BIBLIO 2012 INNOVATION EN BIBLIOTHEQUE INNOVATION WITHIN LIBRARIES CONFERINŢA INTERNAŢIONALĂ DE BIBLIOTECONOMIE ŞI ŞTIINŢA INFORMĂRII ISSN

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2 ISSN UNIVERSITATEATRANSILVANIA DIN BRAŞOV - BIBLIOTECA BIBLIOTECA JUDEŢEANĂ GEORGE BARIŢIU BRAŞOV ASOCIAŢIA INTERNAŢIONALĂ FRANCOFONĂ A BIBLIOTECARILOR ŞI DOCUMENTARIŞTILOR ACADEMIA ROMÂNĂ INSTITUTUL NAŢIONAL DE CERCETARE- DEZVOLTARE ÎN INFORMATICĂ BIBLIO 2012 CONFERINŢA INTERNAŢIONALĂ DE BIBLIOTECONOMIE ŞI ŞTIINŢA INFORMĂRII INNOVATION EN BIBLIOTHEQUE INNOVATION WITHIN LIBRARIES Editura Universităţii Transilvania din Braşov 2012

3 2012 EDITURA UNIVERSITĂŢII TRANSILVANIA DIN BRAŞOV Adresa: Braşov, B-dul Iuliu Maniu 41A Tel: Fax: Tipărit la: Tipografia Universităţii Transilvania din Braşov B-dul Iuliu Maniu 41A Tel: Toate drepturile rezervate. Editură acreditată de CNCSIS. Adresa nr.1615 din 29 mai 2002 COLECTIVUL DE REDACŢIE Gabriela MAILAT Zenovia PERCEC Corina POP EVENT CO-FINANCED BY: CONSILIUL JUDEŢEAN BRAŞOV SPONSORS: S.C. E-nformation S.R.L. MONGUZ Ltd.

4 Conferinţa Internaţională de Biblioteconomie şi Ştiinţa Informării Inovare în Biblioteci Conférénce Internationale de Bibliothèconomie et des Sciences de l Information Innovation en Bibliothèque International Conference on Library and Information Science Innovation within Libraries HONORARY PRESIDENT Ioan Vasile ABRUDAN, PhD Eng., Prof. Rector of Transilvania University of Brasov ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Elena HELEREA, PhD Eng., Prof. Director, Transilvania University Library of Brasov Daniel NAZARE, PhD Director, George Baritiu Public Library, Brasov Doina BANCIU, PhD, Prof. General Director, National Institute of Research Development in Informatics, Bucharest Mona Brigitte ARHIRE, PhD, Lecturer Vice-Dean of Faculty of Letters, Transilvania University of Brasov Cornel LEPĂDATU, PhD Deputy Director, Library of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest Gabriela MAILAT Deputy Director, Transilvania University Library of Brasov Ioana OLARU Deputy Director, George Baritiu Public Library, Brasov Ioana ŞCHIOPU Financial Manager, George Baritiu Public Library, Brasov

5 Conferinţa Internaţională de Biblioteconomie şi Ştiinţa Informării Inovare în Biblioteci Conférénce Internationale de Bibliothèconomie et des Sciences de l Information Innovation en Bibliothèque International Conference on Library and Information Science Innovation within Libraries SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Hermina G. B. ANGHELESCU, PhD, Assoc. Prof., School of Library & Information Science, Wayne State University, USA Andrei BODIU, PhD, Prof., Vice-President of the Senate, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania Gheorghe BULUŢĂ, PhD, Friendly Association of Librarians and Bibliophiles, Bucharest, Romania Olimpia CURTA, PhD, IT Adj. General Director, Lucian Blaga University Central Library, Cluj Napoca, Romania Doina BANCIU, PhD, Prof., General Director, National Institute of Research Development in Informatics, Bucharest Florin FILIP, PhD, Acad. Prof., Director, Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania Mihaela GHEORGHE, PhD, Prof., Vice-Rector, Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania Jacques HELLEMANS, PhD, Prof., Library of Humanities of Free University of Brussels, Belgium Bela MADER, PhD, Honorary Prof., Director of the University Library, Szeged, Hungary Wolfram NEUBAUER, PhD, Prof., Director of the Library of the Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland Ivona OLARIU, PhD, Head of Service Subsidiaries of Exact Sciences, University Central Library Mihai Eminescu, Iasi, Romania Mireille Carmen RĂDOI, PhD, Assoc. Prof., General Director of the Central Library Carol I, Bucharest, Romania Rejean SAVARD, PhD, Prof., University of Montreal, President of the International Francophone Association of the Librarians and Documentalists, Canada Zenaida STRATAN, PhD, Director of the Library of the Technical University of Moldavia, Chisinau, Republic of Moldavia Rodica VOLOVICI, PhD, Director of Lucian Blaga University Library of Sibiu Biliana YAVRUKOVA, Deputy Director, Sofia University Library St. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria

6 CONTENTS PLENARY 1. MULTICULTURAL INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT... 1 Doina Banciu, Dora Coardoş National Institute for Research Development in Informatics I.C.I. Bucharest 2. ROMANIAN LIBRARIES DURING THE FIRST DECADE OF THE MILLENNIUM: A BRIEF STATISTICAL OVERVIEW... 7 Hermina G.B. Anghelescu School of Library & Information Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 3. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: OPPORTUNITIES FOR INNOVATION IN LIBRARIES Octavia Luciana Madge University of Bucharest, Library and Information Science Department 4. DOCUMENTARY RESEARCH IN UNIVERSITIES - FORMATION OR INFORMATION? Liliana Alic Transilvania University of Braşov 5. DESIGNING NEW LIBRARY SERVICES AT THE LUCIAN BLAGA CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Róbert Bodnár, Olimpia Curta, Raluca Trifu Lucian Blaga Central University Library, Cluj-Napoca 6. OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC DATABASES: A NEW GATEWAY FOR INFORMATION SHARING Lenuta Ursachi, Elena Scutelnicu Dunărea de Jos University of GalaŃi 7. STUDITE PROJECT : STUDY AND CREATION OF A DIGITAL LIBRARY OF BYZANTINE BOOKBINDINGS Gabriela Dumitrescu, LuminiŃa Kövari, LorenŃa Popescu: The Library of the Romanian Academy 8. MAXIMIZING CHARACTERISTICS, FACILITIES AND USAGE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: A SURVIVAL METHOD DURING A TIME OF CRISIS Ivona Olariu, Diana Butnariu "Mihai Eminescu" Central University Library, Iaşi 9. ENHANCEMENT OF QUALITY IN LIBRARY SERVICES SPECIALIZED FOR YOUNG AUDIENCES Iuliana Delia Bălăican Automated Library Services Departament, Romanian Academy Library 10. LIBRARY EVENTS AN INNOVATIVE WAY TO PROMOTE AND ENCOURAGE READING Dalia Pupšyt Fridrich Bajoraitis Public Library of Šilut s Region Municipality, Lithuania

7 11. EIGHT IS ALREADY WELL! CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNLIMITED LOAN Vincent Chevallier Multimedia library Clichy-la-Garenne, France 12. THE GATE OF CLICHY THROUGH THE AGES OR CLICHY-LA-GARENNE FACING HISTORY Christian Capdet Archives of the town of Clichy-la-Garenne, Historical Society, France 13. IMPLEMENTATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES Maria Popescu, Elena Helerea Transilvania University of Braşov 14. THE IMAGE OF THE SAINT-VICTOR S LIBRARY IN THE WORKS OF RABELAIS AND MONTESQUIEU Monica Hǎrşan Transilvania University of Braşov Section: KNOWLEDGE AND LIBRARY MANAGEMENT 1. ELEMENTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN LIBRARIES Gheorghe BuluŃă Amicala Association of Librarians and Bibliophiles, Bucharest 2. EFFICIENCY OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY ACTIVITY...91 Constantin Duguleană, Liliana Duguleană Transilvania University of Braşov 3. TOOL FOR EVALUATING THE LIBRARY PATRONS SATISFACTION Aurel Ion Clinciu, Maria Popescu, Elena Helerea Transilvania University of Braşov 4. INNOVATION IN LIBRARIES A MATHEMATICAL PERSPECTIVE Cristina Huidiu, Monica Mocanu Library U.M.F. Carol Davila 5. MODERN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE "GEORGE BARITIU" BRAŞOV COUNTY LIBRARY Ioana Olaru "George Baritiu" Braşov County Library Section: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN LIBRARIES 1. DEVELOPING AN INFORMATION LITERACY PROGRAMME FOR THE USERS OF BIOMEDICAL INFORMATION Octavia Luciana Madge, Crina Mihăilescu University of Bucharest, Faculty of Letters Library and Information Science Department 2. NEW TECHNOLOGIES AN ONGOING CHALLENGE FOR MODERN LIBRARIES Cristina Popescu University of Bucharest ii

8 3. THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TODAY - FROM TEXT TO HYPERTEXT Tamara Petrova West University of Timişoara 4. TOOLS AND SERVICES FOR OPEN ACCESS TO INFORMATION Maria Ionela Bârsan, Angela Repanovici Transilvania University of Braşov 5. THE INFORMATION CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE DIGITAL CULTURE CONTEXT.135 Marius Stoianovici, Angela Repanovici Transilvania University of Braşov Section: INFORMATION HISTORY AND ENHANCEMENT YEARS SINCE THE PRINTING OF THE BOOK OF GOSPELS TETRAEVANGELION FROM TÂRGOVIŞTE Agnes Erich Valahia University of Târgoviste 2. WHAT IS A 17 TH CENTURY ALMANAC TELLING US? Hajnalka Ilyés-Bartha Babeş-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca 3. LIBRARIES IN THE ROMANIAN PROVINCES IN THE 18 TH AND 19 TH CENTURIES Antonella Cheşcă, Sorina Anamaria Cheşcă Transilvania University of Braşov 4. THE INTERACTIVE DIMENSION OF THE ROMANIAN RETROSPECTIVE NATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS Maria Buturugă Romanian Academy Library 5. JULES DESTRÉE ( ), PROMOTER OF PUBLIC READING IN BELGIUM Jacques Hellemans Library of Social Sciences, Free University of Brussels (ULB) The Center of the Printed Edition and the Contemporary (CEDIC) Section: INFORMATION HISTORY AND ENHANCEMENT 1. THE SPECIFIC NATURE OF INFORMATION IN THE FIELD OF HISTORY Mariana Borcoman Transilvania University of Braşov 2. CROWDSOURCING AND GLAM OR A STORY ABOUT WRITING THE STORY TOGETHER Cristina Ioana Roiu Romanian Academy Library iii

9 3. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION IN THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Sultana Craia Amicala Association of Librarians and Bibliophiles, Bucharest 4. HUMAN RIGHTS AND MULTICULTURALISM Emilian Ciongaru Institute of Legal Research Acad. Andrei Radulescu of the Romanian Academy 5. TRANSLATION, TERMINOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS OF THE CORPUS Mihaela Popescu Transilvania University of Braşov Section: KNOWLEDGE AND LIBRARY MANAGEMENT and INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN LIBRARIES 1. A POINT OF VIEW REGARDING THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF UNIVERSITY LIBRARY SERVICES Cristina Albu, Adriana Cristian University Politehnica of Bucharest, Central Library 2. DISSEMINATION OF SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION IN THE DIGITAL AGE Cristina Nicoleta Albu, Carmen Predescu University Politehnica of Bucharest, Central Library 3. ONLINE INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CITIZENS Monica Anghel, Mihail Dumitrache National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics ICI Bucharest 4. MODERN WEB TECHNOLOGIES IN PROMOTING THE BOOK IN LIBRARIES Livia Sângeorzan, Corina Pop, Daniela Nedelcu Transilvania University of Braşov Technical College Maria Baiulescu Braşov 5. SERVICE ROBOTICS: APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Corina Pop, Doru Talabă Transilvania University of Braşov 6. THE ROLE OF THE LIBRARY IN THE DOCUMENTATION FOR SCIENTIFIC QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Aurel Ion Clinciu Transilvania University of Braşov 7. AUDIOVISUAL AND MULTIMEDIA SERVICES IN LIBRARIES Mihail Dumitrache, Monica Anghel University of Bucharest, Faculty of Letters National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics ICI Bucharest 8. CAROL I CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY PRESERVING THE PAST WITH AN EYE ON THE FUTURE: USER SATISFACTION SURVEY Mireille Rădoi Carol I Central University Library iv

10 9. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE VIRTUAL LIBRARY CONCEPT IN ROMANIAN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES Mădălina Albu Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieşti 10. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT Ioana Nicolae Transilvania University of Braşov 11. INFORMATIONAL CONTENT OF A SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES Maria-Rodica Volovici Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu Section: INFORMATION HISTORY AND ENHANCEMENT and EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN LIBRARY 1. UNIVERSAL PATRIMONY IN THE OLD BOOK COLLECTION FROM ŞCHEII BRAŞOVULUI (14 TH 16 TH CENTURIES) Vasile Oltean The "First Romanian School" Museum Braşov 2. ZSUZSANNA LÓRÁNTFFY, COMENIUS AND THE SCHOOL OF FAGĂRAŞ Florentin Olteanu, Elena Helerea, Viviana Moldovan "Negru Voda" Cultural Foundation in Fagaras, Transilvania University of Braşov, The High school in Codlea 3. BIBLIOPHILY IN THE DINICU GOLESCU ARGES COUNTY LIBRARY LucreŃia Picui Dinicu Golescu Arges County Library 4. PUBLIC LIBRARIES: CENSORSHIP AND REHABILITATION OF THE POETS UNDER THE ROMANIAN COMMUNIST REGIME Cristina Pipoş, Cosmina Cristescu Transilvania University of Braşov 5. CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONTEMPORARY FANTASTIC LITERATURE OFFER Daniela Sorea Transilvania University of Braşov 6. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH AT TRANSILVANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IN BRAŞOV: PROFESSIONAL BENCHMARKS Sorina Micu Transilvania University of Braşov 7. READING SKILLS AND THE USE OF SHORT STORIES IN TEACHING FRENCH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Mihaela Neagu Transilvania University of Braşov v

11 8. STUDENTS' EDUCATION TOWARDS INFORMATION LITERACY Gabriela Iancu Transilvania University of Braşov 9. LIBRARIES AND COLOURS Roxana Ciobanu Transilvania University of Braşov 10. WRONG SIDE AND RIGHT SIDE (FRENCH-ROMANIAN BILINGUALISM DURING THE 19 TH 20 TH CENTURIES) Virgil Borcan Transilvania University of Braşov 11. CENSORSHIP OF THE ANCIENT BOOK - AN APPROACH FROM THE CANONICAL LAW PERSPECTIVE Elena Chiaburu Library of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Al. I. Cuza University of Iaşi 12. MANUSCRIPT TREASURES AT THE DRAGOMIRNA MONASTERY LIBRARY Olimpia Mitric Ştefan cel Mare University of Suceava 13. OMNIA LIBRARY - AREA OF POLYVALENT CULTURAL DIALOGUE Doina GhiŃă, Rita Chioralia, Maria Gâlcă OMNIA French Library of Craiova, Branch of the National Library of Romania 14. REFERENCE MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE FOR RESEARCHERS. A CASE STUDY Mihaela DudiŃă, Cristina Olaru, Gheorghe Băcanu, Dana Perniu Transilvania University of Braşov 15. THE LIBRARY OF BABEL Philippe Loubiere Université Paris III Sorbonne, France AUTHOR INDEX vi

12 MULTICULTURAL INITIATIVES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Doina BANCIU, Dora COARDOŞ Institutul NaŃional de Cercetare-Dezvoltare în Informatică, ICI Bucureşti Abstract: This article covers the main research conducted in the research project "Integrated system for promoting and highlighting multiculturalism to sustainable rural development", developed within the R & D Sectorial plan of MCSI in the period The project aims at highlighting and promoting cultural products with relevance in Europe and valorisation of the cultural rural potential for the sustainable development of the country area.. Keywords: multiculturalism, cultural diversity, sustainable development, digital content. 1. Introduction Cultural policy promoted by the European Community intends to respect and promote the cultural identity of a nation or regional communities and encourage the dialogue between cultures. European Integration in the culture area means safeguarding and promoting cultural diversity: intangible and tangible heritage, artistic creation, mentalities, traditions and customs, languages of peoples and communities are all elements of this challenge. Folkloric heritage, including popular architecture, popular traditions and customs, crafts, costumes and folklore, is a defining element for the Romanian space. Each fact of popular culture from the geographical areas of Romania reveals relationships between native Romanians: Moldavians, Wallachians, Transylvanians, on one hand, and different populations established here (Germans, Hungarians, Bulgarians, Turks, Greeks, Tatars, Lipovans, Ukrainians and Italians etc.) on the other hand. "Cultural diversity" or "multiculturalism" refers to the harmonious coexistence and interaction of different cultures, where "culture should be regarded as a set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society or a social group, features that are supplemented, in addition to art and literature, by lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs" [1]. Multiculturalism is a reality and an undeniable value both in cultural spaces formed in countries with a high intake of immigrants, as we find in some cases in the Western area, and in cultural areas with a long historical tradition and with a structure that involves coexistence between a majority culture and many historical minorities, such as Romanian case and especially the Transylvanian one". Multiculturalism responds to the needs of a changing world in which expression of various identities takes the form of answers to the challenges brought both by the national state and the trans-national and global space.

13 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 2. The evolution of multiculturalism in the world Multicultural communication means direct interaction between people of different cultures. Multicultural communication involves much more than understanding the norms of a group, it implies acceptance and tolerance of differences. To highlight the approach of multicultural communication in the world will present this issue as it settled in various parts of the world. Multiculturalism in Australia has a special status. The meaning of the concept of multiculturalism has changed greatly from its official introduction [2]. Initially, it was understood by most people as a need for acceptance of the fact that many members of the Australian community come from different cultures and they are still connected to them. Finally, multiculturalism was understood as being the immigrants' rights to express their cultural identity. Nowadays, it is often used to refer to the fact that many people in Australia have a diverse cultural and ethnic heritage, fact that is widely accepted. In Canada, multiculturalism has been adopted as official policy of the Canadian Government [3]. Over time, in the mass culture of Canada there were merged elements of cultures of native peoples and immigrants. As a nation of settlers, Canada has been shaped by waves of migration that have combined to form a unique blend of traditions, cuisines and traditions that have marked the socio-cultural development of the nation. Canada's Federal Government has influenced Canadian culture with programs, laws and institutions. In the United States of America, a clear policy on multiculturalism does not exist at the federal level. Instead, the multiculturalism was promoted through the school system by increasing the number of study programs based on ethnic specific in higher education. American culture [4] is a Western culture, initially influenced by European cultures. In present, the United States of America is a multiethnic and multiracial country due to the widely immigration from various countries throughout its history. In India, the term multiculturalism is not quite used; the term that is used is rather diversity. Culture of India has been influenced throughout its history by its geographic position and the diversity of resident populations. Languages, religions, dance, music, architecture and customs differ from a place to another, still having something in common [5]. Between the member states of India there are significant differences in terms of language, culture, cuisine, clothing, literary style, architecture, music and holidays. India, being a multicultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. In terms of political organization, Malaysia is made up of several states and federal territories. Culture in Malaysia is based on resident populations of different cultures. Different ethnicities that exist in present in Malaysia have their own unique and distinct cultural identities, existing interferences between them. Every major religious group has its own religious days that are declared official holidays. Official days off vary from one state to another. Although festivals have a specific ethnic origin, they are celebrated by the entire population of Malaysia. Throughout the history of multiculturalism in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, there were three stages. The latest stage of multiculturalism is still in its infancy and, to some extent, means an new existence of "cultural diversity" together with calls to preserve national identity. Multiculturalism is a relatively new experience in Spain in comparison with other Western European countries [6]. Spain, like many other countries, such as France or Portugal, is challenged to define the conditions in which culture should be implemented particularly in school, and generally in education.cultural diversity is related mainly with immigrant populations whose rights are stipulated in the Constitution and regulated by a series of national laws, as part of common culture. 2

14 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 In France, the year 2011 was placed under the sign of diversity of society and promoting cultural diversity in the digital age. A new side of multiculturalism is accessibility for disabled persons in public institutions, museums and audio-visual domain (Frederic Mitterrand). At European level, the overall objective of the Digital Agenda is to obtain sustainable economic and social benefits in EU countries due to a single digital market based on fast and ultra-fast Internet and interoperable applications. 3. The evolution of multiculturalism in Romania In Romania, beside the Romanian communities live various other ethnic communities, with specific cultural, linguistic and religious traditions. The regions with the greatest ethnic diversity in Romania are Transylvania, Banat, Bucovina and Dobrogea, and the regions with less ethnical diversity are Oltenia and Moldova. "Romanian multiculturalism" may be given at any time as example to the Western Europe, which is facing, more and more, with serious problems posed by the growing Muslim minority. Tolerance has always been the essential note of the behaviour of traditional community from geographic areas of Romania. History and dynamics of social life, events at mental level, in time, allow considering and defining the historic regions as areas of ethnic coexistence (Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia, Wallachia, Moldavia and Dobrogea). Romanian space in general and specifically the Transylvanian one are multicultural areas. Multiculturalism in Transylvania Transylvania is a special place, with historical, ethnic, cultural and ethnographic values that distinguishes it from other provinces of Romania. A multi-ethnic history and multicultural traditions have marked forever this region. Romanians, Hungarians, Saxons and Szekelies - very different ethnic groups - have managed to create here a unique world in which the archaic cultural character has been preserved. Transylvanian villages with fortified Saxon churches provide a lively image of the cultural landscape of Southern Transylvania. Sibiu, Saxon civilization cradle of our lands, is bordered to the West with a group of Romanian villages that form an ethnographic unit called Mărginimea Sibiului. These villages are testimony to the cultural identity of Romanians in this region. Transylvanian multicultural specific is materialized in the Babes-Bolyai University in Cluj. Multiculturalism in Banat In Banat, inter-cultural aspect is based on an original permissive behaviour which enabled each ethnicity to integrate into the community history without feeling attacked by "natives", regardless they represent a majority or a minority. Communication between minorities in Banat was always remarkable, its support being the multilingualism practiced in all ethnic minority communities. Usage of two, three and even four languages in Banat is a rare appearance in other parts of Europe. Multilingualism that is specific to a significant proportion of the population in this area dates back centuries. Another component of the cultural phenomenon of Banat and Romania is the presence of mixed families from ethnical point of view - living proof of inter-culturalism and a factor in the multilingualism development. Multiculturalism in Dobrogea Over centuries, the multicultural province - Dobrogea gathered artefacts, history and monuments from almost all ethnic groups who have succeeded at a time on the shores of the Black Sea, being ancient Greeks and Romans or Ottoman Turks from Middle Ages. 3

15 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Nowadays, in Dobrogea there are 25 ethnic communities, some settled from thousands of years, others only from few years. Although very different, in terms of confession, traditions or cuisine, these ethnic communities were able to capitalize the uniqueness of cohabitation in the same area without arising xenophobic tensions. To show the multiethnic specificity of the space between the Danube and sea, Folklore Art Museum from Tulcea opened a permanent exhibition "Multiculturalism in Dobrogea"[6]. 4. Representative structures that hold digital information History and dynamics of social life, events at mental level, in time, allow considering and defining the historic regions as areas of ethnic coexistence. Known at regional level, especially after scientific studies undertaken in the twentieth century, the folklore in Romania was divided into many folklore areas, according to regions, counties or sub-regions of a county. Folklore gets to be broken even by villages or communes. This system of division, apparently exaggerated, highlights the multitude of customs and traditions, which, integrated, reveal the identity of Romanians, their ancient existence. Starting from the main ethnographic regions of Romania, there have been identified representative structures which dispose of digital information relating to elements of multiculturalism, primarily in rural areas. From the cultural institutions holding such information we will address, on one hand, the museums and, on the other hand, the libraries. 4.1 Promoting multiculturalism by museums The museum is a valuable tool of science and education, growing by its dowry a close link between past and present. The heritage of a museum reflecting specific products of ages and given areas, firstly the product of so many generations, is integrated in the ongoing chain of progress of society in Romania. Ethnographic museums are not only institutions that accumulate, preserve and recover through exhibitions, testimonies and documentation of heritage. They are scientific institutions, with complex tasks, with a set research objective, following to a point the object itself of ethnography, having the particularity that they operate primarily with authentic testimonies of popular culture and social life, which have become since their acquisition, objects of museum. In the network of sociological and ethnographic museums we remember the following categories: Museums dealing with the domain in a complex way, on specific territories; Museums dedicated especially to some aspects of popular culture (architecture, occupations, techniques and crafts, artistic creation types, habits). As an example, we consider the Museum of Ethnography and Folklore Art of Tulcea. This reflects, through the diversity of collections, a unique cultural pattern generated by ethnic coexistence between Romanians and other populations. In the museum, the permanent exhibition Multiculturalism in Dobrogea presents aspects of cultural identity of different populations that have lived over time in Dobrogea and continue to live in harmony today. The ethnographic collection of the museum has pieces that identify instruments used in the practice of traditional occupations and crafts; they reflect the way in which local people adapted to a very special habitat relative to other regions. There are presented tools, devices used in fishing, beekeeping, horticulture, viticulture, seed processing, agriculture, milling, livestock and hunting. 4

16 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Therefore, starting from the objects present in various museums we will seek to emphasize the elements of multiculturalism regarding: folklore architecture, customs and traditions, costumes, folklore, crafts and traditional trades, traditional food, handicrafts (woven peasant ornamental embroidery, decorative fabrics, ornaments, objects of worship), inventory of household goods, kitchen tools, technical equipment. 4.2 Promoting multiculturalism through digital libraries Digital Library has as main purpose the preservation and protection of national cultural heritage and to promote and widen access to information collections. Through digitization of collections of documents and creation of digital library, there is enabled successful promotion of values, better information dissemination and a high valorisation, at national and international level, of special collections, rare documents. In a multicultural society, libraries must focus on activities that allow contact between different ethnic and cultural groups and encourage intercultural exchanges, promoting understanding and tolerance between the ethnic and cultural groups. As defined by the IFLA (Federation of Library Association and Institution), "multicultural library activities are an amount of library services, which must satisfy the requirements of a multicultural society." 1 Examples of libraries in different areas of the world that provide multicultural services include: Scandinavian countries have an infrastructure for multicultural library services; In the Australian Federal State, the web portal "Multicultural Bridge" located on Queensland State Library server provides Internet access to multilingual information; The Library of Frankfurt - the "International Bibliothek" project; The multicultural activity of the Italy library - "multicultural bookshelf." Europeana, the digital library that intends to bring together representative works for the European culture. In Romania, there are libraries that have digital information. Some of these will be presented (briefly) below. Metropolitan Library of Bucharest In this library, we find the Romania's Digital Library - Dacoromanica. Dacoromanica is the most important Romanian digital library, freely accessible on the Internet. (http://www.bmms.ro/articole.aspx?catid=184&c=2). Dacoromanica is the only professional digital library in Romania, designed to meet the challenges of the third millennium. Dacoromanica provides access to printed documents (monographs, periodicals, postcards, maps) in images and texts, audio and visual documents. Digital Library of Mureş Digital Library of Mureş aims to promote beside the national goals also its own publications and to support the education and learning process through city and village libraries by providing well-documented teaching materials, created at the County Library of Mureş. (http://www.bjmures.ro/) Digital Library BCU "Lucian Blaga" University, Cluj-Napoca The digital library contains books, manuscripts, periodicals and iconographic materials from the BCU Cluj library collections. (http://www.bcucluj.ro/bibl-electronica.php#). Searching is performed in metadata and full text of documents printed. The results can be sorted by relevance, title or publication date. 1 Federation of Library Association and Institution, 5

17 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science National Digital Library The establishment of the National Digital Library, part of the European Digital Library (EDL), is primarily aimed at conservation and protection of national cultural heritage existing in the libraries from the National Library System and promotion of collections and offering greater access to information. In the National Digital Library there also will be included the documents created only in electronic format (on-line books and journals, electronic resources from sites, databases etc.). Digitizing collections of documents and establishment of the National Digital Library provide for a better promotion of national values, better information dissemination and a high valorisation, at national and international level, of special collections and rare documents. Digital Library of cimec cimec is the most important institution in Romania in preservation and restoration of cultural heritage.digital Library of cimec includes works from the following categories: Archaeology, History, Guides, Literature, Books, Numismatics, Museums and Performing Arts. (http://www.cimec.ro/biblioteca-digitala/biblioteca.html) Romanian Academy Library Romanian Academy, the highest national cultural forum, is also active in preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage. In 1999, Romanian Academy, in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture and cimec started a digitization project. Currently, the created database contains digital facsimiles of Eminescu s manuscripts, which are available online at the Web address: The Virtual Library of Romanian Academy can be accessed at the "Virtual Libraries" section and includes works of Romanian and foreign authors - writers, musicians, painters and inventors. 5. Conclusions In order to highlight and promote folklore culture and traditions of rural areas, by studying in particular some representative areas, we will develop an integrated system using multimedia methods and techniques. By the development of this system, it will be created a information cultural space regarding the valorisation and the protection of national heritage, as an important factor of cultural identity and its interferences with regional and European heritage. An important aspect of the system refers to the promotion of heritage objectives related to the development of cultural tourism, which involves creating a positive image of the country in an international context. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, **:* Multiculturalism in Australia, 3. **:* Multiculturalism in Canada, 4. **:* Culture of the United States, of_the United_States 5. SAROJINI M., NIROD P., KUMAR D: Social Cleavages, Multiculturalism and Emerging Space for State in India under Globalisation Regime. In: International Economic History Congress, Session 22, Helsinki, August https://docs.google.com/viewer? url= http%3a%2f%2fwww.helsinki. fi%2fiehc2006% 2Fpapers1%2FMishra22.pdf 6. Steluta Pârâu: Multiculturalitate în Dobrogea. ConstanŃa: Editura Ex Ponto, 2007, ISBN Banciu, D., Coardoş, D., Lepădatu, C - InformaŃia Digitală în Cultura Cercetări şi realizări, Ed. ARS DOCENDI, Universitatea din Bucureşti, ISBN , 386 p,

18 ROMANIAN LIBRARIES DURING THE FIRST DECADE OF THE MILLENNIUM: A BRIEF STATISTICAL OVERVIEW Hermina G.B. ANGHELESCU School of Library & Information Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan Abstract: Using recent statistical data, the paper presents a synopsis of the current stage of the Romanian library scene. National, academic, school, special, and public libraries are featured along with their collections and users. Starting from the current stage in the development of Romanian libraries, the road ahead continues to be challenging, despite some progress. Keywords: Romania, public libraries, academic libraries, national libraries, school libraries, special libraries, Biblionet program. 1. The Library System in Romania The Romanian library system consists of national, public, academic, school, and special libraries. Except for a few academic libraries belonging to private universities, the entire library system in Romania is funded with public money National Libraries There are four libraries with national status in Romania: the National Library of Romania, the Library of the Romanian Academy, the National Pedagogical Library, and the National Military Library, all situated in Bucharest, the Capital City of Romania The National Library of Romania The most significant chapter in the existence of the National Library of Romania (NLR) was its foundation, in 1955, as the Central State Library as well as its move into the new locale, inaugurated on 15 December NLR traces its beginnings to the St. Sava College Library in Bucharest, established in 1832 and opened to the general public in After the creation of the Romanian state in 1859, the library reached the status of central or national library. In 1864 it became Central Library of the [Romanian] State. The library continued to operate until 1901 when it was dismantled and its collections were incorporated into those of the Library of the Romanian Academy, established in 1866, with the main responsibility to serve the scholarly needs of the members of the Romanian Academy. For more than half a century Romania had no national library. Some library historians argue that the Central State Library (CSL), established in 1955 with collections that had been confiscated from prominent inter-war politicians and institutions, was a pyramid-like communist creation while others consider it as a continuation of the St. Sava College Library. CSL assumed a leading role in compiling national bibliographies, maintaining the national union catalog and serving as the national legal

19 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science repository, directly connected to preserving the country s national written heritage. The rare book and manuscript collections, a result of massive post World War II confiscations were inventoried and placed in a separate locale, a building confiscated from the original owners after the communist take-over. From its establishment until the collapse of communism in Romania, CSL had one director, a political appointee with pro-west orientation in terms of library practices. In January 1990 CSL changed its name to National Library of Romania (NLR). The demise of the national librarian whose name was associated with the old guard led to a turnover of managers, some with no library experience whatsoever. Although national in denomination, the NLR started losing its supremacy and was no longer capable of maintaining all of its responsibilities at the national level. It has maintained as its main mission the compilation of the current national bibliography, the administration of the cataloging in publication at the national level, and the coordination of the legal deposit of imprints. Since its establishment until 2012 NLR conducted business in the building of the former Stock Exchange, a building totally inappropriate for library operations. In 1986 a new edifice was designed to serve as a national library as part of a modernization project of downtown Bucharest. Although Romania s president Nicolae Ceauşescu cut the inaugural ribbon at the official opening ceremony in 1989, shortly before his demise, the building was never finished and, for the next two decades, it was reduced to a crumbling shell. In 2009 the Ministry of Culture, NLR s overseeing body, decided to borrow money from the European Union in order to have the construction finished in two years. The initial structure was preserved and it was turned into a modern space, a cultural mall, that will host the NLR along with a few other cultural institutions. During 2012 NLR will move most of its holdings to the new location. In 2009 the NLR reported a collection of 12.5 million items, with an annual growth of approximately 100,000 items. Some of the library s collections can be accessed in situ only by people of eighteen and above. Most of the holdings continue to remain in remote storages. In 2009 the library reported users, which represents.6% of the country s population. Daily foot traffic was extremely slow for an institution of national caliber. In 2009 an average of 44.3 people used the library per day. This number rose to the following year. The modernization of NLR s operations and services and the transition to the digital age are yet to come. One can only hope that the move into the new building will attract more traffic and more usage of the traditional collections. As for online collections accessible remotely, they are still in the distant future. In terms of collection growth, NLR s annual reports mention only print materials, with no e-book and no licensed database whatsoever. In 2010 NLR added to its collections 93 Romanian CDs, 287 Romanian DVDs, 3 foreign CDs and 15 foreign DVDs. One can only hope that in the future NLR will start developing an e-collection accessible online by anyone interested The Library of the Romanian Academy Established in 1867, a year after the opening of the Romanian Academic Society, the Library of the Romanian Academy (LRA) has the largest and the richest collections in the country. One of its missions consists of preserving the national cultural heritage and of supporting the research needs of the members of the Academy and the scientific research conducted in its sixty research centers and institutes, specialized in various disciplines, from ethnography to mathematics, from economics to medical sciences. LRA has three other branches, in Iaşi, Cluj, and Timişoara. Its collections amount to 12 million items. Another mission of the LRA consists of compiling the national retrospective bibliography for books and periodicals published in Romania s territory since the introduction of the printing press in this part of the world, in Together with the Bucharest Metropolitan Library, LRA is engaged in a massive digitization project of Romanian publications. LRA serves mostly the members of the Romanian Academy (RA). Currently RA consists of a total of 156 members (78 full members and 78 correspondent members) and 28 honorary members in Romania and 85 honorary members overseas. Researchers are also granted permission to use the LRA collections for special projects. 8

