Radioactivity material transmutation to stable isotopes by use of Microzymas.

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1 Radioactivity material transmutation to stable isotopes by use of Microzymas. Microzymas Also named archobes or nanobes by Nature, or somatides by Dr Gaston Naessens (CERBE Canada), the Microzymas or nanobacteria (according to Science & Vie) are the littlest form of life known. They were discovered by Antoine Béchamp in Microzymas are both mineral, vegetal and animals. We can find them in calcium, chalk, or leaves for example. We can find them in the Glairine de Motling (water mineralizations). They are the one responsible for the construction and destruction of the cells. By polymorphism or pleomorphism, the Microzymas involve into bacteria and vice versa. They support radioactivity and radioactive environment (α, β and γ radiations). It also seems that a little deuterium charged environment and even tritium are necessary for life to be sustained properly (up to 20% deuterium after this level nothing living can survive). Microzymas naturaly adapt to their environment, and they are versatile both in function and location (we can find them doing different functions in the human body, from liver to pancreas, through saliva to stomach ). It is in the yellow of the eggs that we can find the youngest and more versatile forms of Microzymas known. In chalk, we find residues of Microzymas through the ages (surviving from decaying and decomposition of older organisms).

2 Liebig improperly called enzymes a discover from Antoine Béchamp. The Microzymas are the one responsible for the so called enzymatic activities of the body in nature. The terrain is key to this new kind of biology. The terrain is all, the microbes are nothing. Pasteur is a fraud. (see Pasteur & Béchamp, DEA from Cédric Mannu, approved with high standards at Académie Paris IV La Sorbonne in medical historical studies). To conclude, it is important to consider that Microzymas are almost immortal. They resist from a range of temperature of -100 C and less to +150 C and more. We can find them in Martian rock or in island geysers! When not sustained by enough sugar (short or long their basic form of alimentation), albuminoidal substances or meat (for Microzymas of the pancreas, the most dangerous ones), they go into sleep. But if they are put again in contact with sugar, they are rapidly reactivated (except pancreas Microzymas that are specified with meat, and are no longer able of sugar reactivation).

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8 Bacteria and radioactivity With Dr Arthur Gohin and since 2000, Cédric Mannu worked on the selection of a bacteria able to do the job of biological transmutation of radioactivity into stable elements. Such a cold fusion based transmutation, at low energy levels, is now well established by Dr Monti s work. All this is detailed in Cédric Mannu s last book Eugène Canseliet, at Arqa publishing, 2010, Marseille. Bacteria are known since Kervran s work (one former member of Cédric Mannu s research group, with Jacques Ravatin, named Ark all) to be able to sustain radioactivity and perform large scale transmutation. See LENR-CANR for more details, for i.e. (in addition to Kervran s books). Celani, F., A study on the electrochemistry parameters to achieve reproducible high H/Pd and D/Pd vlues in relation to anomalous excess heat: proteobacteria contamination problematics Celani, F., et al. High Hydrogen Loading into Thin Palladium Wires through Precipitate of Alkaline-Earth Carbonate on the Surface of Cathode: Evidence of New Phases in the Pd-H System and Unexpected Problems Due to Bacteria Contamination in the Heavy-Water. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy. Celani, F., et al. Electrochemical D loading of palladium wires by heavy ethylalcohol and water electrolyte, related to Ralstonia bacteria problematics. inthe 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press. Vysotskii, V., et al. Successful Experiments On Utilization Of High-Activity Waste In The Process Of Transmutation In Growing Associations Of Microbiological Cultures. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org. This paper was presented at the 10th International Conference on Cold Fusion. It may be different from the version published by World Scientific, Inc (2003) in the official Proceedings of the conference.

