backbone, and Profit magazines Register today Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l

8 new product ideas come from the 20 percent of the employees work on projects of their choice. Our flattening world requires leaders to have a whole new set of competencies if they want their businesses to survive. In A Whole New Mind, Daniel Pink talks about the changing world of work, one where most jobs are service-oriented, thinkingintensive roles. In this world, he predicts that the future belongs to right-brained, creative thinkers. Many of the top business schools are paying attention and adding design skills, integrated thinking, intuition, and appreciative inquiry to their curricula. Whether we like it or not, we need to pay attention to what millennial leaders are doing. Young leaders are making an impression in every aspect of business and are often the trendsetters. For example: 1. They have revolutionized the way we connect to others through social networking. Think Chris Sacca, former head of special initiatives for Google and early investor in the increasingly popular Twitter. 2. They have turned marketing on its head with blogs, Facebook and YouTube at the forefront. Think Chris Anderson who created Workopolis and now heads up Wired Magazine. (FYI, Chris was a high-school dropout who wanted to be a rock star.) 3. They are at the forefront of the opensource and innovation movement. Now even the big blue companies are paying attention. In March 2007, after a huge push from its online user communities, Dell announced it would give customers the option of buying all of its new PCs with the open-source Linux operating system. Millennial leaders may also be the best candidates if your organization needs to be more innovative, nimble, and technically savvy. They could also be your next big supplier, key client, acquisition, or member of your board of directors. The future belongs to those who can change quickly, innovate strategically, recruit and support creative minds, and take bold steps towards the unknown. Are you ready? Daneal Charney is Principal Consultant and Founder of Leadership She will present Business As Unusual: How Successful Organizations Rethink Leadership at the CSTD Conference on October17 (Session D6). Neil Hetherington: Leadership 101 Neil defers his ideas about leadership to his mentors because he thinks his theories are pretty basic. But when it comes to his passion for his work, Neil can t hold back. Since he got habititus in 2000, Neil helped put the Toronto division of Habitat for Humanity on the map. When he joined they were building a home every two years; now they are building 50 homes per year. Neil likes to put the record straight on nonprofit organizations like Habitat. We are not a bunch of muumuus wearing sandals. People have the misconception that non-profits are the place you go to take a break from burn-out in the profit sector. On the contrary, the non-profit sector attracts super-talented and hard working individuals. We have a great thing going because we offer work that has a tangible result and is meaningful. You can drive by a home five years after you helped build it and see the impact you have made. This is especially attractive to Gen Y. Career Path: Neil s passion for building homes for in-need communities started while working as a volunteer in Uganda. He was struck by the power of a dedication service which handed a home over to a widow and her four children. In 2000, he became the head of the Toronto chapter of Habitat for Humanity with little experience in running an organization. Through the years Neil feels he has been blessed by a diverse set of board members (always the right one for the right time) and the mentorship of TD Bank Financial Group CEO Ed Clark. Shlomo Bibas: Making Every Interaction Personal First Everyone would describe Shlomo as a people person but his real talent is that he gets people. When you are talking to Shlomo he zones in on you, making each conversation a quest to know who he is dealing with. The result? He understands the style and needs of the people he leads and his key clients. Not afraid to get too intimate, Shlomo knows the religious affiliation, family details, etc. of the people around him. This is his own version of a customer intimacy strategy that comes from his sincere interest in getting to know the people in his life. Career Path: After coming to Canada from Venezuela, Shlomo pursued his degree in engineering at the University of Toronto. Shortly after this, Shlomo joined Accenture where he accelerated his career to partner in less than 13 years. Making partner was a great recognition by his peers that he could one day lead the company, something he questioned earlier in his career. Key people philosophies: Build operational excellence and work yourself out of the job. Surround yourself with smarter people than you, Key People Philosophies: Neil feels he has gone through three stages of leadership to get to where he is today. In his early years he had a come hell or high water attitude which he soon realized was not a good long term strategy to running an organization. He next tried to surround himself with experts and let them run the show. He quickly realized this was abdicating responsibility. Today he continues to surround himself with talented people but realizes the importance of guiding them, providing them with the appropriate resources, giving them structure and encouraging them. Biggest Ah Ha: When Neil received his top 40 under 40 award the first person he saw as he exited the stage was his mother. Her words of wisdom to her son were: You be humble, mister. A lesson that has stuck with him. Workplace 2.0: The non-profit organizations that will survive and thrive in the future will be those who: Are twice as innovative Have a sustainable business model that is not dependent on donors Are even more transparent than they are today Have something tangible to show to others Know how to harness people s time, not just money. Likes/Pet Peeves: California sandwiches, relationships based on trust, respect, fun, passion, creativity and realness. Hobbies: Work is my #1 passion but I also enjoy flying, making furniture and playing tennis. take risks on talented people, encourage leadership development, and transition roles every 6 to 12 months. Biggest Ah Ha: Marriage is the ultimate commitment and test of trust. It has changed the way I operate in a fundamental way. Every important relationship requires the same type of attention. Workplace 2.0: North America will be a productless economy where people will become even more important as part of a service-centric business community. Soft, transferable skills will become paramount. Job roles will become much more fluid and companies will need to redefine the way they get work done. Shlomo gives the example of an aircraft manufacturer which may move from selling planes to selling uptime services, allowing airlines to pay per usage. Shared services will become much more prominent in the future. Likes/Pet Peeves: Time with family and friends, getting results. Traffic and long winters. Hobbies: Travelling and dancing 8 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