20 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO The National Pedagogical Library Established in 1880, the library is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. Its subject-specific collections amounting to 500,000 volumes are open to the teaching staff from K-12 to higher education and to anyone else interested in pedagogy and other educationrelated issues. One of the library s major responsibilities is the compilation of the Romanian Retrospective Pedagogical Bibliography. The National Pedagogical Library oversees the 40 county centers that support the teaching staff throughout the country The National Military Library This is a special library, subordinated to the Ministry of Defense, and open primarily to military personnel. It was established in During the communist period its official name was the Central Library of the Ministry of National Defense. Its current collections amount to 200,000 volumes, consisting of all types of history- and military-related materials, including books, periodicals, maps, and art. The library is a closed-circuit institution and it is open to military personnel only. It does not maintain a web presence Academic Libraries The first academic libraries were established in Romania during the second half of the nineteenth century, when the political, economic, social and cultural development of the three Romanian Principalities Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania fostered the creation of the first universities, cultural associations, and scientific societies. The first university was established in 1860, in the city of Iaşi, the capital of the province of Moldavia. A library established in 1835 became the Iaşi University Library. In 2010 the library harbored a collection amounting to 2.5 million and served active 18,588 users of a student body of 39,346 (47.24%). The University of Bucharest was established in The royal family (Romania was a kingdom from 1866 to 1945) created a series of cultural foundations, among which the King Carol I Royal Foundation. In 1891 this foundation established the Library of the Carol I Royal Foundation which was built in the downtown area of the Capital City, right across from the Royal Palace. Inaugurated in 1895, the library s mission was to serve the students and the faculty members of the University of Bucharest, thus enabling them to promote, support, and foster scientific, cultural, and educational activities. The edifice of the library was inaugurated in The library became famous worldwide during the popular revolt of December 1989 which led to the demise of communism in Romania, when the building itself and 500,000 volumes of its collections 12,000 of them unique were engulfed by fire. Through the joint efforts of international organizations, the Romanian government and private foundations, the edifice of the library was restored, a new wing was added to the original construction, and it was equipped with state-of-the-art technology. The library was officially reopened in the fall of 2001 and it has been the premier library of the country. At the end of 2011 the library s collections amounted to 2 million and it served 29, 950 users. The city of Cluj-Napoca is the largest in Transylvania, a province which remained under the domination of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the end of World War I, when it was incorporated into mainland Romania. In 1872 Emperor Francis Joseph II approved the establishment of a university in Cluj, which was named after him, in The university began to function with no library. The imperial court in Vienna decided the transfer of the library of the Transylvanian Museum Society, established in 1859, into the locale of the university. The imperial court provided the funding for the construction of a library edifice, finished and inaugurated in In 1990 the library was named after the Transylvanian poet and philosopher Lucian Blaga and became the Lucian Blaga Central University Library. In 2010 the library reported a collection of 3.6 million books and 500,000 bound volumes of periodicals. The same year, the library served a student body and teaching staff of 57,624 with only 22,890 carrying a library card, which represents 39.72%. 9

21 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science In addition to these big three academic libraries in Romania the Central University Library in Iaşi, Cluj-Napoca, and Bucharest there are other academic libraries that operate in conjunction with smaller government-funded and private universities throughout the country. During the communist regime there were 48 government-sponsored universities in Romania. After the demise of communism private universities came into being with no library whatsoever. Even the largest private universities have only very modest library collections, most of them consisting of dated printed books, resulting from various donations. The overseeing body does not perceive their funding as a priority. In 2005 there were a total of 107 universities (both government-funded and private) in Romania. In 2010 one more was founded. If in 2005 there were 106 academic libraries, by 2010 their number dropped to 100. The student population and the number of faculty members have been declining and so has the number of books checked out (Fig. 1 and 2). From usage standpoint, in 2005 academic libraries were used by 76.13% of their constituencies (students and faculty). The usage rate increased slightly by 2010, amounting to 79.54%. Although high, these percentages indicate that some 20% of the student body and faculty never used the academic library in 2010, respectively some 24% in There have been attempts of cooperation among the big three libraries. However, significant results of national impact have never been achieved. Year Universities Students 716, ,001 Faculty 31,43 29,746 Libraries Library users 614, ,000 Fig. 1. Higher education statistics for 2005 and School Libraries The National Education Law1/2011 sets the parameters of pre-college education and the Library Law 334/2002 requires every school in the country to have a library. In 2000 a Romanian-French bilateral cooperation agreement led to the establishment of documentation and information centers in a number of schools in Romania and to the emergence of the documentalist teacher, the new denomination for school librarians whose role of assisting teachers in the educational process became more prominent. Unfortunately these were only cosmetic changes. School libraries have never been very engaged in supporting learning and the educational activities of their parent institutions. Their dated collections never attracted the student population. The lack of professional librarians eager to support education and to become involved with curricular activities reduced school libraries to repositories of old books. Usually, a faculty member occupies (on a part-time basis) the librarian s position whose responsibility is to check out books during breaks. At the beginning of the school year the library distributes the textbooks to be used. This activity is reported as books checked out. This explains the volumes checked out per student during 2010 (Fig.2). It is an artificial figure that does not reflect the reality. From 2005 to 2010 the number of schools decreased by 285 and the number of students decreased by 168,000 for the same period of time. Book circulation also decreased by 1,104,000 units over this five-year period. A piece of legislation adopted in October 2011 attempts to align school libraries in Romania with their counterparts in developed countries. This is more of a theoretical and prescriptive document rather than a piece with concrete application to the dated condition of school libraries in the country. The document uses all of the buzz words, like e-learning platforms, virtual school library, free access to information, user information needs, information literacy, which have no meaning and support in the current context. It looks more like a translation into Romanian of a foreign library science textbook. 10

22 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Special Libraries Corporate special libraries are nonexistent in Romania. Few institutions maintain collections that would equate the concept of a corporate library in the West. These are primarily research institutions that concentrate their holdings on a particular field of scientific research. In general, these libraries are affiliated with and funded by the parent institution whose employees they serve. State-run companies, such as the Romanian Television, the Radio Broadcasting Company, the Parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate, the High Court of Justice, the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks, and all of the ministries and museums also have libraries that assist the employees with their information and research needs. Churches of all denominations have significant collections, some of them including old and rare items, manuscripts and incunabula which are part of the national heritage. Statistical data indicate that in 1990 there were 2,128 special libraries in Romania. Their number has been visibly declining. In 2000 their number was reduced to 1,052. By the end of 2010 the number of special libraries had dropped down to 589. This drastic decline is due to the skyrocketing inflation that the country has been facing after the collapse of communism. The transition to a market economy brought about the disappearance of a number of research institutions and, consequently, the dismantling of their libraries. Major academic libraries, in addition to the main branch, maintain off-site libraries situated in the building where special departments are located. These collections are subject-specific and are open to faculty members and students who are enrolled in that particular school or department. The government-funded higher education system in Romania also includes specialized schools (called institute, faculty, or academy) that operate as independent entities, overseen and funded by the Ministry of Education. All of them have subject-specific libraries. A few examples of such institutions of higher education are: the Polytechnic Institute in Bucharest, Iasi, Cluj, and Timişoara, the Architecture Institute in Bucharest, the Fine Arts Institute in Bucharest, the Academy of Economic Sciences in Bucharest, etc. The libraries that serve these institutions are at various stages of implementing automated systems if at all. The first ones to introduce automation were the polytechnic institutes due to the sustained support and expertise of the computer science departments they serve. The medical and pharmaceutical libraries affiliated with higher education institutions in Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Iaşi, Sibiu, Târgu Mureş, Timişoara, are also under the supervision of the Ministry of Education and Research. The use of modern technologies in medical libraries in Romania varies from one institution to another due not only to the infrastructure available locally but also to the level of expertise of the librarians who work in these libraries. The premier medical library in Romania is the Library of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Cluj-Napoca. The dedication and expertise of the staff made it a model worth emulating by other medical centers in Romania. The library is no different from its counterparts in the Western world, as opposed to the library of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, which doesn t even have an online catalog Public Libraries From territorial standpoint, Romania is divided into 41 counties (judeńe) and the City of Bucharest. Therefore, there are 40 county libraries and the Bucharest Metropolitan Library which serves both the capital City and the surrounding county. Each county is further subdivided into cities and communes. In Romania, there are a total of 320 cities and 2,861 communes. A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality status. The Library Law of 2002 stipulates that each of the above territorial entities needs to have a public library, and for 11

23 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science cities with a larger population, there should be a library branch per 25,000 inhabitants. The Capital City has the largest network, consisting of the main building and thirty five smaller branches. Funding for the public library sector comes from the local authority. The latest statistical data (Fig. 2) indicate a total of 2,836 public libraries. Compared to 2005, their number decreased by 78. This decline occurred mainly in rural areas where drastic budget cuts led to the closing of the local public library. As of 1 July 2010 Romania s population was 21,431,298. With a population of 1,632,000 public library users, Romania occupies the last place in public library usage in Europe, with 7.61 per cent. This figure is down by 1.08% from 2005 when the country s population was 21,623,849 and the number of those who used public libraries was 1,881,000 (8.69% of the total population). In 2010 there were 2836 public libraries in Romania, with 10.65% in urban areas and 89.35% in rural areas. If in 2008 there were a total of 1233 workstations for users (89.78% in urban areas and 10.22% in rural areas), in 2010 the number of workstations amounted to 4,251 (44.34% in urban areas and 55.66% in rural areas). The discrepancy urban versus rural library setting continues to exist despite efforts to reduce the gap. A study published in 2010 finds Romania lagging behind other countries of the European Union in terms of Internet access, with a population lacking basic information literacy skills. Type of Library Year Libraries Volumes (thousands) 12 Registered users (thousands) Volumes checked out (thousands) Total , ,380 4,977 70, , ,429 4,433 58,324 National , , Academic , , , ,098 Special , , , ,743 School ,585 63,174 2,276 23, ,300 67,448 2,108 22,524 Public ,914 49,710 1,881 32, ,836 49,681 1,632 24,294 Fig. 2. Library statistics for 2005 and 2010 Since 2008 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) has been a major player on the Romanian public library scene through the Biblionet program administered by IREX, a Washington-based NGO. Within the BMGF Global Libraries initiative, Romania was selected as a country that demonstrated both the need and the readiness to help public libraries provide free access to computers, and training on how to make full use of these tools. The initiative focused on helping to transform public libraries into vital resources that can help improve the lives of millions of people. A $1.4 million pilot program demonstrated Romania s capability to absorb the funding and to implement a coherent program of equipping public libraries with new technologies and Internet access and training public librarians as information providers. The pilot phase was followed by a $26.9 million fiveyear nation-wide program that will continue until During this period the program has become multi-fold, focusing on: 1) facilitating access to information through the establishment of a network of public access computing in public libraries; 2) training public librarians to provide customer-oriented services and to facilitate access to online information; 3) promoting the value of libraries on a national scale and strengthening the role and operations of the Association of Public Librarians and Libraries in Romania (ANBPR); 4) fostering government support to public libraries through investment in infrastructure, personnel and facilities to ensure sustainability after the BMGF funding phases

24 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 out. From a social standpoint, the impact of Biblionet s four pillars has been significant. The program fostered emulation among public libraries to be selected for the early stage of its implementation. In certain cases the program has created more awareness about the role of the public library in the community, which has determined local leaders and decision makers to change their perception on the public library and to commit matching funds for its remodeling and services. The goal of the Biblionet program is to establish a training center, equipped with a mobile lab and expertise, within each county library so that public librarians in the county can be trained locally. By February 2011 the Biblionet program was implemented in almost 1,500 libraries, with 6,460 computers and peripherals installed and 2,175 librarians trained. 2. Statistical Data The latest national statistical data available are as of 31 December This paper has compared data from 2005 and As a word of caution, these library statistical data need to be approached carefully, as they might not reflect an accurate picture of the Romanian library scene. During the communist period reporting false data in all sectors, libraries included, was the norm since communist societies were geared to showcasing constant progress. Twenty years later, this attitude continues to exist. Even today, libraries tend to inflate the number of users and many tend to keep dated books in their collections only for the sake of keeping statistics up and with the hope to persuade the funding agencies of their worthiness. There has been an effort towards standardizing the reporting of library statistics at the national level based on international norms. However, librarians are ahead of the centralizing agency, the National Institute of Statistics, which continues to use dated terminology and does not report data related to modern library operations and services, such as virtual reference sessions, remote users, virtual visits, website hits, database usage (searches, downloads), e- serial collections, e-book collections, logins to public computers, hours spent connected to public computers. 3. Conclusion The current Romanian library scene indicates progress compared to the communist years. Since the collapse of communism Romanian libraries have undergone a modernization process on multiple fronts: new locales, purposefully built to serve as libraries, culminating with the opening of the new National Library in 2012; opening of collections thus providing unrestricted access to collections from intellectual standpoint, even if in certain instances physical access is more difficult due to space scarcity; librarians participating in continuing education programs; development of professional associations has brought about more visibility to the profession in society. These major achievements require more responsibility and involvement from the funding agencies. It is also the information specialists responsibility to become more responsive to collaboration in order to reach common ground towards creating a shared online catalog, to coordinate at a national scale disparate digitization efforts that occur locally; and co communicate across library types and networks. There is room to improve the library infrastructure, librarian s training and their exposure to practices in the West, and, most of all, to change their attitudes towards their constituencies. Customer-oriented library services are yet to come in Romania. A coherent national program focused on creating digital resources with local content continues to remain a desideratum across libraries in Romania. Professional commitment and leadership corroborated with substantial financial support from overseeing bodies will enable Romanian libraries to become a visible presence on the international library scene. 13

25 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Anghelescu, Hermina G.B.: Academic and Special Libraries in Romania. In: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (Miriam A. Drake, ed.), New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003, vol. 1, pp Anghelescu, Hermina G.B.: The National Library of Romania: From the Central State Library of the People s Republic to National Library. In: Alexandria: Journal of National & International Library & Information Issues, 14/1 (2002): 25-40; The National Library of Romania s Precursors: Early Beginnings through the Communist Period, Alexandria: Journal of National & International Library & Information Issues, 13/3 (2001): *** Anuarul statistic al României/Romania s Statistical Yearbook. Bucureşti, Institutul NaŃional de Statistică, *** Biblioteca Militară NaŃională: 150 de ani de existenńă [The National Military Library: 150 Years of Existence], Bucureşti: Editura Militară, Buhler, Mary Ann.: Rural Libraries of Romania: Libraries and the Information Infrastructure of Rural Romania. In: Christian Librarian 50/3 (2007): BuluŃă, Gheorghe.: Scurta istorie a bibliotecilor din România [Brief history of Libraries in Romania]. Bucureşti: Editura Enciclopedică, Chirianov, Marcel: Real Life Impact of the Global Libraries: Biblionet Romania Program. In: Performance Measurement & Metrics, 11/1 (2010): *** National Library of Romania: Activity Report, 2009; National Library of Romania: Activity Report, Bucureşti: Editura Bibliotecii NaŃionale a României, 2010 and 2011 available at 9. Podgoreanu, Anca, Costache, Geta (eds.): Biblioteca Centrală Universitară din Bucureşti: o bibliografie a existenńei: [Bucharest Central Univerity Library: Bibliography of Its Existence: ]. Bucureşti: Biblioteca Centrală Universitară din Bucureşti, Popescu, Nicoleta, Liviu Papuc, Radu Tătărucă: Biblioteca Centrală Universitară Mihai Eminescu Iaşi: monografie [The Mihai Eminescu Central University Library Iaşi], Iaşi, Regneală, Mircea (ed.), Romanian Libraries. Bucharest: Romanian Library Association, Rotaru, Florin : Coup d'œil sur l'histoire des bibliothèques de Bucarest. In : Bulletin des Bibliothèques de France, 1 (2008): Rotaru, Florin: In domeniul bibliotecilor ne comportăm ca la începutul secolului trecut [As Far as Libraries Are Concerned, We Act as if We Were at the Beginning of the Last Century], interview by Stelian łurlea. In: ZF Ziarul de Duminica, 1 July 2011, available at: 14. ŞerbănuŃă, Claudia: The Future of the Romanian Library. In: Community Informatics Lab Notes (University of Illinois GSLIS) 9/2008, https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/ bitstream/handle/2142/8862/cilabnote_9_romania.pdf?sequence=2 15. Székely, Adriana: Present-Day Situation of Library Statistics in Romania (Central University Libraries) In: Philobiblon: Transylvanian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research in the Humanities, 8-9 (2003): Tufă, Laura: Diviziunea digitală. Accesul şi utilizarea internetului în România, comparativ cu Ńările Uniunii Europene [The Digital Divide. Access to and Use of the Internet in Romania Compared to the European Union Countries]. In: Calitatea vieńii, 21/1-2 (2010):

26 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: OPPORTUNITIES FOR INNOVATION IN LIBRARIES Octavia-Luciana MADGE University of Bucharest, Faculty of Letters, Library and Information Science Department Abstract: The innovation process becomes more important as competition intensifies in all fields of activity. Innovation depends on the generation of new knowledge which leads to new products and services. Knowledge sharing, combination and integration are key aspects for innovation. Starting from innovation as a knowledge-intensive process and from its characteristics, this paper emphasizes the benefits which can be achieved in libraries through a knowledge management approach, it refers to knowledge management practices in libraries which enable them to innovate, and suggests actions which libraries should include in a strategy for the future. Knowledge management is about knowledge sharing which leads to innovation and change. Libraries can have a great contribution to the knowledge economy and their participation in the process of knowledge creation and transfer is essential. Key words: innovation, knowledge management, libraries, knowledge sharing, knowledge integration. 1. Introduction Most organizations have understood that success on the global market is mainly influenced by the way in which they support the process of generation of new knowledge and consequently innovation. Nowadays continuous changes maintain and enhance competition. Along with this the organizations desire to increase their competitive advantage explains the acceleration of innovation which can be noticed in all domains. Concretized at the level of organizations in the development of new products, processes, approaches and practices, innovation is defined as "successful exploitation of new ideas" and understood as "dealing with complex problem-solving processes in whose activities knowledge of different types is applied and created". [12] Thus in order to support innovation organizations need an efficient knowledge management. New products and services can be developed when generation of new knowledge occurs. S. Newell [11] underlines in this context the importance of knowledge integration, sharing and combination within organizations in order to create new knowledge and in this way support innovation. Knowledge integration is a task for both managers and other organization members, according to H. Berends et al. and it can be achieved through "knowledge transfer, absorbtion, combination and application to an organizational process". [1] Knowledge sharing is "both beneficial and necessary" [9] for organizations and contributes to increasing competitive advantage [15] because value creation is based not only on the possession of knowledge and other assets, but also on the ability to transfer, assimilate, and combine knowledge and other assets. M. Paukert et al. proposes "considering innovation as one contextual condition within which knowledge is applied" and when the Innovation Knowledge Lifecycle (IKLC) model was developed they identified six phases of the

27 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science innovation process: process identification, ideation, approach development, operationalisation, evaluation and exploitation [12] which are valid no matter which is the organization or the domain where innovation takes place. 2. Changes in libraries in the knowledge society In the knowledge-based economy libraries in a similar way to other organizations are confronted with an acceleration of changes and a growing competition. The environment in which libraries operate, the way people search and access information have changed in recent years, mainly due to the developments of the information and communication technologies. Libraries are no longer the only providers of information and globalization and networking have brought serious challenges to these institutions. But libraries should make use of the changes in society and exploit them for their benefit. And in order to adapt to the conditions in the market of information transfer and deal with the more specific requirements of users, libraries need a change of their functioning models. [6] In the transition to the world of digital information academic libraries have passed through a period of profound transformations and their experience in R. Carr s opinion [2] who refers to the academic libraries in the UK can be best characterized by three key terms: innovation, co-operation and integration. But this characterization can be made to most academic libraries in the world, not just to those from the UK. The opportunities which the digital world offers for the development and extension of the role played by libraries are numerous and the references to the partnerships and collaborations which can be established between academic libraries and universities are just one example often mentioned beginning with the 1990s in the field literature. Librarians participation in the creation process, the role which they can play as knowledge managers, the advantages which can result as a consequence of the application of knowledge management principles, the innovative products which can appear they are all aspects which should be given an increased attention. 3. Opportunities for libraries to innovate The characteristics of the current society impose at libraries level too the need to be more efficient and to innovate, their future success depending, as C. B. Lowry et al. emphasize, on the "commitment to experiment, innovate, and take risk". [10] Pointing out the fact that knowledge is the most important resource today, P. F. Drucker writes that: Knowledge is becoming the one critical factor of production. It has two incarnations: knowledge applied to the new is innovation, and knowledge applied to the existing processes, services, and products is productivity". [5] Thus an approach based on the management of human and knowledge resources can support improvement of innovation and productivity in an organization. As a definition, we consider that knowledge management is a process, based on a number of specific techniques, methods and tools, aimed at creating, identifying, sharing and using knowledge in the organization, its main objective being actually to improve performance and the success of that organization in the environment in which it operates. [14] At the level of an organization, the need to innovate can be tackled by using a knowledge management approach. The four knowledge management functions identified by T. Davenport and L. Prusak: create knowledge repositories, improve knowledge access and transfer, enhance the knowledge environment, manage knowledge as an organizational asset [4], can be mentioned here. This perspective offers the dimension which libraries and librarians involvement can have in knowledge management activities. In libraries, like in other types of organizations, a lot of advantages can be achieved through a knowledge management approach among which efficiency of activities, improved process of decision making, improved innovation, enhanced productivity, cost savings, 16

28 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 competitiveness, improved competence, enhanced partnerships and collaborations, new products and services, development of new ideas, methods etc. [13] Performance and innovation can be achieved where there is a culture of collaboration, of knowledge sharing, this being the one which leads, according to H. Haynes and P. G. Kent to innovation and change. [7] N. Kennedy underlines too the fact that "innovation comes from knowledge flows, not stocks". [8] Libraries should focus on developing a strategy for the future which could strengthen their position as key organizations in the process of knowledge creation and transfer. Libraries must become value-added service providers which use both internal and external knowledge sources. And all the knowledge resources on which a library can rely on must be identified: knowledge capital, social capital and infrastructure capital. Such strategy should include: facilitation of creativity and collaboration, increase of staff abilities in the management of digital resources, in the information management, increase of abilities that support knowledge creation, sharing and integration, development of partnerships. The contribution that libraries can have in the knowledge economy through their involvement in the process of knowledge creation, organization, storage and transfer refers among others to the creation of knowledge repositories and the development of partnerships with various other organizations. Since the 1990s many examples of knowledge management practices in the library can be found, but the current period is the most offering for this type of structures. Libraries need to consider opportunities for innovation and in partnership with other institutions, they can develop new services. Designing, implementing and managing partnerships with other public or private organizations are necessary actions to stimulate research, innovation and new knowledge generation. Libraries have to be constantly in search of new opportunities for collaboration. They must identify, develop and use the best practices in scientific co-operation, exploit the potential of information and communication technologies to help develop strategies and activities in co-operation with other organizations. Expanding partnerships, involvement in international research programmes, development of modern applications for their actions, the interconnection of all their departments, will enhance the quality of activities of libraries and of the products and services they provide to users. The role of information technology underpins the ability to raise and improve collaboration and communication among employees, and between them and practitioners and experts from outside the institution. This helps enormously in the innovation process. Technology makes available the organizational knowledge. But precisely the type of system that can facilitate information flow and knowledge management in libraries must be identified. Starting from some examples of requests received by librarians from faculty, M. M. Case highlights the large range of new activities in which libraries can get involved, from the creation of metadata to the development of institutional repositories, to the publication of scientific activity. The digital environment makes more necessary than ever the librarians skills on which activities like selection, acquisition, preservation, and digitization are based on. Most new products such as databases, online journals, Web sites on particular topics involve aspects regarding selection, information management, copyright, organization, preservation and access issues, metadata structures and controlled vocabularies, digitization and web site design, development of search and analysis tools for the extensive repositories of knowledge for which librarians have the right solutions. [3] 4. Conclusions Higher levels of performance and continuous innovation can be achieved by libraries through the identification and development of better ways to manage and exploit knowledge resources. 17

29 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science In the next years academic libraries will have to continue their action of developing digital collections and institutional repositories, of training their users in the area of information skills, and to initiate and develop new library and information services to support the teaching, learning and research activities at the university and library level. Librarians can contribute through their expertise and the work they perform to increasing the value of products created by the university in the knowledge society. In libraries, fostering creativity and collaboration will support in the future innovative management and practice. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Berends, H.; van der Bij, H.; Weggeman, M. Knowledge Integration. In: Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management. Edited by D. G. Schwartz. Hershey: Idea Group Reference, 2006, pp Carr, R. The Academic Research Library in a Decade of Change. Oxford: Chandos Publishing, p. 3. Case, M. M. Partners in Knowledge Creation: An Expanded Role for Research Libraries in the Digital Future. In: The Emerging Research Library. Our Role in the Digital Future. Edited by Sul H. Lee. London: Routledge, 2010, pp Davenport, T. H.; Prusak, L. Information Economy: mastering the information and knowledge environment. Oxford University Press, Apud Hayes, H.; Kent, P. G. Knowledge Management, Universities and Libraries. In: Envisioning Future Academic Library Services. Initiatives, Ideas and Challenges. Edited by Sue Mc Knight. London: Facet Publishing, 2012, p Drucker, P. F. Post-capitalist society. New York: Harper Business, p. 6. Geisler, E. And Wickramasinghe, N. Principles of nowledge Management: theory, practice and cases. ME Sharpe, Apud Hayes, H.; Kent, P. G. Op. cit. 7. Hayes, H.; Kent, P. G. Knowledge Management, Universities and Libraries. In: Envisioning Future Academic Library Services. Initiatives, Ideas and Challenges. Edited by Sue Mc Knight. London: Facet Publishing, 2012, p Kennedy, N. (2009) The Hidden Dimensions of Innovation, Hargreaves Institute Presentation, 11th March, Apud Hayes, H.; Kent, P. G. Op. cit. 9. King, W. R. Knowledge Sharing. In: Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management. Edited by D. G. Schwartz. Hershey: Idea Group Reference, 2006, p Lowry, C. B., Adler, P., Hahn, K. And Stuart, C. (2009) Transformational Times: an environmental scan prepared for the ARL Strategic Plan Review Task Force, Association of Research Libraries. Available at: 11. Newell, S. Understanding innovation Processes. In: Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management. Edited by D. G. Schwartz. Hershey: Idea Group Reference, 2006, pp Paukert, M.; Niederée, C.; Hemmje, M. Knowledge in Innovation Processes. In: Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management. Edited by D. G. Schwartz. Hershey: Idea Group Reference, 2006, pp Porumbeanu Madge, O. L. Creating a Culture of Learning and Knowledge Sharing in Libraries and Information Services. In: New Research on Knowledge Management Models and Methods. Edited by Huei-Tse Hou. InTech, 2012, pp Porumbeanu, O. L. Managementul cunoaşterii şi structurile infodocumentare. Ed. a II-a. Bucureşti: Editura UniversităŃii din Bucureşti, p. 15. Teece, D. J. Managing Intellectual Capital. Organizational, Strategic and Policy Dimensions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 18

30 LA RECHERCHE DOCUMENTAIRE EN MILIEU UNIVERSITAIRE FORMATION OU INFORMATION? Liliana ALIC Transilvania University of Braşov Abstract : Documentary research should be one of the major topics in academic activity not only for scholars but also for students. By teaching the students to collect the right information from reliable sources, university fulfils one of his tasks, that of giving students the right tools to do their own research. Collecting data, selecting and categorizing them will be a good start for any kind of scientific work, whether it is extensive or small. Undertaking documentary research implies not only finding and collecting information but also using it properly, observing the general principles of handling documentary sources. Key words: documentary research, information, accuracy. Introduction Le milieu universitaire représente le lieu de manifestation d activités multiples qui doivent nécessairement inclure la recherche documentaire. La recherche documentaire vise principalement la collecte d informations dans un certain domaine et l exploitation de ces informations dans le but de créer de nouvelles approches de la problématique étudiée. L enseignement universitaire se doit non seulement d informer les étudiants mais aussi de les former, les former à un métier ou à la recherche, de leur donner les moyens de faire avancer la science ou d avancer eux mêmes. Selon une idée préconçue, la recherche documentaire est nécessaire uniquement dans le but de produire de la technologie de haut niveau (du moins un véhicule comme l aéroglisseur ou l aérotrain), et pourtant il ne faut pas oublier que toute invention, aussi insignifiante qu elle soit, est basée sur une forme de documentation. Et la documentation en milieu universitaire prend la forme de la recherche documentaire qui se fait dans les bibliothèques et sur Internet, selon une méthodologie mise au point par des spécialistes, en suivant des principes et des stratégies incontournables. En milieu universitaire, la recherche documentaire a comme but la production d un document écrit : une thèse de doctorat, un mémoire de master, un mémoire de diplôme, un article pour une session de communication des étudiants, ou, pourquoi pas, un simple devoir pour un séminaire. Dans tous les cas, la réussite de l entreprise ou l évaluation favorable du document produit dépend, dans les grandes lignes, d une bonne et solide documentation. Les principes de la recherche documentaire s apprennent, car la recherche documentaire ne se fait pas à l aveuglette, au hasard des choses ou par acquis de conscience. C est une erreur de croire que les résultats d une pareille recherche constituent les pièces d un puzzle qu on peut organiser et réorganiser à volonté. Dans cet article nous avons choisi de présenter l importance de la recherche documentaire à l intérieur d un programme d études qui n a pas été conçu pour précéder la recherche

31 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science scientifique. Il s agit d un programme de master professionnel destiné à former les étudiants aux métiers de la traduction, qui sont diverses et complexes : traducteur littéraire, traducteur technique, traducteur expert, traducteur audio-visuel, traducteur dans la fonction publique, terminologue, localiseur, réviseur, pré-traducteur, post-traducteur. Les personnes non avisées se poseront la question suivante : en quoi consiste la recherche documentaire dans le cas d un individu exerçant l un des métiers de la traduction? Dans un pareil cas, la recherche documentaire est inévitable pour plusieurs raisons: un traducteur devra trouver les meilleurs dictionnaires de langue, les meilleurs dictionnaires de synonymes ; il devra consulter les différents glossaires réalisés par des spécialistes d un domaine ; il devra identifier les textes de loi ou les textes scientifiques qui traitent le thème auquel il s intéresse ; il devra s informer en consultant les textes de spécialité du domaine respectif publiés dans des périodiques, dans des livres, dans des encyclopédies, et la liste peut continuer. Incontestablement, la recherche documentaire est organiquement liée aux activités qui concernent les métiers de la traduction et, par conséquent, l acquisition d une méthodologie de la recherche documentaire s impose. Nous allons le démontrer dans ce qui suit. Comment orienter la recherche documentaire? C est une bonne question qui mérite une réponse simple : selon la consigne qui nous est donnée. Nous savons que, dans le curriculum universitaire, l activité poursuit certains buts préétablis. Le master de traduction du français vers le roumain qui se trouve au centre de notre recherche se propose, entre autres, de développer les connaissances linguistiques des étudiants. Quoi de plus aproprié que de demander aux étudiants de ce programme d études de faire des recherches dans le but d améliorer leurs connaissances sur les synonymes? Et quoi de plus approprié que de réaliser cela d une manière cohérente et concertée en intégrant deux des thèmes prévus au programme? Plus explicitement, les étudiants s étaient proposés de faire une étude complexe sur la traduction des termes appartenant au vocabulaire de la violence (plus exactement la violence internationale, vu qu on était confronté quotidiennement aux informations liées aux assassinats en Syrie suite au mouvement contre le président en fonction, Bashar el Assad, ou en France, lors des tueries à Toulouse et à Montauban de mars 2012). Les termes devaient être extraits des journaux en ligne comme Le Figaro, Libération, Le Monde, Le Monde diplomatique, ou de magazines en ligne comme Le Point, Le Nouvel Observateur, L Express etc. Pour créer une idée de continuité et d interdisciplinarité entre les différentes disciplines du curriculum, nous avons décidé de formuler la consigne suivante pour un devoir du cours de «Développement des connaissances linguistiques» : «En vous appuyant sur les textes sur la violence que vous avez recueillis dans les médias français, trouvez des synonymes des termes faisant partie du vocabulaire ayant trait à la violence». A notre (grande) surprise, après la vérification du devoir, nous avons fait des constatations decevantes et inattendues. On pourrait formuler, d une manière succinte, les remarques suivantes : a) les devoirs ne contiennent pas la source des synonymes identifiés (sites Internet, dictionnaires sur papier ou en ligne, textes) ; b) la liste des synonymes ne se rapporte pas uniquement aux termes de la violence ; c) les termes ne figurent pas dans leur contexte initial, comme si le contexte ne comptait pas pour l identification du sens ; d) les synonymes sont choisis sans discrimination, sans tenir compte du sens contextuel et sans prendre en considération le polysémantisme d un terme ; e) les dictionnaires employés pour la documentation ne sont pas des plus fiables. Dans une recherche, si modeste soit-elle, une certaine rigueur s impose et, de toute façon, elle ne nuit jamais à personne. Sur dix devoirs vérifiés, les constatations ont mis en évidence justement l absence de méthode dans la conception et dans l organisation du travail ainsi que 20

32 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 l absence de la rigueur scientifique. Une recherche documentaire suppose, en premier lieu, une sélection des sources qu on va employer en vue de la documentation. Comme il s agit d une recherche linguistique, les documents sur papier, c est-à-dire les dictionnaires classiques, n ont pas été valorifiés, au profit de ceux en format éléctronique, qui foisonnent sur Internet, et dont le choix n a pas été le meilleir. Un travail conduit d une manière organisée aurait dû impliquer les étapes suivantes : a) création d une liste des termes reliés à la violence ; une pareille liste devrait inclure la collocation homicide involontaire (Lefigaro.fr, 16/04/2012) ; b) identification des ressources à utiliser (et leur mention) avec toutes les références, pour qu elles puissent, au besoin, être vérifiées : 1. pour les dictionnaires sur papier, les auteurs, la maison d édition, la ville et la date de la parution ; par exemple, le Petit Robert est un titre générique pour un dictionnaire explicatif de la langue française, car il est bien connu que le nom actuel du dictionnaire est Le Nouveau Petit Robert, en abrégé NRF et qu il paraît tous les ans, avec les modifications qui interviennent dans la langue- néologismes, termes empruntés ou créés ; 2. pour un dictionnaire en ligne, l indication du site sur lequel le dictionnaire se trouve, dans le cas mentionné, on fera mention de l adresse du Dictionnaire des synonymes Larousse en ligne, qui donne comme synonyme de homicide les termes suivants : assassinat, crime, forfait, meurtre, et, de plus, le dictionnaire mentionné fournit des citations extraites d auteurs connus, donc des citations attestées ; sinon, on peut consulter le dictionnaire qui peut nous conduire, selon nos intentions, vers pour la définition, au cas où nous avons besoin de précisions concernant le terme ou sur qui donne comme synonyme de homicide assassinat, meurtre, crime ; si on élargit la recherche pour trouver des synonymes pour crime, la liste devient assez longue : délit méfait, assassinat, meurtre, forfait, attentat, infraction, brigandage, infamie, scélératesse et il y a le danger de s enliser : les synonymes ne se substituent pas l un à l autre dans tous les contextes ; ou bien on peut se référer directement au Centre National des Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales qui est une base textuelle très vaste et très fiable, étant réalisée par Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, un organisme public de la recherche placé sous la tutelle du Ministère de l Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche ; c) recherche du terme dont il est question dans d autres contextes dans lesquels il a le même sens et pour cela, le moteur de recherche Google est à notre disposition en nous conduisant directement au Centre National des Ressources Textuelles et lexicales ; une autre solution pour trouver des contextes d emploi des termes ayant trait à la violence serait de rechercher un article de journal ou le titre d un article paru dans une publication (quotidien hebdomadaire, publication de spécialité) ; d) recherche des dictionnaires de synonymes très fiables, qu il faut consulter en premier, comme les nombreux dictionnaires de synonymes publiés chez différentes maisons d édition comme Dictionnaires Le Robert ou Larousse ou bien des dictionnaires de synonymes en ligne, déjà cités, ou d autres comme Le Trésor de la Langue Française informatisé, sur le site ou alors le Dictionnaire français en ligne Lexilogos et les possibilités ne s arrêtent pas là; e) sélection des informations recueillies, afin de présenter uniquement les informations utiles ; cette activité de sélection de l information peut exiger de renoncer à une partie du matériel consulté pour des raisons diverses : soit la source n est pas fiable, soit l information est illégalement obtenue, soit les informations recueillies ne sont pas attestées car très récentes et non recencées, soit elles nous éloignent trop du thème proposé. 21