9 Successful Experiments On Utilization Of High-Activity Nuclear Waste In The Process Of Transmutation In Growing Associations Of Microbiological Cultures V. I. VYSOTSKII 1, V. N. SHEVEL 2, A. B. TASHIREV 3 4, A. A. KORNILOVA 1 Kiev Shevchenko University, Kiev, Ukraine; 2 Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research, Kiev, Ukraine; 3Kiev Institute of Microbiology, Kiev, Ukraine; 4 Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia The problem of utilization of high-activity waste by effect of nuclear transmutation in growing associations of microbiological cultures was studied. For the first time we have observed utilization of several kinds of highly active isotopes in the volume of distilled water extracted from the first contour of water-water atomic reactor convert to non-radioactive nuclei. 1. The model and the foundation of the effect of transmutation of radioactive waste in biological systems In the work, the process of direct utilization of highly active waste and its transmutation into non-radioactive isotopes by microbiological systems has been studied for the first time. Beside generating heavier stable isotopes from light, medium and heavy stable isotopes on the basis of synthesis reactions [1], there is also the possibility of utilization of light, medium and heavy radioactive isotopes (for example, components of spent nuclear fuel or isotopes used in metrology) by the way of their transformation into stable isotopes of chemical elements. The microbe cultures produce elements essential to their own survival. The effect of transmutation of isotopes in bacterial cultures, stable in extremely high levels and doses of ionizing radiation, provides hope that solutions to the problem of radioactive waste solution may be found in the use of biological systems [1]. In contrast with classical chemical processes, growing microbiological systems can provide an extremely high selectiveness and completeness of extraction of various chemical elements (including isotopes) from different media. The phenomenon of low temperature transmutation can allow transformation radioactive isotopes, absorbed by a bacterial culture, into stable isotopes of other chemical elements. Naturally, for obvious reasons, we are not considering large or industrial-scale processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and highly radioactive waste with microbiological systems yet, at this preliminary stage in the research, but in the long term such systems may be possible.

10 In our opinion, the prospects of using bacterial cultures depend upon: 1. Fine purification of regenerated uranium on the final stages of its separation from products of decay to a level, allowing it to be used for refabrication of HPE s without using heavy chambers and remote controls. 2. Purification of gaseous exhausts of NPP s and other facilities, processing SNF, from isotopes of noble gases and products of their decay (mainly, iodine). 3. Purification of low radioactive waste to a level, providing a possibility of their burial, as non-radioactive waste, i.e. to the level of natural radioactive background (8 40 mkr/hr).

11 4. Purification of sewage and drain waters of NPP s and other facilities, processing SNF to the level of natural background. Apart from using processes of transmutation (and microbiological systems in general) in purification procedures of various substances and materials from radioactive waste, another potential use of transmutation in production or selective extraction of certain radioisotopes with a very high degree of radiochemical (and chemical) purity to be used in medicine, for example such as isotopes of technetium, gallium, iodine and others, production of which is currently quite expensive due to the need of high degree of radiochemical purity in some radioisotopic materials, also appears quite promising. The process of extraction and separation of certain kinds of highly active isotopes of low concentration from multi-component radioactive waste during the process of growth of maximally radiation-resistant microbiological cultures like Deinococcus Radiodurans (capable of sustaining normal metabolism at radiation levels of over 1 10 Mrad), as well as cultures, capable of withstanding considerably lower doses, but nevertheless reaching 30 Krad and more) is based on the fact, that the chemical characteristics of different isotopes of the same element and their ability to participate in vital processes are practically indiscernible. Because of that, a growing culture can use radioactive isotopes, present in the nutrient medium, to sustain its vital activity (its metabolism). Moreover, there is information suggesting an important role of radioactive elements in metabolism of live objects. Such hypothesis was offered for the first time by Vernadsky, and was later corroborated by modern studies. Thus, in the work [2] the ability of micromyces to use such seemingly inert substratum as highly radioactive reactor-grade graphite in constructive metabolism was convincingly demonstrated. The use of uranium as the donor of electrons in energetic metabolism of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has been experimentally proven [3]. This proves, among other things, the importance of selecting a specific microelementary content of an environment (medium) for the process of sustaining normal vital activity of biological systems. 2. Experimental investigation of utilization of high-activity waste in growing associations of microbiological cultures Nuclear transmutation of several kinds of radionuclides by a special MCT ("microbial catalyst-transmutator") stable compound has been investigated. The "microbial catalyst-transmutator" represents special granules that include: concentrated biomass of metabolically active microorganisms, sources of energy and N, C, P etc., and gluing substances which keep all components in the way of granules stable in water solutions for a long period of time at any external conditions. The base of the "microbial catalyst-transmutator" are microbe syntrophin associations that contain many thousands kinds of different microorganisms that are in the state of complete symbiosis. These microorganisms appertain to different physiological groups that represent