9 Le nouveau visage du leadership Le succès, redéfini par les leaders plus jeunes Il existe des centaines d ouvrages sur le «leadership», mais ce mot perd tout son sens si les leaders sont des gens qui ont pour seul objectif de préserver le statu quo. L histoire révèle que le leadership était d abord et avant tout synonyme de création d idées nouvelles et énergiques, destinées à rendre la société meilleure. The Anatomy of Fire, par Thomas L. Brown Par Daneal Charney Si le leadership est synonyme d idées énergiques mises en action, alors Matt Zuckerberg est bel et bien un leader. À l âge de 22 ans, ce propriétaire de Facebook a atteint les sommets du succès en marchant hors des sentiers battus. Quand j étais jeune, la voie de la sagesse était de choisir son emploi de manière pratique, de gravir les échelons un à un et de «faire son temps». De nos jours, les propriétaires d un grand nombre de petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) fructueuses, surtout dans le secteur des technologies, sont passés du stade de l «entreprise de garage» à celui d homme ou de femme d affaires prospères à la vitesse grand V. Songez à une liste du genre «Top 40 de moins de 40 ans» : Anthony Lacavera, Brian Scudmore, et Justin Belobabas, pour n en nommer que quelques-uns. Un grand nombre de ces jeunes PDG se sont lancés dans l entrepreneuriat dès la fin de leurs études universitaires, prêts à quitter leur zone de confort pour profiter d une occasion qui s offrait à eux. Leurs cas exemplaires créent des options tout à fait nouvelles pour les diplômés en commerce. Ces derniers ont le choix : ils peuvent se joindre à une organisation plus classique et de grande envergure, joindre les rangs d une entreprise en démarrage ou «émergente», ou alors créer leur propre affaire. Il est possible aussi de créer ce qu on appelle un «portfolio de carrière» ( Portfolio_career), dans le cadre duquel une personne peut poursuivre ces trois options à temps partiel en vue de créer un portfolio complet. L une des raisons pour lesquelles le paysage du leadership a changé est le fait qu il y a nettement moins d obstacles qui empêchent une entreprise de passer à l échelon suivant, à preuve : 1. les marchés accessibles «en ligne» sont un endroit où chercher, trouver et acheter presque n importe quoi, y compris du personnel; 2. il est possible de tirer parti de ses réseaux sociaux pour trouver rapidement de nouvelles occasions d affaires; 3. les blogs, YouTube, et Facebook permettent de faire de la publicité gratuitement; 4. le Web 2.0 permet à des équipes virtuelles de collaborer aisément et rapidement par Internet de façon à créer des produits et des services innovateurs. Les leaders du millénaire : qu ontils de neuf? Si vous voulez rencontrer certains des leaders les plus intéressants du Canada, commencez par les listes de Profit Magazine. Vingt pour cent des personnes inscrites sur la liste «Fast 50» de Profit en 2007 sont âgées de moins de 30 ans et ont pris part à de multiples activités. Les lignes de démarcation entrent un entrepreneur en démarrage et un leader se sont estompées à cause du rythme de croissance de ces nouvelles entreprises. Les employeurs qui figurent dans la liste «Hot 50» de Profit comptent en moyenne 32 employés mais génèrent, toujours en moyenne, 9,6 millions de dollars. Un grand nombre d entre eux ont créé des organisations très fluides, dotées d équipes virtuelles et d entrepreneurs situés aux quatre coins du globe. Cette nouvelle génération de leaders/ propriétaires de PME imprègne de ses propres valeurs le monde des affaires et transforme les règles anciennes. Ces adeptes de la méritocratie, du réseautage social, de la participation au niveau communautaire, des approches sur demande, de la combinaison travail/loisirs et de la connexion en tout temps, exècrent les titres, les structures et l apprentissage guidé par des experts. Contrairement à leurs prédécesseurs, il y a beaucoup moins de chances que l idée d intégrer dès l ouverture de leur entreprise des pratiques «ouvertes» axées sur le personnel leur plaise, comme la Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l

10 gestion à livre ouvert (44 %), les régimes de participation aux bénéfices (32 %), les horaires de travail souple officialisés (32 %), les primes au rendement individuel (84 %) et les programmes officiels de télétravail (18 %) (Compte rendu de Profit sur les entreprises émergentes au Canada). L un des meilleurs exemples de ce style souple et plus ouvert est l approche de Google (70/20/10) à l égard des rôles professionnels. Ce code signifie que 70 % du rôle d un employé est fixe, et 30 % fluide (il s agit d une combinaison de projets auxquels les employés choisissent de se consacrer et d une réflexion «sans frontières»). Selon Eric Schmidt, de Google, le gain que l on en retire est que la quasi-totalité des idées de nouveaux produits émanent de 20 % du travail que font les employés sur des projets de leur choix. La «déstratification» de notre monde oblige les leaders à détenir un ensemble tout à fait nouveau de compétences s ils veulent que leurs entreprises survivent. Dans A Whole New Mind, Daniel Pink traite de l évolution du monde du travail, un monde où la plupart des emplois sont axés sur les services et font abondamment appel à la réflexion. Dans ce monde, préditil, l avenir appartiendra aux théoriciens créatifs, dotés d un hémisphère cérébral droit actif. Un grand nombre des grandes écoles de commerce s intéressent aujourd hui à la question et ajoutent à leurs programmes d études les techniques de conception, la réflexion intégrée, l intuition et la recherche appréciative. Que nous le voulions ou pas, il faut que nous observions ce que font les leaders du millénaire. Ces jeunes leaders laissent une marque dans tous les aspects des affaires et sont souvent ceux qui créent les tendances. Par exemple : 1. Ils ont révolutionné la façon dont nous entretenons des liens avec d autres grâce au réseautage social. Songez à Chris Sacca, ancien directeur des initiatives spéciales chez Google et l un des premiers investisseurs chez Twitter, cet outil de réseau qui connaît de plus en plus de succès. 2. Ils ont transformé radicalement les lois de la mise en marché en recourant surtout aux blogs, à Facebook et à YouTube. Songez à Chris Anderson, qui a créé Workopolis et qui se trouve maintenant à la barre de la revue Wired (à titre informatif, Chris était un décrocheur de l école secondaire qui rêvait de devenir une star du rock.) Paul Salvini : L énergie verte, source de leadership Paul s entoure de gens intelligents. Cela facilite son travail. Le travail d un leader, comme le voit ce technicien en chef de Side Effects Software, consiste à regrouper les idées et l énergie qui émanent de ceux qui l entourent pour le bien de l entreprise. Cette approche semble porter fruit «Side FX» a un taux d attrition presque nul et une longue liste de candidats dans le bassin d emplois destinés à des diplômés universitaires. Cheminement de carrière : Paul, qui avait nettement trop d intérêts (journalisme, mathématiques, informatique, génie et commerce), était à la recherche d un programme scolaire vaste et intégré. Constatant que cela n existait pas, il a entrepris de décrocher quatre diplômes : un en mathématiques et en informatique, deux en génie et un en commerce. Incertain de l orientation professionnelle qu il voulait suivre à l époque où il faisait ses études secondaires, il a été encouragé par un enseignant du secondaire à canaliser son énergie dans les mathématiques, car il s agit là d une base excellente pour toutes sortes de carrières formidables. «Après avoir obtenu mon diplôme de l université de Waterloo, je voulais continuer d entretenir des liens avec l apprentissage», dit Paul, qui a poursuivi ses études à l université de Toronto et qui est aujourd hui professeur adjoint à la Faculté de génie de cette université. «L enseignement est le domaine dans lequel j ai le plus appris comment être un leader efficace les besoins et les styles de chacun sont différents, et il faut faire preuve de souplesse». Principales philosophies à propos des gens : «L apprentissage et l enseignement sont deux secteurs