33 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Comment conduire la recherche documentaire en milieu universitaire? Evidemment, la recherche documentaire dans le milieu universitaire sera faite dans un but précis, pour répondre à certains besoins. Un étudiant qui se trouve dans la situation de rédiger un article pour une session de communications scientifiques nous en dira long sur cette affaire. Ecrire un article suppose, en plus d une certaine formation à la recherche documentaire, une certaine formation à la recherche scientifique et, évidemment, beaucoup de rigueur. Une expérience récente nous a fourni le matériel nécessaire pour le présent article et nous a revélé à quel point la recherche documentaire est mal exploitée par ses principaux bénéficiaires, les étudiants. Un étudiant qui se trouve devant la tâche de rédiger un article est confronté à des difficultés multiples dont la première est le choix du thème. On ne parle pas encore du choix du titre, qui peut attendre. Les étudiants peuvent puiser leurs thèmes dans les nombreuses préoccupations et directions suggérées par le curriculum. Le curriculum, contrairement à ce que l on pourrait croire, est une fausse contrainte qui ne limite pas du tout le choix du thème. Un master de traduction ouvre de nombreuses perspectives de recherche dans le domaine des stratégies de traduction, de la contrastivité, dans le domaine de la rédaction de glossaires de termes ou bien dans le domaine qui est plutôt scientifique, celui de la définition des termes d un domaine. La deuxième contrainte est représentée par les dimensions de l article, assez réduites par rapport à un mémoire de master ou d une thèse de doctorat. Une conséquence immédiate sera un choix sélectif de la problématique à présenter, car les dimmensions réduites d un article permettent une discussion restreinte, limitée et bien précisée de la thématique présentée. Une analyse minutieuse d une douzaine d articles proposés par les étudiants pour une session de communication met en relief la manière dont ceux-ci perçoivent cette activité. Nous avons poursuivi seulement un aspect de la recherche documentaire, à savoir la recherche du matériel concernant le domaine visé par chaque étudiant en vue de la constitution du corpus. Pour ce qui est de l approche de cet aspect par les étudiants en master de traduction, nous avons constaté que leurs efforts pour l identification et la constitution du corpus n ont pas été excessifs. Ils ont ignoré la succession des étapes indispensables à la recherche documentaire et en général, la logique et les règles qui auraient dû être sous-entendues. Bref, cela veut dire qu ils n ont pas préparé leur recherche du tout : leur sujet est non précisé, le domaine est vague et sans frontières délimitées. Si un étudiant a choisi de parler du vocabulaire spécifique au domaine de la haute coûture, les limites du domaine en question n étaient pas précisées : s agit-il de la création de nouveau modèles en matière de vêtement, s occupe-t-on de vêtements d homme ou de femme, du choix des mannequins, a-t-on en vue les défilés de modes, le choix des matériaux? Un autre étudiant qui a choisi de parler de la terminologie du domaine de l aviation est tombé dans le même piège : sujet trop général sans limites précisées. S agit-il de la fabrication des avions, de la vente des avions, s agit-il de termes récents ou moins récents? Evidemment, il y a deux questions fondamentales qui surgissent dans cette première étape : le sujet est-il trop général ou trop restreint? Ne faudrait-il pas être plus spécifique? Ne faudrait-il pas être plus précis? Si le sujet est trop restreint, on risque de trouver peu de matériel et peu de bibliographie. Si le sujet est trop vaste, on risque de s éclater, de divaguer et de perdre de vue certains aspects de la problématique. Suit la deuxième étape de la recherche documentaire qui est ignorée, celle qui exige de reformuler le sujet, ou alors donner un titre plus précis à l article, justement parce que, à un certain moment de la recherche, on parvient à savoir de quoi on va parler. Et voilà, de fil en aiguille, nous 22

34 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 nous retrouvons devant l étape principale, celle de la recherche des connaissances que l on a recensée en la matière. Nous avons identifié quelques étudiants qui ont essayeé de circonscrire leurs connaissances dans le domaine choisi et nous allons citer l exemple de l étudiant se proposant de parler de l œnologie. L étudiant s est vu dans la situation de faire une liste des aspects qui pourraient l intéresser, ce que l on appelle le mindmapping ou l ensemble des connaissances qu il a dans le domaine, c est-à-dire : les sortes de vins, les variétés de raisin, les engrais chimiques dont la vigne a besoin, les régions où l on cultive la vigne, les conditions dans lesquelles on doit faire la vendange, la fabrication du vin, les conditions dans lesquelles on doit préserver le vin, la dégustation des vin, finalement. L ensemble des connaissances une fois précisé, l étudiant doit en faire l inventaire et il doit prendre des décisions concernant les aspects dont il va s occuper et ceux auxquels il va renoncer. A notre avis, toutes les étapes sont importantes, mais il y en a qui sont importantes et laborieuses. Conséquemment, la quatrième étape, celle qui concerne l identification des ressources pertinentes du domaine, va nous occupper pour longtemps. Nous devons faire des recherches au niveau des ressources éectroniques et au niveau des ressources sur papier. Faire des recherches sur Internet pourrait paraître facile, mais les documents auxquels on est confronté sont nombreux et ce n est pas facile de les gérer. La recherche documentaire sur Internet concerne des livres et des périodiques électroniques, des catalogues de bibliothèques, des bases de données, généralistes et spécialisées et à la fin de la recherche on se retrouve avec une montagne de documents qu il faudra ensuite classer, catégoriser et analyser. Dans le cadre de l étude que nous avons menée parmi les étudiants en master, nous avons fait des constatations peu surprenantes : la plupart des étudiants se sont contentés de consulter un seul type de documents ou sources, soit des sources en format numérique (trois ou quatre sites du domaine, par exemple du domaine de l architecture, de l œnologie, de la finance, de l informatique), soit des sources classiques sur papier (quelques articles dans une revue traitant de la haute couture ou quelques articles dans des publications traitant de la dégustation des vins). Un petit nombre d étudiants ont fait des recherches cumulant les deux types de sources (par exemple des sites et des articles publiés sur l énergie renouvelable) et aucun étudiant n a continué ses recherches dans des bibliothèques pour trouver d autres sources pour la constitution du corpus, par exemple des catalogues, de vieux dictionnaires, des encyclopédies, des revues, des magazines, des livres publiés dans le domaine respectif. Nous avons remarqué, entre autres, que les étudiants maîtrisent mal l emploi des mots-clés (ou descripteurs). Ils ont constaté par eux-mêmes qu avec un descripteur trop général on obtient une réponse insatisfaisante, qui se traduit dans des bruits ou dans du silence, deux phénomènes qui représentent l insuccès des recherches. Dans leurs recherches, les étudiants doivent apprendre à se servir de descripteurs obtenus grâce à des thésaurus ou à des listes d autorité. Les thésaurus peuvent leur fournir des descripteurs appropriés, des termes appartenant au même domaine, au même champ sémantique ou notionnel ou situés à un certain niveau de catégorisation. Les listes d autorité ou les index peuvent fournir, eux aussi, des informations complémentaires sur le domaine. Evidemment, le tri de l information est obligatoire. Quand bien même les informations trouvées sur Internet soient mises à jour, il faut prendre en compte que la toile ne recence que les informations numérisés. Les informations antérieures à la numérisation et à l archivage électronique sont disponibles dans des bibliothèques classiques, dans des archives, dans des collections privées, parfois. Les encyclopédies représentent une source très riche d information, peu exploitée par les étudiants pour une raison simple : l information est abondante et dans ce cas elle doit être synthétisée. 23

35 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Conclusion D habitude, la recherche documentaire a comme but l obtention des informations qui doivent conduire à la création d un corpus exploitable de différents points de vue ou à l obtention d une bibliographie théorique ou scientifique. S il s agit d un corpus, celui-ci doit être soumis à l analyse selon des critères propres au domaine qui nous intéresse. On peut abtenir un corpus vaste de textes de presse, par exemple, qui contiennent des termes appartenant au domaine de la violence. Ces textes peuvent être exploités pour en tirer des termes spécifiques, des collocations qui, une fois identifiés, peuvent être définis ou soumis à la traduction dans une autre langue. Ce qui compte c est de constituer le corpus selon des critères rigoureux, précisés par la linguistique de corpus (dimensions, types, genre, etc.). Le matériel recensé peut se constituer dans une bibliographie plus ou moins ample dont un étudiant ou un chercheur peut avoir besoin en vue d une recherche personnelle. Il ne faut pas oublier que même si l information est à la portée de tout le monde, elle ne peut pas être utilisée sans la citation de la source. Les possibilités de s informer sont multimples, il faut seulement savoir s en servir. Comme tout travail, la recherche documentaire exige une bonne connaissance des principes qui la gouvernent car les résultats de la recherche peuvent conduire dans la bonne ou dans la mauvaise direction. Savoir cerner les sourses, savoir faire le tri des informations, savoir expoiter les informations obtennues représentent un bon point de départ dans la rédaction d un ouvrage scientifique. Grâce aux informations recueillies sur Internet, dans les bibliothèques ou sur le terrain, un chercheur peut se rendre compte du niveau des connaissances dans un certain domaine d intérêt, et ce niveau doit représenter pour le chercheur en question un seuil qu il doit franchir. Les universités se proposent non seulement de fournir des informations à caractère scientifique ou technique, mais de former les étudiants à la recherche, documentaire ou scientifique. A la fin des études, les étudiants sont censés savoir utiliser les informations obtenues à la suite d une recherche documentaire afin de créer quelque chose de nouveau, ou du moins d avoir une approche originale du domaine visé. La méthode et la rigueur sont obligatoires dans la recherche scientifique qui ne représente pas un but en soi, mais une étape dans l activité scientifique. Une bonne sélection de l information s impose, ainsi qu une capacité de synthétiser et exploiter d une manière propre toute l information recueillie. Ne négligeons pas le conseil de Rabelais qui disait qu il vaut mieux avoir une tête bien faite qu une tête bien remplie. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. www2.ac-lyon.fr/enseigne/.../les_etapes_de_la_recherche_documentaire.ppt 2. crdp.ac-bordeaux.fr/documentalistes/.../fiche_les_étapes_de_la_recherche. Htm 3. lachaussonniere.free.fr/cdi/tutoriel/rechdoc/rechdoc.html 4. Support%20de%20cours%20methodo%20rech%20doc% pdf 5. Quirion, Diane, Mittermeyer, Diane: Etude sur les connaissances en recherche documentairedes étudiantsentrant en 1er cycle dans les universités québécoises, 2003, responsable.unige.ch/etude_22_4.pdf

36 DESIGNING NEW LIBRARY SERVICES AT THE LUCIAN BLAGA CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY BODNÁR Róbert, Olimpia CURTA, Raluca TRIFU Lucian Blaga Central University Library, Cluj-Napoca Abstract: Over the last few decades, our library policies and strategies were mainly focused on including new technologies in current activities, as well as on developing new users services. Furthermore, as an academic institution, our library needs to fulfil new and challenging research requirements. The current paper addresses the new public services developed during the past two years in our library. Among these, one could mention the single search box and the online requests for publications from the closed stacks. This paper also discusses the discoverability of library collections by integrating local electronic resources, in particular our digital library, into the international system of informational resources, given the benefits, difficulties and limitations of the above mentioned undertaking. Keywords: information technology, library services, academic libraries, collection discoverability, library portal. 1. Introducion In times of major changes in the roles and functions of contemporary libraries as public institutions and as information providers, they need to adapt and reconfigure the range of library services offered to the public, as well as the structure of own departments in order to effectively comply with users information needs. The dynamics of library services is a mandatory desideratum in a digital world. However, systemic problems libraries have to deal with can alter the continuous process of updating the range of library services they offer to the users. Specialized libraries within the academic environment are more affected by this situation, as on the one hand, they are compelled to keep up with the permanently increasing users information needs. On the other hand, academic libraries are confronted with a critical decrease in their budgetary resources intended for acquiring publications. In addition, librarian positions and budgetary salary allocations are also diminished, with a negative impact on the work motivation and job satisfaction of academic library professionals. Besides all these aspects, it is interesting to acknowledge that in our country there are a few regulatory bodies at the highest scientific and academic representation level. Among these, one may refer to ANCS (NASR National Authority for Scientific Research) and CNCS (NRC - National Research Council). They are the main regulating bodies involved in establishing the eligibility criteria applied to entities coordinating scientific research programmes, in function of the number of author or co-author main entries identified in international academic databases, as well as in international catalogues like Worldcat and the KVK - Karlsruhe Virtual Catalogue. Unfortunately, these eligibility criteria are being applied

37 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science without taking into consideration the fact that none of the Romanian libraries, and to be more specific, none of the scientific libraries in Romania has the possibility of integrating its own catalogue into Worldcat or KVK for that matter. This happens either because of high financial costs involved by the accession procedures or simply because of technical problems and other issues that are specific to librarianship and information science. In this paradoxical context, Lucian Blaga Central University Library has developed and continues to implement a policy focused on users information needs and on providing modern information services. At the same time, the institution is trying to reduce the negative impact of budgetary limitations on the quality of its services, as well as on the work motivation of its personnel. Throughout the past year a series of applications have been launched by our institution, with the full support, dedication and professionalism of library staff. At the same time, we have tried to capitalize all the resources owned by Lucian Blaga Central University Library to the maximum. In what follows we are going to give you a short overview of three new library services our users have been provided with. In a nutshell, we are going to refer to the motivation, evolution, impact and importance of the above mentioned services. 2. EDS library portal Lucian Blaga Central University Library created its own online catalogue in 1995 using the VUBIS system acquired through a Tempus cooperation and mobility programme. In August 1999, the library system was changed with ALEPH 500 using ORACLE as DBMS (Database Management Systems). The communication of the system is based on TCP/IP and Z39.50 protocols. MARC formats can be used for bibliographic descriptions. Like all academic libraries in Romania, our library uses the UNIMARC format. Given these aspects, the system allows us to connect our online catalogue to national or international catalogues. We also have the possibility to integrate the online catalogue into a unique searching portal in order to retrieve information from all library resources. In October 1996 our library offered access to Academic Dialog, an international encyclopaedic bibliographic database with abstracts and full-texts. Our institution was the first Romanian library to provide this new public service. Since 1996, we have yearly subscribed to external academic databases and their number continued to increase (e. g. in 2010, our library had 29 databases on subscription). As we all know, each database has a proper interface for information retrieval. Because of this inconvenient, users prefer to turn to the Google search engine for research purposes. In 2010 we submitted a project application for creating a library portal using the Primo system. Unfortunately, lack of financial resources caused the project to fail in being implemented. In 2011 we adopted another solution: implementing the EDS - EBSCO Discovery Service as a unique interface for data retrieval from multiple information resources. A subscription model is used for payment operations. First, we had to fill out a questionnaire about the library and the information resources it provides, as well as provide a lookup table with location codes from the online catalogue. The main problem was the UNIMARC format, because EBSCO uses MARC21. For this reason, we had to create a table of correspondence between these two cataloguing formats. We have to mention that there are fields and subfields in UNIMARC without equivalent in MARC21. Another problem is related to item fields (type of material, library, call number, barcodes, etc.). In our system, this type of information is stored in the administrative database, instead of the bibliographic database. Given these aspects, it is necessary to have a routine to fix the problem when the catalogue is exported. The third problem concerns the authority database which is yet to be solved. 26

38 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The library portal offers the possibility to search in subscribed databases and in our own online catalogue. Access to full-text is limited on IP restrictions. At first, the portal could only be accessed either from our library or from the building of Babeş-Bolyai University where some of our branch libraries are hosted. In March 2012 a script was implemented and the portal was opened to guest users who could search from anywhere on the Internet without access to full-texts. The next step is to connect the EDS application with the ALEPH system for authenticated users; to be more specific, patrons from the Aleph system must have the possibility to access the full-text from anywhere if they are logged into the EDS system using the same ID and password as in Aleph. In what other library resources are concerned, we have to integrate the digital library and our own bibliographic databases created by using the ProCite application. The single search box of the portal allows queries by using keywords, authors and titles. In the advanced search mode, users can combine up to 12 criteria (all text, author, title, subject terms, journal title/source, abstract, ISSN, ISBN) with Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT). The Visual search mode allows the result lists to be displayed either in block style or in column style. In order to improve the search results, one can use proximity operators, limiters or expanders. In addition, the Autocomplete Search Suggestion and the Run SmartText Search when query returns no results options can be activated by an authenticated user. Many languages of the interface, including Romanian, as well as the Translating an Article option are very useful for non-english users. On the other hand, the Creating a Bibliography and Accepting a Shared Folder options help researchers and teaching staff to create documents more easily and to share the list of records on similar subjects. The specific web 2.0 tools are included in the portal, which compensates for their absence in the library OPAC. We have noticed that EBSCO provides an application for accessing the EBSCO Discovery Service from ios (iphone, ipod Touch and ipad), as well as from Android devices. All the features mentioned in the present paper and more others make this portal a longedfor tool by any academic institution handling multiple bibliographic databases, as EDS is a very useful tool in the information retrieval process. 3. Improving discoverability of digital collections We started building our own digital collection in Since then, our digital library has grown and at this point, it contains more than 21,000 items. In 2011 we have launched the new digital library page, powered by DSpace and accessible from the library web page. Our users can enjoy the new page and its new features, especially the full-text search option, in four languages, including Romanian. Since the digital library page was launched, minor improvements were made in order to fulfil our users needs. We included a large variety of sharing buttons which provide end users with a simple and easy way of sharing links to our content, across the social web. We also constantly share new content on our Facebook and Twitter pages. For 2012, besides, of course, adding new content, our major goal is to integrate the digital collection of our library into some of the most important catalogues around the world. The first major catalogue we aim being included in is the OAIster Database, which is a collective catalogue of millions of records standing for open access digital resources. The database was built by harvesting data from open access collections worldwide using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). 27

39 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Users can search for records within the OAIster Database through the following freelyaccessible webpage: Additionally, OAIster records are fully accessible through WorldCat.org, and will be included in WorldCat.org search results, along with records from thousands of libraries worldwide. All these have been made possible because the OAIster is managed by OCLC 1 (originally created by the University of Michigan in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Let s see how our metadata could be included in this database. Our digital library is powered by DSpace which includes an OAI server capable of harvesting or providing data using the OAI-PMH version 2.0 protocol. To create metadata in DSpace, we take over the information from our library catalogue then we make bundles of XML files which are subsequently imported by the software using batch commands. The next step is to enable our OAI-compliant repository and prepare the "base OAI url" and the metadata. OAIster harvesting uses a self-service model, which means we set our own harvesting schedule and customize the metadata map for collections using the WorldCat Digital Collection Gateway. After setting up our account in the Gateway, metadata is automatically harvested by the OAIster, but since they use MARC21 the DublinCore metadata needs to be converted. Most of the process is automatized but one has the possibility to map one s own metadata. They offer the possibility to set up the layout of metadata in three different formats. The last stage involves setting up the synchronization. It is automatically done when users access the database for the first time, but they can subsequently set up an option to configure the synchronization frequency of the existing collection. Unfortunately, since this is the first time our metadata is exported to another system, we have encountered a series of problems. One of the major concerns is that even if the OAIster page displays correctly our metadata, they are not searchable if they comprise non-english characters (e.g. ă, ş, á, etc.). The second problem we have encountered is that the layout of the periodicals collections is not optimal for Worldcat. In the case of our digital library, each journal number is introduced in DSpace as a new item, which makes browsing and searching in our own system very easy, but creates unexpected problems when these items are exported. Since they are structured as separate items, they are all imported in OAIster as such. However, the ideal situation would be when each journal title appears only once. We have asked for OCLC support about these problems and we hope they can be solved in the nearest future. Meanwhile, we are trying to find ways to solve these problems. In the case of titles comprising non-english characters we might add an alternative title, replacing Romanian characters with their English equivalents. The second point at issue concerns periodicals only. We are currently trying to find solutions for this problem, as well. 4. Electronic requests for publications The third subject we are going to approach in this paper is the updating of the range of services provided to our library users. The updating process is actually focused on the launching of a new library service which enables users to request the publication(s) they want from the closed stacks, by accessing the online catalogue. The reservation option only works in the following conditions: the publications requested by users must have electronic bibliographic descriptions in our library catalogue and users must be authenticated by logging in with their ID and password. 1 OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. 28

40 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Launching this new more user-friendly option also has other advantages: it reduces time expenditure both for users and for the library personnel engaged in making the connection between items in the closed stacks and their end users. The electronic request of publications also eliminates potential errors that may occur in the process of publication retrieval which was previously done manually. Among these frequent errors one can mention confusions related to the location of items assigned to certain bibliographic descriptions, due to difficulties in understanding users illegible handwriting. Other similar flaws refer to inaccuracies in writing down locations of records: users may right other locations than the right ones or simply mix-up numbers or characters. Coming back to the attitudes towards the new type of request for publications, users obvious preference for the electronic reservation option has been noticed from the beginning, due to their constant positive feedback. The online request for publications was developed as a new operation within the Aleph integrated library system implemented by Lucian Blaga Central University Library. The proper function of this new and modern library service is now possible as a result of multiple testing and configuring sessions completed by librarians within the Public Relations Department and by IT engineers within the IT and Digitization Department. From the point of view of its progressive development, the implementation of the new library service was made in three stages. The first stage occurred in the second half of 2011 and started by a series of interdepartmental testing sessions which focused on the configuring and parameterization of the library integrated system. The second stage was initiated in January 2012 when the application became available for the use of library staff. This second stage was also considered a testing period intended both to prove the functioning of the application and to prevent certain malfunctions in the system. One may consider middle January as the starting point for the third stage of implementation of the new library service. It then became not only advisable for users to access the new application, but it was also mandatory for the publications stored in closed stacks and retrieved by users in the reading rooms from the main building of the library. Once the new library service was set-up, users were given specific graphical guiding directions. They were strategically placed near each workstation in the Catalogues Room. The guiding directions were meant to avoid confusions, as well as to ensure a smoother circulation of publications. At the same time, trained librarians on duty provided guidance and training to users who needed assistance. From a technical point of view, this new library service works by connecting two components of the integrated library system: the online catalogue and the database comprising the subscribed users owning a valid library card. If we were to give an account of the whole process at a descriptive level, the first step would be accessing the online catalogue, either through the web page of the library (www.bcucluj.ro), if users access it from a remote location, or by simply clicking on the OPAC icon on the workstations intended for public use. After accessing the online catalogue interface, users must authenticate by logging in with an ID and password which actually represent the figures of the barcode on each library card. Once the user is authenticated, he/she can launch queries based on previously selected criteria. After identifying the publication in the online catalogue, users will click on the item location indicating Central Library main building and then on the request button on the left side of the screen. This click will launch another window in which users are asked to specify the name of the reading room and the seat number they received. If the user only wants to photocopy a few pages from a publication, he/she will mention xerox instead of the seat number and the publication will be delivered to the user at the Front Desk in the Catalogues Room. Once the electronic request has been launched, printers located in the closed stacks will automatically print a request form comprising the item location and the collection the publication belongs to. 29

41 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science From what we have presented in the present paper, we can infer the system still has its own limits in what this new library service is concerned. As a first restriction one can mention location, as only publications in the closed stacks of the main library can be electronically requested. Unfortunately, the service is not implemented within the branch libraries network but we hope it will be, in the future. A second problem refers to the type of publication, as for the moment, users can not use the electronic request feature to access periodicals, be they newspapers of magazines. A third limitation is related to the collections of the library. Only publications belonging to the Main Collection and to the Legal Deposit collection are subject to the new electronic library service. Last, but not least, the relative small number of publications having an electronic bibliographic description in the online catalogue, in relation with the large number of volumes held by our library is probably the most important problem from the point of view of the amount of work it requires in order to be fixed. The retroactive conversion process is extremely important in our institution s long term development policy but the matter is not the subject of the present paper. After making a thorough analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the new library service, one can certainly assert that its benefits outweigh potential malfunctions or limitations. Moreover, implementing the electronic request for publications is yet another proof of the efficiency automation provides to libraries and we consider it another step towards the modernization and bringing up our library to the standards set forth by western libraries. 5. Conclusions The automation process of the library is a difficult, but very necessary approach. It must be implemented by adopting international formats and protocols. Developing public library services by using new technologies in order to access the knowledge databases should be a main concern for all academic libraries. Integrating local resources at a national level should be a priority for Romanian authorities. Financial support and national expertise are very necessary for all libraries. Integrating Romanian information resources at an international level increases the visibility of our institutions and the appreciation among foreign academic communities. The whole process must be done in a professional manner, by developing cooperation between libraries, with the full support of authorities. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Bodnar, Robert; Brem, Agnes; Curta, Olimpia : Building a Digital Library: Best Practices in BCU CLUJ. In: Biblio ConferinŃa internańională de biblioteconomie şi ştiinńa informării - Inovation en biblioteque/ Innovation within Libraries, Braşov: Editura UniversităŃii Transilvania, 2011, pp Curta, Olimpia; Szekely, Adriana: Assessment of Users' Information Needs and Impact on Library Services. In: The First International Conference in Romania on Information Literacy, Conference Proceedings, University Lucian Blaga, Sibiu, 2010, ISSN: , pp Curta, Olimpia: The IT Laboratory and Its Professionals. In: Philobiblon, 2009, vol. 14, pp , EBSCOhost Database. 4. The OAIster Database. Available at: 5. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Available at: 30

42 OPEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC DATABASES: A NEW GATEWAY FOR THE INFORMATION SHARING Lenuta URSACHI, Elena SCUTELNICU Dunarea de Jos University of Galati Abstract: The aim of the investigation is to provide some aspects of Open Access to scientific databases, which is considered the newest trend for the spread and receiving of information throughout worldwide scientific community. The study debuts with some background information related to the concept, followed by a brief presentation about the implementation stage of OA in Romania. The Romanian initiatives recently registered are presented in this paper, too. Then, the attention focuses on what is intended to be the core section of the study, the list of some important open access databases as useful information sources for the research community. The links and topics covered are the bibliographical elements involved. Other useful links related to the Open Access are recommended, too. Finally, significant conclusions are summarized to determine the academic community publishing their contributions in open access, not just using it. Keywords: Open Access, scientific databases, Romanian initiatives, information sources. 1. Introduction Open Access (OA) is a global movement initiated for the support of the research "without financial efforts" [5], with a tremendous impact on the dissemination and visibility of scientific results, quickly and with minimum cost. According to Public Library of Science (PLoS), Open Access to knowledge means to access the online information for free and by anyone interested to use it. Open Access primarily aims the products resulted from research supported by public funds and which are accessible even for those who would not otherwise be able to afford them such as peer-reviewed journal articles, conference papers, lifelong learning materials or datasets [7]. The main issue related to the Open Access is the copyright which increases the publishing time and has to be according to the Creative Commons licenses that support both the author and the reader. To publish in Open Access an author should adopt one of the following ways: golden option (peer-reviewed journals); green option (institutional repositories or digital archives) [8]. Prestigious organizations and institutions worldwide are supporting the Open Access as follows: United Nations, through World Summit on Information Society (WSIS), have adopted at Geneva (2003) the Declaration of Principles - Building the Information Society: A global challenge in the new Millennium; UNESCO supports and promotes Open Access to scientific content for encouraging the progress of the global community;

43 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science European Commission has financed important projects on Open Access such as: SOAP Study of Open Access Publishing or OpenAIRE Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe. Academic institutions and specialists in information science area have signed declarations and statements which expressed their support for the Open Access [3], [7]: Budapest Open Access Initiative, February 2002; Bethesda Statement on Open Access, June 2003; Principles of Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL), August 2003; Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Science and Humanities, October 2003; IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation, February 2004; Ghent Declaration, December Promotion and implementation of Open Access in Romania 2.1. Promotion of Open Access in Romania Being a topic frequently debated among libraries, specialists in librarianship and information science, professors and publishers, Open Access has spread over the last two years in Romania too. Professor Angela Repanovici, the President of Information Literacy Section within Romanian Librarians Association, supports the Open Access to scientific information through a series of actions as follows: 1. promoting the university scientific outputs through institutional digital repositories; 2. creating and developing the first institutional repository in Romania (ASPECKT Transilvania University of Brasov) indexed in OpenDOAR; 3. including the open access resources in bibliographies/references. Kosson Community, the virtual community of specialists in librarianship and information science in Romania, supports the Open Access by: 1. publishing articles related to the concept on its website: IFLA position, Ghent Declaration, intellectual property rights, Open Access Week etc.; 2. promoting OpenAIRE Project an infrastructure financed by European Commission which has as main objective Open Access to all the scientific articles and data resulted within Seventh Research Framework Programme (FP7) [7]; 3. writing the open letter addressed to Romanian Ministry of Culture and National Heritage referring to the Implementation of the European Commission Recommendation on the digitization and online accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation, 25th November, Romanian Library Association (ABR) has adopted the Berlin Declaration on Open Access. The Motion on Open Access to academic scientific information has been signed at National Conference held in Bucharest (2010). According to this important document, ABR has addressed to its academic institutional members the invitation to share the principles of the Berlin Declaration, towards the creation, expansion and unification of Romanian institutional digital repositories [5] Implementation of Open Access in Romania Institutional repository initiatives in Romania The institutional repositories are digital collections that capture and preserve the intellectual output of university communities [2]. In Romania, the concerns - related to the creation and development of digital repositories - have been lately intensified. University libraries have focussed their efforts on the library services extend. Different open sources software, available for developing digital repositories, have been studied and downloaded. Thus, the intellectual output of a university's faculty will 32

44 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 be captured, stored, indexed, preserved and redistributed in various forms of digital content. The digital collection may include PhD theses & dissertations, research reports, conference proceedings, old books, manuscripts, periodicals, bibliographies etc. A small number of Romanian libraries and universities has initiated institutional repository projects such as: ASPECKT, hosted by Transilvania University of Brasov, IRCULB, hosted by Carol I Central University Library of Bucharest, ARTHRA, hosted by Dunărea de Jos University Library of Galati, Digital Library, hosted by Lucian Blaga Central University Library of Cluj-Napoca, Digital library initiatives in Romania A digital library is a managed collection of information, with associated services, where the information is stored in digital formats and accessible over a network [1]. In Romania, digital libraries have been created in the framework of some digitizing projects connected to the valuable and rare collection which are important for the protection of the original form. They have been developed as open access channels to access information [9], the most significant deserve to be mentioned being: BIBLIOR, Romanian Virtual Library, Dacoromanica, Project of Bucharest Metropolitan Library, PersonalităŃi care au schimbat lumea, Project of Romanian Academy Library National Digital Library, Project of Romania National Library, Digital Library of CIMEC, Institute for Cultural Memory, Digital Library of Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Memoria, Digital library of interviews, memoires, oral history, books and images, Project of ASPERA Foundation, Mures Digital Library, Project of Mures County Library, Online Publications - Old books and periodicals, Digitisation Project of Ioan N. Roman Constanta County Library, Gazeta de Transilvania, Digital library of George Baritiu Brasov County Library, Romania has also participated on developing the digital content of European Digital Library EUROPEANA. The partners involved in this project are: "Panait Istrati" Library from Braila County "V.A. Urechia" Library from Galati County "Octavian Goga" Library from Cluj County National Archives from Cluj County "G. T. Kirileanu" Library from Neamt County cimec - Institute for Cultural Memory "Lucian Blaga" University Library from Sibiu. 33

45 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 3. Open Access scientific databases The scientific databases, presented in this section of the paper, provide free access to peerreview content for all those who are interested of international research level in a certain field. Readers get free access to scientific journals and occasionally to books (Versita Open database). There are some exceptions related to figures or tables that are not covered by copyright (MDPI database), in this case the original publisher or author needs to be contacted. The most important databases, mentioning the links and areas, are synthetically illustrated in the table 1 [4], 6]: Table 1. Areas covered and links of important databases Database URL Areas covered Academic Journals Bentham Open Access Journals BioMed Central ls.org/ om/ Canadian Center of Science and Education Copernicus Publications Dart-Europe E- These Portal Directory of Open Journals (DOAJ) Geoscience e- Journals HighWire Stanford University Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Scholarly Research Network Internet Scientific us.org/open_access_journal s/open_access_journals_a_z.html geosciences/e-journals/ /lists/freeart.dtl Medical Sciences, Social Sciences, Biological Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, Arts and Education or Legal Studies Multidisciplinary Biology and Medicine Social science, Natural science, Health science, Economics and Management Geosciences, Civil Engineering, Humanities, Radio sciences, Interdisciplinary, Proceedings and Special Publications Multidisciplinary Publications Medicine Medknow Publications MDPI http//ww.medknow.com /journals/ Agriculture and Food Sciences, Arts and Architecture, Biology and Life Sciences, Business and Economics, Chemistry, Earth and Environmental Sciences, General Works, Health Sciences, History and Archaeology, Languages and Literatures, Law and Political Science, Mathematics and Statistics, Philosophy and Religion, Physics and Astronomy, Science General, Social Sciences, Technology and Engineering. Earth sciences: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Paleontology, Regional Geology, Stratigraphy, Geography, etc. Multidisciplinary - over 2,000,000 free full-text articles and almost 7,000,000 total articles Agriculture, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Dentistry, Energy, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geosciences, Materials Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Neuroscience, Nursing, Pharmacological Sciences, Physics, Social Sciences, Veterinary Science. Agriculture, Biology, Chemistry, Computers, Dentistry, Energy, Engineering, Environment, Geosciences, Materials Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Pharmacology, Physics, Social Sciences, Veterinary Science. Alternative Medicine, Business, Ethics, Conservation, Dentistry, Engineering, Environment, Health, Medicine, Microbioloy, Pharmacy, Physics, Psychiatry and Psychology, Science, Sociology. Administrative Sciences, Agriculture, Behavioral Sciences, Biology, Chemistry, Computers, Education, Electronics, Energies, Environment, Forestry, Geosciences, Humanities, Law, Materials, Pharmaceutics, Religion, Social sciences, Toxicology, Water. 34