12 practically whole variety of the microbe metabolism and relevantly all kinds of microbe accumulation mechanisms. The state of complete symbiosis of the syntrophin associations results in the possibility of maximal adaptation of the microorganisms association to any external conditions changes (including effect of highly active ionizing irradiation). Microorganisms interaction with metals is manifested through its final result

13 as mobilization (transformation of metals into a dissolved state) or to the opposite as immobilization accumulation (transformation of metals into a insoluble state or their tying by cells). Apparently the radio nuclides just as non-radioactive metals will form sulphides of metals during biogenic sulphate reduction. In other words, radioactive metals (radio nuclides) should be regarded first of all as elements reacting with microorganisms in the same manner and through the same mechanisms as non-radioactive metals. Typical reaction of the association for such aggressive effects demands the existence of some time for internal adaptation. This time is necessary for mutagene change of 5-10 generations that corresponds to several days. During this time, a purposeful synergy process of stimulation of the mutant formation of such microorganisms occurs, which is maximally adapted to the changed aggressive conditions. This microbial catalyst-transmutator is able to develop actively, for example, in water with very high specific activity [4], while ordinary, not radioactively stable monocultures die in such an environment very rapidly. The research has been carried out on the basis of distilled water from first contour of waterwater atomic reactor of Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research. The water with total activity about 10 Ce Curie/L contained highly active isotopes (e.g., Na 24, K 40, Co 60, Sr 91, I 131, Xe 135, Ba 140, La 140,, Np 239 ) was extracted from the active zone (see Fig.1). Figure 1. Spectrum of gamma-radiation of distilled water from first contour of water-water atomic reactor (10th day after extraction from the active zone) Eγ, KeV In our experiments "microbial catalyst-transmutator" with mass about 1 g was placed in the glass flasks with 10 ml of water from the atomic reactor. In control experiments the same radioactive water but without microbial catalysttransmutator was used. The cultures were grown at the temperature 25º C. Activity of all flasks has been measured during 30 days every 5 days. For the first time we have observed fast utilization of several kinds of highly active isotopes to nonradioactive nuclei in the flasks that contained microbial transmutator. The

14 results of investigation of the activity Q(t) of the same reactor Ba 140, La 140 and Co 60 isotopes in the experiment on transmutation (activity is Q cultures ) and in the control one (Q control ) are presented on the Fig. 2. Studied La140 isotope has short life-time τla = 40.3 hours and is nonstable daughter isotope of Ba140 radioactive isotope that has life-time about τba = 12.7 days: Ba 140 La β t, days after extraction ofwater from the active zoneof the nuclear reactortime of internaladaptation of microbesyntrophin associationsto action of irradiationqcontrol(decay ofba140 and La140 inpure water)qcultures (decay of Ba140 and La140 inpure water with presence ofmetabolically active microorganisms)q(t)/q(0)qcontrol and Qcultures (decay of Co60 in bothpure water and in the water with presence ofmetabolically active microorganisms)figure 2. Activity Q(t) of the same reactor Ba140,La140 and Co60 isotopes in theexperiment on transmutation (activity Qcultures in pure reactor water with presence ofmetabolically active microorganisms) and in the control one (activity Qcontrol in thesame pure reactor water without microorganisms) th Initial activities of the Ba and La isotopes (on the 10 day after extraction of water from the active zone of the nuclear reactor) were Q Ba-140 = Curie/L and Q La-140 = Curie/L. 140 The possible way of radioactive Ba isotope transmutation to the stable state is Ba C = Sm + ΔE These reactions are energy favourable (ΔE = 8.5 MeV is positive). References The Sm and Ca ions are chemically alike and have the approximately same ionic radiuses of divalent state (R Sm 1.2 A, R Ca 1.06 A). Substituted element Ca is among several vitally necessary elements. Ions of created Sm elements can substitute Ca 2+ ions while microbiological cultures are growing [5]. The probability of such substitution during the process of growing of a biological culture is high because the initial concentration of Ca element in MCT is low. 1. Vysotskii V.I., Kornilova A.A. Nuclear fusion and transmutation of isotopes in biological systems, Moscow, "MIR" Publishing House, 2003, 302 p. 2. Sobotovich E. V., et al. // Collection of thesis Chernobyl-92. Materials of the IV Intern. science and technology conf. Results of 8 years of liquidation the consequences of the disaster at the Chernobyl NPP, Zeleniy mys, 1994, Book of Abstracts, p Soljanto P., Tuoviner О. Н.// Biogeochem. Ancient and Modern Envirion. 2+