qui nous offrent une occasion incroyable de changer pour le mieux la vie des gens. Quand on travaille avec une personne sur le plan individuel et qu on l encourage et qu on l inspire, il est alors possible de transformer une personne détachée en une personne passionnée par sa vie et par son travail. Quand un individu se sent productif, qu il éprouve un sentiment d accomplissement et qu il se sent encouragé, il peut atteindre un niveau de rendement très élevé». Sa plus grande surprise : Qu un diplôme en mathématiques mène à un si grand choix de carrières possibles! Lieu de travail 2.0 : Un monde où il sera de la plus haute importance d avoir une vision globale et d être créatif et adaptable. Les gens devront être capables d échanger et de communiquer leurs idées plus efficacement grâce à la technologie. Aime surtout : Faire de nouvelles connaissances, apprendre de nouvelles choses, tout ce qui a trait à la famille, voir ses enfants grandir, mener une vie équilibrée et avoir du plaisir. Passe-temps : L aviation, la pêche, le ski, le golf (niveau débutant : sport difficile!) Shlomo Bibas : S assurer d abord que chaque interaction est personnelle Tous diraient de Shlomo qu il est une «personne axée sur les gens», mais son véritable talent est qu il «capte les gens». Lorsque vous vous entretenez avec lui, Shlomo se concentre sur vous, chaque conversation devient à ses yeux une quête pour savoir à qui il a affaire. Le résultat? Il comprend le style et les besoins des gens qu il dirige et ceux de ses principaux clients. Ne craignant pas d être trop intime, Shlomo connaît l affiliation religieuse, les détails familiaux, etc. des gens qui l entourent. Il s agit là de sa version toute personnelle d une stratégie d intimité avec la clientèle, qui découle de son intérêt sincère à apprendre à connaître les gens qui font partie de sa vie. Cheminement de carrière : Après avoir quitté le Venezuela pour le Canada, Shlomo a poursuivi ses études et obtenu un diplôme en génie à l université de Toronto. Peu après, il s est joint à Accenture, où il a accéléré sa carrière jusqu à atteindre, en moins de 13 ans, le stade d associé. «Le fait de devenir associé a été une excellente reconnaissance de ses pairs qu il pourrait diriger un jour l entreprise, une chose qu il a mise en question tôt dans sa carrière. Principales philosophies à propos des gens : Bâtir une excellence opérationnelle et devenir trop qualifié pour son travail. S entourer de gens plus intelligents que soi, prendre des risques avec les gens de talent, favoriser le développement du leadership et changer de rôle tous les 6 à 12 mois. Sa plus grande surprise : Le mariage est l engagement ultime et un «test» de confiance. «Cela a radicalement changé la façon dont je fonctionne». Chaque relation importante requiert le même type d attention. Lieu de travail 2.0 : L Amérique du Nord sera une économie sans produits, où les gens deviendront encore plus importants dans le cadre d une communauté d affaires axée sur le service. Les compétences transférables et non techniques deviendront cruciales. Les rôles professionnels seront beaucoup plus fluides et les entreprises devront redéfinir la façon de faire faire le travail. Shlomo donne l exemple d un fabricant d avions qui pourrait passer de la vente d avions à la vente de services de temps de disponibilité, permettant aux sociétés aériennes de payer par utilisation. Les services partagés revêtiront beaucoup plus d importance dans le monde de demain. Aime/n aime pas : Le temps passé avec la famille et les amis, obtenir des résultats. La circulation et les longs hivers. Passe-temps : Les voyages et la danse. 10 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

11 3. Ces leaders se situent à l avant-scène du mouvement de l innovation et des sources ouvertes. Aujourd hui, même les entreprises traditionnelles surveillent ce qui se passe. En mars 2007, après une très forte incitation de la part de ses groupes d utilisateurs «en ligne», Dell a annoncé qu elle offrirait à sa clientèle le choix d acheter la totalité de ses nouveaux PC par l intermédiaire du système d exploitation Linux à source ouverte. Les leaders du millénaire sont peut-être aussi les meilleurs candidats si votre organisation a besoin d évoluer sur le plan de l innovation, de la souplesse et de la technique. Il se pourrait aussi qu ils deviennent plus tard votre gros fournisseur, votre client principal, votre prochaine acquisition ou l un des futurs membres de votre conseil d administration. L avenir appartient à ceux qui peuvent changer rapidement, innover stratégiquement, recruter et soutenir des esprits créatifs, et faire des pas audacieux vers l inconnu. Êtes-vous prêts? Daneal Charney est consultant principal et fondateur de Leadership Elle presentera Business As Unusual: How Successful Organizations Rethink Leadership a la conférence CSTD le 17 octobre (séance D6). Neil Hetherington : Leadership 101 Neil s en remet à ses mentors pour ses idées sur le leadership parce qu il croit que ses théories sont assez rudimentaires. Mais lorsqu il est question de sa passion pour son travail, Neil est incapable de se contenir. Depuis qu il a contracté l «habititus» en 2000, Neil a aidé à mettre sur la carte la section torontoise du programme Habitat pour l humanité. À son arrivée, cette organisation bâtissait une maison tous les deux ans; aujourd hui, elle en construit 50 par année. Neil aime remettre les pendules à l heure au sujet des organismes à but non lucratif comme Habitat. «Nous ne sommes pas un groupe de marginaux à sandales». Les gens croient à tort que les organismes à but non lucratif sont l endroit où se refaire une santé après un «burn-out» dans le secteur à but lucratif. Au contraire, ce secteur attire des personnes hyper-talentueuses et travaillantes. «Ce que nous faisons est formidable car nous offrons un travail qui a des résultats tangibles et qui est significatif. Vous pouvez passer en automobile devant une maison cinq ans après avoir aidé à la construire et constater l impact que vous avez accompli.» Cela est particulièrement intéressant pour la génération Y. Cheminement de carrière : La passion de Neil pour la construction de maisons destinées aux collectivités dans le besoin est née à l époque où il travaillait comme bénévole en Ouganda. Il a été frappé par le pouvoir d un service d assistance qui remettait les clés d une maison à une veuve et à ses quatre enfants. En 2000, il est devenu chef de la section torontoise d Habitat pour l humanité, sans bénéficier d une grande expérience de la direction d un organisme. Neil a le sentiment d avoir été béni au fil des ans par un groupe diversifié de membres du conseil (toujours la bonne personne au bon moment) et par le mentorat d Ed Clark, chef de la direction à la Banque Toronto Dominion. Principales philosophies à propos des gens : Neil a le sentiment d avoir parcouru trois stades de leadership pour atteindre le niveau où il se situe aujourd hui. Les premières années, il avait une attitude de fonceur (agissant «contre vents et marées») qui, s est-il vite rendu compte, n était pas une bonne stratégie à long terme pour diriger une organisation. Il a ensuite tenté de s entourer d experts et de laisser ces derniers diriger les choses. Il s est vite rendu compte qu il abdiquait ainsi ses responsabilités. Aujourd hui, il continue de s entourer de gens de talent, mais il est conscient de l importance qu il y a à les guider, à leur procurer les ressources appropriées, à leur donner une structure et à les encourager. Sa plus grande surprise : Le jour où Neil a reçu son prix dans la catégorie «Top 40 de moins de 40 ans», la première personne qu il a vue en quittant la scène a été sa mère. Les