46 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Database URL Areas covered MIT OpenCourseWare Multi Science Publishing Palgrave Open Public Library of Science SCIENCEDOMAIN International Scientific Research. SCIRP Open Access SpringerLink Open Access Journals VERSITA OPEN World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology /index.html x.php al/ns/ m/journals/open/ 4. Other useful links for academic research Continuation of the Table 1. Multidisciplinary lecture notes, courses, online textbooks, assignments, projects, exams, multimedia content etc. Engineering (accoustics, construction/built environment); Energy and Environmental studies (renewable energy and energy policy); Aerospace/Aeronautics; Sports Science; Medical Engineering; Fluid Dynamics; Theory of Innovation. Politics, Management, Health, Business or Social Science. Biology and Medicine Science, Technology, Medicine Multidisciplinary over 150 open access journals in the areas of science, technology, and medicine. Behavioral Sciences, Biology and Medicine, Business and Economics, Chemistry and Materials Science, Computer Science, Environmental Science, Engineering, Humanities, Social Science and Law, Mathematics and Statistics, Medicine and Physics. Multidisciplinary - hosts full texts of nearly 200 scholarly journals that belong to universities, research institutes covering various areas of interest. Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Civil and Geological Engineering, Computer and Communication Engineering, Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Engineering and Physical Sciences, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Mathematical and Computational Sciences, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Medical and Biological Sciences, Social and Human Sciences. To develop a research topic, the reader can also use information provided by Open Access communities, portals or repository directories. Sinha presented in the reference [9] a list of the Open Access communities which has been completed with the following: AMERICAN-SCIENTIST-OPEN-ACCESS-FORUM list BOAI [Budapest Open Access Initiative] Forum Confederation of Open Access Repositories, eifl [Electronic Information for Libraries] Open Access mailing list IFLA-L mailing list, KOSSON comunitate virtuală - Open Access Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook, 35

47 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science SPARC (the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) Europe WSIS OA Knowledge Community, The researchers will also discover useful information in repositories or digital libraries such as: 1. DRIVER (The Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research), 2. Open Access Map (Journals, Repositories, Policies), 3. Open Archive Initiative, 4. Open Library, 5. Open Repository, 6. OpenAIRE (Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe), 7. OpenDOAR, 8. Ranking Web of World Repositories, 9. ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repositories), 5. Conclusions The following conclusions emerged from this study: OA is useful and beneficial for under-privileged communities or economically disadvantaged institutions; OA is an opportunity for developing digital libraries using open source software; OA is the path for increasing visibility and citation rates through repositories; OA represents a way of sharing research which makes the progress possible. As a general conclusion, a national OA portal should be developed in order to collect and disseminate the digital content processed and organized within digital libraries, archives or institutional repositories. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. ARMS, William Y. Digital libraries. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, CRAW, Raym. The Case for Institutional Repositories: A SPARC Position Paper. Available at: 3. DAS, Anup Kumar. Open Access to Knowledge and Information: Scholarly Literature and Digital Library Initiatives - the South Asian Scenario. Edited by Bimal Kanti Sen and Jocelyne Josiah. New Delhi: UNESCO, Directory of Open Access Journals. Available at: 5. MoŃiunea privind Accesul Deschis la informańia ştiinńifică academică. Available at: 6. Open Access Publishing Models and Attributes Available at: 7. OpenAIRE. Available at: 8. REPANOVICI, Angela. Promovarea şi vizibilitatea producńiei ştiinńifice prin depozite digitale. Bucureşti: Editura Academiei Române, SINHA, Manoj Kumar. Open Access, Open Source Archives and Open Libraries Initiatives for Universal Access to Knowledge and Information: An Overview of Indian Initiatives Available at: 36

48 STUDITE PROJECT: STUDY AND CREATION OF A DIGITAL LIBRARY OF BYZANTINE BOOKBINDINGS Gabriela DUMITRESCU, Luminita KÖVARI, Lorenta POPESCU The Library of the Romanian Academy Abstract: The Roumanian Academy Library-BAR (www.biblacad.ro) has been taking part in the complex research European commission-founded project STUDITE (Agreement / CU7 COOP7), having as partners organizations (www.ccl-fr.org) from France, Greece, Turkey, Italy, the United Kingdom and Hungary and SIVECO from Roumania, as IT expert (www.siveco.ro). This partnership aims at highlighting the contribution of the Byzantine civilization to the history of the culture, art and craft of the book reflected in a rich patrimony of Greek and Byzantine manuscripts held by important libraries and monasteries in the Orient and in the West. The paper is a short presentation of the Byzantine influence on the history of the Roumanian people. Specific Byzantine patterns in the Roumanian cultural artifacts are to be disclosed. BAR stands for a well-known treasurer of an important legacy of Byzantine manuscripts, bearers of old binding and artistic techniques used by monks in the Roumanian monasteries. They have been used as sources of expertise in ad hoc replicas of book-bindings achieved in the workshop of BAR (http://www.biblacad.ro/meeting%20poze_studite.pdf). Displayed in exhibitions, they arouse the interest for less known aspects of carrying out these valuable cultural items, marks of our civilization. Moreover, BAR will directly contribute to the accomplishment of an e-corpus of Byzantine manuscripts. Transnational cooperation in the abovementioned program is meant to share and disseminate this heritage and to strengthen the relationships among peoples and cultures in the Orient and in the West. Key words: BAR, STUDITE project, manuscripts, Byzantine bookbinding workshop. 1. Introduction In 2011, The Roumanian Academy Library (BAR) decided to join STUDITE, a complex research European project under the patronage of a scientific committee of world-famous scholars. The coordinator of the project is the Centre for Book Conservation Arles, the aims being to highlight the technical and artistic contributions of Greek and Byzantine manuscripts to the history of the book. Byzantine binding influenced the culture of the book in both the Orient and the West, and these connections are the subject of considerable cultural and scientific interest. As partners in this European project, BAR has already concluded one of the main objectives, that is to set up a workshop in order to create contemporary bindings inspired by Byzantine techniques and to produce facsimiles of bindings, representative of various production types. This workshop has been followed by an exhibition displaying the bindings created in the workshop, a video and e-learning tools made available online. STUDITE therefore, through four essential objectives, aims to make known this shared heritage for a

49 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science better historical understanding and intercultural dialogue. Besides the interdisciplinary missions to observe the bindings and to promote the study of collections in Europe, for which a digital resource center will be available at there will be other activities which bring together institutions and experts in the field able to evaluate the results and to stimulate and develop common methods to disseminate information gathered. The final result shall be the production of a reference document a protocol on the description of Byzantine bindings. International seminars on the characteristics of Byzantine bindings and their conservation will offer opportunities to exchange knowledge about the achievements within the project, to share expertise and to arouse public awareness of heritage presentation. However, in order to understand the specificity of the Roumanian cultural space in relation to Byzantium, this paper presents the historical and artistic background and its issues. 2. Byzantium and the Beginnings of the Roumanian Mediaeval Culture Situated at the crossroads, clearly outlined by natural, often political and cultural borders (The Danube, The Carpathians, The Black Sea), the Roumanian territory has always been a zone of dialogue and interaction of the West and the Orient, a channel of communication between civilizations, ideologies, religions and powers, a spiritual corridor which has crystallized the Roumanian world in its irrefutable complexity, specificity and originality. In the history of its evolution, from the 5 th up to the14 th century, the epoch was marked by the reorganization of the Roman Empire, the fall of its Western part, by the Roumanian people s emergence, the rise of the Roumanian mediaeval states, as well as the consolidation of Christianism, in its variant the Orthodoxy, all these being fundamental processes unfolded under the direct and indirect influence of Byzantium, manifested in politics, economy, spirituality and art. Bordered by the Hungarian pusta, the Russian steppe and the Balkan Peninsula, the Roumanian territory in the premediaeval and early mediaeval configuration took over and transmitted towards the neighbouring areas, elements of the Western civilization of Hungarian, Polish and Lithuanian origin or from the Italian-Dalmatian coast, as well as other elements of Byzantine and Oriental origin (Turkish-Micro-Asian or even Persian), often through the powerful states at the time, such as Bulgaria and Serbia. The old routes of trade, military conquests and migration along the lower Danube s course were those which eased the circulation of goods and exchanges of any kind. Through the Western limit of the Iron Gates, there was a route connecting Banat to the Tisza plain to the North, while to the South, there was another route, through Serbia and Macedonia, to Thessalonika and the Aegean Sea. To the East, the Danube mouths, Dobrudja and the Pontic seaside (under an ancient Greek control) represented the crossroads for Constantinople and Adrianople in spreading their influence towards the North-Eastern Bulgaria towards the Moldavian plain up to Suceava. 38

50 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Lack of a political and administrative authority of the Empire, the Byzantine church, by its hierarchy and dogmata, acted as the instrument used by Byzantium to control the Roumanian space since the very beginning of its existence, influencing decisively not only its faith and spirituality, but all the aspects of the Roumanian being. Until 1453, the official relationships of the Empire with the Roumanian countries remained almost exclusively ecclesiastical. Trying to create a national church, with its own hierarchy, recognized by the other states of the Orthodox Europe legitimated by the supreme power of the Empire, made possible for Wallachia, in 1359, then for Moldavia, in 1401, to obtain the right of founding their own metropolises, under the Oecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who would select the heads of the Metropolitan Church for both Sees up to the Ottoman conquest. The consolidation of the Byzantine rite, Christianism, is authenticated by the profoundly religious character of its art, emblematic in the expression of its architectonic church patterns and of the icon. Under the powerful Bulgarian-Serbian influence, the Wallachian foundations would take over foremost the dome mononave plan (specific to the earlier walls) and the triconch, with its variants, simple and complex. Among the oldest monuments of cult, dating from the 11th-12th centuries, there is a Byzantine style church, typical of the provinces, built in a cross-in-square plan and a dome on pendentives, specific to Dinogetia-Garvăn, as well as the little church of NiculiŃel, the oldest trefoil-plan church on the Roumanian territory. In the 14th century, the first monastery settlements in Wallachia established by Nikodimos at VodiŃa and Tismana, using for a first foundation the pattern of the simple triconch present in Bulgaria, then adopting a very savant structure of the athonite triconch pattern spread in Serbia. The churches of Cotmeana, with their combined simple and rectangular triconchs, followed the plans of the churches of Târnovo, Messembria and Cozia architectonically similar in their outer ornamentation to the Serbian churches of the Moravia valley. In Moldavia, Byzantine elements interlaced in an original synthesis with Gothic and Renaissance ones to emanate the Moldavian style. The first church of brick walls of RadăuŃi bears the Roman expression. It is followed by other foundations of an absolutely exceptional importance, built in Serbian triconch, a variant of the Byzantine pattern, to be found in Siret (at Saint Trinity Church, the first of the kind), and the prodigious monuments of Stephen the Great and of his followers (Putna, VoroneŃ, NeamŃ, MoldoviŃa, Humor, Probota, SuceviŃa), characterized by trefoil-plan structures, with spires on the naos (present only to the princely foundations), integrating Gothic details (typical buttresses, arches, window frames and doors), with very specific Moldavian innovative elements: five-arch open church porch, secret vaults over the tombs, niches under the cornice, blind apses and spectacular outer frescoes (absent at Putna and NeamŃ), which, although achieved in keeping with hermeneia models, introduced new scenes and details in the iconographic programme of Humor and MoldoviŃa. In the 14th century, by spreading hesychasm from the radiation centre of the Mount Athos, Byzantium definitely marked the Orthodox spirituality. This new vision of the relationship man-god focused on the idea of re-creating the communion of the human being with divinity by purification obtained only by ascesis, loneliness, mental prayer and continuous meditation, self-denial and concentration on the inner world, in an attempt to reach ectasy by revelation of the divine light. When hesychasm reached the Roumanian space, it generated one of the most surprising paradoxes, which would determine a Latin language like Roumanian to define its spirituality and culture for centuries. Many hesychastic and theological writings permeated through the Slavonic translations of the works of the Bulgarian and Serbian scholars and theologians, determining Slavonic to be maintained as official language of the church and of the princely chancelleries until the 16th century, and the alphabet used, even after the adoption of the Roumanian language as language of liturgy and chancellery, remained the Cyrillic one. 39

51 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Translated into Slavonic, under the patronage of some illuminated patriarchs, as Evtimii of Târnovo, fundamental texts of the Christian literature were to be copied in the scriptoria of the monasteries of Moldavia (at NeamŃ, BistriŃa, Vatra MoldoviŃei and Putna) and of Wallachia (at BistriŃa), such as the great liturgical books (the Tetraevangel, the Apostle, the Psalter), the works of the Saint Fathers (John Chrysostom, Gregory the Theologian, Ephrem the Syrian, Isaac the Syrian, John of Damascus, John Scholasticus), the works of Gregory Palamas, the theoretician of the hesychasm, such as philocalias, hagiographies, menaia, the ascetic novel Barlaam and Jehosaphat, the book of wisdom Melissa by the Byzantine author Antonios, as well as law texts, among which the most well-known, The Syntagm by Mathew Vlastares. The same hesychast influence of athonite origin, transmitted by the South-Slavic language, led to the foundation of the first Roumanian churches and monasteries and to the support of the monasteries of Athos by numerous and rich gifts, such as money, objects, icons, fabrics or manuscripts. The presents and the support offered by Stephen the Great for the extension or restoration of the monasteries Zographou, Vatopedi, Gregoriou, the donated manuscripts (Praxion, Abba Dorotheus Words, the Tetraevangel), the icon of Virgin Mary Pantanassa (from Gregoriou Monastery) or the icon from the Lavra Monastery, a gift from Vladislav- Vlaicu, the relations with the Cutlumuz Monastery, whose hegumen (Father Superior) would become Head of the Metropolitan Church of Ungrovlachia are only a few examples reflecting the close Roumanian-Byzantine relationships in the 14th and 15th centuries, extended in Wallachia until late 18th century. Less numerous or with less certain attestations, gifts from the Byzantine Athos towards the Roumanian countries must have definitely been received, to mention only the two icons from Piatra-Neamt and BistriŃa and a liturgical rotulus offered, as the unwritten tradition goes, by John the XVIII the Paleologus and by Vasilisa Ana to Alexander the Good. In 1728, Hrisant Notara, the Patriarch of Jerusalem and Alexander, the Patriarch of Constantinople offered a few Byzantine manuscripts to the library of the Princely Academy of Saint Sava, later in the collections of the Roumanian Academy Library. This tradition of ordering and offering illuminated and richly ornamented manuscripts demonstrates the importance of the book for the Byzantine world. Its achievement was not a mere craft, but an art, even if minor, which dealt with the main attributes of the Byzantine civilization and aesthetic. The art of Byzantium is a religious art, a Christian art, in the service of the Church and dogma. It is, at the same time, an aulic, imperial art, glorifying the emperor as a representative of the divinity on earth, as the Byzantine man sees a perfect correspondence between the heavenly hierarchy and the terrestrial one, between the Pantocrator and the Autocrat. And, by this conception about the role of art and also by the passion for colour and lavishness, by the abundance and glitter of the ornament, Byzantine art epitomizes the oriental art, with particular expression in the polychrome exuberance of the enamels and cloisonnés, of the mosaics and frescoes, of the embroideries and fabrics. A Greek city, Constantinople, nurtured an astonishing synthesis of cultures and civilizations the Byzantine Empire had ruled or adjoined: Syria, Egypt, Sassanid Persia, India, Armenia and Antiochia, the Balkans and the West. In the aesthetic vision of this heterogeneous society, man s representation in his ephemeral nudity and materiality was unacceptable, Byzantine art being an art of the transcendent, of the spiritual quest. Hesychasm was imposed as a dogma of the representation of the human, the spiritualized figure of the ascetic, but also the hieratic style of the divine characters, represented only by observing the strict, canonic codes of the hermeneia. A brilliant example of the hesychast vision and morale is offered by the Canon of Penitence from the collections of the Roumanian Academy Library, a 12 th century manuscript which, analogue to Codex Vaticanus, are the only copies known of John Scholasticus work. 40

52 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Taking over elements and motifs from all the other arts, the Byzantine codex is a complex artistic artifact which transmits and holds the divine word, celebrating it by the art of the calligraphy and miniature, and by the splendour of its binding. Byzantine opulence of the ornament is transmitted to the first metal decorations of the manuscripts in the Roumanian countries, works of exceptional artistic achievement, dating from the 14th-15th centuries, such as, in Wallachia, the silver gilding of the Tetraevagel of Nikodimos of Tismana and the metal framing of the Tetraevangel of BistriŃa, offered by Marcea to the monastery; in Moldavia, we mention the metal decoration (lost by now) of the oldest illuminated manuscript (1429), the silver gilding of the Evangel bearing the handwriting of Gavril Uric or of the Evangel of Humor, with a metal reinforcement. The influence of the Byzantine style is noticed mainly in the bindings of the manuscripts and printed books in the Roumanian countries of the 16th -17th centuries, the monks of the great monasteries being the first authors of the bindings. They brought, from their travels to Mount Athos or to other places where Byzantium had imposed its spirit and culture, not only fundamental texts of the Christian Orthodox dogma, but also the idea of the book as object of art, bearer of the technique and art of the miniature, of the calligraphy and binding. The basic elements and procedures - using leather-bound wooden boards (of poplar, oak, beech, hazel nut), the interlaced sewing of the book back, the type of the binding and of the cord, the methods of bonding the book block with the wooden covers, the use of fasteners and of the blind tooling - are to be found in the Roumanian binding style, both in Wallachia and Moldavia. Preserving the old patterns, enriched and reinterpreted, the innovations have created a characteristic Roumanian style, identifiable, in its specificity, in the three Roumanian provinces. The surface of the covers is limitted by one or several double-line or triple-line frames. The frame bands repeat the same ornamental motif and combine geometrical forms with vegetal ones. The result is an entwining of juxtaposed circles and secant lines, squares and rhombuses, among which stylized flowers, leaves and stems occur. Entanglement of continuous ornaments and entrelacs complete the decorative register of the frame. The variety of the adornments seems endless by the use of the same pattern in various dispositions and combinations. In the central enframed rectangular space, rhombuses are drawn by crossing diagonals with triple fillets, which, by sectioning, become sometimes pairs of triangles. The points of intersection are marked by double circles (knots) or by stylized vegetal ornaments. Palmettes and semi-palmettes, rosettes with almond-shaped petals (of Oriental, Sassanid influence, particularly), lotus buds, fleur-de-lys, trefoils, eight-petal mountain avens are a few of the most commonly used phytomorphic motifs which embellish the inner network of rhombuses of the cover centre. Zoomorphic elements, taken over from the Oriental decorative non-icon palette, very popular in the iconoclastic epoch, are not absent, appearing on the Moldavian bindings of the NeamŃ Monastery. The bicephalous acquila (a heraldic symbol of the Byzantine despot), affronted birds, lions, dragons, hares, cocks, often enframed in circular, rhomboid or square contours, form the landscape of the inner field, but appear also as elements which repeat the perimeter chain of the frame. Much more rarely, the centre contains a medallion inspired from the Life and Passions of Christ, the front cover typically bearing the Crucifixion scene and the back cover, the Resurrection. Hemispherical or truncated-cone-shaped cabochon settings (with a double role, ornamental and protective) and metal elements for fastening the hinges complete the inventory of the book outer decorations. 41

53 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 3. Conclusions These decorative and symbolic patterns would form the basis for the artistic innovations of the following centuries for the Roumanian spirit to assert its originality and creative force, continuing the ideas and expression of the Byzantine spirit. In Nicolae Iorga s opinion, this radiating power became extinct late in the 19th century, when the Roumanian world, this Byzantium after Byzantium, started to reconsider its existence and evolution by changing the paradigm on all the previous valuable bases. With a precious collection of Byzantine manuscripts, the Roumanian Academy Library continues to transmit and demonstrate the inestimable value of the Byzantine civilization and cultural influence to the present and, thus, to the generations to come. The participation of BAR to STUDITE project is also part of a long-term effort to modernize the services the Library offers in line with the modern trends enabled by the Information Society technologies [9, 12]. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Atsalos, B. : Sur quelques termes relatifs a la reliure des manuscrits grecs in Treu, Kurt (ed.). In : Studia Codicologia, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1977, pp Bacâru, Livia : Vechi legături de cărńi româneşti. In : Studii şi cercetări de biliologie, XIII, Ed. Academiei Române, Bucureşti, 1974, pp Barbu, Daniel: Manuscrise bizantine în colecńii din România. Bucureşti: Editura Meridiane, Canart, P., Grosdidier de Matons, D. and Hoffmann, Ph.: L analyse technique des reliures byzantines et la determination de leur origine geographique (Constantinople, Crete, Chypre, Grece) in Cavallo, Guglielmo, Gregorio, Giuseppe di and Maniaci, Marilena (eds). In: Scritture, libri e testi nelle aree provinciali di Bisanzio (Atti del seminario di Erice settembre 1988), 1991, Spoleto: Centro italiano di studi sull alto medioevo, Clark, Kenneth W.: Exploring the Manuscripts of Sinai and Jerusalem. In: The Biblical Archaeologist, 16, 1953, pp Cockerell, Douglas: The Binding of the Codex Sinaticus. In: British Museum Quarterly, 10, 1936, Constantinescu-Iaşi, Paul: Istoria artei bizantine. In: ViaŃa Românească, Iaşi. 8. Gid, Denise: Catalogue des reliures françaises estampées à froid (XVe XVIe siècle) de la Bibliothèque Mazarine, tome I II, 1927, Editions de CNRS, Dumitrescu, G, Filip, F.G., Ionita, A., Lepadatu, C. : Open source Eminescu s manuscripts; a digitisation experiment. In: Studies in Informatics and Control. Vol 19, no. 1, 2010, pp Available at: 10. Elian, Alexandru: Les rapports byzantino-roumains, extras din Byzantinoslavica, XIX, nr. 2/1958, Praga, pp Elian, Alexandru: Moldova şi BizanŃul în secolul al XV-lea, extras din volumul Cultura moldoveanescă în timpul lui Ştefan cel Mare, Bucureşti: Editura Academiei R. P. R., 1961, pp Filip, F. G., Cojocaru, I.: Economy of culture in the Information Society based on knowledge, Science and Education Policies in Central and Eastern Europe Balcans, Caucasus and Baltic Countriesc (Iulia Nechifor and Elena Severin, eds), 2010, pp In: Science Policy Series. UNESCO, Venice Office. Available at: (http://www.scienceportal.org.by/docs/s_t_edu_policies_in_cee_balkans_caucasus_and_b altics.pdf#page=104 ). 42

54 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Goff, Frederick R.: Notes on a few Bindings at Monastery Hilander, Mt. Athos. In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, 50, 323-8, Grabar, André : La décoration byzantine. Paris et Bruxelles : Les Editions G. Van Oest, Grosdidier de Matons, Dominique : Nouvelles perspectives de recherche sur la reliure byzantine. In Harlfinger, Dieter and Prato, Giancarlo (eds). In: Paleografia e codicologia greca. Atti del II Colloquio internazionale (Berlino-Wolfenbuttel, Ottobre 1983), Alessandria: Edizionio dell Orso, vol. 1, 1991, pp Grosdidier de Matons, Dominique and Hoffmann, Philippe : La couture des reliures byzantines. In: Hoffmann, Philippe (ed) Recherches des codicologie compares. La composition du codex Moyen Age, en Orient et en Occident, Paris: Presses de L Ecole normale superieure, 1998, pp Houlis, Konstantinos: A Research on Structural Elements of Byzantine Bookbindings. In Maniaci, Marilena and Munafo, Paolo F. (eds), Ancient and Medieval book Materials and Techniques (Erice, septembre 1992), vol. 2, Studi e Testi 358, Citta del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1993, pp Hunger, Herbert: Schreiben und Lesen in Byzanz. Die byzantinische Buchkultur, Munchen: C.H. Beck, Ipert, St., Vinourd, Fr.: Un groupe particulier de reliures Byzantines au monastère saint Jean de Patmos. In : Biblioamphiastes, nr. 3, Athens, Irigoin Jean : La reliure byzantine. In Baras, Elisabeth, Irigoin, Jean and Vezin, Jean, La reliure medievale, Paris: Ecole normale superieure, 2nd edn, 1981, pp Lanoë, Guy, (éd.), Grand, Geneviève. (collab.): La reliure médiévale. Pour une description normalisée. Actes du colloque international (Paris, mai 2003), organisé par l Institut de recherche et d histoire des textes (CNRS), Turnhout, Brepols, Lemerle, Paul : Le style byzantin, Librairie Larousse, Paris, Manuscrise bizantine în colecńii bucureştene: Institutul Cultural Român, Bucureşti Marava-Chatzinicolaou, Anna; Toufexi-Paschou, Christina: Catalogue of the Illuminated Byzantine Manuscripts of the National Library of Greece, Publications Bureau of the Academy of Athens, 2 vol, Merien Sylvie L. A.: The Structure of Armenian Bookbinding and its Relation to Near Eastern Bookmaking Traditions, PhD Thesis, Columbia University, Mokretsova, Inna: Principles of Conservation of Byzantine Bindings. In: Restaurator, 15, 1994, pp Petherbridge, Guy: Sewing Structures and Materials: A Study in the Examination and Documentation of Byzantine and Post Byzantine Bookbindings in Harlfinger, Dieter and Prato, Giancarlo (eds), Paleografia e codicologia greca. Atti del II Colloquio internazionale (Berlino-Wolfenbuttel ottobre 1983), Alessandria: Edizioni dell Orso, vol. 1, pp , vol. 2, 1991, Regemorter, Berthe van : La reliure des manuscrits grecs. In : Scriptorium, 8, 1954, Runciman, Steven: The Last Byzantine Renaissance. Cambridge: The University Press, Szirmai, J. A.: The Archeology of Medieval Bookbinding. Aldershot: Brookfield, Ashgate, Talbot Rice, David: Art Byzantin. Paris-Bruxelles: Elsevier, Theodorescu, Răzvan: Artă şi societate în łara Românească a veaculu al XIV-lea, extras din: Studii şi cercetări de istoria artei, seria Artă plastică, tom. 19 nr. 1, 1972, pp

55 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 33. Theodorescu, Răzvan: BizanŃ, Balcani, Occident la începuturile culturii medievale româneşti (secolele X XIV). Bucureşti: Editura Academiei R.S.R., Theodorescu, Răzvan: Byzantinologie et histoire de l art. In: Byzantinische Forschungen, Internationale Zeitschrift für Byzantinistik. Amsterdam: Verlag Adolf M. Hakkert, 1990, p Tischendorf, Constantin von: Codex Sinaiticus. Tischendorf s Story and Argument Related by Himself, London: Lutterworth Press, Tugearu, Liana: Miniatura şi ornamentul manuscriselor din colecńia de artă medievală românească. Vol. I: Manuscrise bizantine şi greceşti medievale târzii, Muzeul NaŃional de Artă, Bucureşti, Turdeanu, Emil: La reliure roumaine ancienne. In : Revue des études romaines, Paris, 1953, p pl. 38. Văetişi, Adela: Arta de tradińie bizantină în România. Bucureşti: Noi Media Print, Velmans, Tania : La couverture de l Evangile dit de Morozov et l evolution de la reliure byzantine. In : Cahiers Archeologiques, 28, 1979, pp Weitzmann, Kurt: Mount Sinai s Holy Treasures. In: National Geographic, 125, 1964, pp

56 MAXIMIZING CHARACTERISTICS, FACILITIES AND USAGE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES: A SURVIVAL METHOD DURING A TIME OF CRISIS Ivona OLARIU Mihai Eminescu Central University Library Iasi, Romania Diana BUTNARIU E-nformation Bucureşti, Romania Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight - from the need of the academic community in Romania can access the comprehensive and current scientific literature the role of the infodocumentary electronic resources and the qualitative and quantitative methods of their assessing, for a correct decision purchase. In the current financial climate, effective performance has become a vital tool for library managers. The studies based on bibliometric indicators support the research-development-innovation process and they also influence on the acquisition. Considering the large number of users who require an electronic resources and the bargaining power of a structure consortium structure type, it is clear the advantage of the cooperative acquisition, extended to national level. Keywords: bibliometrics, scientific research evaluation, electronic infodocumentary resources, impact factor, influence score, relative influence score. 1. Introduction The Communication of the European Commission Europe 2020 A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth stipulates, among the 5 measurable targets suggested by the Commission to the EU until 2020, and which are to be transposed into national targets, research and innovation, as well as education. To this end, the EC suggests that 3% of EU s GDP to be invested in research and development. The 5 targets, deemed to suggest direction for the EU countries, represent, according to the EC President, the means to measure progress. The agreed targets are representative for the 3 priorities included in Europe 2020 strategy, which are mutually reinforcing. The first one is smart growth, defined as developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation. In this context, providing access to scientific information and documentation literature is the starting point for encouraging research and innovation, and any additional services and facilities for the research and educational sector in Romania will complete, sustain and promote the results of national research, will help increase their visibility on international level and much more. 2. About electronic resources evaluation and not only In the current socio-economic context, in providing access to scientific information and documentation literature, the electronic resources will have a privileged position, the old (and still present) problem of storage space being thus solved. On the other hand, the cost of these materials and their increasing percentage of library budgets going toward their aquisition and imposes consideration of their value to users and role within a library collection.

57 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The wish to have access to as many such platforms and databases as possible, following the acquisition which return on investment (ROI) to have optimal values, overlapping with the crisis time, requires an accurate and complete assessment of what will be purchased. Thus, the evaluation of e-resources will be made taking into consideration: Institutional, financial and strategic context, Previous methods used to review journals collections, Role of qualitative and quantitative measures, What these measures can and cannot tell us. Collection analysis is more than analyzing per se. 1 So, the analysis of an electronic collection includes: analysis itself, its use, its impact. In general, the analysis of such collection provides information on various aspects: collection size (the number of titles in general or in a particular subject) the type of the documents (journals, e-books, proceedings, so on) age of the documents (and archives) fields covered by collection language of the documents types of readers who access a particular resource the use of the collection impact of the collection on the target population In addition, the purchase decision will be influenced by factors related to users preferences 2 : the graphic interface (an intuitive and user friendly interface will be appreciated; the features and tools offered to create bibliographies; the tools offered to make searches simple or advanced, refine results; information offered on the results page in order to decide which article is of interest, so it will be seen full text; make suggestions during the search on the results page such as did you mean? or you could be also interested in... ; formats of visualizing the articles (pdf, html); existence of a multilingual interface); method of access and content (institutional access - from campus or individual - remote, including saving the selected articles - on PC, in - in order to be consulted later; article impact score and the relative score of influence of the reviews included in the database, the possibility to evaluate with the help of other bibliometric indicators, archive with perpetual access); the infrastructure offered by the library for the access; other facilities (tutorials and other documents in Romanian; short time to solve certain dysfunctions). In conclusion, collection analysis is more than to measure its quality, but is to measure the utility of the collection how effective the collection is in satisfying the purpose for which it is intended 1. Although e-resources are considered part of the collection, many of the traditional types of analyses used for print collections can not be applied to e-formats. For example, the circulation of e-materials is not reflected in library s circulation system and the use data are provided by suppliers. This is why the International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC) published Revised Guidelines for Statistical Measures of Usage of Web-Based Information Resources 3, where a set of basic use information requirements that all e-products should provide is created. These metrics permit libraries to analyze use the individual library and to make comparison between libraries. The data elements that must be provided are highlighted in purple in Table 1. Other aspects of the evaluation of electronic resources are: to assess e-resources is to consider their cost-effectiveness and success in meeting users needs. 4 Cost-effectiveness means the cost of resources is justified by the value they provide to user. 46

58 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 the examination of how efficiently objectives are satisfied: the congruity between e- resources and its collecting priorities. Comparison of cost of providing full-text articles online with print subscriptions or ILL delivery or commercial document delivery service is one means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of e-resources 5. As with print resources, the analysis of electronic collections can be made either collection -based or use- or used-based and either quantitative or qualitative (Table 1). Quantitative Qualitative Use- and user- based Number of sessions (log-ins) Number of queries (searches) Number of menu selection Number of full-content units examinated, downloaded, or otherwise supplied to user Number of turnaways, peak simultaneous users, and any other indicator relevant to the pricing model applied to the library/consortium Cost per download Cost per use User opinion survey User observation Focus groups Usability testing Collection-based E-collection size and growth (e.g. no. of e-journals) Materials budget size and growth Bibliometrics, Citation analysis Ratio measures (e.g e-books expenditure to e-journals expenditure; expenditures compared to target population) Content overlap studies Bibliometrics, Citation analysis Brief tests of collection strength Commercial products (WorldCat Collection Analysis, Ulrich s Serials Analysis System) Figure 1. The methods of electronic collection analysis Based on some /all of these methods of analysis of e-resources, their initial or continued acquisition will be decided. In addition to these assessment services, to libraries and their users, which purchase such resources, additional services can be offered, two of them being detailed below. 3. Added-value services provided to the users of the electronic resources 3.1. Correlation between the bibliometric indicators from the academic literature and those used in research evaluation in Romania Concept introduced by Eugene Garfield, in the sixth decade of the last century, calculated by Thomson Reuters in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 7, the impact factor of a scientific journal (IP) is a quantity representing the average number of citations received by the articles of/in that journal, published during one year, within a period of two years after the considered year. The impact factor is useful in clarifying the significance of absolute (or total) citation frequencies. The journals for which Thomson Reuters doesn t specify any impact factor, will be considered having zero impact factor. - Number of citations of a publication is provided by Web of Science. - Number of citations normalized domain-wise (CND) of a scientific article (published in a journal indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded or Social Sciences Citation Index) is calculated by dividing the number of citations of the article by reference impact factor of the journal. For other publications in the areas covered by Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index, the CND number is calculated by dividing the number of citations of that publication to the reference impact factor of the field that the publication fits best. 47

59 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The impact of the research in a particular country compared to other countries is calculated based on average number of citations received per published article. Romanian journals impact factor decreased between , one possible explanation being the large number of Romanian journals accepted for indexing in this period (from 8 in 2005 to 61 in 2010): the articles of the new journals that have been indexed did not received yet citations, while the number of articles published greatly increased. JCR publishes yearly, in addition to the impact factor of journals, other scientometric indicators including Article influence score (AIS). Article influence score is a parameter that reflects, for a particular journal, the average influence of an article from that journal over the first five years after publication; it takes into account the number of citations of the articles of that journal, weighted by the influence of journals which cite the articles. As with IP, it is considered that the journals for which Thomson Reuters doesn t indicate any influence the score, will have a zero influence score. Relative Influence Score of a scientific journal (SRI) is equal to the ratio between the articles influence scores of that journal (AIS) and reference influence score corresponding to that journal. Reference Influence Score of a scientific journal (indexed in ISI Science Citation Index Expanded or ISI Social Sciences Citation Index) is the minimum of reference influence scores of the fields in which the journals are fitted, according to the subjects categories made by Thomson Reuters. Reference Influence Score of a scientific field is the median influence score of that field, with the exception of "Multidisciplinary sciences", for which reference influence score is the arithmetic mean of median influence scores of the other fields covered by JCR. Median influence score of a scientific field is equal to the median influence scores of journals from that field which have non-zero influence scores, according the subjects categories made by Thomson Reuters. Relative Influence Score of a scientific article is the relative influence score of the scientific journal where the article was published. According to OMCTS no. 4478/ ; MO, p. I, no.448/ the relative influence score for ISI journals is calculated (Executive Unit for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding 8 ) and taken into account in the evaluation of scientific research. The values are updated regularly, according to AIS values included in the latest edition of JCR (JCR 2010/ ). Taking into consideration these bibliometric indicators and the criteria used in competitions organized in by the National Scientific Research Council, which provided SRI for use in evaluating, an application was developed and made available to the six scientific committees of Consortium Anelis Plus, containing 2 types of files: 1. For each database taken into account for acquisition, including the following information: - Journals title list included in that database - ISSN and E-ISSN (for print and electronic journal) - Impact Factor (IF) - Article influence score (AIS) - Relative influence score (SRI) - Position in SRI hierarchy - Scientific field of the journal Example: first titles published by American Institute of Physics/American Physical Society (Table 2) 48