15 Berlin etc., 1980, p

16 4. A.B. Tashirev, V.N.Shevel //Microbiological Journal, 61, 78 (1999) (In Ukrainian) 5. Vysotskii V.I., Kornilova A.A. Nuclear fusion and transmutation of isotopes in biological systems, Moscow, "MIR" Publishing House, 2003, 302 p Réaction de transmutation Élément produit ou réduit Organisme ou fonction biologique Remarque Voir 2 N C + O 6C l'azote surchauffé et respiré par l'homme produit du (monoxyde de) carbone 1962 Kervran 2 N C + O 7N le monoxyde de carbone intoxiquant l'homme peut provenir de l'azote surchauffé 1962 Kervran Na + O K 8O limitation d hyperthermie de l'homme transmutation de sodium en potassium 1959 Prohuza 2 N C + O 8O l'azote surchauffé et respiré par l'homme produit du monoxyde (de carbone) 1962 Kervran Mg + O Ca 8O les souris pour produire du calcium peuvent utiliser de l'oxygène 1967 Kervran Na + O K 11Na limitation d hyperthermie de l'homme transmutation de sodium en potassium 1959 Prohuza Na? 11Na des bactéries marines Marinobacter diminution du sodium 2003 Biberian? Mg? 12Mg pousse des plantes variation de la quantité de magnésium 1850 Circa, Lauwes et Gilbert? Mg 12Mg graines et jeunes plantes, poussant dans de l'eau distillée le magnésium augmente 1873 Herzeele? Mg 12Mg Les travailleurs en ambiance chaude produisent du magnésium 1959 Prohuza

17 Mg? 12Mg des bactéries marines Marinobacter diminution du magnésium 2003 Biberian Mg + O Ca 12Mg les souris pour produire du calcium peuvent utiliser du magnésium 1967 Kervran? P 15P graines et jeunes plantes, poussant dans de l'eau distillée le phosphore augmente 1873 Herzeele P? 15P germination de graines de vesce diminue le phosphore 1959 Baranger? P 15P bactéries, levures et moisissures produisent du phosphore 1965 Komaki? P 15P le homard forme sa carapace produit du phosphore 1969 Kervran? S 16S graines et jeunes plantes, poussant dans de l'eau distillée le soufre augmente 1873 Herzeele? K 19K germination de graines de moutarde et de radis formation de potassium 1807 Braconnot? K 19K graines et jeunes plantes, poussant dans de l'eau distillée le potassium augmente 1873 Herzeele? K 19K germination de graines de vesce augmente le potassium 1959 Baranger Na + O K 19K limitation d hyperthermie de l'homme transmutation de sodium en potassium 1959 Prohuza Ca K + H 19K le salpêtre produit du potassium fission de calcium en potassium 1959 Kervran? K 19K bactéries, levures et moisissures produisent du potassium 1965 Komaki K + H Ca 19K les graines d avoine fourragère germent convertit du potassium 1972 Zündel