paroles de sagesse de cette dernière à son endroit ont été : «Restez humble, Monsieur». Une leçon qu il n a jamais oubliée. Lieu de travail 2.0 : Les organismes à but non lucratif qui survivront et prospéreront dans l avenir sont ceux qui : seront deux fois plus innovateurs que les autres; auront un modèle de gestion durable, qui ne dépendra pas de donateurs; seront encore plus transparents qu ils ne le sont aujourd hui; auront quelque chose de tangible à montrer aux autres; sauront comment mettre en valeur le temps des gens, et pas seulement leur argent. Aime/n aime pas : Les sandwichs californiens, les relations fondées sur la confiance, le respect, le plaisir, la passion, la créativité et le «véritisme». Passe-temps : Le travail est ma toute première passion, mais j aime aussi piloter un avion, fabriquer des meubles et jouer au tennis. Où trouve-t-on les leaders du millénaire? Dans les aéroports ils font en moyenne neuf voyages d affaires par année Auprès de leurs familles Sur un terrain de golf En ligne Dans des réseaux sociaux Dans des conférences par voie électronique Les tendances qu ils apprécient Le Freemium Le «Crowd sourcing» La collaboration «open source» Les jouets numériques Les rôles professionnels flexibles Les médias sociaux Wikipédia Quelles règles brisent-ils? Les méthodes de gestion traditionnelles; ils fonctionnent au jugé, sont intuitifs Qu il faut faire son «temps de carrière» Que la voie du succès est directe Qu il est indispensable de planifier sa carrière Les compétences indispensables Gérer des idées afin de faire progresser l entreprise Exploiter la technologie pour rehausser le rendement, la collaboration, l innovation Gérer l organisation horizontale Recruter des personnes aux idées différentes Mettre systématiquement en question les modèles et les méthodes d affaires actuels Considérer la prise de risques de façon équilibrée L avant-gardisme stratégique La gestion de générations multiples Lectures suggérées A Whole New Mind, par Daniel Pink (Penguin Group, 2006) The World is Flat 3.0, par Thomas L. Friedman (Farrar, Straus, Giroux Publishers août 2007) The Purple Cow : Transform Your Business into Being Remarkable, par Seth Godin (Penguin Group, 2003) The Long Tai l: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, par Chris Anderson (Hyperion Books, 2006) Les revues Wired, Backbone, et Profit Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l

12 How Do We Learn? An interview with Dr. Richard Clark, Professor of Educational Psychology and Technology at the University of Southern California, by Lee Weisser, MEd. Dr. Richard Clark is Professor of Educational Psychology and Technology in the Rossier School of Education at the University of Southern California where he directs the Center for Cognitive Technology. In recent years he has received the Thomas F. Gilbert distinguished professional achievement award and a Presidential Citation for Intellectual Leadership from ISPI, the SITE Foundation Excellence in Research Award, the American Society for Training and Development research study of the year award for his work on performance incentives, and the Socrates award for excellence in teaching from the graduate students at the University of Southern California. He is a member of the US Army Distance Learning Subcommittee, an elected Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 15, Educational Psychology), and the Association of Applied Psychology, and a Founding Fellow of the American Psychological Society. His current research interests include the translation of social science research into human performance improvement practice, cognitive load theory for multimedia training design, the development of the Guided Experiential Learning training design system for adults, and the use of Cognitive Task Analysis to capture and teach the complex knowledge used by advanced experts in all fields. Canadian Learning Journal: Can you describe how the complexity of learning things that are new and different makes unlearning necessary? Richard Clark: I recently published a book on complex knowledge and, while writing it with Jan Elen (University of Leuven, Belgium), we encountered some unexpected facts about complex learning. For example, when we learn complex knowledge at work we are most often replacing old knowledge with new knowledge. To really change, people frequently have to learn how to not do what they would have done before they learned something new; we haven t paid much attention to this problem. We have to help people make the new way stronger than the old way in order for them to learn they must also change. The National Academy of Sciences (Druckman, Singer and Van Cott, 1999) looked at organizational change as well as personal and team change and concluded that two-thirds of all published organizational change programs fail. (The real result is probably higher, since people don t usually write about their failures.) There is evidence that personal change of all kinds also fails and, to complicate matters further, people give exaggerated reports on the results of their attempts to learn and change. In fact, there is about a one-third negative relation between what people report that they have learned during training and what they have actually learned. Yet there are strategies that can be used for training purposes: When conducting front end training needs analysis it helps to determine how strong an inclination people have to perform a new task or solve a novel problem in a way that is different than the training, and whether their way would be ineffective. For example, if we were going to teach active listening to customer service representatives who handle angry callers, we need to know if prospective trainees are really open to learning how to perform active listening and how they usually listen 12 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

13 to people who are angry at them. In reality, many people can t carry out active listening because they do not like to listen nonjudgmentally; many of us have a very strong inclination to judge people and give advice. The key aspect of complex learning and change is to recognize that people go thorough various stages as they try to change and we must first determine their current stage before helping them, since each stage requires a different approach to change. Are they satisfied or dissatisfied with the way they re currently doing things? Do they think they need to change or to learn a new way? The Transtheoretical Model of Change (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984) includes five stages of change readiness. These stages are: 1. Precontemplation no intention to change in the foreseeable future 2. Contemplation considering making changes, but haven t made any yet 3. Preparation increased commitment to change, and small changes have been made 4. Action engaging in new behaviours for a short period of time 5. Maintenance consistently engaging in the new behaviours for six months or more. An additional stage is Relapse many attempts to change result in a return to the old behaviours. So, we need to ask, how motivated are people to learn something new from training? And will they have constant support back on the job? They will need this support when they hit a bump. Under stress, people almost always revert to their old way of doing things. We re not even always aware that we have fallen back into old ways. In fact, people tend to blame the new way, when they weren t even using it in the first place! The idea that stressful practice or immersive training is the way to get people to be more adaptable to stress when they are changing is not supported by