60 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Table 2 AIP/APS the first journals with bibliometric indicators No ISSN E-ISSN Journal - editor AIP-APS Impact Factor 2010 AIS SRI Position in SRI hierarchy Field Physics, Mathematics, Mathematical physics Computer science, interdisciplinary applications Physics, applied Physics, atomic, molecular & chemical X X Applied Physics Letters Biomicrofluidics 3,841 1,398 2, ,896 0,894 1, Chaos: An Interdisciplinar y Journal of Nonlinear Science 2,081 1,082 1, Computing In Science & Engineering 0,898 0,408 0, Journal of Applied Physics The Journal of Chemical Physics Journal of Laser Applications Journal of Mathematical Physics Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 2,079 0,875 1, ,921 0,972 1, ,694 0,351 1, Physics, Applied Physics, Fluids & plasmas Optics 1,291 0,609 0, Physics, mathematical 3,219 1,972 5, Physics, multidisciplinary 2. For every ISI subject subfield: - Journals title list included in that subject category - Database that indexed the journal - ISSN - Impact Factor (IF) - Article Influence Score - AIS - Relative Influence Score (SRI) - Position in the first 25% or 50% of subject subfield (according to their Article Influence Score - AIS) - "red zone" or "yellow zone". Location in the "white zone" indicates that the title is in the second half of the hierarchy made using AIS as a criterion. - Position in ISI subject subfield hierarchy (1, 2, 3...) Example: ISI Subject Category - Nuclear science & technology (first 5 titles belonging red zone and first 5 titles from yellow zone ) table 3 49

61 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Journal title Database which indexed the journal JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS (SD Freedom Collection) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION BIOLOGY (Informa Healthcare) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH (Wiley- Blackwell Full Collection - CRKN) JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION (IOP Journals) RADIOCHIMICA ACTA (Current Contents and Science Citation Index; Chemical Abstracts; INSPEC) Total no. of journals in red zone: 8 NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY (American Nuclear Technology) NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B - BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS (SD Freedom Collection) NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A: ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT (SD Freedom Collection) HEALTH PHYSICS (Wolter Kluwers Health) Table 3 Nuclear science & technology Journals with bibliometric indicators NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND DESIGN (SD Freedom Collection) Total no. of journals in yellow zone: 7 ISI subfield - Nuclear science & technology Impavt Factor (IF) Influence score = Article influence score (AIS) Relative influence score (SRI) ISSN Zone 1 (25%), Zone 2 (50%) Hierarch y in subfield X X By making the correspondence between the AIS and SRI, and specifying the other bibliometric indicators and information provided, an answer was given to the scientific community s requirements, whose efforts for self-evaluation or for a decision making to publish in a journal or another is substantially decreased. Under current policy regarding the approval of the minimum standards required and compulsory in conferring the academic titles in higher education, research and development professional degrees and certificate of habilitation, the scientific and academic community represented in Anelis Plus Consortium used these data considering it is necessary, first, to buy these publications, in order to enable the entire Romanian academic community to respond positively to the current reform. Or, in other words, you can not publish in a journal if you can not access it! Achieving these correlations supports the position formulated by some members of the research-development-innovation community ("Horia Hulubei" National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering); in their opinion, inconsistencies and contradictions appear in case 50

62 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 of relatively taking into account several close or even overlapping fields, but which are characterized by different values of reference influence score (SRI). Thus, the fields "Nuclear Science & Technology" (33 journals) and "Physics, Nuclear" (22 journals) are characterized by and respectively reference influence score values, and by the maximum values of AIS (Journal of Nuclear Materials) and respectively (Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science). The difference more than an order of magnitude between the maximum AIS values is associated with that the AIS value of the first journal from "Nuclear Science & Technology" subject field is beyond the top of 50% journals in the "Physics, Nuclear" subject field. A completely different situation is obtained if the classification is done simultaneously in the two subfields journals (52 titles) according to AIS value (as reported Thomson Reuters). In this case, the maximum AIS value from the first subject field (J. Nucl. Mater.) is at the lower limit of the first 25% journals of the two combined subject field (position 13). Consequently, the proposal was made that the journals evaluation to be made based on AIS values and not using the reference influence score values (SIR) to calculate the reference influence scores of scientific journals as a corresponding to a minimum SIR values of several subject fields where the journal fits, finally leading to the relative influence scores (SRI) of a scientific journal corresponding to false leveling Developing and implementing a new journal usage factor based on COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources) Peter T. Shepherd assessed the feasability of developing and implementing a new journal usage factor based on COUNTER data that would provide an alternative to citation-based measures of journal performance. It was suggested this metric could be based on the data contained in COUNTER Journal Report 1 the number of successful full-text articles requests by month and by journal 6. Although none of the Romanian libraries is involved in the Project COUNTER, this assessment approach proposed by Shepherd could be adapted, and the resulting equation for an individual journal would be: Total usage (the number of successful full-text articles requests for a specified period, by journal) USAGE FACTOR = Total number of articles published online (during a specified period, by journal) 4. Conclusions Improvement of the quality of education systems, increase of the research performance, promotion of innovation and knowledge sharing in the EU, the effective use of information and communication technologies, the implementation of innovative ideas into new products and services will help solving problems of contemporany society. For all these, quality scientific information, complete and timely access, is sine qua non. Teaching and research communities together with students, PhD students, graduates, postgraduates are thus becoming interconnected end-users for long or short distance scientific literature access. Accessing scientific databases should include not only access to the latest discoveries in science but also the ability to insert personal or institutional teaching or research projects in the general scientific flow. In addition, the bibliometric studies like the one presented in this paper support the scientific research, providing to those involved information about the state of research in the field, about the potential collaborators in a particular field of research, etc. 51

63 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Acquisition and management of electronic resources is a way of redefining the role of libraries which will develop services to support the use of such resources and their users. It should also be stated why such an acquisition is indicated and - above all - why it is a survival method in times of crisis: indirectly, it contributes to the reform of national research & development systems, promoting the excellence and intelligent specialization; it is an profitable investment also financially, compared to printed versions of documents, as long as the selection is made taking into account the specific criteria set stated in this paper; the investment in education and research, in times of crisis, is the path to success for all times that will come. Epilogue... After years of trying to aggregate the Romanian scientific and research community in a consortium-like structure, in order to purchase in a shared manner the infodocumentary electronic resources and also the development of other added value services (approach initially promoted by the most important university libraries) at the end of 2011, the Association of the Universities, Research and Development Institutes, and the Central University Libraries in Romania "Anelis Plus" was born. Although the associative structure usefulness was known in the experiences of other European countries, the ANELIS project proved the advantage of an integrated electronic access system to scientific information and indicated acquisition in cooperation, extended to the whole Romanian scientific and academic community, as being the only way to continue the national access to electronic scientific literature after A bon entendeur salut! Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to dr. Maria Dinescu and dr. Vlad Avrigeanu (members of the Board of the Consortium Anelis Plus) for the paper provided regarding the position of IFIN HH researchers toward SRI use in assessment. BIBLIOGRAFIE 1. Johnson, P. Fundamentals of collection development and management. Chicago: ALA, p. 2. Olariu, I. Library, redefining its traditional mission: delivering information literacy instruction. Paper presented at QQML 2012, Limerick (Ireland), May International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC). Revised Guidelines for Statistical Measures of Usage of Web-Based Information Resources (Oct.4, 2006). Disponibil la (accesat la ) 4. White, G. W.; Crawford G. A. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Electronic Information: A Case Study. In College and Research Libraries 59, no.6/1998), pp Botero, C.; Carrico, S.; Tennant, M. Using Comparative Online Journal Usage Studies to Assess the Big Deal. In Library Resources and Technical Services 49, no.1/2005, pp Shepherd, P. T. Final Report on the Investigation into the Feasibility of Developing and Implementing Journal Usage Factor. Disponibil la: uksg.org/files/finalreportusagefactorproject.pdf (accesat la ) 7. Thomson Reuters. Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Disponibil la: (accesat ) 8. Unitatea Executiva pentru Finantarea Invatamantului Superior, Cercetarii, Dezvoltarii si Inovarii. Scorul relativ de influenta. Disponibil la (accesat ) 52

64 PROJECT LLP-LDV/PLM/2011/R0/236 ENHANCEMENT OF QUALITY IN LIBRARY SERVICES SPECIALIZED FOR YOUNG AUDIENCES Iuliana Delia B ĂL ĂICAN, Automated Library Services Departament, Romanian Academy Library Abstract: The paper refers to the ongoing project - LEONARDO DA VINCI MOBILITY PLM (PROJECT LLP-LDV/PLM/2011/R0/236 Enhancement of Quality in Library Services Specialized for Young Audiences ), financed by the European Commission, whose beneficiaries are two partner institutions - the Córdoba University Library and the Romanian Academy Library. A transnational mobility for People in the Labour Market (PLM) consists in a training placement for a period of vocational training and/or work experience undertaken by an individual participant in an enterprise or a training institution in another participating country. The project objectives are related to the personal and professional development of the librarians/cataloguers from the Romanian Academy Library, with implications in the library services quality - specialized for young audiences. Keywords: library management; library services; Leonardo da Vinci mobility; Córdoba University Library; Romanian Academy Library; European Union. The Romanian Academy Library is the beneficiary of a Leonardo da Vinci mobility PLM project, financed by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Education and Culture, through the National Agency for Community Programmes in the Field of Education and Vocational Training (ANPCDEFP), which is set up under the coordination of Ministry for Education and Research. By means of this project aiming the continuous training for librarians/cataloguers, the Romanian Academy Library intends to support the development of skills in improving the quality of library services specialized for young audiences. The institution expects to draw upon participants European-gained experience to modernize its services and tailor them to the needs of young readers, so that it becomes a flagship institution for learning/research/dissemination, to support performance and innovation and to engage in the establishment of an advanced knowledge society by providing the vital resources training and knowledge, particularly during the worldwide economic crisis. The fund of physical cultural objects (books, manuscripts, scores, maps etc.) is selective (not everything is written, is published and not all publications are collected in libraries), persistent (aimed at storage/recording for a long period) and intended for use by a certain audience (unrestricted or belonging to certain categories with various access rights according to the type of library). The tasks of the librarians are not only collection, maintenance and management of the fund of cultural objects, but also assistance to users, this being the main difference between them and simple collectors. 1 1 Florin FILIP, Igor COJOCARU, Economy of Culture in the Information Society Based n Knowledge, p. 104,

65 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Therefore, one of the difficulties in the library work is the selection of information. Everybody has access at texts and documents available on internet, but qualified assistance is required in order to select reliable and significant information. The European traineeship provides the participants with the opportunity to raise awareness of the important role they have for the quality assurance of learning/research/dissemination resources, in order to promote a culture of the elites, and to enhance attractiveness and accessibility of the opportunities for lifelong learning. They will also improve their abilities to promote strategies of information retrieval for schoolchildren, university undergraduate and graduate students, MA and PhD students. These strategies are necessary for quality information retrieval from the own documentary holdings, online catalogues, specialized Romanian and foreign bibliographies. Librarians and cataloguers will use their specialized theoretical knowledge and will improve their competences for retrieval and dissemination of information from library holdings, and for in-depth searches in the automated integrated system, so that they become efficient mediators of the useful and valuable information which they select, transmit and exploit for their customers. The target group of the project is made up of 18 cataloguers and librarians from the Romanian Academy Library, who have different specializations and work in different departments of the library, but are united by the common goal of improving their relationship with young users and raise their awareness about this institution. The managing team of the project is: Acad. Florin Filip General Manager of the Romanian Academy Library, Ms. Delia Iuliana Bălăican, PhD project coordinator, Mrs. Măriuca Stanciu, PhD Head of the Department for Information Technology Media Library, Mrs. Daniela Stanciu Head of the Serials Department, and Mrs. Alina Filipescu financial adviser. The participants linguistic, pedagogical and cultural training program took place at the beneficiary s headquarters. The Spanish classes were conducted by teachers from the Cervantes Institute of Bucharest, the English classes specialized on library science by Mrs. Măriuca Stanciu, the cultural training by Mrs. Daniela Stanciu and Delia Bălăican, and the pedagogical training by Delia Bălăican. The project is divided into 3 flows of 6 trainees each. The duration of professional training is of two weeks. The placement at partner institutions is as follows: Córdoba University Library from 19 March to 1 April 2012; Biblioteca Pública del Estado-Biblioteca Provincial Infanta Elena de Sevilla (arranged by ONECO CONSULTORÍA & MOVILIDAD) from 28 May to 10 June 2012, Sagrada Familia Library Barcelona, Jaume Fuster Library Barcelona, Vapor Vell Library Barcelona, Ignaci Iglesias Can Fabra Library Barcelona, and Biblioteca Pública de Tarragona from 29 May to 11 June In this period, the second and third project stream are unrolling over there. The cooperation between institutions on preparing the work program and the monitoring, validation and dissemination of activities represents an opportunity to exchange good practices and competences, both at a personal and institutional level. The activities performed during the first flow were monitored by Mrs. Măriuca Stanciu (Department for Information Technology Media Library), throughout the first week of training. Science and Education Policies in Central and Eastern Europe, Balkans, Caucasus and Baltic Countries nr 7/2010, UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science and Culture in Europe (BRESCE), Palazzo Zorzi, 4930 Castello, Venice, Italy. 54

66 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 In order to achieve the project objectives, the placement trainer Mrs. Carmen Liñán Maza, Manager of the Córdoba University Library, conceived a program to cover the activities listed in the Training Agreement and Quality Commitment for Leonardo da Vinci Training Placements. The monitor supervised the assessment of the participants to the first flow of the Project LLP-LDV/PLM/2011/R0/236 trained at the Córdoba University Library from 19 March to 1 April The monitoring covered the first traineeship stage, which took place at the Maimonides Central Library of the Córdoba University, in the Rabanales Campus. Due to a typical structure of a university library: central library (which provides centralized services for the processing and dissemination of holdings, established through widely accepted development and implementation strategies) and department libraries (which address specific needs of the students, of the academic and research staff from the various faculties), we agreed with the partner that the second part of the traineeship should be dedicated to the application, by the participants, of library science knowledge to these specific needs. During monitoring, the assessment of the trainees was performed by the persons designated by the receiving institution. The monitoring and assessment of the placement trainees focused primarily on the way in which their knowledge of library science and library management conforms to the standards of the receiving institution, and particularly on the way in which they tailor this knowledge to the specific university library users students of the three cycles of higher education. Thus, while performing operations of information processing (cataloguing, indexing, bibliography), the Romanian trainees were impressed by the Córdoban indexers skill for providing multiple access paths for the retrieval of information by ranking the subject terms and the key words from the general to the highly specialized ones. The common use of MARC standards in the two libraries eased the communication both between trainees and trainers and the team working of the flow members. Organization and dissemination of holdings was another major issue of great interest to the trainees. The Córdoba University Library displays its collection items in an open, wellarticulated, three-level space, which is made up of reading areas and open access shelves. This means that the user has free access to the shelves. The users are guided by the staff, which is highly trained in search strategies and information retrieval. The holdings are made up of reference materials and monographs, from the general to the medium specialized ones. A special attention is given to handbooks. The number of publications in foreign languages is low, except in English and French, which are best represented. The trainees noted that the fields of knowledge are explicitly and clearly announced for each group of shelves, however the subjects are doubled by the UDC notation. The users are asked to not return items to the shelves after consultation, otherwise this will double the workload of the library staff. Another interesting issue noted by the trainees was the hierarchical organization of the reading spaces. Thus, we see work areas for student groups, intended for project and team work, areas for consultation of electronic resources, but also for completion of various curricular tasks, genuine computer farms, and last but not least, areas dedicated to teachers and researchers computer-equipped cubicles designed for individual study and storage of current work documents. The organization of the serials reading room was a true example of good practices for the trainees, who endeavored to acquire the strategy for disseminating this distinct class. The current issues are arranged in shelves, mentioning the date of shift from print to electronic resources. The alternation of shelves and reading spaces is especially remarkable. The storage of old serials collections, archives and ancient books uses the Compactus shelving 55

67 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science system, which saves a lot of storage space and ensures good conservation of materials with minimum staffing requirements. The participants experienced these storage conditions successfully and acknowledged the advantages of this option. The commercial database electronic resources are purchased both from the local and the central budget. A constructive dialogue between trainees and trainers focused on the creation of own electronic resources by digitization of library collections. The trainees noted the preoccupation for the dissemination of electronic content through the participation of the Córdoba University Library to both national and local library consortia (common projects for academic and public libraries from Andalusia). The participants experienced different methods of interlibrary loan ask for information and borrow materials or receive photocopies of documents that are owned by other libraries. This service is of great importance for the users. All procedures are performed via electronic mail and facsimilation of the requested documents. Conclusions of the monitoring of the first flow: - the receiving library appreciated the participants high level of knowledge; - the assessment revealed that the exchange of ideas, the practice and the experience of information processing, organization and dissemination were benefic for a thorough approach and fulfillment of the young users' requests by the librarians of the Romanian Academy Library. Through the Leonardo Mobility Agreement, the two partner institutions, the Córdoba University Library and the Romanian Academy Library, agreed that the project objectives were achieved, thus the placement of the first flow was validated as a result of the assessment. The PROJECT LLP-LDV/PLM/2011/R0/236 Enhancement of Quality in Library Services Specialized for Young Audiences financed by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Education and Culture, through the National Agency for Community Programmes in the Field of Education and Vocational Training, represents an important opportunity for personal and professional development of the participants librarians/cataloguers from the Romanian Academy Library as a result of improving their foreign language skills and cultural experience. 56

68 LIBRARY EVENTS AN INNOVATIVE WAY TO PROMOTE AND ENCOURAGE READING Dalia PUPŠYTö Fridrich Bajoraitis Public Library of Šilut s Region Municipality, Lithuania Abstract: Fridrich Bajoraitis Public Library offers, beside traditional services specific to this type of institution, also a wide range of digital and interactive services. It is focused on users and its purpose is to educate the community, especially the one located in the municipality of Šilut, through the discovery of state-of-art technical solutions and innovative working methods. The policy of the library is its functioning as public place, wherein manifold user-oriented events are organized, which are meant not only to encourage reading but likewise to meet the needs of the community. Keywords: library, service, innovation, event, project Fridrichas Bajoraitis Public Library Capacity Fridrichas Bajoraitis Public Library located in the municipality of Šilut is a middle size library (with 23 village branches in Šilut region). It is an attractive, modern place with public open spaces where, along with the traditional library services, a large range of digital and interactive information for the Šilut region community is available. The library has attracted approximately 3,868 registered library users, of which 987 are children and youth from age 0 to 14. Fridrichas Bajoraitis Public Library Services The combination of all the services offered by the library has as its main goal that of promoting reading, inspiring creativity, finding new solutions and innovative forms of work methods. B. Bajoraitis Public Library practices and experiences i.e. library events, as one of the ways of promoting reading, encouraging the community to visit the library and to enjoy reading by offering guidance for obtaining information and other specific library services too. We consider that an innovative library is a public place with the following main characteristics: Customer orientation (we investigate the library users needs, via short questionnaires); Educating our community and creating services that meet their needs (through a large range of different educative activities for children and adults, e. g. basic computer skills for seniors, introduction to e - government services access, via the internet, access to the Sustainable Development Program entitled For the Library Improvement (supported by Bill Gates Long-term Project Foundation); Active search for extra funding (search for new local book sponsors, applying for funding to local, national and international financing projects);

69 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Constant development, open for changes; Communicative collaboration (long-term partnerships with education institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), exchange of professional experience with librarians from the Baltic countries, Scandinavia, Georgia, Russia, Croatia or other libraries from Lithuania); Virtual (library resources available for long distance access using modern channels to communicate the information); minded and consultative services; 1 Fridrich Bajoraitis Public Library holds, on average, 150 different events and visual exhibitions and attracts nearly 50 thousand visitors yearly. The increasing number of visitors that attend these types of activities shows that they arouse the interest of our users and are also useful for the community. All events are part of the library services promotion tool, which creates publicity, visibility, efficiency, image and communication with the community members in the region. The library users, also, attract potential new library members. However, the events organized within the library encourage not only the promotion of reading, but also play an important role in meeting the local community needs and interests especially those of children and elderly people. According to different countries experience the maximum effect of promoting reading could be achieved when reading habits and skills are reinforced at a very early age. 2 This is one of the most important conditions if one wants to achieve a high literacy and a successful level of reading culture. The tendency to read and the reading provisions must be already formed during childhood, at home or by those around. The ability to read is a necessary cultural competence. Without good reading skills it will be difficult to find an attractive position on the job market and it will be also hard to control your own life. 3 Reading promotion activities are carried out by a long-term campaign, in co-operation with the library partners. Our library has partnership agreements with Šilut City kindergartens, schools and gymnasiums. The pre-school children visit the library 2-3 times per week and participate in a variety of creative-educational activities. The necessary change of the traditional library space into an interactive playing-learning-knowledge space attracts more children. Children express their artistic views by using the feature puppets, reading fairy tales, preparing drama events together with the librarians, organizing exhibitions of their own self-made works. During the audio readings the children are introduced to the newly published children books. Such activities have proven to pay off their expenses by attracting new library visitors. By finding the way to the library, children also have the opportunity to communicate to each other and share their experience with other children. An unusual reading promotion project, called Reading train trip (Šilut -Klaipeda) for children, parents and grandparents" has been recently launched. During a fifty kilometer trip all the participants have the chance to be introduced to new books and authors, to read stories, to communicate and spend time together. One of the most interesting literature afternoon events dedicated to the King of Lithuania Mindaugas Coronation Day ("I am a Lithuanian - I am a king ) was staged in the forest, near a hundred-year-old oak tree. While the children were listening to stories about the Lithuanian King Mindaugas, they played medieval games. The Public Library joined the Day of Europe celebration. A spectacular event was held in an authentic fishermen village, Rusn, on the river bank of Atmata, where a modern European town was build. Around the town, a kite 1 Naujoviškos viešosios bibliotekos gair s (Innovative public library, conference material ) Bibliotekininkyst s ir informacijos studijų vadovas, Vilniaus universitetas Jens Thorhauge. Children a constant challenge - also to the library. 58

70 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 competition, quizzes, concerts, dancing performances, original ecological-sculptures created by the students were also organized or displayed. As a very special guests of the festival a Christian Youth Rock group from the USA were also invited. Every year, the Children Department of the Šilute Public Library participates in 2-3 shortterm domestic projects organized by the Lithuanian Ministry of Culture and Šilut municipality. A long - term event for kids to continue the International Children Book Fair has been also initiated and organized by our library. The main goal of this event is to raise awareness by focusing on science and knowledge. The participants are authors, illustrators, publishers of children books from the Baltic counties (Latvia, Estonia), Russia, and Croatia. 4 This event has been organized every other year since The International Children Book Fair exhibition attracts around 500 participants. Among the main activities of the book fair the children books presentation, the book market, the educational events for the kids, the meetings with the children book authors, theatre performances and other entertainment activities in relation with the reading promotion, leisure and fun are worth mentioning. For three decades already the Fridrichas Bajoraitis Public Library, has collected and preserved information about the people, who were born in Šilute or otherwise, associated with Šilut city or its region. Since 1988 the library has been the main organizer of the meetings of all the fellows of Šilut who live in Lithuania or abroad so that they can "bring the light, do good things.... The main objective of this event is to gather people on their homeland for intellectual discussions, to bring various generations together, to initiate and inspire them in order to generate new ideas, share experience and create new works. At the conference, art exhibitions, musical programs and creative night readings have been reselected. In 2011 Šilut City celebrated the 500-year anniversary. Nearly a hundred fellow participants, from all over Lithuania, and abroad, attended the library event. Since 2005, Fridrichas Bajoraitis Public Library has been the main organizer of the traditional literature autumn event. This every-three-years event is encouraging the literature lovers to present their own literature writings. During the event, the books writers, the publishers, the illustrators, the translators and the literary critics present their own work to the public library, as well as in the small towns around Šilut with the local library branches. The local community has, in this way, the opportunity to interact with the authors and their works. All the books presented are displayed during the autumn exhibition. The final part of the literature autumn event is represented by the nomination of the best author and the election of the top ten best and most important books. The event attracts also hundreds of tourists visiting Šilut. Every year, since 2005, the Fridichas Bajoraitis Public Library, in co-operation with the University of Vilnius invites people for the University Day of Šilut. There are meetings in four gymnasiums, where the Deans present the University profile and provide all the necessary information related to the studies in that University. In a second part, the Deans of different faculties of the Vilnius University participate in round-table discussions. The Vilnius University Days provide an excellent opportunity for high school students and their parents to get the latest information about the study programs of the Vilnius University. There is one event (called Benefish ) dedicated to the library promotion. The main goal is to develop the respect for the best library traditions, to make the library users and the potential sponsors known. 4 Ramun Petuchovait Viešųjų paslaugų bendruomenei pl tra

71 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Each year the library elects the best librarian. The best librarian title is a reward for both the librarian work performance and the result of the library customers evaluation. Usually Benefish is organized according to a playful script, including also a good sense of humor. Celebrating the Press Restoration Day has become a tradition, too. The event named Goats from Pamarys is attended by the local journalists, politicians and business people. Every year the library has organized the event Goats from Pamarys floating land. The final part of the event is represented by the presentation of the traditional award the worst most ridiculous achievement of the year. Fridrichas Bajoraitis Public Library Benefits for the users Reading is a very important part of human daily life: it improves thinking, builds and develops knowledge of the individual world model concept and the multi-cultural interaction and integrates knowledge into society encouraging personal creativity. In my opinion the librarians are always benevolent and have sufficient competence so they must continue to run campaigns and reading contests, to tell stories, to organize reading meetings with the book authors, to present new books, to organize writing workshops and many other well-known activities that truly encourage reading, while also inventing new activities and services to meet the community needs. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. *** Bibliotekininkyst s ir informacijos studijų vadovas. Vilniaus universitetas, Jens Thorhauge: Children a constant challenge - also to the library. Available at: 3. *** Naujoviškos viešosios bibliotekos gair s (Innovative public library, conference material),

72 EIGHT IS ALREADY WELL! CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNLIMITED LOAN Vincent CHEVALLIER Médiathèque de Clichy-la-Garenne (France) Abstract: The 1 st of June 2011 the media library of Clichy adopted the system called «unlimited loan». The lending quotas have been removed so that the reader may borrow as many documents as he wants. This was decided for offering more freedom to the users, for encouraging cultural «risk-taking» and for sending a positive signal when the concept of «unlimited» spreads within the consumption habits. Uncommon, this practice has generated debate and fear among the agents, and it questions the relation reader/librarian. After 8 months of functioning, it is possible to risk a first interim balance. Keywords: media library, library loan, unlimited loan, library management, Clichy-la-Garenne, France. 1. Introduction Depuis le 1 er juin 2011, la médiathèque de Clichy a adopté le «prêt illimité», ce qui veut dire que nous avons supprimé toute limitation au nombre de documents empruntables. Cette mesure a été décidée pour améliorer notre adaptation au besoin du public et favoriser la rotation des documents. En effet, de 2005 (date d installation du logiciel de gestion) à 2010, la médiathèque de Clichy a enregistré six années consécutives de baisse du nombre de prêts dans chacun de ses trois secteurs (adultes, jeunesse et discothèque), et ce dans les proportions suivantes : Evolution du nombre de prêts Secteur adultes -27,90% Secteur jeunesse -10,50% Secteur discothèque -39,40% Total médiathèque -25,80% Parallèlement à cela, les rayonnages étaient totalement saturés du fait d un espace très limité et d un désherbage insuffisant. Nous possédions en juin 2010 près de documents pour un espace dévolu aux rayonnages de moins de 600 m 2. Le constat était donc clair: nos collections étaient largement sous-employées. Une meilleure rotation des documents serait doublement profitable au public : directement par l usage accru des documents et indirectement par l amélioration de l accès aux collections. A l époque, le maximum de documents empruntables sur une carte unique était de 8 livres + 8 disques + 8 journaux pour un total de 24 documents, ce qui était déjà relativement

73 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience important. Pourtant, l une des premières solutions envisagées fut d autoriser les usagers à emprunter plus de documents. Peu de médiathèques en France ont supprimé les limitations du nombre de documents empruntables. En janvier 2011, une collègue conservateur de bibliothèque dénombrait seulement huit équipements ayant adopté le prêt illimité sous une forme ou une autre 1. Pour cette raison, sa mise en place peut-être source d étonnement voire de craintes dont toutes ne sont pas injustifiées de la part des équipes. 2. Motivations et mise en application 2.2. Pourquoi le prêt illimité? Bien sûr le prêt illimité a l avantage d entraîner une augmentation presque mécanique du nombre de prêts, comme nous le verrons un peu plus tard. Il est donc un moyen facile, rapide et gratuit de booster une activité en berne. Néanmoins il est aussi et surtout une manière d adapter mieux l offre de la bibliothèque aux besoins du public et de dynamiser son image. Après la mise en place du prêt illimité à Clichy, on m a objecté qu il s agissait d une manière «artificielle» d augmenter l activité et que cela allait dans le sens de la sacralisation du nombre de prêts et donnait de notre activité une image réductrice, notamment en direction de notre tutelle. Je ne vois rien d «artificiel» dans cette augmentation. Les livres empruntés sont bien réels et le plaisir ou le profit qu en retirent leurs lecteurs me parait parfaitement valable. Par ailleurs, si tous les livres empruntés ne sont pas forcément lus, le simple fait de les avoir feuilletés, d en avoir lu le quatrième de couverture, ou même de les avoir eus en main, peut être profitable pour la culture générale de l emprunteur et donc aller complètement dans le sens de notre mission. Le prêt illimité n est donc pas qu une manière peu subtile de remporter la course au nombre de prêts. Le véritable intérêt du prêt illimité réside bien plus dans la possibilité laissée aux usagers de prendre absolument tout ce dont ils ont besoin sans restriction. Plus besoin de choisir entre le livre qui vous intéresse peut-être, le livre qui vous fait envie et le livre dont vous avez besoin. Non seulement le prêt illimité facilite, en théorie au moins, la satisfaction des besoins du lecteur, mais il l encourage également la prise de risques culturels puisqu il n a plus à choisir entre un livre dont il sait qu il va l aimer et un livre qu il ne connait pas ou dont le genre ne lui est pas familier. Ainsi, à la médiathèque d Albi, qui fut l une des toutes premières à avoir essayé le prêt illimité, la poésie et le théâtre furent parmi les domaines à avoir le plus profité de ce changement 2. Enfin, le prêt illimité envoie un signal positif au public. Il signifie d abord une simplification radicale des modalités d utilisation du service, toujours bien accueillie, et surtout il est en phase avec l époque qui propose de plus en plus au public, contre des adhésions gratuites ou payantes, des offres illimitées (internet, cinéma, téléphone ). Cette suppression revendiquée d une des contraintes majeures en bibliothèques est reçue très positivement par le public et contribue à dynamiser l image d un service souvent perçu comme sympathique mais parfois aussi un peu passéiste et rigide Mise e place La mise en place du prêt illimité peut-être longue et complexe. Parfois l incompréhension de l équipe et des élus est telle qu il faut des mois pour convaincre. Parfois ce sont des problèmes logistiques qui se posent, notamment dans les grands réseaux. Pour tous se pose également la question de la communication autour de cette réforme. 1 BILLARD Alice, Le Prêt illimité en bibliothèque municipale, mémoire d étude pour le diplôme de Conservateur de Bibliothèque, sous la direction de Matthieu Desachy, ENSSIB, janvier Cf. DESACHY, Matthieu, «Lisez sans entraves : le prêt illimité à la bibliothèque municipale d'albi», BBF, 2009, n 3, p

74 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Dans certaines villes, la mise en place du prêt illimité a été longue et même douloureuse 3. Ce n est heureusement pas le cas partout et cela ne l a pas été à Clichy où tout s est passé de manière très fluide. Souvent, la modification du nombre de documents empruntables nécessite une révision du règlement intérieur, voire un vote du Conseil Municipal. A Clichy, nous avons bénéficié d une heureuse disposition insérée dans notre règlement, précisant que «le nombre de documents empruntables est fixé par le directeur de l établissement». Du coup, nul vote ni modification du règlement n a été nécessaire. Nous avons simplement fixé une date à partir de laquelle les limitations seraient levées, en l occurrence le 1 er juin 2011, et tout s est passé assez facilement. L augmentation soudaine et conséquente du volume des prêts et des retours liée au prêt illimité requiert aussi une anticipation et une attention particulière, car des problèmes concrets d organisation et de surcharge du travail peuvent surgir. Il est nécessaire d être attentif aux espaces de rangement disponibles derrière les agents pour les retours. Il faut aussi veiller à ce que les usagers aient les outils pour garder à l esprit les ouvrages en leur possession et les dates de retour prévues (impression de tickets, espace personnalisé sur le site internet ). Enfin, la question de la communication n appelle pas partout la même réponse. Certains préfèrent commencer discrètement, sans publicité, pour évaluer posément les premiers résultats et répondre aux éventuels problèmes avant qu ils ne prennent trop d ampleur. D autres en revanche font du prêt illimité un véritable «argument de vente» pour attirer le public et dynamiser leur image. A Clichy l information s est limitée à une série d affiches dans la médiathèque, une information sur le site internet et quelques articles dans les journaux locaux. Le choix des mots est également important. Nous avons choisi dans un premier temps de ne pas parler de «prêt illimité» mais de «suppression des limites au nombre de documents empruntables». Plus technique et moins clinquant, ce choix de mots avait justement pour objectif la discrétion, pour limiter dans un premier temps la tentation de «tester» le système en empruntant un nombre déraisonnable de documents. 3. Craintes et enjeux du prêt illimité 3.1. La peur des abus et du rayonnage vide La première crainte soulevée par l équipe fut celle de voir les rayonnages subitement vidés et le choix considérablement réduit pour les usagers. Certaines collections en particulier ont suscité des inquiétudes, soit parce que la taille des documents autorisait d en prendre un nombre considérable (les CD, DVD) soit parce qu il s agissait de documents à «consommation» rapide (bandes dessinées, magazines) soit enfin parce que leur public était perçu comme ayant du mal à se maitriser (les enfants, les étudiants ). Nous avons finalement décidé de laisser les limites pour deux types de documents, en jeunesse : les périodiques (4 par carte), que nous n avons pas en très grand nombre, et les ouvrages de la collection «Max et Lily» (2 par carte), des petits romans extrêmement demandés par les enfants. On a aussi objecté que cela risquait de créer des inégalités entre lecteurs puisque désormais quelqu un pourrait s il le souhaite tout prendre sur un sujet ou un thème donné et ne rien laisser aux suivants. Ainsi il serait possible de prendre toutes les disques de tel auteur ou encore tous les guides de voyage sur tel pays pour préparer un voyage. Ce risque existe en effet, néanmoins avec l ancienne limite de huit documents, il était déjà possible d emprunter presque tous les documents sur un unique sujet. D autre part, rien n interdit aux bibliothécaires de discuter avec le lecteur pour lui demander au besoin d en laisser un peu pour les autres lorsqu il vide manifestement un domaine donné. 3 Cf BILLARD Alice, Le Prêt illimité en bibliothèque municipale, op. cit., p