18 K? 19K des bactéries marines Marinobacter diminution du potassium 2003 Biberian? Ca 20Ca les poules pour calcifier les oeufs peuvent produire du calcium 1799 Vauquelin? Ca 20Ca incubation d'œufs de poules formation de calcium 1822 Prout? Ca 20Ca graines et jeunes plantes, poussant dans de l'eau distillée le calcium augmente 1873 Herzeele Mg + O Ca 20Ca les souris avec supplément de chlorure de magnésium produisent du calcium 1967 Kervran? Ca 20Ca le homard forme sa carapace produit du calcium 1969 Kervran K + H Ca 20Ca les graines d avoine fourragère germent convertit en calcium 1972 Zündel Ca? 20Ca des bactéries marines Marinobacter diminution du calcium 2003 Biberian? Mn 25Mn des bactéries marines Marinobacter produisent du manganèse 2003 Biberian? Cu 29Cu le homard forme sa carapace produit du cuivre 1969 Kervran? Cu 29Cu des bactéries marines Marinobacter produisent du cuivre 2003 Biberian? Zn 30Zn des bactéries marines Marinobacter produisent du zinc 2003 Biberian Cs? 55Cs réduction de radioactivité par des micro-organismes fission de césium 2007 Vysotskii Ba? 56Ba réduction de radioactivité par des micro-organismes fission de barium 2003 Vysotskii La? 57La réduction de radioactivité par des micro-organismes fission de lanthane 2003 Vysotskii

19 Transmutations of Nuclear Waste by Robert A. NELSON Copyright 2000 The disposition of nuclear waste is one of the most serious technical challenges facing humanity. Long-term storage is not acceptable, yet it is all that we can do with the mess at this time. Meanwhile, many physicists are developing methods to render nuclear waste inactive by various forms of transmutation, the conversion of one element into another. The rapid transmutation of radioactive elements to stable daughter elements can be accomplished in several ways. The first such method was proposed by Dr. Radha Roy (Physics Dept, Arizona State Univ.) in He used a linear accelerator to generate x-rays that knocked nuclei from the target elements (Cesium-137 and Strontium-90), resulting in short-lived isotopes. His work received notice in the New York Times in 1982 (April 6 & 13). Only 20 year later, the Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a project for "Accelerator Transmutation of Waste". A prototype plant will be constructed within five years. Two US Patents have been granted for the transmutation of nuclear waste with thermal neutron flux: #5,160,696 and #4,721,596 to Charles Bowman and Richard Marriott, et al., respectively. Scientists at Europe s CERN facility also are experimenting with "sub-critical" nuclear reactions (they cease when not being triggered by a linear accelerator) that curtail radioactivity. The proposed European system has been named "Energy Amplifier" by Carlo Rubbia, the Nobel Prize winning physicist who designed it. The CERN website offers this explanation of their efforts: "Intense linear accelerators would allow transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste which rapidly decays to become harmless or alternatively provide the beam which drives the Energy Amplifier -- a failsafe form of nuclear reactor using relatively innocuous thorium as its fuel." The CERN Energy Amplifier would work by inserting tubes of radioactive isotopes into a block of lead. Protons fired into the lead by a linear accelerator would generate high-energy neutrons that would fission the target waste. When the neutrons pass through the resonant energy levels of the target isotopes, they trigger transmutation reactions. The molten lead also would serve to cool the system by its