research. Actually, people revert to old behaviours under stress and so need a relatively stress-free environment in which to learn and apply new knowledge until it becomes strong enough to withstand stress. Each change stage requires a different approach. For example, at the precontemplation stage when people have no intention to change we need to demonstrate that their activities/behaviours are in conflict with their own values (cognitive dissonance) and/or demonstrate new behaviours that will match their values. If they have a reference group as a model for the new behaviours, this will strengthen their motivation even more. During the preparation and action stages constant objective external feedback on their change strategy is required not feedback about their personal success or failure but on their approach. Feedback should be focused on the strategy people are learning (strategies can fail) but not on the person who is learning. We have to avoid making people feel like failures. Help them focus on correcting the strategy they re using by focusing training and feedback on exactly how to do something new or different. Then they can see if the strategy they are using has really changed. CLJ: Most instructional designers are focused on how to build on learners prior knowledge. Can you comment on the need for a different model of instructional design for learning new things? Clark: There are two very different kinds of prior knowledge procedural (how to) and conceptual (what, why) and designers have most often been trained to build only on conceptual knowledge. We must focus more attention in all training on procedural or how to do it knowledge. Most important knowledge in the workplace is about how to make complex decisions and how to analyze complex problems. It is possible to measure prior how to knowledge about these complex issues. An Australian approach (Kayluga and Sweller, 2004) picks samples of complex decision problems from work settings, then suggests that we give people the first few steps in a solution to get them started and check to see if they can keep going on their own; if they are successful, then they don t need training. Going back to the example of active listening, we can have the conceptual knowledge of what it is and why it is important, but knowing when and how to listen actively requires procedural knowledge. Conceptual knowledge does not insure that people will be able to listen actively. Therefore, we should be testing the how-to, the procedural knowledge, not the theory. Knowledge about how to do complex things often becomes automated and unconscious after it is used for some time. For example, it is interesting that 99 percent of adults in North America can reliably recognize a cat (when faced with pictures of similar mammals), but only 1/10th of 1 percent can describe what a cat is. In other words, they can t tell how they know it s a cat, or how they recognized it as a cat. But it s the howto knowledge that sticks. People tend to forget conceptual knowledge but they never forget how to knowledge. Here is another example: Decision making is a big part of every job. When people perform work, they re constantly making decisions. But you can t observe the decisions people make, and we are 70 percent unaware of what we actually do. That is why the new Cognitive Task Analysis is critical to improving training for complex work. Another new issue that is important for trainers is that we used to think people could retain about seven things at a time; now we know it s only three (plus or minus one). When we overload people with too much information their brains shut down. We often mentally overload learners during training with irrelevant background such as animation, distracting graphics or music. We have to focus only on key information and leave out the entertainment and realism, at least when they re learning something for the first time. This is one of the benefits in learning things step by step. Demonstrating how to act and deciding by watching others do it, then practising, and getting feedback on practice, are indispensible elements in training. CLJ: What is the role of workplace learning professionals in this process of helping people learn new things? Clark: We need to think of ourselves as performance experts, not just trainers. Training is a solution in search of a problem. I would like to see more professionalization of a performance improvement approach. We should look at the cause of problems or the way to realize opportunities from many points of view, and look to training only after all other areas have been explored. About half of the problems given to trainers are not training problems at all; they can stem from a lack of motivation or from policies and procedures that prevent an organization from achieving its goals. Trainers need to know more about how to diagnose motivation problems, how to motivate people and teams when a lack of motivation has caused problems, and how to diagnose and solve policy and procedural problems in organizations. We must also help our clients scale back their expectations of how fast organizational change can occur. First, successful change requires a slower and more step-by-step approach than clients want and expect. And second, we need to invest more effort in understanding how change happens: it s a painful and demanding process and it appears that some people either cannot or will not adapt, even if it s gradual change. CLJ: What is your research in this area telling you about human development in Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l

14 the 21st century? Clark: In the past we have wasted too much of our precious human capital reinventing solutions to common problems at work and in society. It is now possible for trainers to capture how successful people perform the most complex tasks and solve challenging problems and train others to use the same expert strategies. In the 21st century we need to extend and leverage existing expertise rather than reinventing the wheel. We all need to invest our time and effort solving problems that nobody has solved yet. I believe the key to this development is Cognitive Task Analysis which is why I will be describing it in a concurrent session at the CSTD Conference in October. References Druckman, D., Singer, J. E., and VanCott, H. (1999) Enhancing Organizational Performance, Washington DC: National Academy Press. Kalyuga, S. and Sweller, J. (2004) Measuring knowledge to optimize load factors during instruction, in Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), Prochaska, J.O. and DiClemente, C.C. (1984) Toward a comprehensive model of change. In J.O. Prochaska and C.C. DiClemente (Eds.), The transtheoretical approach: Crossing the traditional boundaries of therapy. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones. See and Hear Dr. Clark at the CSTD Conference & Trade Show, October 16, 2008, Toronto KEYNOTE ADDRESS: What s New in Training and Development? Dr. Clark will draw on the work of his research centre to answer questions about some of the newest and most exciting findings from around the world concerning training and performance improvement, including: What have we learned recently about the architecture of the mind and how can it be applied to improve the results of training and technology? What s new in task analysis and what contributions do these advancements make to performance? What five critical features are found in nearly all of the most effective training systems and why are they important? and Concurrent Session B.3: Cognitive Task Analysis: How it Supports Training and Job Design Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) is an interview strategy that captures the decisions and judgment of advanced experts in all fields as they solve complex problems and perform challenging tasks. The information captured can then be used to train novices. Dr. Clark will draw on a number of recent studies and organizational case studies to describe why training specialists need to know about CTA interview strategies for training and job design purposes. He will describe CTA research evidence and show examples from a variety of settings including business, military and medical applications. After this session, you will be able to: Explain why behavioural and self-report task analysis is inadequate for training purposes and how this situation might impact the bottom line in organizations. Describe how cognitive task analysis is performed and how the results are validated and then used to support training and job aid design. List at least three areas in your organization that might benefit from cognitive task analysis Richard Clark recommends: Berliner, D. C. and Kupermintz, H. (Eds.). (to be published Dec or Jan. 2009) Changing Institutions, Environments and People. New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis. This book will contain my chapter on personal and organizational change. Conner, Daryl R. (1993) Managing at the Speed of Change: How Resilient Managers Succeed and Prosper Where Others Fail. New York: Random House. Daryl is widely recognized as the expert on organizational change. Elen, J. and Clark, R. E. (2006) Handling Complexity in Learning Environments: Research and Theory. Oxford, GB: Elsevier Science Ltd. This is my most recent book, coauthored with a Belgian colleague. Kirschner, P., Sweller, J. and Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimally guided learning does not work: An analysis of the failure of discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning and inquiry-based learning. Educational Psychologist. 41(2), This is the article that caused all of the controversy about training design models. Tobias, S. and Duffy, T. M. (not yet published) Constructivist Theory Applied to Instruction: Success or Failure? New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis This the book that is resulting from the debate caused by the above article. My own current interest is in the research on personal and organizational change. I have begun to realize that complex learning often requires that we unlearn or change in order to do something new or different. I have summarized the research on change in a chapter for a new book to be published this year with a group of international researchers (Clark, 2008). 14 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

15 Join CSTD as we celebrate the Fourth Annual Work Week Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l

16 Powering Up Learning is a way of life at Ontario Power Generation s Niagara Plant Group Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is an Ontariobased electricity generation company whose principal business is the generation and sale of electricity in Ontario. Their focus is on the efficient production and sale of electricity, while operating in a safe, open and environmentally responsible manner. History made and preserved The Niagara River has been used for power purposes for over 200 years. Today the Niagara Plant Group includes five plants comprised of 38 generators employing about 230 people. Three of the plants are located along the Niagara River: Sir Adam Beck 1 which first went into production in Sir Adam Beck 1922, Sir Adam power stations and Beck 2 which reservoir, Niagaraon-the-Lake first went into service in 1954, and the Sir Adam Beck Pump Generating Station and reservoir that went into service in The other two plants, Niagara Plant DeCew Falls 1 group hosts and DeCew Falls Leadership 2, are supplied Niagara s June learning day water from the Welland Canal and discharge into the Twelve Mile Creek. The DeCew Falls 1 went into service in 1898 and will be celebrating its 110th anniversary in August as the oldest station in OPG s fleet. The Niagara Plant Group produces about 12 billion kilowatt hours per year which is almost 10 percent of the electricity needs of the province. The Niagara Plant Group has a long history of training. Learning takes place every day, says Dave Heath, plant manager. Our employees bring amazing talent and expertise to the workplace, and we support them by providing ongoing training and development. There has always been a big focus on trades, technical, and health and safety training programs. For example, a four-year Trades Trainee Program and a two-year new graduate Engineering Development Program currently use a blended approach that includes rotational opportunities and on-the-job mentoring. In addition, a redesigned leadership forum began this year that includes monthly meetings on a wide variety of topics allowing for current and continuous learning to occur. Learning for fun at the Falls It s no wonder, then, that a wide variety of activities are planned to showcase learning at the Niagara Plant Group. Niagara Plant Group is very excited to be part of Week, says Rhonda Chopin, Senior Training Management Advisor. Niagara Plant Group s Week Committee, with representation from every area of the workforce, is planning to arrange the following: Mini Trade Show Bringing mechanical and electrical trades together and offering an educational forum to view and discuss various trades-related topics. Professional Engineering Forum Inviting a panel of guest speakers from the Professional Engineering Association to highlight new developments in engineering. Computer Software Clinics (Excel, Word, PowerPoint) - Bringing on-site computer program training to the new training computer lab, for easy access to brush up on or learn the software. Estate and Retirement Planning Seminar - Bringing a financial planning panel presentation on the topic of estate and retirement planning. Drum Circle - Objective is to build teams, connect, communicate, relieve stress, increase co-operation and have fun. Leadership Power Hours (1 hour lunch-time sessions held each day of Week) - To provide a forum for relevant, targeted, skill enhancing discussions. History in the Making - Ongoing display of photos of current work crews and present day history to complement the historical views already on display on the walls of the plant. Goal - pride and engagement. Hobby Sharing (Bike and Car Show) - Engage everyone to share their favourite hobby and finish the week with a good old fashioned bike and car show (as well as exhibits of other hobbies people would like to share) including a fun contest for entrants. Connected to the community In addition to training for its own employees, the Niagara Plant Group participates in a Niagara Community Leadership Program called Leadership Niagara. Community Leadership Programs bring together representatives from the public, private, and voluntary sectors in response to a distinct and currently unmet need to identify, nurture and grow leaders within each of the sectors. The programs are broadly based and foster community knowledge for existing and emerging leaders by communicating the issues, challenges and opportunities facing a community. They enable leaders to enhance their community knowledge, networks and leadership competencies, thus ultimately effecting positive community change. Ontario Power Generation and the Niagara Plant Group are proud to be part of this program. For more information about Ontario Power Generation Niagara Plant Group Week activities, contact Rhonda Chopin, Senior Training Management Advisor. 16 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