75 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Enfin, la grande crainte concernait les éventuels abus par des gens qui pousseraient plus ou moins malicieusement le système très loin. Que se passerait-il si quelqu un voulait prendre 250 CD ou bien repartir avec une valise de livres? Bien que très improbable, ce cas de figure n est pas impossible. Il reste possible de raisonner la personne. Sinon, elle est de toute manière responsable de ce qu elle emprunte et devra rembourser les éventuelles pertes. Nous avions même imaginé d inventer une fausse «limite du logiciel» à par exemple 99 documents. Fort heureusement, le cas ne s est toujours pas présenté. Globalement, les gens sont très raisonnables. Peu de gens, notamment parmi le public adulte, pousse le système vraiment loin. Beaucoup en profite pour prendre ponctuellement un peu plus mais dans l ensemble les habitudes d emprunt ont été simplifiées mais non pas bouleversées Les contraintes en bibliothèque à l ère de l illimité Les débats autour du prêt illimité font ressortir un contraste entre certaines pratiques en vigueur dans nombre de bibliothèques et la tendance actuelle de la société à toujours plus d ouverture et toujours moins de contrainte. Libre-service dans les magasins, bouquets TV avec plusieurs centaines de chaînes, forfaits internet ou téléphone illimités, «Pass» permettant l accès illimité au transport ou au cinéma, possibilité de télécharger ou de faire des achats en ligne à n importe quel moment et de n importe quel lieu le consommateur (culturel notamment) s habitue peu à peu à une offre quasiment illimitée et très accessible. A l inverse, la bibliothèque lui impose un écheveau complexe (et changeant d une bibliothèque à l autre) de contraintes horaires et règlementaires, de limitations (taille des collections, durée du prêt, nombre de réservations, nombre de nouveautés ) et d interdictions (bruit, téléphones portables, nourriture, boissons, animaux ). L acte de prêt en particulier est soumis à un faisceau de contraintes parfois bien peu lisibles pour le public : durée d emprunt, nombre de documents empruntables, nombre de réservations autorisées, et tout cela par support, par type de documents (nouveautés, documents réservés ), par type de public (enfants, enseignants, collectivités ), par période de l année (vacances, période estivale ). Les modalités du prêt connaissent ainsi d une bibliothèque à l autre une infinité de variations subtiles, construites par l histoire du service, les besoins des usagers, les contraintes des collections, les convictions de l équipe ou les impulsions politiques. Ce constat doit donc nous amener à reconsidérer notre offre en regard des possibilités offertes désormais au public par le reste des fournisseurs de produits culturels. Mais au-delà de l offre culturelle, c est aussi la relation bibliothécaire-lecteur qui est mise en cause par le prêt illimité. Car l acte de prêt est au cœur de l activité traditionnelle des bibliothèques et de la relation qu elles construisent avec leurs usagers. Il n est donc pas si anodin qu il y paraît Le bibliothécaire, le livre et l usager : un subtil jeu de pouvoir Lorsque nous avons évoqué la possibilité de supprimer les limitations de prêt, les principales remarques ou inquiétudes ont en réalité porté non pas sur le risque de désertification des rayonnages, mais autour de questions de principes. Il m a globalement été répondu que «huit, c est déjà bien» 4. Une collègue m a même expliqué qu elle insistait auprès des usagers pour qu ils n empruntent pas plus que ce qu ils étaient sûrs de pouvoir écouter, et qu elle allait même jusqu à leur poser des questions au retour des documents. Un peu comme si, au restaurant, le serveur ou le cuisinier reprochait aux clients de ne pas finir leur assiette! Une autre collègue a aussi émis l hypothèse que la limitation des prêts était bénéfique car elle «apprend aux gens à faire des choix». 4 Référence à la limitation de prêt alors en vigueur 64

76 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Ces réflexions sont représentatives du côté négatif, ou caricatural, de l idée très répandue que le livre, et plus largement l objet culturel, n est pas un «produit» comme un autre. Cette spécificité du livre légitime les contraintes qui doivent contrôler son accès et son utilisation. Cette phrase, «huit, c est déjà bien», sonne comme si nous étions déjà bien sympathiques de les laisser prendre huit livres. En arrière fond se trouve cette idée que la culture «se mérite» et que le livre, comme un autel, ne peut s approcher qu avec humilité, par la médiation de ses ministres (et gardiens) et l observation quasi-rituelle des codes et des contraintes en vigueur. Le prêt illimité va à l encontre de cet état d esprit. Comme le libre-accès ou l accès à distance, il contribue à modifier le rapport du lecteur à la bibliothèque. Comme l écrit Alice Billard, «on passe d une logique de contenus à une logique de l accès. Le fondement du projet du prêt illimité, selon ses plus ardents défenseurs, réside dans le passage d un système contraint et contrôlé par des bibliothécaires «prescripteurs» à un système librement adapté aux pratiques et usages du public. Il ne s agit pas d une simple émancipation mais plutôt d une redéfinition du contrat avec le lecteur.» 5 4. Premier bilan : conforme à ce qui était observé ailleurs 4.1. Coup de fouet pour les supports à consommation rapide et pour la jeunesse Comme on pouvait s y attendre, le prêt illimité a eu un effet très important et quasi immédiat sur le secteur jeunesse et la discothèque. Du 1 er septembre au 31 décembre 2011, le secteur jeunesse a vu ses prêts augmenter de +34,8% par rapport à la même période en De la même manière, la discothèque a prêté 54,2% de documents supplémentaires 6. Evolution du nombre de prêts jeunesse et discothèque ( ) En regardant plus en détail on observe que ce sont surtout les documents à consommation rapide qui bénéficient le plus de la suppression des quotas de prêt. Les bandes dessinées jeunesse ont ainsi connu une hausse de 88%. De manière générale, la fiction (+37,4%) profite plus que les documentaires (+27,7%) Effet limité sur les documents adultes Du côté des livres adultes en revanche, l effet est plus limité. Les prêts de documents ont reculé d 1,5% suite à la mise en place du prêt illimité. Il faut néanmoins remarquer que le secteur adultes connaissait jusque là une baisse moyenne de presque 10% par an. On peut donc avancer, même si seul l avenir le confirmera, que le prêt illimité a contribué à freiner la baisse de son activité. 5 BILLARD Alice, Le Prêt illimité en bibliothèque municipale, op. cit., p.30 6 L augmentation de l activité de la discothèque s explique aussi par l adoption, au 1 er juin 2011 également, de la gratuité pour ce secteur qui était jusque là le seul à être soumis à des frais d inscription (21 euros/an) 65

77 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience En observant dans le détail, on fait les mêmes observations que pour les deux autres secteurs, à savoir que les documents à consommation rapide profitent plus du prêt illimité. Les bandes dessinées ont ainsi vu leur nombre de prêts augmenter de 16,8% et les périodiques de 3,5%. Il est cependant particulièrement satisfaisant, car c était un des objectifs de cette réforme, de constater que beaucoup de gens nous disent apprécier cette levée des restrictions même s ils ne s en servent pas vraiment eux-mêmes. 5. Conclusion Au final le prêt illimité a permis de dynamiser certains secteurs et certains supports de la médiathèque. Parce qu il est perçu comme une initiative étonnante et positive, il contribue également à moderniser l image de la médiathèque. Cependant il est intéressant de constater qu il constitue une expérience bien plus perturbante pour les bibliothécaires que pour le public, dans les habitudes duquel on n observe aucun changement radical. Simplement une liberté nouvelle, encore bien souvent timidement employée. Il existe un exemple de bibliothèque qui soit revenue sur sa décision après avoir adopté le prêt illimité. Il s agit de la Bibliothèque Municipale de Lille qui s est trouvée confrontée à plusieurs soucis conjugués : d une part des abus de certains usagers, ensuite des collections numériquement trop peu importantes pour la taille de la ville, et enfin une rigidité trop grande de son fonctionnement (système informatique, gestion des prêts-retours) 7. A part cet exemple, il semble que l ensemble des médiathèques ayant adopté le prêt illimité en soit satisfaite. A Clichy, aujourd hui, environ 13% du total des collections sont empruntés à un instant T. Ce ratio monte à plus de 20% pour les CD et environ 15% pour les collections jeunesse (30% pour les BD). Nous sommes encore loin d en être au point où les usagers trouveraient les rayonnages vides. En attendant, les rayons sont plus accessibles, les documents sortent mieux et le public trouve l initiative très positive : même s il est encore trop tôt pour tirer un vrai bilan, les premiers résultats sont donc tout à fait convaincants. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Billard, A. : Le Prêt illimité en bibliothèque municipale, mémoire d étude pour le diplôme de Conservateur de Bibliothèque, sous la direction de Matthieu Desachy, ENSSIB, janvier Desachy, M. «Lisez sans entraves : le prêt illimité à la bibliothèque municipale d'albi», Bulletin des Bibliothèques de France, 2009, n 3, p Mercier, S. «Lire sans entraves OUI, vider la bibliothèque NON», article disponible sur le blog publié le 11 juin Pour plus d information sur l expérience voire BILLARD Alice, Le Prêt illimité en bibliothèque municipale, op. cit., p.63 66

78 THE GATE OF CLICHY THROUGH THE AGES OR CLICHY-LA-GARENNE FACING HISTORY Christian CAPDET Archives de la ville de Clichy-la-Garenne, Société Historique, France Abstract: The information sources of this research consist of writings, plans, documents and works retrieved in the national and private libraries of Paris, or in the Archives from the town of Clichy-la-Garenne. «The Gate of Clichy», one of the gates of Paris, was a connection between city and countryside, which moved according to the evolution of the community over time. The article reviews the major moments in the history of France, which marked this place: the Third Crusade, the Hundred Years War, the events of 1814 and 1815, the Prussian invasion of Keywords: history, historic monuments, documents, public library, Clichy-la-Garenne, France. 1. Introduction Historien, au sein des Archives municipales de la ville de Clichy-la-Garenne, depuis plus de 15 ans, l une de mes activités principales consiste à faire des articles dans la chronique «Notre Histoire» du journal local : Le Clichymag. De ce fait et lors de mes recherches, je me suis penché sur les écrits, les plans et les documents retrouvés dans les bibliothèques nationales, privées de Paris et les livres historiques des abbés Lecanu - édité en 1848 et Narbay - édité en 1908, vicaires de la paroisse de saint-vincent de Paul de Clichy-la-Garenne et historiens à leurs heures pas ci perdues que cela. Lus comme de vrais missels sur l histoire de notre commune et en jonglant entre les dates historiques de la Cité et du village, j ai pu remonter dans le temps. J ai pris pour sujet «La Porte de Clichy», comme toutes les portes, un lien entre la ville et la campagne qui se déplace selon l évolution des habitants. Où rois, empereur et dirigeants annexeront autour de la capitale les faubourgs pour faire de Paris des arrondissements ou bien des quartiers aux petits villages pittoresques. Les moments importants, comme un clin d œil à la 3 ème croisade, la guerre de cent ans, les évènements de 1814 et 1815, l invasion prussienne de 1870, qui ont marqué aussi bien la capitale que notre agglomération, ont été annotés dans ce manuscrit. Ce sont des faits historiques qui se sont accolés à nos portes, des moments clés face à l Histoire de France avec un grand «H». Les Mérovingiens désignaient le territoire de Clichy sous le nom de Clippiacum, terme qui n apparut que sur la charte de Chilpéric 1 er rédigée au 6 ème siècle, dans laquelle est inscrit aussi le terme Palacio Clippiaco. Clippiacum semblait désigner, selon l étymologie la plus vraisemblable, la demeure ou maison de Clépius (ou Cléppius), issue peut-être d une métairie gallo-romaine.

79 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Le roi qui a marqué notre histoire est Dagobert convoquant en 636, à Clichy, un nouveau concile auquel participent les évêques de Rouen, Audionus (ou St-Ouen) et Eloi de Noyon, orfèvre et trésorier. Au lendemain, Judicaël, roi des bretons, vient à Clichy faire sa soumission à Dagobert. Puis en 637, Agina, duc de Gascogne vient de même, avec une députation, faire obéissance au roi. Mais c est Paris, qui est depuis, la capitale de la France et qui va prendre de l ampleur. La construction de la première enceinte se trouve dans la situation des luttes entre Philippe II dit l auguste et la dynastie anglaise des Plantagenêt. Avant de partir pour la 3 ème croisade, le roi ordonne l élévation d'une muraille de pierre afin de protéger Paris, sa capitale, en son absence. 2. Avant les portes Philippe Auguste (né à Gonesse en 1165, mort à Mantes La Jolie en 1223) fut le dernier «seigneur royal» de Clichy-La-Garenne. Son territoire s étendait de la forêt de Rouvray (actuel bois de Boulogne), plantée de chênes rouvres, jusqu aux abords de la Seine et aux portes de la Cité de Saint-Denis, avec l enclave de la commune de Saint-Ouen. Par la suite Philippe II échange ce territoire avec Gaucher de Châtillon (v ), comte de Saint-Pol et autres titres, contre le Château de Pierrefonds et ses environs tant convoité par le dit roi, (château restauré par Violet Le Duc sous Napoléon III, son architecte!). Gaucher était son cousin car il était le petit-fils de Robert de Dreux, le dernier fils de Louis VI, dit le Gros et frère de Louis VII, dit le Jeune. Les armoiries de Gaucher de Châtillon sont «De gueules à trois pals de vair, au chef d'or chargé une fleur de lys d argent». La fleur de lys confirme son appartenance à la famille royale. Dans la même période sa cousine, Agnès de Châtillon ( ), sera reine de Hongrie et de Croatie, par son mari Bela III, Árpád roi de Hongrie. Les armoiries des Chastillon sont représentées dans l église Saint-Mathias où se trouvent les tombeaux de Bela et d Agnès. Donc Philippe Auguste fait pour la première fois construire un mur d enceinte avec des portes d ouverture vers la campagne. Quelques éléments sont arrivés jusqu à nous au 21 ème siècle et suscitent des livres qui sont très prisés en bibliothèque. 3. Porte Saint-Honoré (la première, près de l Oratoire) Au début du 13 ème siècle, Paris est ouvert sur l extérieur de onze portes principales aménagées, puis de quatre autres. De nombreuses poternes viennent s'ajouter pour faire face à la croissance de la ville. Les portes principales sont flanquées de tours à base talutée encadrant un passage voûté ou à ciel ouvert barré de portes et de herses. Sur la rive droite on compte six portes - dont La Porte Saint Honoré - toutes édifiées entre 1190 et La porte prend le nom de l'église Saint Honoré située dans le cloître de la collégiale édifiée sur des terres qui dépendaient alors de Clichy-la-Garenne. De ce fait, Saint Honoré devient un quartier intra-muros de Paris. Sur ses 253 hectares, la capitale possède des terres labourables ou plantées de vignes permettant à la population de résister à des éventuels sièges. Mais au fil des années, ces champs ont été remplacés par des maisons. Ainsi les cultures ont été repoussées en dehors de l enceinte. 68

80 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Porte Saint-Honoré (la deuxième) Reliant les «deux portes», une voie sera identifiée sous divers noms : chemin de Clichy en 1204, grand chemin Saint Honoré en 1283, chaussée Saint Honoré en 1370, grand chemin de la porte Saint Honoré en 1392, etc Sur le territoire de Clichy-la-Garenne, plusieurs faubourgs se développent rapidement, en particulier celui de Saint Honoré, et des lieux dits se forment : Le Roule, La Ville l Evêque terrains des évêques de Paris, Chaillot et son abbaye. Un épisode relaté dans ce manuscrit s inscrit dans la guerre cent ans, c est Jeanne d'arc ( , dont nous fêtons son 6 ème centenaire en 2012), à Monceau et essayant de libérer Paris par la Porte Saint Honoré Tandis que le duc de Bourgogne fait traîner les choses en longueur, d un côté le duc de Bedford fait amener les renforts d Angleterre et met la capitale en état de siège. De l autre côté l armée royale se met en marche. Jeanne d'arc part à la reconquête de Paris mais les Français de la cité, satisfaits de leur sort, n'ont nul désir de revoir les Armagnacs. Déjà la Pucelle et ses compagnons d arme ont transporté leur campement sur les terres de Clichy fin d août, au hameau de Monceau avec la troupe royale de Charles VII. Au-dessus de sa tente flotte le "grand étendard" dont le champ était semé de lys, avec Saint Michel et Saint Gabriel, où elle est inscrite cette devise : «Jhesus Maria». Jeanne portant une armure offerte par Charles VII, choisit comme point d attaque la Porte Saint Honoré le 8 septembre 1429, et fait donner l assaut. La première barrière est remportée et un premier fossé est franchi. Mais, avant d arriver aux remparts, reste à franchir un second fossé, large, profond et rempli d eau. A sa demande on comble le fossé sous une pluie de flèches et de boulets. Jeanne descend la première au bord du fossé, et met à sonder l eau avec sa lance. A ce moment précis, voici qu un trait d arbalète vient l atteindre à la cuisse. Le sang coule à flots de sa blessure à travers son armure. Mais Jeanne sourde à toutes les remontrances, refuse de s éloigner quant on sonne la retraite. Son désespoir est profond, et, jusqu au bout, ne cesse de protester que, si on aurait voulu continuer, la ville aurait été bientôt prise. Elle échoue devant la capitale qui est aux Bourguignons. Avant de partir de la plaine de Clichy, les yeux pleins de larmes, Jeanne d'arc regarde avec tristesse les hautes tours de la grande cité. Elle dépose, lors de son passage à l abbaye Saint Denis, son armure en ex-voto après l'échec de l'assaut sur Paris. Il ne reste de ce souvenir, un médaillon représentant le visage de Jeanne d Arc sur la façade du 1 er étage entre le 161 et le 163 de la rue Saint Honoré, face à la place André Malraux, l emplacement de l ancienne Porte Saint Honoré. Après cette aventure guerrière, la population sans cesse s accroisse car elle ne peut plus être contenue dans la capitale. Puis, les Mathurins près de la ferme des moines, le hameau de Monceaux, les abords du Mont-Moyen (Place de Clichy). Montmartre se développent. 5. L enceinte jaune longeant Clichy L'enceinte dite de Louis XIII est édifiée de 1633 à 1636, entre les Portes Saint Denis et Saint Honoré, a été englobée avec celle jusqu à la Seine. Elle est surnommée «jaune» à cause des pierres employées. 69

81 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience C est Catherine de Médicis, le 12 juillet 1566, qui pose la première pierre de l'enceinte dite de «Louis XIII», suite à la construction des «Thuilleries». Henri III continue ces ouvrages de maçonnerie jusqu au débouché de la rivière de Ménilmontant qui se jetait alors dans la Seine. Cette muraille va alors s étendre entre la Porte neuve Saint Honoré et la Porte de La Conférence située à l extrémité de l actuel cours de la Reine. Celle-ci fait référence à la conférence de Suresnes, prélude à la conversion du roi Henri IV du protestantisme vers le catholicisme et à sa désignation comme roi de France à l issue des états généraux de la noblesse en Plus prosaïquement, son talus servit aux garennes (gros lapins, d où son nom Clichy-La- Garenne) jusqu en 1630, dépendances du jardin royal des Tuileries où les rois chassaient, comme Henri IV en son temps. A partir de 1670, le roi Louis XIV fait détruire le mur pour le remplacer par les grands boulevards. 6. La barrière de Clichy Paris s'essouffle. A partir de 1784, Louis XVI achète des terres pour agrandir la capitale. Les Barrières de Clichy, de Courcelles, des Ternes et de l'etoile (Arc de Triomphe) ainsi que La Rotonde de Monceau verrouillent Paris du côté du territoire de Clichy. Le roi accorde aux fermiers généraux la construction d'une enceinte entourant le nouveau Paris. Le mur, haut de 4 mètres, est en pierre. A chaque sortie des grandes routes, l'architecte Ledoux érige une barrière. Les barrières sont de sortes de grands monuments où des bureaux administratifs reçoivent les taxes de passage entre Paris et sa banlieue. Dans les années 1780, le territoire de Clichy-la-Garenne allait des quartiers de La Petite Pologne et des Porcherons, face au Château du Coq, à l Est (Gare Saint-Lazare). Vers l'ouest, on doit prendre la rue de Clichy, le Mont-Moyen (place Clichy), la "Grande Pinte" (avenue de Clichy) qui longe la butte Montmartre et dont le bas de la colline sont installés quelques moulins à vent pour les meuniers clichoÿens. Puis on évite la commune de St-Ouen (séparée en 690) qui est située au Nord, pour virer à la Fourche afin d'aller sur Clichy village et la Seine. On dénombre 15 remises pour les chasses à courre du roi et des seigneurs de la région de Clichy. Dans ces réserves sont entretenus cerfs, chevreuils, lièvres et lapins de garenne. Ce gibier vit dans les sous-bois touffus, quand il s'échappe, il est formellement interdit de le tuer. De même pour les pigeons des colombiers seigneuriaux de Clichy, des châteaux du Coq (9 ème ), des Ternes (17 ème ) et de La Planchette (Levallois), qui pourtant s'attaquent aux grains semés. Et oui, La Barrière de Clichy construite par Ledoux en 1785, est le lieu d un fait historique quand à la fin mars 1814, la campagne de France et le Premier Empire tirent à leur fin. Les Clichois rentrent dans Paris pour fuir l arrivée de l ennemi. Tandis que Marmont s établit vers Romainville, que Mortier s installe à la Chapelle, et que les élèves de l Ecole de polytechnique s apprêtent à défendre le cours de Vincennes, Moncey organise la résistance aux abords des barrières de Clichy, des Ternes, du Roule et de l Etoile. Du nord au nord-ouest l enceinte de la capitale est protégée par hommes. Le vieux maréchal fait rassembler ses hommes et mettre les canons sur son cheval espagnol favori Le Rosseller. Il harangue les officiers et ses soldats qui viennent d apprendre avec stupeur le départ du roi Joseph La Barrière de Clichy paraissant la plus menacée, dès le 30 mars, Moncey s y établit personnellement et mit son quartier général «Au Père Lathuille», une célèbre auberge à 70

82 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 l époque. Pierre Lathuille, le patron, aidé de ses mirlitons, distribue des vivres aux troupes du Général. Les Pupilles de la garde des Invalides ont avancé des canons dans les embrasures du tambour des portes. Les meilleurs tireurs se placent aux créneaux, d autres s embusquent aux fenêtres et sur la plate-forme du grand bâtiment du rond-point, la masse des gardes se range des deux côtés de la rue de Clichy. Puis craignant qu avec seulement de l artillerie, les russes n aient facilement raison de ce faible ouvrage défensif, Moncey fait construire un second retranchement en arrière du premier. Volontaires, ouvriers, citoyens, tirailleurs, élèves des Ecoles polytechnique et vétérinaire d Alfort - les troupes de Moncey - rassemblent hommes. Horace Vernet, son frère Carle, les amis et membres des cercles bonapartistes, en font partie. Charrettes, madriers, pavés s amoncellent. Des hommes, venus en curieux, des femmes, des enfants aident au travail. Le 31 mars, à 5 heures du matin, les colonnes russes de Kurzewitsch et de Langeron, arrivées la veille sur le territoire de Clichy, commencent à envoyer leurs balles contre la barrière. L artillerie des gardes nationaux ouvre le feu. Bientôt la bataille s engage fortement à 11 heures, elle atteint son paroxysme entre les Français et les Russes. Le feu nourri les accueille et les tient à distance devant la résistance qui s annonce, l ennemi n insiste pas. A la nuit tombante, le feu cesse, la Barrière de Clichy est resté inviolée, mais Paris a capitulé. Mais la deuxième bataille, lors des 100 jours de l empereur , dernière période du règne de Napoléon 1 er, de son entrée à Paris le 20 mars, à sa seconde abdication le 22 juin. Les parisiens ont peur, une nouvelle invasion est annoncée, mais cette fois Anglaise, Prussienne et Autrichienne. Les Clichois s enfuient dans la capitale, emportant ce qu ils avaient de plus précieux. Au milieu d un désordre indescriptible. Les campagnards fuyant l'incursion évacuent avec les bestiaux à l intérieur des fortifications. Clichy-la-Garenne, ses hameaux de Courcelles, Batignolles, Monceau et les Epinettes, avec leurs cultures, sont pillés et ravagés par les troupes à cheval. Les Alliés qui campaient, saccagèrent les habitations, furieux de n y trouver personne. C est la fin du 1 er Empire et le début d une nouvelle Royauté. Le 2 octobre 1815, tout le monde se réuni dans La Maison Commune, tout le conseil municipal, les notables de la commune, du curé desservant à l instituteur pour prêter serment de fidélité au roi Pierre Lathuille, devenu un personnage de légende, entre au Conseil Municipal de Clichy entre 1815 et 1816, date de son décès. Il laisse comme héritage un plat gastronomique "Le Poulet du Père Lathuille". 7. La Porte de Clichy Dès 1841, les Fortifications de Monsieur Thiers transforment le paysage extérieur de Paris. La matière première s arrête aux portes de Paris, à cause de l Octroi. Ce système fait venir les banlieusards et les provinciaux. On a besoin de manœuvre et d ouvriers spécialisés tout au tour des fortifs. Depuis 1830, par l arrêté du roi Charles X, le hameau de Monceau, les lieux dits les Epinettes et les Batignolles sont détachés du territoire Clichy pour faire la commune de Batignolles-Monceau (17 ème en 1860). 71

83 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Une grande partie des usines de la capitale s installe en dehors des murs. Petit à petit le manteau industriel s inscrit sur le territoire de Clichy, depuis 1843 comme toute la région parisienne. On ouvre des entrepôts tout le long des grands axes, comme sur la route de la Révolte (boulevard V. Hugo), les rues Martre et de Paris. Les produits finis repartent en province ou reçoivent une taxe pour les Parisiens. Lorsqu'éclatèrent les hostilités franco prussiennes en 1870, la Mairie de Clichy s installe au-delà de la Porte de Clichy, au N 39 de la rue Saint Petersburg. Le compositeur de musique, Georges Bizet ( ), s'engage aux côtés de la Garde Nationale, au Bataillon dit "de Clichy" (34 ème Bataillon). Le nom de Clichy s'accordait en fait à l'immense zone qui séparait de la place de Clichy (la Barrière de Clichy du mur des Fermiers Généraux) et le village de Clichy. Laissons les dernières paroles à Bizet : - "Pendant le siège, son bataillon alternait avec le mien à la garde des bastions de Saint-Ouen et de Clichy. La garde montante rencontrait la garde descendante [comme dans Carmen] à la hauteur de la Place et toutes deux défilaient l'arme au bras, devant la statue du maréchal Moncey. Nous nous cherchions des yeux, et de notre énorme "bonjour" dominait parfois la voix des clairons." 72

84 IMPLEMENTATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES Maria POPESCU, Elena HELEREA Transilvania University of Brasov Abstract: Risk management defines coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to risk. It refers to both opportunity and threat, and must therefore be managed appropriately. Considering the importance of risk management and the existence of national norms that call for its application within public institutions, the work sets out to study the implementation of risk management within university libraries. The achieved study distinctly submits: the current stage of risk management within libraries; the analysis of the maturity of the risk-management system case study and the settlement of the major axes for improving risk management in university libraries. Key words: library management, risk management, internal control system. 1. Introduction The concept of risk is used with various meanings: the uncertainty that characterizes an activity; the probability for something to happen; a future event or circumstance that might significantly improve or diminish the ability of the organization to achieve its objectives [1], [13]. The last definition captures the two connotations of the concept of risk: the negative sense uncertainty, threat, obstacle and the positive one opportunity. The common element of the definitions consists in associating the risk to future conditions or circumstances that, once appeared, might have an impact upon the activity or the results. In other words, risk does not refer to punctual (actual, real) problems faced by an individual or organization at a given moment, but to future, potential problems. Along the past century, a series of risk-approaching instruments and methods were developed, referring to research-development projects and investments, financial activities, food safety etc. The achieved studies created the frame for the development of the general theory on dealing with potential problems before their occurrence, known as risk management. The expression risk management defines: systematic processes for identifying, analyzing, approaching and controlling risks within the organization [7]; coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to risk [13]. Nowadays, risk management is deemed a component of modern management; the pro-active approach specific to risk management increases the chances of success of an activity or organization, both through reducing the losses determined by the manifestation of the factors with negative influence and through enhancing some opportunities. The most recent theoretical and practical studies referring to risk management are focused on implementing the integrated risk management (IRM). Integrated Risk Management (IRM), also called Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), supposes for the organizations to develop risk-management systems that should systematically achieve the risk planning and control on

85 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science all levels of management [7]. Such an approach may have two major causes that do not exclude themselves: internal causes the desire of the leadership to improve the performances of the organization; external causes the obligation imposed by law, in certain activity fields, to implement ERM. In Romania, there is compulsory to implement risk management within public organizations, being imposed through the Order of the Ministry of Public Finances (OMFP) nr.946/2005 for probing the code of the internal/managerial control, with subsequent completions. The importance and the genesis of these actions are discussed in a previous study by the authors [8] and they will not be resumed in this paper. We remind however the significance of the internal/managerial control as meant by the law: the overall policies and procedures conceived and implemented by the management and the staff of the public entity, to the purpose of supplying a reasonable safety for: economically, efficiently and efficaciously achieving the objectives of the public entity; observing the external rules, as well as the policies and rules of the management; protecting the goods and the information; preventing and detecting the frauds and the mistakes; quality of the accountancy documents and timely producing reliable information, referring to the financial and management segment [11]. OMFP no. 946/2005 presents in the appendix, a minimum of management rules that all public entities must observe, under the generic Standards of internal/ managerial control. One of the requirements (standard 11) refers to risk management. According to the law, the public entity must: systematically analyze, at least once a year, the risks related to the development of its activities, elaborate adequate plans, so as to limit the possible consequences of these risks and to appoint the employees in charge with applying the respective plans. Considering these regulations, the paper herein sets out to study the implementation of ERM within university libraries. The achieved study distinctly tackles: 1) the current stage of risk management within libraries; 2) the analysis of the maturity of the risk management system on a case study and determining the major axes for improving the risk management within university libraries. The methodology of the study consists in analyzing the achievements worldwide and on a national scale, as regards the risk management within university libraries, based on the specialized publications and the information posted on the sites of the university libraries. The research likewise includes a case study as regards the components of the ERM system in a Romanian university. 2. Current stage of the risk management within libraries Whether they function as legal-personality structures or as structural entities of the universities they serve, university libraries pertain to the public sector [14]. As it has been already pointed, in the public-sector organizations, the implementation of risk management is compulsory, being a component of the internal/ managerial control systems. It is important to emphasize that these requirements are not subject to regulations only in Romania, but throughout the world. The conceptual development of the general frame for the internal control originates in the guide Internal Control - Integrated Framework [9], published in the year 1992 by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, known as COSO. The issuing, in 2004, of the guide Enterprise Risk Management Integrated Framework [10], expands on internal control, providing a more robust and extensive focus on the broader subject of enterprise risk management. These documents underlay the settlement of the guidelines for Standards of internal control for the public sector, elaborated by International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI). The guidelines INTOSAI for the standards of internal control within the public sector pertain to the category INTOSAI GOV Guidance for Good Governance [12]. 74

86 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The studies in the specialized literature referring to the internal control and to the risk management within libraries are relatively few: some comments as regards the implementation of the internal/managerial control within universities and the business environment are synthesized in [8]; as follows, we will exclusively pursue how the application of the risk management within universities reflects in the specialized publications. One of the articles [6] deals with the definition of risk management and identification of the various areas of risks in the library environment. In the opinion of the authors of the study, the risks may be associated to the following components of the management system: Assessing the organization; Collection management; Access rights by the users and clients communication; Risks associated with the migration, Staff training and recruitment; Preservation of collections; Use of technology by the students, faculty and library staff. The authors submit strategies for managing the risks, concretized in actions that may be locally controlled, referring to: communication with clients, partnerships with suppliers, development of the staff s abilities through in-house formation strategies etc. The approach in the paper is simplist, its main worth being to emphasize that risk management is not a theory, but a component of the well done management. Another study [5], with similar objectives to the previously submitted one, tackles the issue of the risk management in the services of the home libraries. A special relevance as regards approaching risk management within libraries is carried by the conclusions of the study of Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research [4]. The purpose of this study is to elaborate a methodology that should support the research libraries in the United States (US) to better comply with changes, through identifying, evaluating risks and through settling adequate action and control plans. In the investigation, the survey-based research was used, wherein 15 directors of the research libraries within the American Asociation of the Research Libraries participated. Twenty-six key risks were identified by all participants, ten (38%) were judged to have a high potential impact and likelihood. Overall there were three times as many risks considered to be high versus low. According to the study, great part of the problems, more than 30%, are determined by the uncertainties as regards perceiving and communicating the value/ mission of the library; the risks referring to human resources, to assimilating modern technologies are likewise relevant etc. One of the important ideas formulated by the authors is that a significant number of causes, at least half of the potential problems may be reduced through local actions. A complementary theme to risk management in libraries is the one of the collection and resource security, specifically tackled in variegated works [2],[3]. The same approach is retrieved on the sites of the universities (Ohio State University Libraries, Cambridge University Library, and others) displaying policies, structures and procedures referring to the risk management as regards the physical location of the bookshops, employees, employers and collections. Creating a system of security and health in labour, within the university and the library, is circumscribed to these preoccupations. In some universities (University of Tennessee, University of Pretoria, and others), the approach is extended towards the risk management, which includes identifying, measuring risks and implementing a priority-based plan, informing and training the staff referring to risk management, monitoring and ensuring the continuity of the risk-management process. As general note, the information displayed on the university sites, referring to the risk management in libraries are few or restricted. 3. Analysis of the maturity of the risk management system, case study The case study is achieved at Transilvania University Library from Braşov, entity without legal personality, whose organization and functioning are illustrated on the university site (www.unitbv.ro). Risk management at the university library was implemented in the context of ICS development, according to the law. The system creates the frame for applying the riskmanagement achievement methodology, schematically represented in Fig.1. 75

87 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Establish context Monitor and review Risk Assessment Identify risks Analyse risks Evaluate risks Comunicate and consult Treat risks Figure 1. Risk management methodology (source: ISO 31000) In Figure 1, the general context refers to: existence of the projective documents (strategic and operational plan of the library); appointing the person responsible with risk management and his attributions; elaborating specific procedures and forms, referring to risk management (procedure Risk Management, forms for Risk Register, System Evaluation etc.). The central sequence, risk management, comprises: identifying, analyzing and measuring risk. Dealing with risk refers to the internal-control means used for attenuating the apparition or for reducing the consequences of some risks after their production. Optimizing the answer to the risk is usually pursued, considering the exposure to risk and the available resources for supporting preventive-control activities. The maturity of the risk-management system defines the performances of the system, its ability to supply the necessary information for controlling the risks that may influence the achievement of the organization s objectives. The maturity is assessed considering the requirements as regards the system; to this purpose a survey was used, being distributed to 10 persons library staff with managerial responsibilities (director, deputy director, heads of departments). The pursued aspects are synthesized in Table 1. Table 1 Criteria for analyzing the maturity of the risk-management system (Source: [2], pag.20) Requirements Defining risk Risk policy Risk assessment Using risk in Decision Making Review of the control system Underlying risk Measuring risk Risk data 76 Description Clearly comprehending what the risk constitutes for the organization Existence of unitary policies that should mark out the actions referring to risk management within the organization Existence of risk identification and measuring procedures that the achievement of the library s objectives depends on Utilizing risk in making decisions. Existence of tools for systematically evaluating the control systems so as to reduce inherent risks Correctly identifying and defining the risk factors (risk register) Evaluating the risk impact and probability of occurrence; settling the risk profile Existence of the systems for monitoring, registering, analyzing and disseminating the relevant information on risk