20 passage through a heat exchanger, and the waste heat could be used to generate electricity. The corrosive lead will be bubbled with oxygen to allow the formation of a protective coat of oxide on the reactor walls. The system has been criticized as too complex, and to date the researchers have only performed simulations and conducted a few experiments on isolated aspects of the system. For example, the CERN scientists have transmuted Technetium-99 in a lead block. The Americans and Europeans refuse to cooperate on the project; each group claims the other has copied their ideas. In August 2003, Ken Ledingham (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow) announced in the Journal of Physics (D: Applied Physics) that the transmutation of nuclear waste had been accomplished by means of the giant Vulcan laser (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire). The toxicity of a few million atoms of iodine- 129 was reduced by a factor of 100 in just a few minutes. The end product iodine has a halflife of only25 minutes, while the halflife of iodine -129 is 15.7 million years. The Vulcan laser fired a pulse of a million billion watts at a gold target, which generated gamma rays that detached neutrons from I-129, resulting in I-128. According to Ledingham, the technique could be applied to other radioactive wastes such technetium-99, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes. A different process would be required for plutonium and americium and other radioactive isotopes. The laser process, however, requires enormous amounts of power. The Vulcan laser would have to be fired 1017 times to transmute all the atoms of the 46-gram target mass. Research team member Karl Krushelnick, a laser physicist (Imperial College, London), said, "You would need to build a number of power stations to transmute the waste from another power station". Although the laser opens a new pathway to the deactivation of nuclear waste, it also requires that the spent reactor fuel be reprocessed. Ian McKinley, from the Swiss company, Nagra, which processes nuclear waste, reprocessing is "extremely expensive and increasingly unpopular". Fortunately, there are several other, relatively simpler ways to solve the problem. Soon after Pons and Fleischman announced the discovery of Cold Fusion (CF) in 1989, researchers began to announce the anomalous production of elements, beginning with helium and tritium and continuing into the heavy atoms. By 1995, about 120 papers had reported the CF production of tritium in experiments with palladium. During the same period, several scientists developed applications of CF for the remediation of nuclear waste.

21 Early in 2000, Dr. S.X. Jin, Chief Scientist at Trenergy, Inc., announced his design for a new type of proton particle accelerator that would generate up to one million times greater proton density at the target than any existing particle accelerators. Hal Fox, editor of the Journal of New Energy in which the report appeared, offered his opinion of the new technology: "In my judgement, the development of this new technology would allow for the onsite transmutation of high-level radioactive wastes into stable elements. Billions of dollars can be saved by not packaging, transporting and storing these wastes in geological storage for 10,000 years." In the early 1990s, physicist Ken Shoulders received five patents for his discovery of the High Density Charge Cluster (HDCC), "a relatively discrete, self-contained, negatively charged, high density state of matter... [a bundle of electrons that] appears to be produced by the application of a high electrical field between a cathode and an anode" (i.e., 2-10 kv at the tip of a sharply pointed electrode). It can also be described as "a spherical monopole oscillator". Shoulders has given it the name "Electrum Validum" (EV), meaning "strong electron", derived from the Greek "elektron" (electronic charge) and the Latin "valere" (to be strong, having power to unite). Shoulders also invented a method of Plasma-Injected Transmutation for the remediation of nuclear waste by EVs. He has demonstrated the complete elimination of radioactivity in high-level nuclear material. (1-4) EVs apparently function as a collective accelerator with sufficient energy to inject a large group of nuclei into a target and promote nuclear cluster reactions. The composition of EVs allows for the inclusion of some 10 5 nuclides. Ions can be added to EVs until the net charge becomes positive. Such EVs are called Nuclide- EVs (NEVs). Shoulders states: "The NEV acts as an ultra-massive, negative ion with high charge-to-mass ratio. This provides the function of a simple nuclear accelerator. Such nuclear reactions are fundamentally an event involving large numbers and not one of widely isolated events working at an atomic level." Shoulders offers an ad hoc explanation of these results as being "due largely to a nuclear cluster reaction having an unknown form of coherence." Other researchers (Rod Neal, Stan Gleeson, "The Cincinatti Group", William Barker, etc.) also applied for patents on similar applications. The Neal-Gleeson Process has been shown to stabilize naturally radioactive solutions of thorium and uranium compounds up to 70% within a few hours in an electrochemical reactor. Thorium can be fissioned into mercury and neon. Valve metals (whose oxides emit electrons) can be excited to produce galvano-luminescence in aqueous solution. When the charge gradient exceeds a critical threshold of 1 MeV, sparks are