17 Leadership in Organizational Learning What is a Learning Leader? CSTD has identified a Learning Leader as a senior business leader who walks the talk in learning and development, who is a role model for personal development and lifelong learning, and who provides the support needed to embed training and development in their organization. Who is a Learning Leader? We asked CSTD members to nominate an individual in their organization as a Learning Leader. Thank you to all who submitted bios and profiles. Below are four of the profiles: Marla Fryers Vice President, Programs and Chief Nursing Officer Toronto East General Hospital Marla has been an instrumental part of learning across Toronto East General Hospital (TEGH) since she began here in Her passion for learning is clearly evident she is the driving force behind the implementation of many transformational education programs, both corporate and clinical. The learning programs are varied and include topics such as Foundations of Leadership, Emotional Intelligence for Personal Leadership, Clinician/Patient Communication, Diversity in the Workplace, Quest for Quality, Performance and Service Excellence and Accelerated Learning. One of her key influences has been in the area of distributed leadership development. She started TEGH on the journey of developing 1001 Leaders through the Foundations of Leadership program. An enterprise-wide program, it encourages and promotes leadership at all levels of the organization. Both formal and emergent leaders attend a six-module course that explores such themes as mastering change, understanding communication styles, developing interpersonal skills, and respecting different mental models. Throughout the duration of the course, participants work in leaderless groups on various patient-focused projects, which are later presented to the hospital at a formal assembly. Graduates of the program act as both ambassadors for the program, and as learning partners for the next group of participants, thus reinforcing the culture of leadership from within. This culture of developing leaders is further enhanced with the Emotional Intelligence program. Marla led the implementation of this program beginning with in-house courses targeting TEGH s formal leadership of executives, directors, managers and educators. The program now offered to all staff, is part of the general orientation program, and is further woven into the fabric of TEGH as part of the performance appraisal system. Another important indicator of Marla as a Learning Leader is that she continually finds ways to collaboratively share her own knowledge and learning. She implements quarterly leadership summits on various topics geared towards current trends, projects and challenges facing TEGH leaders. She is a sought-after speaker on the topics of healthy workplaces, talent management, performance excellence and communication skills training. She co-chairs the Boards for the Quality Healthcare Network, Safer Healthcare Now! and sits as a Board member of the Regional Geriatric Program of Ontario. Ultimately, it is Marla s belief that it is crucial to build and sustain a healthy workplace that supports staff in delivering excellent quality care. Marla led the initiation of the organizational journey to the Canada Award for Excellence, and just last month the organization was the first hospital in Canada to achieve the Level 4 status for quality and healthy workplace. As healthcare changes and we are increasingly faced with the challenges of rising illness severity, clinical professional shortages and funding changes, staff will find it difficult to find the time for education. Marla s innovative ideas for staff development will become increasingly important. The organizational learning culture that she has led is a powerful example of what is possible in healthcare. Nominated by CSTD member Carolyn Loy Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

18 To Anh Tran Senior Vice-President, Business Transformation and Technology DundeeWealth Inc. Mike Blundell Vice President Head of Retail Support Service DundeeWealth Inc. John F. Kennedy once said, Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other. These two leaders from DundeeWealth Inc. not only personify this quote, but their efforts have made a significant contribution to developing a learning culture within our organization. Both of these individuals share a common philosophy on the value of learning and continuous professional development. Not only do they support learning, they model the inherent behaviours of a Learning Leader in their ability to coach with sensitivity and guide individuals through challenging situations. They teach individuals to be innovative, to try new approaches, and to learn from the rich lessons hidden in the experiences that don t quite work out. In addition to To Anh s participation as an executive member of our Learning Council, she has actively championed key learning initiatives such as Leadership Foundations within our organization, creating a benchmark and expectation for others. She has integrated the concept of lifelong learning by encouraging and bringing best in class learning solutions to her team. She publicly recognizes and rewards her employees educational accomplishments. To Anh has established an environment in which learning is shared, contributing to increasing the organization s social capital. In so doing she has established best practices within the organization such as project management and process improvement. In her regular meetings, she encourages new learning, stepping outside the box for learning opportunities and solutions, and sharing with the team. Each individual has an active professional development plan that is aligned with the business unit s performance expectations and business goals. She actively participates in and champions new initiatives and removes barriers to learning. She has engaged the Learning and Organizational Development team on several occasions to assist with special functions incorporating team building and facilitating special initiatives. Mike has been actively involved in championing professional development at DundeeWealth since he joined the company in As a member of the Learning Council, a panel of executives who act as a steering committee for the organization, he has furthered the quality of learning initiatives through his recommendations, participation and support of key initiatives within the organization. Mike continuously looks for learning opportunities to elevate the performance of his business unit, whether through teambuilding activities, customer service skills, leadership development or measuring and sharing of outcomes and successes. He fosters the same expectation within his team of managers and directors and encourages them to seek out innovative learning solutions. Mike participates in and encourages the participation of others in programs such as Leadership Foundations and Foundations of Service Excellence. He is a regular member of the executive review panel at closing sessions and engages with and supports the learners in their journey through the program. Mike demonstrates an intuitive ability to coach, guide and develop his team resulting in overall improved team performance and customer service abilities. He works to identify opportunities to improve performance through learning initiatives, whether within his business unit or more broadly across the organization. Both To Anh Tran and Mike Blundell model the behaviours inherent in a leader who understands and values continuous learning as a competitive advantage. In a rapidly changing and challenging business environment, they demonstrate that continuous learning and its application is an integral part of organizational growth, progress and success. Nominated by CSTD member Eric Nair 18 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2008