88 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Requirements Risk communicate Organizational support Human resource training Risk culture Description Adequate communication of the risk towards managers, employees and other interested parts A clear focalisation exists on risk management in the organization, which structures should effectively support risk management Training the staff in risk management Comprehending the importance of approaching risk as part of the management system, participation of the employees, of the officials, mainly in identifying, measuring and determining the risk-reduction measures, monitoring and evaluating risks; The given answers show that fulfilling the requirements with respect to implementing quality management within the library greatly has formal character. The general frame was created persons responsible with the risk were appointed, adequate procedures and forms were elaborated; however, a clear understanding does not exist on what risk means for the library. The Risk Register was elaborated and the level of exposure to risk was settled, however solving these problems is not professional and is not based on objective data. A risk-monitoring Committee was created on institutional level, but no preoccupation for developing the risk culture has existed in the framework of the university. Approaching risk within the library is oriented towards reporting; risk has not been systematically used in substantiating the strategic and operational decisions of the library. Considering all these aspects, one may conclude: the risk-management system in the library is placed at a performance level 2, on a scale from 1 to 5. Improvement within the analyzed system does not refer only to the library, but considers the entire context in which the library is integrated. The improvement actions inscribe on 3 levels: actions undertaken on university level, actions on library level, and support actions on the level of the library-coordination regional or national structures. 1) Actions on university level aim at settling the general organisational and methodological frame and at ensuring the informational and human resources necessary for risk management. In the first place, unitary policies must exist as regards approaching risk and also structures for coordinating and monitoring the system; a key problem whose solving must be institutionally organized is training the staff, the managers and other employees with responsibilities as regards risk. Likewise, the university management structures play a major part in developing a culture of risk. 2) Actions on library level firstly refer to defining and evaluating risks; it is also important to improve the risk-monitoring and communication systems towards the interested parts. The staff should be trained on this level, too, with focus on the issues specific to the library services and processes. 3) Actions on the level of the library-coordination structures; the importance of these actions is emphasized in the study achieved by the Research Librarians Association from USA [4]: in the opinion of the authors of the study, there is called for involving such structures that should support the libraries, through creating a joint agenda as regards identifying the library-specific risks and determining the change strategies within libraries, considering the identified risks. Achieving a project on a national level, as regards the risk management within libraries might support taking such steps. 77

89 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Conclusions Risk management forms an integral part of the Library s planning and monitoring process and its internal control framework. It contributes to decisions of resource allocation and reporting on the process forms a crucial aspect of the Library s statement of internal control. Risk arises in all aspects of the library s operations and at all stages within the life cycle of those operations. It offers both opportunity and threat, and must therefore be managed appropriately. On these methodological premises, the risk-management system was developed within Transilvania University Library, materialized through structures, procedures and specific instruments. However, the performances of the system are still low: as underlined in the paper, in effectively achieving the risk management, not the models and the techniques are the most important, but the attitude towards the risk, and this is, in the first place, an aspect of the organizational culture formed in time and not a result of some imperative norms. Designing the library risk management should be done in connection with the culture, processes, and structures that are directed towards the effective management of the university. Risk management involves establishing an appropriate risk management infrastructure and culture, and applying logical and systematic risk management processes to all stages in the life cycle of any activity, function or operation. By minimising losses and maximising gains, risk management enables the library to best meet its organisational objectives. REFERENCES 1. Graham, A.: Integrated Risk Management: Implementation Guide. Available at: 2. Lovecyi, I. (coordinator). Disaster Management for Libraries and Archives, Edited by Graham Matthews and John Feather, Ashgate 2003, XVII, 236 pages 3. Maidabino, A.A., Zainab, A.N.: Collection security management at university libraries: assessment of its implementation status. 4. Michalko, J., Malpas, C., Arcolio, A.: Research Libraries, Risk and Systemic Change OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Available at: 5. Milee, J. Identifying and managing risks in home library services. State Library of New South Wales. Available at: identifyingand-managing-risks-in-home-library-services 6. Natarajan, M. Risk management: it s implications for library and information centres,. Available at: 7. Popescu, M., Dascălu, A.: Considerations on Integrating Risk and Quality Management In: Annals of Dunarea de Jos, University of Galati, Fascicle I, Economics and Applied Informatics, Years XVII, n.1/ 2011, p Popescu M., Dascălu, A.: Improving internal control system within universities. In: Bulletin of Transilvania University, Vol. 4 (52) nr , Series V, in press. 9. *** Internal Control - Integrated Framework, Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission COSO, *** Enterprise Risk Management Integrated Framework, COSO *** OMFP nr.946/2005 pentru probarea codului controlului intern/managerial, Monitorul Oficial al României, 5 iulie *** Metodologia de implementare a standardului de control intern Managementul riscului, Ministerul FinanŃelor, *** ISO 31000: 2009, Risk Management. 14. *** Legea bibliotecilor Nr. 334/

90 THE IMAGE OF THE SAINT-VICTOR S LIBRARY IN THE WORKS OF RABELAIS AND MONTESQUIEU Monica HǍRŞAN, Transilvania University of Braşov Abstract: The present article is not intended as a descriptive or informative study about libraries, but as a literary and socio-cultural approach of a precise athenaeum. It analyses two different images of the library of Saint-Victor s College in Paris, as depicted in the works of two major French writers. The first one, François Rabelais, a Humanist and a complex personality of the Renaissance, creates a burlesque inventory of the titles in the library s catalogue, in his novel Pantagruel (1532). The second one, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, an illustrious representative of the French Enlightenment, ironically presents the same institution in his Lettres persanes (1721). In both cases, the reflexions of the library are far from being flattering. This paper deciphers the contextual and conflictual innuendos of the texts and interprets each author s message concerning the Saint-Victor s library which, however, played an important cultural part from the Middle Ages and up to the French Revolution of Key words: library, abbey, Victorins, refectory, scriptorium, Humanism, Enlightenment. 1. Court historique de la bibliothèque Saint-Victor Avant d entrer dans l analyse proprement-dite des reflets littéraires la bibliothèque de Saint-Victor, nous considérons nécessaire de faire un court historique de cette institution fort importante et, surtout, de la placer dans le contexte de l époque où elle avait été créée et où elle fonctionnait. L abbaye de Saint-Victor fut fondée en 1108, par Guillaume de Champeaux, archidiacre et «écolâtre» (directeur) de l école-cathédrale de Notre-Dame de Paris. Ce qui avait été, au début, une simple abbaye de chanoines réguliers (Augustins), devint, en quelques dizaines d années, «l'un des centres les plus importants de la vie intellectuelle de l'occident médiéval, surtout dans le domaine de la théologie et de la philosophie»1. L évolution rapide de cette institution, de même que son rayonnement dans le plan culturel, sont dus aux efforts et au prestige de quelques-uns de ses maîtres illustres, tels : «Hugues, Adam, André, Richard, Thomas Gallus, qui ont exploré de nombreux champs de la connaissance» 2 ; en réalité, à l exception d Adam, qui était musicien et poète liturgique, la pensée de tous ces grands maîtres médiévaux, s est exercée dans le domaine de la théologie : (théologie mystique, théologie spéculative, ou théologie affective) ; ils ont tous laissé des ouvrages d exégèse biblique, ou des considérations philosophiques sur les textes sacrés. «L abbaye fut dotée 1 Robert-Henri Bautier, in L'abbaye parisienne de Saint-Victor au Moyen Âge, communication présentée au XIII e Colloque d'humanisme médiéval de Paris ( ) et réunies par Jean Longère, Paris-Turnhout : Brepols, 1991, p Ibidem, p. 26

91 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science presque dès son origine, au début du XII e siècle, en 1113, d une bibliothèque qui s enrichissait par la copie des manuscrits.» 3. Il y avait dans l abbaye un espace expressément destiné aux activités de transcription des manuscrits, qui s appelait «scriptorium» et qui était pourvu de tout ce qui était nécessaire à cette activité. Le scriptorium de Saint-Victor a certainement été à l'origine des gloses dont on a «complété» les Écritures par la mise en forme de colonnes : le texte biblique était au centre, et les commentaires des deux côtés. Très tôt, la bibliothèque ouvre ses portes au public, devenant ainsi un lieu d'échanges intellectuels. Le bâtiment sera agrandi par une aile nouvelle à l époque de la Renaissance : «Au début du XVI e siècle, l abbé Nicaise de l Orme élève une nouvelle bibliothèque. Les manuscrits consultés sont enchaînés sur des pupitres.» 4. On peut remarquer que les livres qui se trouvaient sous la forme de manuscrits n étaient pas prêtables ; ils ne circulaient pas, ils devaient être consultés sur place. En revanche, dans le «réfectoire» de l abbaye, qui servait en même temps de cantine et de salle où l on rassemblait toute la communauté monacale, un des frères faisait chaque jour la lecture à haute voix de certains chapitres des Écritures, de façon à se faire entendre par tous les autres. À l époque de Rabelais et d Erasme de Rotterdam, et surtout dans l étape suivante, au XVII e siècle, la bibliothèque Saint-Victor s enrichit par de nombreux legs et donations, mais aussi grâce à l activité infatigable de quelques-uns de ses maîtres. En outre, le développement de l imprimerie et la multiplication des maisons d édition a joué un rôle de premier ordre. Le siècle des Lumières trouve une bibliothèque victorine assez forte, qui, ayant déjà consolidé sa réputation, se trouve en pleine expansion : «Au milieu du XVIII e siècle, se trouvant trop à l étroit, les religieux font appel à l architecte Danjan pour se doter d une nouvelle bibliothèque, qui ne peut ouvrir qu à la veille de la Révolution.» 5 Malheureusement, l élan révolutionnaire de 1789, à la fois constructif et destructif, vient balayer en 1790 l abbaye de Saint-Victor, y compris sa bibliothèque : «Tous les bâtiments sont rapidement détruits avant de faire place à la Halle aux vins, puis à la Faculté des sciences de Jussieu.» 6 2. Rabelais et «les bêtises sorboniques» À l époque de la Renaissance, la Bibliothèque de Saint-Victor est brossée pour la première fois en littérature, en 1532, dans le Pantagruel de François Rabelais. Penseur et humaniste de taille européenne, «uomo universale», il commence à écrire dans la première moitié du XVI e siècle ; toute son œuvre est imprégnée de l esprit renaissant, qui signifie : «enthousiasme pour la culture antique, sympathie pour les premiers réformateurs, critique du catholicisme établi, haine de la Sorbonne, satire de la justice.» 7. Initié de bonne heure aux lettres anciennes, au couvent de Fontenay-le-Comte où son père le fait entrer, Rabelais a l esprit trop indépendant pour demeurer moine cordelier toute sa vie ; il quitte le couvent, étudie la médecine et désormais partage son temps entre les activités les plus diverses : lecture, recherches scientifiques, soins accordés aux malades, missions à l étranger, charges ecclésiastiques et création littéraire. À la Foire de Lyon, au mois d août de 1532, Rabelais découvre un livre grossier et puéril, mais extrêmement drôle, intitulé Les grandes et inestimables chroniques du grand et énorme géant Gargantua, contenant des histoires comiques, «si merveilleuses», prétend-il, «qu elles guérissaient les goûteux». Sur le même modèle, paraissait à la foire d automne, de 3 Jean-Pierre Willesme, «La bibliothèque de l abbaye de Saint-Victor de Paris», Cahiers de recherches médiévales [En ligne], , mis en ligne le 15 juin 2012, consulté le 02 avril URL : 4 Ibidem, p Ibidem p.2. 6 Ibidem, p.2. 7 J-P. Castex, P-G. Surer et P. Becker : Histoire de la littérature française, Paris, Hachette, 1974, p

92 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 la même année, son premier roman, Pantagruel [«Les Horribles et Epouvantables Faits et Prouesses du très renommé Pantagruel, Roy des Dipsodes»], signé du pseudonyme de «maistre Alcofrybas Nasier», anagramme de son propre nom. Si Rabelais avait jugé prudent d utiliser un pseudonyme, pour se mettre à l abri des rigueurs de la censure (exercée à l époque par la Sorbonne), sa prudence se justifie par la conscience du risque énorme qu il courait. Dans son roman, l auteur parodie de manière comique les romans de chevalerie, mais aussi les grands thèmes antiques ou chrétiens, montrant ainsi que l on peut rire de tout, même des tabous attitude profondément subversive, au gré des prélats de son temps. Le héros de son premier roman est le géant Pantagruel, qui, après avoir passé ses années d enfance et d instruction sommaire au château de son père Gargantua, hésite entre des études de médecine et de droit, tout comme l auteur lui-même. Afin de se tirer de ce dilemme, notre héros décide de faire un tour des universités françaises, occasion pour Rabelais d introduire dans l histoire des souvenirs de sa jeunesse d étudiant. Ce périple s achève, comme il se doit, à Paris, où le jeune géant visite la célèbre bibliothèque Saint-Victor ; Rabelais dresse un catalogue burlesque des ouvrages qu elle contient, en énumérant des titres (pour la plupart) inventés, et d autres qui font allusion à des ouvrages réels, mais modifiés de manière à provoquer le rire. Esprit railleur et moqueur, Rabelais fait preuve d une imagination prodigieuse et d un humour savoureux dans la création de tous ces noms d ouvrages farfelus, qu il appelle «sottises sorboniques» 8. En voici quelques échantillons 9 : «Du pois au lard cum commento» : l effet comique est ici provoqué par le choc entre ce plat tout-à-fait modeste et banal et la préciosité du syntagme latin qui suit ; «Le Peloton de théologie» : allusion assez transparente à la censure exercée par la Sorbonne ; «Tartarerus de modo cacandi [Les fanfares de Romme]» (le Tartare/l Enfer des choses liées au mode de déféquer) : phrase savoureuse, couronnée par l utilisation de la langue latine, qui donne un air savant ce sujet à la fois comique et honteux, suivi d un adagio sonore très suggestif ; plus encore, le langage volontairement licencieux de Rabelais attaque la fausse pudeur de ses contemporains vis-à-vis des choses naturelles (pour ce qui le concerne, l auteur souscrit au dicton latin naturalia non turpia / les choses naturelles ne sont pas honteuses) ; un autre exemple : «le Baisecul de chirurgie» : c est une allusion évidente à la superficialité et au manque de professionnalisme des ouvrages destinés aux médecins, par comparaison aux admirables traités de médecine antiques ; «L apparition de saincte Gertrude à une nonain de Poissy estant en mal d enfant» : le médecin Rabelais fait ici référence à l anormalité de la vie monacale, surtout dans le cas des jeunes filles, qui s efforçaient à éradiquer leurs instincts naturels, notamment, celui de la maternité ; «L aguillon de vin», «L esperon de fromaige» : allusion à la rigueur de tous ces longs jeûnes imposés aux moines, pendant la moitié de leur vie, que Rabelais considérait comme des actes contre-nature ; «Le Culot de discipline», «La savate de humilité» : raillerie évidente à l austérité exagérée imposée aux chanoines ; «Aristotelis libri novem de modo dicendi horas canonicas» (Le nouveau livre d Aristote sur la manière de psalmodier les heures canoniques) : il s agit là d une fausse référence évidente : Aristote ne pouvait avoir rien de commun avec les rites et les canons catholiques, au moins, à cause d une simple non-coïncidence historique d un millénaire et huit siècles ; en plus, l air pompeux du latin marque la distance ironique de l auteur, qui mesure l allure du célèbre philosophe antique à l insignifiance des théologiens moyenâgeux. Et l énumération pourrait continuer 8 Rabelais, François (1532 ; 1965) : Gargantua et Pantagruel, Paris, Éd. Baudelaire, Coll. «Livre. Club des Champs- Élysées», p Ibidem : Tous les titres cités et analysés ici figurent au chapitre VII de Pantagruel, pp

93 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Ennemi acharné des exagérations anormales du monachisme et de l autosuffisance du système d enseignement clérical, suranné et replié sur lui-même, Rabelais ne pouvait accepter ni la rigueur ni l austérité des Victorins, qui encourageaient l ascèse et interdisaient presque complètement le bavardage et le rire. (Cet aspect de certaines abbayes médiévales est souligné aussi dans le roman contemporain d Umberto Ecco, Le nom de la rose). Malgré sa position assez confortable dans l hiérarchie sociale française, Rabelais préférait les plaisirs simples et non-sophistiqués de la vie. Sa nature joyeuse et ses penchants de bon-viveur résonnaient plutôt avec l esprit gaulois du peuple, qu avec la rigidité morne des abbés et des chanoines. Il estimait que le rire était la meilleure façon de corriger les défauts des hommes et de la société, en se guidant selon le principe latin : ridendo castigat mores. Quant à la bibliothèque de Saint-Victor, Rabelais considérait qu elle était restrictive, étant axée en majeure partie sur la théologie et l exégèse biblique ; en outre, ses responsables traitaient d une manière «amnésique» le reste du savoir, limitant ainsi l accès des étudiants à la connaissance qui devrait les rendre libres. 3. Montesquieu et l «universelle facticité» Deux siècles après Rabelais, à l époque des Lumières, Montesquieu reprend la satire de la bibliothèque de Saint-Victor à Paris, dans son roman Lettres persanes, (chapitres de 134 à 137), prenant pour cibles de sa critique les mêmes aspects et les mêmes pratiques qui avaient piqué l attention du moine humaniste. Cela ne devrait pas nous étonner, puisque les philosophes du XVIII e siècle sont, eux aussi, des admirateurs de l Antiquité païenne et des ennemis de l Église institutionnalisée, tout comme les écrivains de la Renaissance. L esprit des Lumières est imprégné de rationalisme, de positivisme et de confiance inébranlable dans le pouvoir de la science et dans les bienfaits de la philosophie. La position de l être humain dans l Univers, de même que ses rapports à la Divinité sont réévalués. L Homme n est plus considéré comme un simple pécheur, condamné à une continuelle pénitence terrestre, à cause de la faute initiale de ses ancêtres bibliques Adam et Ève ; il devient un être libre, un vrai maître de l Univers, par la force de sa raison et par les progrès du savoir. Les frontières de l inconnu reculent sur la Terre, comme dans l esprit des gens grâce aux grandes découvertes géographiques et aux témoignages des navigateurs, des voyageurs et des découvreurs des «terrae incognitae» ; les Européens entrent en contact avec des civilisations provenant d autres continents, d autres peuples, d autres races, ce qui élargit leur horizon et complète leur image du monde. La diversité et la tolérance deviennent les notionsslogans des penseurs de cette époque. C est dans ce contexte historique et socioculturel que Montesquieu écrit son roman, venant sur un terrain favorable, celui de l ouverture vers le monde nouveau, mais aussi du cultural clash («choc des cultures»). Sous le prétexte d une échange épistolaire entre des Persans qui passent quelque temps en France et d autres qui sont restés chez eux, Montesquieu trouve l occasion idéale pour critiquer, à l abri d une fausse naïveté des étrangers, tous les aspects qu il considère comme rétrogrades ou injustes dans son propre pays en n épargnant cependant non plus le monde oriental, avec ses tares et ses limites. Dans les lettres de 134 à 137, un des Persans, appelé Rica, qui visite la Bibliothèque de Saint-Victor à Paris, écrit à son compatriote Uzbek, qui se trouve de passage à Venise. Il transcrit au jour le jour, dans ses lettres, les discussions qu il porte avec les bibliothécaires, sur diverses sections de cette institution culturelle. Le premier dialogue avec le libraire (lettre CXXXIV), porte sur un vaste tronçon de la bibliothèque où se trouvent thésaurisés les livres des «interprètes de l'écriture» : «Il y en a un grand nombre! s étonne le Persan. Il faut que l'écriture fût bien obscure autrefois et bien claire à présent. Reste-t-il encore quelques doutes? Peut-il y avoir des points contestés? S'il y en a, bon Dieu! s'il y en a! s exclame le libraire. Il y en a presque autant que de 82

94 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 lignes. Et qu'ont donc fait tous ces auteurs? demande Rica. Ces auteurs, répond le bibliothécaire n'ont point cherché dans l'écriture ce qu'il faut croire, mais ce qu'ils croient eux-mêmes ; ils ne l'ont point regardée comme un livre où étaient contenus les dogmes qu'ils devaient recevoir, mais comme un ouvrage qui pourrait donner de l'autorité à leurs propres idées. C'est pour cela qu'ils en ont corrompu tous les sens et ont donné la torture à tous les passages.» 10. L opinion de Montesquieu sur les œuvres des théologiens nous semble assez claire : les longs travaux exégétiques détournaient le lecteur du vrai sens des textes sacrés, au profit de thèses canoniques propres, ou, pire encore, vers et des idées doctrinaires, sociales ou politiques. Donc, la soi-disant «exégèse» biblique n était souvent qu un plaidoyer pro domo; au lieu d élever l âme du lecteur vers les sphères célestes, elle servait les intérêts bien terrestres de quelques hauts prélats et des dirigeants politiques d ici-bas. La lettre suivante (CXXXV) est consacrée au deuxième secteur de la bibliothèque victorine, réservé «aux grammairiens, aux glossateurs et aux commentateurs» ( ) «Voilà, [dit le libraire] les orateurs, qui ont le talent de persuader indépendamment des raisons, et les géomètres, qui obligent un homme, malgré lui, d'être persuadé, et le convainquent avec tyrannie.» 11. Montesquieu fait ici référence aux maîtres du Moyen Âge, qui avaient étudié posément les «sept arts libéraux» : le trivium, formé de grammaire, dialectique et rhétorique, et le quadrivium, composé de : musique, géométrie, arithmétique et astronomie. Quant à leur pouvoir de convaincre, fruit des arguties de la rhétorique, l auteur le voit comme un moyen de manipulation, et non comme quelque vertu merveilleuse. Il attaque également les auteurs des fameuses «gloses», qui encombraient inutilement le texte biblique, le rendant tout aussi méconnaissable qu inintelligible. Par la suite, le libraire présente les œuvres des médecins et des professeurs d anatomie : «Tout près de là, sont les livres d'anatomie, qui contiennent bien moins la description des parties du corps humain que les noms barbares qu'on leur a donnés: chose qui ne guérit ni le malade de son mal, ni le médecin de son ignorance.» 12 L aversion de Montesquieu contre ces auteurs de traités médicaux a pour cause la même déficience que Rabelais leur avait reprochée : il s agit du fait que ces œuvres, intentionnellement savantes, ne comportaient aucune partie applicative, et donc, ne servaient nullement à améliorer la pratique médicale. L accent y était mis plutôt sur les dénominations latines, compliquées et prétentieuses, demandant un effort de mémorisation inutile, que sur les aspects pratiques qui devaient vraiment aider le médecin dans son métier. Or, les Lumières avaient déjà mis en évidence le rôle et l importance des sciences appliquées, qui étaient en plein essor à l époque. Ensuite, le bibliothécaire montre à Rica les œuvres des astrologues : «Voici les livres de science, ou plutôt d'ignorance occulte. ( ) Tels sont encore les livres d'astrologie judiciaire. Que dites-vous, mon Père? Les livres d'astrologie judiciaire!» s écrie le Persan. «Ce sont ceux dont nous faisons le plus de cas en Perse; ils règlent toutes les actions de notre vie, et nous déterminent dans toutes nos entreprises.» 13. À un premier niveau d interprétation, l ironie de Montesquieu s attaque aux «sciences» occultes, assez répandues à l époque, mais qui, selon lui, relevaient des temps anciens de l Humanité, avec leur cortège de superstitions primitives. Le scientisme et le positivisme du XVIII e siècle ne sauraient admettre que des chefs d États, responsables du sort des nations, pussent encore se conduire selon les astres. Si l astronomie était une science, l astrologie, par contre, n était qu une pseudoscience, une fraude, un legs de l ignorance et l obscurantisme moyenâgeux. Plus encore, parler 10 Montesquieu, Ch-L. : Lettres persanes, Éd. ebooksfrance. Adaptation d'un texte électronique provenant de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France : p Montesquieu, Ch-L. : Lettres persanes, Éd. ebooksfrance. Adaptation d'un texte électronique provenant de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France : p Ibidem, p Ibidem, p

95 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science d «astrologie judiciaire», c était une contradiction dans les termes, qui défiait la logique et le bon sens. Mais à un autre niveau, plus profond, la discussion vise un problème de morale, notamment, celui du transfert de la responsabilité sur des causes extérieures ; cette dissimulation voulue du pouvoir de décision sera définie, dans la philosophie de Jean-Paul Sartre, par le terme de «mauvaise foi» 14. Très souvent, les hommes se cachent derrière des prédéterminations, des a priori, afin de masquer l arbitraire de leurs décisions et de justifier l injustifiable. Sur ce point, Montesquieu fait intervenir son Persan qui confirme la similitude parfaite entre cette pratique européenne et les usances politiques de son propre pays. Apparemment, les choses sont partout pareilles, dans l Europe émancipée, comme dans l Orient traditionnaliste. Jean Starobinski désigne ce type de comportement par un syntagme désormais célèbre : «l universelle facticité» 15. En France comme ailleurs, les gens font semblant d ignorer le couple liberté//responsabilité, se cachant derrière des mœurs et des traditions que personne ne conteste : «Quand les Persans iront dans Paris demandant le pourquoi de chaque coutume et de chaque rite, l important ne sera pas la réponse à ce pourquoi, mais le fait, tout simple, que l on puisse demander pourquoi. Et cette simple question dévoile instantanément l absurdité des croyances et des rites, qui ne subsistaient que parce qu on ne s était jamais avisé d en demander le pourquoi.» 16 Dans le chapitre suivant (lettre CXXXVI), Rica raconte à Uzbek sa suivante expérience, lorsque le libraire l introduit dans la section des livres d histoire. «Là, ce sont ceux qui ont écrit de la décadence du formidable empire romain ( ). Un nombre infini de peuples barbares, aussi inconnus que les pays qu'ils habitaient, parurent tout à coup, l'inondèrent, le ravagèrent, le dépecèrent, et fondèrent tous les royaumes que vous voyez à présent en Europe. Ces peuples n'étaient point proprement barbares, puisqu'ils étaient libres; mais ils le sont devenus depuis que, soumis pour la plupart à une puissance absolue, ils ont perdu cette douce liberté si conforme à la raison, à l'humanité et à la nature». 17. Dans ce passage, Montesquieu se fait le porte-parole de l esprit de son siècle ; bien qu il parle, apparemment, de l Empire romain, défunt depuis longtemps, il fait allusion au colonialisme récent, celui de son époque, où les conquérants traitent les indigènes des terrae incognitae comme des bêtes sauvages et non comme des êtres humains. Le mythe du «bon sauvage», qui prend contour à cette époque, tend à corriger cette erreur ; et les philosophes des Lumières s évertuent à démontrer que l opposition «centre/vs/périphérie» (qui, jusque là, se traduisait par «civilisation/vs/barbarie») n était pas tellement pertinente qu on l avait cru, et qu elle pourrait signifier tout aussi bien «similaire/vs/différent». C est grâce à leurs écrits que les Européens commencent à comprendre que les peuples provenant d autres continents et d autres races n étaient pas forcément barbares et qu ils auraient dû avoir, au moins, le droit de garder leur identité culturelle, sans être «civilisés» par la force. L humanisme des Lumières réalise un progrès capital dans la pensée humaine, en restaurant le droit à l altérité, et en montrant que «diversité» ne signifie pas «adversité», mais plutôt «richesse» culturelle et civilisationnelle. La tolérance sera désormais une valeur importante et sine qua non pour les intellectuels. Enfin, le dernier chapitre consacré à la bibliothèque victorine (la lettre CXXXVII), décrit un autre tronçon de cette institution, à savoir, l endroit réservé aux belles-lettres. D abord, le Persan fait la connaissance des écrits poétiques : «Ce sont ici les poètes lui fait savoir le libraire c'est-à-dire ces auteurs dont le métier est de mettre des entraves au bon sens et d'accabler la raison sous les agréments, comme on ensevelissait autrefois les femmes sous 14 Jean-Paul Sartre : L Être et le Néant. Essai d ontologie phénoménologique, Paris, Gallimard, Jean Starobinski : Montesquieu par lui-même, Paris, Seuil, 1953, p Jean Starobinski : Montesquieu par lui-même, Paris, Seuil, 1953, p Montesquieu, Charls-Louis de Secondat (Baron de) : Lettres persanes, Éd. ebooksfrance. Adaptation d'un texte électronique provenant de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France : p

96 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 leurs ornements et leurs parures» 18. Le ton badin de l auteur semble ici dépourvu de la malice des chapitres précédents, chose qui suggère que la poésie doit avoir sa place dans une bibliothèque, probablement avant tous les autres écrits ; et pourtant, les ornements excessifs ne sont pas tout-à-fait au goût de Montesquieu : peut-être, fait-il allusion au langage un peu trop recherché des poètes de la Pléiade, ou bien au style trop attifé de la poésie baroque. Le libraire passe ensuite à la section des romans : «Vous voyez ici les romans, dont les auteurs sont des espèces de poètes et qui outrent également le langage de l'esprit et celui du cœur : ils passent leur vie à chercher la nature et la manquent toujours. ( )». 19 Chose étonnante, Montesquieu critique ici assez ouvertement ses confrères dans l art romanesque. Qu a-t-il donc à leur reprocher? En tout premier lieu, il les accuse d avoir outré «le langage de l'esprit et celui du cœur», autrement dit, d avoir porté les choses au-delà de la juste raison et d avoir donné une importance exagérée aux tourments d ordre sentimental. En second lieu, il leur reproche d avoir perdu le lien avec la «nature». Mais de quelle nature parle-t-il? Fût-ce la nature comme environnement, comme paysage, la Nature en tant que mater genitrix, la nature humaine, la nature du microcosme ou du macrocosme? À notre avis, le sens de cette phrase est autre qu il ne paraît : l auteur fait ici référence à ce qui est naturel, authentique, par opposition à ce qui est contrefait, artificiel, autant dans le déroulement des péripéties extérieures, que dans l évolution intérieure du personnage. Tout excès, toute exagération devraient être évités, selon les principes de l équilibre, de la juste mesure et du bon sens. Les aventures farfelues et peu crédibles de ces personnages inventés et exceptionnels semblaient, au gré de Montesquieu, de moindre importance par rapport à la vérité philosophique de l univers extérieur et intérieur. Conclusion En guise de conclusion, nous considérons opportun de citer ici un fragment de l introduction à un colloque ayant pour objet la fameuse bibliothèque victorine, qui synthétise parfaitement nos opinions : «À deux siècles de distance, Rabelais dans Pantagruel et Montesquieu dans les Lettres persanes ont fait la fortune littéraire de la bibliothèque de Saint-Victor. Leur plume acerbe a érigé la librairie des chanoines en symbole d'un monde de clercs, ayant renoncé à tout dynamisme intellectuel et vivant replié sur un savoir suranné. Mais, a contrario, le choix de leur archétype témoigne que la librairie de Saint-Victor demeure une référence suffisamment connue et significative pour qu'elle puisse être partagée avec le public cultivé qu'ils entendent toucher.» 20 BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Bautier, Robert-Henri: L'abbaye parisienne de Saint-Victor au Moyen Âge, in : XIII e Colloque d'humanisme médiéval de Paris ( ), communications réunies par Jean Longère, Paris- Turnhout : Brepols, Castex, J-P., Surer, P-G., Becker, P.: Histoire de la littérature française, Paris, Hachette. 3. McLUHAN, Marshall (1962): Galaxia Gutenberg, Bucureşti, Editura politică, Col. «Idei contemporane», Montesquieu, Charls-Louis de Secondat (Baron de) : Lettres persanes, Éd. ebooksfrance. Adaptation d'un texte électronique provenant de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France : p Ibidem, p Colloque: «La bibliothèque Saint-Victor et les gens du savoir» (Université Paris Est Créteil, 2009) : 85

97 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 4. Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, (Baron de) : Lettres persanes, Éd. ebooksfrance. [En ligne], 1721 ; Source : texte électronique provenant de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France : 5. Rabelais, François (: Gargantua et Pantagruel, Paris, Éd. Baudelaire, Coll. «Livre. Club des Champs-Élysées», 1532 ; Ragon, Michel: Le Roman de Rabelais, Paris, Albin Michel, StarobinskI, Jean : Montesquieu par lui-même, Paris, Seuil, Willesme, Jean-Pierre: «La bibliothèque de l abbaye de Saint-Victor de Paris», in Cahiers de recherches médiévales [En ligne], , mis en ligne le 15 juin 2012, consulté le 02 avril URL : SITOGRAPHIE 12e-18e-siecles kjsp?RH=ZYZYZYZYZYZYZYZYZYZYZY 86

98 ELEMENTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN LIBRARIES Gheorghe BULUłĂ Amicala Association of Librarians and Bibliophiles, Bucharest Abstract: Within the organizational structure of an enterprise or institution, measures should be taken for motivating the staff and for obtaining the best possible performances. Experts in social and behavioural psychology, in industrial research, administration and management have formulated and developed theories in relation to management. Library managers are in their turn confronted to the issue of motivating their employees within this institutional environment. They must cope with specific conditions and challenges. Keywords: management, expectance, motivation, labour, employee, staff, productivity. Cum mercede labor gratior esse solet Motivating employees. In the theory of management, the entrainment phenomenon (the entrainment function that directly targets the manager and especially his capacity to positively influence the staff to the purpose of an efficient action for achieving the goals) revolves around the concept of motivation. Motivation must be understood as an assembly of psychosocial dynamic factors, determinant in one s personal behaviour, as well as a process by which managers determine their subordinates to achieve their best possible performances, giving them reason to proceed in this sense (Corneliu Russu). Interested in obtaining clarifications as regards the manner of working with people, in obtaining increasingly better results in one s job, many sociologists, specialist in social and behavioural psychology, in industrial research, administration and management, especially American, ever since the interwar period and continuing along the decades of the second half of the past century, studied the conditions and the possibilities to motivate the staff, especially in the industrial environments, where labour productivity was essential, especially during an epoch in which human intervention was important, in the absence of today s automation. Several classical-turned theories resulted from observations, experiments, tests, data reflection and analysis. This way, Hawthorne studies, connected to the researches of Elton Mayo ( ), with a sampling of circa workers, proved that the effect of the management s visible preoccupation for the labour conditions, for an opportunity to decision, for the cooperation manager-employees was beneficial for the labour productivity. The employees reacted towards the management s interest in their condition and they perceived thereby their place and role in the enterprise, feeling attracted in a partnership situation, which motivated them. In the 50s of the 20 th century, Douglas McGregor ( ) likewise studied the industrial environments and formulated useful observations to the managers on the human behaviour in relation to labour, responsibility, attachment to the goals of the job-providing enterprise, involvement and motivation. Noticing the tendencies that maintain the staff on a maturity-devoid level and the ones that stimulate the employees progressive maturation, as they better comprehend their labour environment, they receive responsibilities, they are invited to decision and they develop their