22 produced in the form of charge clusters that are believed to be the active mechanism in this method of transmutation. In their reports of the experimental results, Neal and Gleeson, et al., noted: "Because there is a close agreement between the reduction in thorium and the reduction of radioactivity of the thorium daughter products, it is assumed that the Neal-Gleeson Process has about the same capability to change both thorium nuclei and the nuclei of the daughter products into other elements which are not radioactive... "A process which can cause the higher atomic number elements to be split into smaller elements appears to be a desirable method by which certain radioactive elements can be handled. It is highly desirable to be able to select process-control parameters so that only stable daughter nuclei of the parent elements are produced. In this way, the radioactivity of today's highly radioactive slurries can be ameliorated." Australian inventor Yull Brown developed a novel method of electrolyzing water to produce a compressed stoichometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen ions (popularly known as "Brown's Gas") that is burned in a 2:1 ration. Since the early 1980s, Yull Brown claimed to be able to transmute radioactive material into inert forms by fusing it in the flame produced by his hyfuel. His patents mention that "The invention also relates to atomic welding..." (USP 4,014,777 and 4,081,656). Yull Brown's first successful experiment with Co 60 radionuclides reduced the activity by about 50% in 10 minutes. The process was replicated by the Baotou Nuclear Institute (China) in In a demonstration witnessed by former US Congressman Berkeley Bedell, the radioactivity of Americium was quickly reduced by 2500% with Brown's torch. The Geiger counter reading registered 16,000 curies/minute before, and less than 100 curies/minute after treatment. Congressman Bedell said: "It has been my good pleasure to witness experiments done by Prof. Yull Brown in which it appeared to me that he significantly reduced the radioactivity in several nuclear materials. Under the circumstances, I believe it is very important for our federal government to completely investigate Dr. Yull Brown's accomplishments in this area." If the US government is completely investigating Brown's Gas, it is doing so in complete secrecy. In August 1992, Yull Brown made another demonstration before several members of the Department of Energy and Hon. Dan Haley at the request of Congressman

23 Bedell. The Geiger counter reading from Co 60 was reduced to 0.04% of the original level. Another demonstration was conducted for a group of Japanese nuclear scientists, at which time Co 60 was reduced from 24,000 mr/hr to 12,000 mr/hr with one brief treatment. (5-7) Paul Brown (Nuclear Solutions, Aurora CO) has developed a novel method to remediate nuclear waste by photonuclear reaction with gamma rays. The technology utilizes principles of physics --- giant dipole resonance --- that have been overlooked in their possible application in treatment of nuclear waste. Brown states: "Photonuclear reactions induced by gamma ray absorption by the nucleus, do not suffer the shortcomings of neutron reactions. Simply stated, the process is gamma irradiation with energies greater than the binding energy of the neutron to the nucleus. That is, a gamma photon of an energy equal to or greater than the binding energy which comes close to the nucleus is absorbed through giant dipole resonance resulting in the emission of a neutron. This well-known nuclear reaction has dramatic application to waste remediation... "The neutrons produced by the (,h) processing may in turn be used for neutron transmutation by the processes... For many fission products the neutron capture cross sections in a thermal spectrum can give substantial transmutation rates..." Brown has proposed another application of giant dipole resonance in a theoretical "Photon Reactor" that would produce power by burning nuclear waste: "A linear accelerator, preferably of the monochromatic type, accelerates electrons which are directed onto a high Z target such as tungsten to generate gamma rays about 9 MeV, which are directed onto the fuel material such as U-238 which results in the (g, ) reaction, thus releasing about 200 MeV. A reactor built according to this principle requiring an accelerator driven by 1 MeV will develop about 20 MW of power. The reaction is not self-sustaining and stops when the beam is turned off. This accelerator driven reactor may be used to burn up spent fuel from fission reactors, if simply operated at 10 MeV. The photo-fission results in typical spent fuel waste products such as Cs 137 and Sr 90, which undergo photodisintegration by the (g, ) resulting in short-lived or stable products. Chemical separation of the spent fuel isotopes is not necessary..." (8) Gerardo International, Inc. is developing an Accelerated Decay Energy Converter (ADEC). The system utilizes stimulated radioactive decay to extract electrical energy directly from the atom:

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