19 Ed Hogan Executive Vice President, Operations Novopharm Limited In his capacity as EVP Operations, Ed has elevated learning for all employees in his division by providing resources, systems, programs, leadership and a continuous learning philosophy. Ed is an advocate of the Technical Training & Development department at Novopharm. Five years ago, he initiated a central Technical Training function to support the Operations and Quality Operations business units representing about 1200 employees. The Technical Training department began with three full-time staff, and today has seven fulltime staff servicing three site locations. Ed s support of training at Novopharm continued during his sponsorship of a new Learning Management System, Training Partner, which went live in This new system provided a database for training records and replaced an antiquated computer based training program. The implementation of Training Partner increased the ability to provide online courses in a timely fashion, decreased time required for an employee to complete a course, and attracted other departments to start using this new system. Ed is a role model he ensures he is current with his own training and also ensures his direct reports are up to date. Many technical training programs have been developed with Ed s support. Novopharm has established new hire training programs which are consistent across the organization, providing quality training to new employees starting at the company including on-the-job training programs covering all aspects of the training curriculum. To sustain compliancebased programs at Novopharm, selected Operations employees have participated in Train the Trainer programs to ensure we continue to train our new employees and provide refresher training to our existing staff. Not only does Ed lead by example when it comes to training and development, he also supports the development of leaders in his area of responsibility. In 2006 Ed pioneered the Front Line Leadership program in which two candidates were identified via a rigorous selection process. For one year they participated in an apprentice leadership program working in key strategic departments of the organization to learn how to become a supervisor. The first program concluded when the participants graduated and now the second program has begun. Ed has supported many employees at Novopharm in continuing their education. A specific program, the Certified in Production & Inventory Management (CPIM) training program was brought in house. Employees enjoyed the convenience of taking training on site at a convenient time, and the opportunity to share and study with their colleagues. Ed supported this training as he understands the benefits to the employees and to the organization. Earlier in 2008, Ed agreed to support the development of a Lean Sigma training program for employees to enhance continuous improvement. Ed encourages his employees to obtain additional certifications and degrees. He demonstrates the attributes of a Learning Leader by continuously being an advocate of the learning function and by walking the talk when it comes to training and development. Nominated by CSTD member Sheri Phillips Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

20 CTDP Update Profile: Jim Clemmer, CTDP After holding training positions with Culligan and Dale Carnegie Training in the seventies, Jim co-founded The Achieve Group in Over the next ten years Achieve worked with leadership development programs from Californiabased Zenger Miller to become Canada s largest training and consulting company. After selling Achieve to Times Mirror Training in 1991 (now all part of AchieveGlobal), Jim was a senior executive with Zenger Miller until leaving in 1994 to form his current company, The CLEMMER Group. Jim has written six books on leadership, personal growth, and organization effectiveness. These include The VIP Strategy, Firing on all Cylinders, Pathways to Performance, Growing the Distance, The Leader s Digest, and Moose on the Table. Many of these books have been international bestsellers and have been translated into dozens of languages. Jim has delivered over two thousand customized keynote presentations, workshops and retreats, as well as consulted to and coached executive teams in hundreds of major companies, the public sector, universities, family businesses, and healthcare organizations. One of his goals on his many business trips is to have half as much fun as his family thinks he s having! Jim is also a Practitioner in Residence for the masters (MASc) and doctoral (PhD) students in the University of Waterloo s Industrial/Organizational Psychology program. For more information about CSTD s certification program, contact Debra Bellamy, Manager Certification and Chapter Relations at , ext. 23 MESSAGE DU PRÉSIDENT DU CONSEIL MESSAGE DE LA PRÉSIDENTE suite de la page 4 suite de la page 5 ceux qui ont pris l initiative de prendre part aux comités et aux équipes de projets que nous avons établis. Je remercie surtout les présidents des comités et les membres du conseil d administration de leur leadership et de leurs efforts supplémentaires. Si l idée de travailler bénévolement pour la CSTD vous intéresse, n hésitez pas à communiquer avec notre présidente, Lynn Johnston au bureau de la CSTD. Tiens, je viens d apercevoir la première étoile filante de la nuit. Il est donc temps de fermer l ordinateur. Vos questions, vos commentaires et vos conseils seront toujours les bienvenus. Hugh MacDonald, CTDP est président du conseil d administration de la CSTD. qu elles font, et bonne Semaine de l apprentissage au travail! Dans le sillage de la Semaine de l apprentissage au travail auront lieu la Conférence et la Foire commerciale annuelle, du 15 au 17 octobre prochains. La conférence a été devancée cette année nous promettons qu il n y aura pas de problème de déplacements à cause de la neige ou du verglas! Il y sera question de tout ce qu il y a de plus récent dans le domaine de l apprentissage au travail, et donc des séances sur l amélioration du rendement, l animation et l instruction, la conception, la mesure et l évaluation, le leadership et le changement, la recherche, l encadrement et le mentorat, de même que la gestion de la fonction de formation. Je suis particulièrement fière d annoncer que nous honorons la vie et l œuvre de Jean Vanier, qui, à titre de fondateur de l Arche International, regroupe des personnes souffrant d une déficience sur le plan du développement qui vivent en communauté avec des membres du personnel et des bénévoles. Cet éminent canadien agit toujours comme fondateur de l Arche International et vit au sein de la communauté initiale, en France. Il a été décoré de la médaille de Compagnon de l Ordre du Canada et de la Légion d honneur française, parmi de nombreuses autres distinctions. Il mérite certainement de se voir attribuer notre Prix du président. Denise Donlon, ex-vj à Much Music et ancienne PDG de Sony Music Canada, sera également présente au dîner, à titre de conférencière/maîtresse de cérémonie. Mme Donlon a acquis une vaste expérience du monde des affaires, et elle a un solide message à transmettre sur les services que l on peut rendre à la collectivité. Je sais que vous l apprécierez, et j ai hâte de vous y rencontrer! Lynn Johnston, caé Présidente 20 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Fa l l 2008

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