99 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science personality, Cris Argyris, psychologist, professor of industrial administration, organizational education and behaviour, formulated and developed the theory of the lack of maturity of the maturity (in the works Personality and Organization. The Conflict between the System and the Individual, 1957 and Integrating the Individual and the Organization, 1964). The person develops, from infantile passivity to adult dynamism, in a process of continuous maturation, obviously influenced by the social environment, but also by the labour conditions. The process as such (maturation, self-accomplishment) is of interest both for the person and for the enterprise, institution, organization. Here a deficit of competence in the interpersonal communication, among the managers, was noticed, with results characterized through reciprocal suspicion (regarded and treated as maturity-deprived persons, the employees behave as such), lack of trust (which creates a state of conflict, of frustration, of failure, all on an acute lack of communication). The diagnosis requires measures, which mean the employees possibility of a pathway of evolution and maturation as persons within the organizational structure. C. Argyris recommendations aimed at the flexibility of the labour relations, at stimulating creativity and a participation feeling, specific to the person s maturation, whereas the complacency within rigid structures and mechanical-type relations maintain the staff in indifference, reducing labour quality and productivity. In the same current of preoccupations for comprehending motivation from managerial perspective, the studies The Myth of the Well Educated Manager and Pygmalion in Management inscribe, published in Harvard Business Review, 1969, by Sterling Livingston ( ), professor at Harvard Business School, who notes that the way in which they are treated by managers determines the employees to build themselves, to evolve, to work better, to search for performance or, on the contrary, to indulge in mediocrity. In the sixth decade of the twentieth century, Frederick Herzberg ( ) professor of management, with initial education in psychology, studied, resorting to the interview techniques (with 200 engineers and accountants with medium functions), the elements motivating or de-motivating the employees. The sources of motivation for professional performance proved to be the appraisal, the responsibility, the trust for decision and the promotion. These ones were called motivational factors, whereto F. Herzberg s observations added the second category of maintenance factors that concern labour conditions: relations with the management and colleagues, safety of the workplace, the feeling that the managerial policy is correct and provides good perspectives for the future, the salary and bonuses (Two Factor Theory The Dual Structure Theory ). Frederick Herzberg deems performance to be determined by the enrichment of the labour content through allotting tasks that illustrate the trust in the staff s capacities, the enhancement of its aptitudes, in other words that help to the rise of the self-esteem. From this perspective, he concludes that the primordial function of any organization, be it religious, political or economic, must be the fulfilment of the human aspirations towards a meaningful existence (the work The Motivation to Work, in collaboration Bernard Mausner and Barbara Block Snyderman, 1959; the study On More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?, published in Harvard Business Review, 1968). Linked to the labour motivation, there is the theory of expectance (or of the expected performance) by Victor H. Vroom, Canadian, professor and consultant on the theme of the psychological analysis of the behaviour in organizations. Reduced to its essence, he deems that a person s attitude is produced because of the expectations about outcomes, namely it must be understood as anticipation of the success or lack of success of an initiative. As compared to A. Maslow and F. Herzberg, V. H. Vroom s theory allows a mathematical determination of the motivation, excludes the possibility of a single motivational variant and enhances the concrete manner in which the employee may be motivated in correlation with his necessities and concrete goals (Mihaela Zecheru). The theory of expectance was submitted by V. H. Vroom in his work from 1964, Work and Motivation. The labour motivation is based on a complex, profound and nuanced understanding of the individual psychology and social psychology; therefore, this knowledge has evolved once with the development of the latter, in the decades 6-8 of the twentieth century. 88

100 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The studies and the theories generated especially in the Anglo-Saxon space are manifold; however, from their totality, a comprehension ensued on the real importance of the issue, the finding that the effects are concrete, that they may be statistically illustrated and that they generate losses or profit, insomuch as they are neglected or enhanced. In the Romanian space, during the past regime, the issue of motivation was not considered in a society wherein the propaganda was functioning as psychological motivation, on one hand, and the administrative coercion, on the other hand. An employee was rewarded if he worked in production through the payment in agreement and the money award (up to a point, when draconic saving abolished these methods), he could be distinguished as production leader and his photograph was displayed on a special panel in the yard of the enterprise, he could be subject in the local press or in the factory newspaper, he could promote on union or party line, he could be sent to training courses and he could become, from worker, an activist with related benefits. In the new Romanian society of our days, the moral motivation has, in the perspective of all, an incomparably smaller value, and the salary incentives and gratuities are especially awarded in the private sector (in which other bonuses are also offered: parties, team-building, holiday presents, kindergartens, subscriptions to gyms etc.). In the public sector, the manager has much lower possibilities to motivate the staff, especially in the austerity conditions imposed in the last years. Staff s motivation in the library. If in a ministry, in a media institution, in an agency or in an institute, the employees may have as motivation not necessarily high incomes, but at least prestige bonus ( he works at...! ), in the case of the libraries, the manager has increased difficulties as regards motivating the employees. Many of them opted for this workplace not as a result of personal aspirations, but because not having found something better. They usually come with greater expectations and with the feeling of having stranded in this place, not of having obtained a position desired with interest. Low salaries, the condition of budgeter, in many cases the modest, obsolete institutional environment, the perception of labour as marginal, without visibility and prestige, render the librarians motivation difficult from the very start. The status of the profession is not one of the best from financial standpoint (and nowhere in the world the librarians are well paid), but as regards prestige, in our country, the situation is less good, even worse than in other countries, where the librarian is deemed a respected professional. However, as in other institutions, other administratively instituted motivation forms are possible: awarding annual ratings; awarding the merit gradation; conferring distinctions (orders and medals); promoting. The financial stimulation was however drastically limited by recent regulations. What remains to be done, consequently, with the available means and with comprehending the resort of the employee s psychology? Beside the information in the specialized literature, we submit a few directions. a) Motivation through internalizing the labour value. Our experience of a few decades in the library proves that the employee usually has no representation of the goal of his work, nor of the overall institution and its place within this system. Acting as a small wheel in a mechanism he does not understand, the employee confusedly thinks that his work is absurd, repetitive and, in fact, that it has no real use. Likewise, many times, he thinks that some requirements recently come on the hierarchical chain are abusive and may be explained only through the bosses whims. The answer of the managerial policy to this psycho-professional reality must be the preoccupation for every employee to pass at least one day through every department in order to understand the flow of publications, its logic, what it means and why a certain thing is done, what connection exists between the work he will provide and all the rest. Not even the employees with seniority in the library have an overall representation, so the right hand does not know what the left one does. Hence the current conviction in libraries that the service or office whereto every employee belongs takes the brunt in the institution, whereas the rest circumvent. 89

101 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science b) Motivation through cultivating the partnership with the users. A survey that I realized a few years ago revealed that most users did not perceive the librarian as a partner with whom they should collaborate in a more complex information approach. The librarians consider themselves somehow exiled in the library and they do not see themselves as partners of the users, whose needs they often do not understand. Or, the librarian must know how to explain, offer himself as consultant, propose, suggest another search, participate in fulfilling the information need. If, during the professional-training classes in the library, he is helped in his turn to feel a partner, not a servant of the user, his own self-esteem, hence his own motivation, may improve. c) Motivation through raising the self-esteem may be realized in other manners. Many, if not all libraries, organize events wherein general or specialized public or prestigious persons participate. In organizing them, the most competent persons of the library are usually involved; however, they are occasions for all the staff to be invited, inclusively to the socialization stage and for the manager to say a word of thanks for those having effectively contributed, but also for all, by the great, for their current activity. This is a manner of publicly showing an appraisal that becomes motivating and raises the employees self-esteem. Putting them in informal contact with the other guests, they are placed on a position of equality, may communicate, are removed from daily routine, are offered variation and satisfaction. d) Environmental motivation. The employees spend eight hours indoors, in better or uncomfortable conditions, in more relaxed or tense relations, depending on their human quality, education or temperament. A tense working atmosphere results in latent or open conflicts, with consequences on the labour quality. It is the manager s duty to maintain an atmosphere as relaxed as possible and to stimulate an environment as friendly as possible for the employees. Consequently, a library manager, where the staff is predominantly female, with specific problems, must not follow rumours, not encourage denouncement, must defuse crisis situations and equally treat, with political correctness, all employees. He may initiate or encourage festive internal events, on the occasion of the great holidays or of the anniversary of the employees round ages and or retirements, wherein they should be congratulated, celebrated, wherein they should receive honorary diplomas. Far from being a waste of time, they ensure an amiable atmosphere. The manager s presence among the employees in such informal situations allows him to know them better, to understand their mentalities and behavioural particularities and, consequently, to correctly evaluate them in order to subsequently enhance their qualities through allotting the adequate tasks to the adequate persons. Without familiarity, but with openness, without excesses and with the authority supported by his prestige, the manager may enhance to his own benefit and to his employees benefit these situations, too. Beyond theories, statistics and experiences from other spheres of activity, the staff s motivation is adapted to every institution according to its specificity and to the managerial vocation of the local leadership. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. BuluŃă, Gheorghe, Craia, Sultana, Petrescu, Victor: Biblioteca în societatea informańiei. Bucureşti: Editura Do-MinoR, Pugh, D. G., Hickson, D. J.: Managementul organizańiilor. Traducere de Gabriel Bădică ş. a. Bucureşti: Editura Codecs, f.a. 3. Russu, Corneliu.: Management. Concepte. Metode. Tehnici. Bucureşti: Editura Expert, Stueart, Robert D., Moran, Barbara B.: Management pentru biblioteci şi centre de informare. EdiŃia a patra. Traducere Lucia-Mihaela Vitcowsky. Bucureşti: Biblioteca NaŃională a României, ABBPR, Zecheru, Mihaela.: Biblioteca publică în sistemul cunoaşterii. PercepŃie şi expectanńă. Bucureşti: Editura Curtea Universitară, Zecheru, Vasile.: Managementul în cultură. Bucureşti: Editura Litera International,

102 EFFICIENCY OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY ACTIVITY Constantin DUGULEANA, Liliana DUGULEANĂ University Transilvania from Brasov Abstract: The paper presents some considerations about the definition of efficiency in higher education, in the context of the National Education Law and considering the trends recorded on the higher educational market and real conditions of competition in this field and also the economic crisis. The paper explains the economic fundamentals of behavior both of consumers of higher educational services: students, master and Ph.D. students, but also at management level of university library, describing the relationships between the university and the library management. The concepts of Internal Efficiency and External Efficiency must be very well understood and used in the benefit of University. The paper presents in a gradual way, a model of efficiency in the university library, explaining the content of variables considered in the model, included one by one, from a simple to a complex function of efficiency of the university library activity. Keywords: internal efficiency, external efficiency, regression model, efficiency in university library. 1. Introduction Inevitably we are moving away from that happy period in which education, culture, arts, sports were made with passion, dedication, without taking into account the effort and especially without taking into account the profit. Economic and social processes, taking place now, are considering the more effective use of resources, including in the aforementioned activities. Efficiency has been the cornerstone of developing the new Education Law, considering that resources spent in this area are not used properly. The controversies and the atmosphere of fight for adopting the Education Law threw a shadow over the facts; motivational factors were diluted or disappeared. More and more stands out that education is the mirror of society and that a performance education cannot exist without an advanced society. The explanations are many and the Education Law passed somewhat over facts. National Education Law establishes the need for efficient activity in Romanian universities. The need for efficiency in education is placed in a broader context, the efficiency with which public funds are spent [2]. The question is: what results are achieved and with what cost? Comparing the effects, the obtained results with the efforts, the expenditure for these results can highlight the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of an activity. For companies, calculation of efficiency by comparing the obtained proceeds with the expenditure is of fundamental importance because their further activity is conditioned by the efficiency level. An inefficient activity requires restructuring measures otherwise the bankruptcy of the company will appear.

103 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The capitalism is a society of mass production and for masses and its fundamental principle is maxim profit based on high efficiency. The education services, which until recently were not for the market, not being business activities, therefore became profitable and must comply the principle of efficiency. As a result, they will suffer the consequences of the efficiency lack which mean bankruptcy and extinction. There is an opinion that all these issues, related to imposition of the principles of efficiency in fields where activity was based until now on the principles of fairness and accessibility, are generated by the economic crisis and that these will disappear once the crisis will be overcome. The idea is based on the classical conception of the cyclical fluctuations during which, the good times and of prosperity and stability, alternate with periods of huge economic difficulties and social sufferings. As the crisis is prolonged we tend to adopt the conception that the economy is in a state of permanent crisis, this fact being interrupted by short periods of prosperity and economic revival [7]. In other words, is likely to outweigh the efficiency principle, for a long time, before the other principles. In the Education Law, the principle referred to in point a) is the principle of fairness and the principles referred to in points b) and c) are subsumed under the principle of efficiency, referred to in point d). Article 220 of the Education Law provides that for monitoring of managerial efficiency, equity and relevance of higher education for the labor market, a system of statistical indicators for higher education correlated with the reference system of statistical indicators at European level in the field, is established within maximum twelve months after entry into force of the law. Although it's been twelve months, there have not been established and published any statistical indicators to monitor managerial efficiency. In fact, the university services, including the university library, have a non-market character, i.e. no commercial character and the benefits cannot be measured in money. Also, when the expenditure is made, the benefits of any kind cannot be known and they can be identified and evaluated later. From this point of view, the National Education Law sometimes loses the target of efficiency to favor two sensitive objectives: increasing state control over state universities and applying an increasing pressure to improve the performance of Romanian state universities. University library, as part of the system of higher education, faces the same problems as the university as a whole. This study starts from the need to define indicators of efficiency in the university library, and aims to analyze various forms of efficiency that can lead to building the indicators system. Currently, university libraries are classified as components of the university system, considered to be necessary, but not so much as being a priority. The efficiency indicators of academic library should reflect its importance. Efficiency cannot be seen as a ratio between inputs and outputs, but must allow the analysis of internal processes taking place within each university library, highlighting weaknesses and strengths. 2. Internal Efficiency and External Efficiency The main source of income for the university library is the university budget. The receipts from third parties (other than university students) which requires access to the books or databases held by the university (some universities provide free access to works license, or doctoral dissertation) can be sources of revenue. University Press can also be a source of income. It may be a participant on book market, in competition with other publishers present on this market. Education Law makes possible as an university can establish an university library or a commercial organization to make trade with 92

104 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 book or information and which it works for the library's benefit. However, there are few concerns of the academic library for setting some major revenue sources, other than those allocated from the university. That's why we consider here at the income category, only the allocated amounts from the university. A first form of efficiency is that which balances the library's revenues with its operating costs. If revenue sources ensure the expenses, on categories and destinations, it is estimated that library work is efficient. This efficiency calculation way, which we call "internal efficiency" reflects concern of the university management for the operation of University Library and possibly for development its activity. What are the principles for this funding? What level of income and costs should be? A first way to determine the library's income consists in making the correlation with the number of students and a percentage of annual funding amounts for a student, either subsidized or with fee, to be allocated from the beginning to the library. This could be a good principle, if the universities should not allocate more money than would result by adoption of a reasonable percentage of annual funding per student. In addition, the number of students can fluctuate from year to year, which would reflect an undesired fluctuation at level of the university library. The second way is to establish a fixed amount from the university budget representing the university library's revenue, which can withstand small fluctuations from year to year, depending on the established objectives and possibly changes occurring in education system. In this case, the university must consider the library as being a priority, its activity being funded regardless of the economic situation of the university, as a whole. Concerning the costs, their evaluation and their size, it can start from the data of the previous period, with some corrections due to fluctuations in material prices or wages. Most of the times the costs are related to objectives, as: access to international databases, extending the book fund, completing and development of collections, promoting the university and the library or they are related to operational objectives such as quality enhancing of human capital, modernization of books deposits, the development of own databases etc. The multiplication of information sources conduct to a high dynamic of certain categories of expenditure, gradually becoming a significant share of the total library expenditures. Minimizing costs may be a target only for certain categories of expenditure, for others, it is imposed a growth in budget effort. The current trend is to increase spending for the development of databases with a specific purpose: basic research, applied research, regional and global issues, etc. We do not know about any Romanian university which invests to build a database of local, regional or national level, in the idea of selling information to obtain such funds for other projects. Internal efficiency reflects not only a restricted view over library activity but the possible lack of objectivity of its assessment. Library activity can be considered to be efficient by allocating significant funds, even if its activity is not optimal and involves waste of resources. Costs may be as large as are the sums allocated by the university. This can lead to the absurd situation when the library strives to spend the allocated funds. A miscalculation for the funding need can mean higher costs than the minimum. On the other hand, internal efficiency leaves the university manager to decide what type of activity unfolds in the library. The efficiency is in this case, a matter of choice. Reducing of allocations may make inefficient any activity, including library activity, even though the costs of conduct the activity are minimal. Decreasing funding for the library, below a certain level, causes loss of efficiency, regardless the measures and its efforts. Efficient use of resources, minimizing costs, restructuring, reorganization and any other action taken, no longer ensure the efficiency of activity. 93

105 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Efficiency does not depend on self-effort but by financier decision. Sometimes it comes to impose reducing operating costs of the library, even if in this way is negatively influenced the quality of its activity. If the manager believes that the university library activity should be better funded and decide to increase the amounts allocated from the university budget for the university library, costs may increase at the level of these amounts, the activity being wrongly considered efficient. Spending at the level of funding sources, without question about the costs size and without using all ways to reduce spending, does not reflect an efficient activity. From this point of view, calculation of efficiency should highlight all the ways of rational use of resources. Any activity which wastes resources is inefficient. Wasting of resources, especially human resources but also material resources is the most striking feature of many public institutions, including higher educational institutions. University libraries are part of the same category. Although it is not our goal here, we mention the main form of wasting the human resources of an university: their use for other purposes in other activities than those of research or education, such as: preparation of schedule, payroll of functions, reports, statements, records, meetings, unnecessary meetings, elections, campaigns, etc. In sport, whether team members would be asked to do these administrative tasks, the team would have no result. In education are rewarded just those engaged in such activities. Sources of funding amounts allocated from the university budget own funds Internal Efficiency University Library External Efficiency Results increasing the professional performance improving the cultural level Figure 1. The Internal Efficiency and External Efficiency of the University Library National Education Law aims to change perspective on principles of efficiency, taking into account the observed results in the external medium of university. The focus is not on what happens inside the system, within the university library, but on its observable results from the outside. The results are classified into two major areas: increasing the professional performances, respectively improving the cultural level. By taking into account the results of 94

106 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 activity and comparing them with costs, efficiency is approached at a higher level, which is external efficiency. Figure 1 presents the two types of efficiency for the university library. External efficiency allows the library to refer to the external environment and to compare the expected results. From the point of view of financier, for allocating the funds for education, only external efficiency is important because only by the results may prove the rational use of resources. While the resources allocated to the library can be precisely determined, the indicators of results have a qualitative nature and not all of them can be numerically expressed. A further complication is the recorded lag between the time of allocation of resources and obtaining the results. The effects can often be the result of decisions taken long time ago, and the relationship between effects and efforts is influenced by factors outside the university, respectively the library. 3. A Model of Efficiency in the Activity of University Library A recent study, done by a group of students on a representative sample of graduates, from the University of Braşov, shows that they appreciate the university library as an important element of their professional training. Most of them appreciate that the time spent into the university library was crucial for their acquired knowledge level, with direct reflection on the salary received after hiring. Over half of respondents make a direct link between their job and the time spent in the library. A regression model which has the explained variable being the number of graduates from one year who were hired in less than six months after completion of studies and the explanatory variable - the average daily time spent in the library by students of that generation, in the last year of study: NA t = a 0 + a 1 SB t + ɛ t, where: NA t = number of graduates in year t, hired in less than six months after studies completion; SB t = the average daily time spent in the library, in the last year of study, by the graduates of year t; a 0, a 1 = model parameters; ɛ t = specification error. Although a simple model, it can be useful in assessing the correlation between labor market success of a graduate and his availability to go to the university library during his studies. There can also be considered other endogenous variables, as are: the correspondence between the job profile and the followed specialization, the obtained salary, the need for new stages of preparation, in order to may be integrated on the labor market, etc. At a higher level, the performance indicators must take into account the existing or foreseeable competition conditions on the educational market. The market for education, especially higher education market, has seen the same trends which other markets of products or services have recorded: globalization, concentration of economic power, specialization, relocation, discrimination, etc. In the educational market are found the same features that characterize the functioning of markets of products and services: power of the monopolies, the presence of oligopolistic structures, using of dominant positions to influence the market, establishment of cartels, development of secret collusion against the consumer of educational services etc. Therefore, the indicators of efficiency are rather indicators of performance, because the university library activity reports to the objective of increasing the external performance of the university. The list of indicators comprises: the number of research database managed by the library, the number of journals classified at international level being considered in the 95

107 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science library, the number of publishers with which the library collaborates, number of partners of the library in managing the book fund etc. Because the presence in the library depends essentially on the Internet connection, the subscriptions that provide access to research databases, the previous model can be developed as it follows: NA t = a 0 + a 1 SB t + a 2 AB t + ɛ t, where: NA t = number of graduates in year t, hired in less than six months after studies completion; SB t = the average daily time spent in the library, in the last year of study, by the graduates of year t; AB t = number of subscriptions to research databases, during year t; a 0, a 1, a 2 = model parameters; ɛ t = specification error. External efficiency of university library depends on certain subjective factors of political, social, cultural and ethical nature. These factors are closely related, on the one hand, with motivational and traditional factors and on the other hand, with the existing incentive system. This form of efficiency is called X-efficiency. Increasing efficiency in this case involves changing the management style and improvement the communication with the external environment [3]. Economic research aim is, in this case, the environment where the man acts, his value system, traditions and his aspirations. It should be noted that, in terms of economics, library employees have no reason to maximize efficiency, only if they are controlled. All public institutions have the same problem: determination of employees to work to achieve organizational goals [8]. Previous econometric model can be developed, including X-efficiency as an explanatory factor. Since X-efficiency reflects the effect of some subjective and motivational factors, their inclusion in the model involves the numerical evaluation of them. Model is as it follows: NA t = a 0 + a 1 SB t + a 2 AB t + a 3 X t + ɛ t, where: NA t = number of graduates in year t, hired in less than six months after studies completion; SB t = the average daily time spent in the library, in the last year of study, by the graduates of year t; AB t = number of subscriptions to research databases, during year t; X t = X-efficiency, for year t; a 0, a 1, a 2 = model parameters; ɛ t = specification error. A determinant factor of efficiency is represented by the production scale. Economies of scale arise by distributing the fixed costs to a greater number of product units, so that for each unit is a smaller volume of spending. This way of increasing efficiency determines concentration of efforts at universities level from a geographical area, to support in common the development expenses of university library activity. In this way the inter-university libraries have appeared, better equipped and with a diversified activity. Increasing the workload of academic library and its external efficiency is consistent with the evolution of production in capitalist society, a mass production for the masses. An inter-university library in Brasov, for example, would be an opportunity for private university education, to have access at library book fund of the state university, with a longer 96

108 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 history and more possibilities for documentation. Local authorities may be interested in such a project, access can be free for all inhabitants of the city and not only. The econometric model can be developed including among the explanatory variables, the scale factor called "impact factor". The impact factor assesses the contribution to the funding and development of the university library of the economic and social actors from the geographical area where they unfold their activity. The impact factor reflects the necessary restructuring in the current system of operating in the university libraries, in which small units act with limited resources and a diversification of offered services, far to be considered modern and efficient. The obtained model is the following: NA t = a 0 + a 1 SB t + a 2 AB t + a 3 X t + a 3 FI t + ɛ t, where: NA t = number of graduates in year t, hired in less than six months after studies completion; SB t = the average daily time spent in the library, in the last year of study, by the graduates of year t; AB t = number of subscriptions to research databases, during year t; X t = X-efficiency, for year t; FI t = impact factor, for year t; a 0, a 1, a 2, a 3 = model parameters; ɛ t = specification error. The model can be reformulated by replacing the factor to be explained with other variables, from the above already mentioned. These indicators can be weighted using a weighting system that reflects the social importance in a given period of time for various indicators, appropriate the wanted objectives, thus building a function of efficiency for the activity of academic library. 4. Conclusions The first principle to govern the university library activity is the principle of equity. The University Library must fulfill its role to provide for all stakeholders access to books and culture. The principle of efficiency should not contravene the principle of equity, fairness. Principles of fairness and efficiency are becoming increasingly present in the specialty literature. In the Analytical Report for the European Commission prepared by the European Expert Network in Economics of Education, is emphasized the need for improving: the efficiency, as the ratio between obtained results and used resources, and the equity, defined as the accessibility at higher education system and equal opportunities offered to all students. Diversity and efficiency are key elements of education systems, such as the American one, while European system suffers in terms of efficiency, but offers a wide accessibility to students to all study programs. Increasing accessibility to higher education is a matter of general policy, whose objectives are: stimulating demand for higher education (total opposite to current trends of limiting access to higher education), development of educational offer, improving of personal motivation to pursue higher education, creating jobs of high complexity to can offer graduates the appropriate jobs for the specialization for which they gained skills, increase wages for master and PhD graduates, alleviate financial barriers faced by young people from diverse backgrounds and so on. A ranking of countries in terms of accessibility is presented in Analytical Report for the European Commission [10]. The information on which the ranking was based refers to the cost of education, living costs, scholarships, loans, taxes. Countries with the best access 97

109 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science conditions are Sweden and Finland. Sweden, for example, combines the low cost of education with generous grants and concessional lending. European Council of 11 May 2010 noted that "Education and training systems in Europe need to ensure both equity and excellence. Improving educational achievements and providing skills for everyone are crucial not only for economic growth and competitiveness, but also for poverty reduction and encouraging the social inclusion. European cooperation can help to identify the ways to promote social inclusion and equity, without compromising the excellence." In other words, the European Council speaks less about efficiency and more about equity and excellence. The excellence should be more important than efficiency, since, as we have already show above, the results are on long term and difficult to assess. Excellence means on one hand, performance, and on the other hand, responsibility in use of limited resources. In the model developed above, the efficient use of resources is reflected, first, through performance of graduates, of professors, of researchers. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Agasisti, Tommaso: Performances and spending efficiency in higher education: a European comparison through non-parametric approaches. In: Education Economics Vol.19, 2011, no. 2, p Antonis Adam, Manthos Delis, Pantelis Kammas: Public sector efficiency: leaving the playing field between OECD countries. In: Public Choice, 2011,146: p Feng Ying-jun, Huang Jin-zhi, Ren Bai-ming: Study on Enterprise s Internal Management Auditing Based on X-efficiency Theory. In: International Conference on Management Science and Engineering, Libenstein, Harvey: Allocative Efficiency vs X- efficiency. In: American Economic Review, 56, 1966, p Murnane, Richard J.: Improving Education Indicators and Economic Indicators: The Same Problems? In: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, no. 9,1987, p Mensi, Sami: Efficient Structure versus Market Power: Theories and Empirical Evidence, International Journal of Economics and Finance, vol.2, no. 4, 2010, p Schumpeter, Joseph A.: Poate supravieńui capitalismul? In: Publica. Originaly published as: Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Stiglitz, Joseph: În cădere liberă In: Publica, 2010, p Taylor, Janette, Taylor, Ranald: Performance Indicators in Academia: An X-Efficiency Approach? In: Australian Journal of Public Administration, 62(2), 2003, p Veugelers, Reinhilde: A policy Agenda for Improving Access to Higher Education in the EU. In: Analytical Report for the European Commission prepared by European Expert Network on Economics of Education, Waldo, Steffan: Efficiency in Swedish Public Education: Competition and Voter Monitoring. In: Education Economics, Vol.15, 2007, no. 2, p *** OECD, 2009, Education at a glance OECD Indicators, Paris: OECD. 13. *** Law nr. 1/2011 National Education Law. 98

110 TOOL FOR EVALUATING THE LIBRARY PATRONS SATISFACTION Aurel Ion CLINCIU, Maria POPESCU, Elena HELEREA Transilvania University of Brasov Abstract: The study is a part of a series of papers with practical character, to support implementation of the quality management in libraries. This paper deals with the development of a tool to measure user satisfaction, in direct connection with the quality of services offered by the University Library. The questionnaire developed provides separate scores for the three dimensiuni / its facets, relating to quality of services, access to information and human resources. The three subscales and the questionnaire as a whole have a high internal consistency and a good construct and criterion validity. All these recommend the designed questionnaire as a tool for determining the satisfaction of the library services users, especially students, with effects in increasing the quality of education and research in university. Keywords: library, customer satisfaction, quality management tools. 1. Introduction L existence et la performance de toute organisation dépendent de sa capacité à répondre aux besoins des clients. L'évaluation systématique de la satisfaction des clients doit devenir une pratique courante dans toute organisation qui a mis en place la gestion de la qualité, comme un outil pour mesurer la satisfaction des clients et de son évolution. La mesure de la satisfaction est une question d'intérêt pour les bibliothèques, en particulier dans le contexte actuel, caractérisé par leur orientation vers la qualité. Les problèmes de qualité dans les bibliothèques sont développés par les auteurs de cet article dans plusieurs études antérieures, concernant la mise en œuvre de la gestion de la qualité dans les bibliothèques [1], les indicateurs de performance pour les bibliothèques [2], l approche de la gestion de la relation avec les clients des bibliothèques [3] etc. Les études mentionés contiennent des références pour la nécessité d'une évaluation systématique de la satisfaction du client, comme un outil pour la mesure et l'amélioration continue de la qualité des services offerts par les bibliothèques. Cet article poursuit le cycle de travaux et vise à développer l'outil nécessaire pour l'évaluation online de la satisfaction de la clientèle d'une bibliothèque universitaire. Le développement du questionnaire et les resultats du sondage pilote menée sur les étudiants de l'université Transylvania de Brasov sont présentés séparément. La méthodologie de l'étude consiste en l'analyse de la qualité des services de bibliothèque et des meilleures pratiques des bibliothèques universitaires sur l evaluation de la satisfaction des clients, sur la base des publications spécialisées et de sites web des bibliothèques universitaires. Les résultats de ces travaux forment le fondement de la mise en place d évaluation online de la satisfaction des utilisateurs de la Bibliothèque de l'université Transilvania de Brasov, action circonscrite au projet lancé il y a deux ans, d implementation de la géstion de la qualité dans la bibliothèque.

111 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 2. Caractéristiques de qualité des services de bibliothèque et des outils pour évaluer la satisfaction Mesurer la satisfaction du client s'inscrit dans le cadre des codes de bonnes pratiques sur la satisfaction du client: permet d'éliminer les causes de l insatisfaction et de contribuer à l'amélioration des activités de l'organisation. Les sources d'information couramment utilisées consistent en enquêtes auprès des clients, des études sur les clients perdus, l'analyse des plaintes et des informations reçues du client par un contact direct. Les plus utilisées methodes pour évaluer la perception du client sur la qualité des services sont basées sur l'analyse des plaintes et des questionnaires. Ces méthodes sont largement utilisées dans la gestion des bibliothèques universitaires, les commentaires des clients se fait généralement online. Les applications varient d'une université à l'autre, en termes de critères d'évaluation, les groupes cibles, la fréquence et la méthode d'analyse des résultats. Applications publiées sur les sites web des bibliothèques universitaires pour l evaluation de la satisfaction du personnel et étudiants, les visiteurs et anciens étudiants [4], suggestions et commentaires sur la bibliothèque, et sondage sur la satisfaction des clients [5] sont des exemples de bonnes pratiques pour obtenir un feedback des bénéficiaires des services de bibliothèque. Dans les universités de Roumanie, dans la plupart des cas, l'évaluation de la satisfaction des utilisateurs des services de bibliothèque n'est pas definie comme élément distinct, les points relatifs aux services de bibliothèque etant inclus dans les questionnaires d'évaluation par les étudiants de la qualité de l'éducation. Les plus utilisés critères d'évaluation sont les suivants [6]: l environement de la salle de lecture, les services de la bibliothèque, (publications suffisantes, revues, bases de données, bibliothèque virtuelle, etc.), l amabilité du personnel de la bibliothèque, la présence des centres de multiplication, etc. Jusqu'à présent, l'université Transylvanie de Brasov n a pas realisé une évaluation systématique de la satisfaction des utilisateurs des services de la bibliothèque. Là, sur le site web de la bibliothèque il y a des formulaires des demandes et des plaintes concernant le libre accès à l'information publique [7], mais qui ne sont pas spécifiques pour les services de bibliothèque. Le développement des outils pour évaluer online la satisfaction des utilisateurs - les étudiants et les enseignants, visés au présent document, fait partie de l'approche pour la qualité de la gestion de bibliothèque, initiée il y a deux ans. L accomplissement professionnel du sondage implique élaborer un questionnaire avec des questions pertinentes, clairement et précisément exprimées. Une étude efficace de la satisfaction des clients repose sur les facteurs abordés par les questions du sondage, qui doit être en corrélation avec les objectifs du questionnaire. Dans la littérature de spécialité, il existe de nombreuses variantes sur les dimensions de la qualité des services pertinents pour le client. La classification la plus simple comprend deux dimensions de la perception d utilisateur en ce qui concerne la qualité des services: la qualité technique et la qualité fonctionnelle. La qualité technique du service fait référence à ce qui est livré aux clients, et celle fonctionnelle se concentre sur la façon dont le service est fourni. Le modèle le plus célèbre de mesurer la qualité du service est SERVQUAL [8], développé par Parasuraman et les autres. Ce modèle comporte cinq dimensions ou des facteurs utilisés pour mesurer les perceptions des clients sur la qualité des services: 1. Tangibles - installations, équipements et l aspect physique du personnel; 2. Fiabilité - Aptitude à effectuer le service promis avec rigueur et précision; 3. Réactivité - Volonté d'aider les clients et fournir un service promt; 4. Assurance - y compris les compétences, la courtoisie, la crédibilité et la sécurité; 5. Empathie - y compris les accès, la communication, la compréhension de la clientèle. 100

112 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Questionnaire d'évaluer la satisfaction sur la qualité des services de bibliothèque Compte tenu des aspects ci-dessus et les caractéristiques des services offerts par la bibliothèque de l'université, dans le questionnaire proposé par les auteurs de cette communication pour le sondage de satisfaction des utilisateurs ont été définies les dimensions suivantes: 1. services fournis, 2. sources d'information sur l'accessibilité des services, 3. accéder à l'information; 4. les compétences et la courtoisie du personnel ; 5. équipements de la bibliothèque, 6. l'ambiance et la propreté. Les résultats du questionnaire consistent en deux parties. La première partie se compose d'une courte information sur l objectif de l evaluation et les données d'identification du répondant (faculté, progamme d etudes, l année d étude), l'anonymat des répondants étant un gage d'objectivité. En outre, il y a deux questions (à laquelle il ajoute ensuite un tiers) qui se réfère à la frequence dont le répondant a utilisé les ressources matérielles (livres, magazines, DVD) et celles offertes online par la bibliothèque. Le troisième élément additionnel se réfère à la fréquence avec laquelle le répondant a participé aux activités et manifestations organisées par la bibliothèque. Le but de ces articles introductifs, ne sert pas à marquer, mais de fournir une image concluante sur la prise de conscience de l offre de la bibliothèque par le répondant et donc la fiabilité de sa réponse. Les scores gradués de 5 (hebdomadaire) à 1 (jamais), rassemblées dans un résultat total, ont été utilisés comme critères de validation interne de la deuxième partie du questionnaire, celle qui mesure vraiment la satisfaction. L'hypothèse de base était que l'utilisation plus fréquente des services de bibliothèque represente en même temps l effet et la cause de la fréquence d'utiliser les services qu'elle offre. La deuxième partie du questionnaire comprend 18 articles, regroupés en six catégories enoncées ci-dessus. Les questions sont fermées, chaque évaluation étant faite sur une échelle Likert à cinq niveaux, à partir de 1 - très peu, à 5 - fortement. En outre, à la fin du questionnaire est un espace réservé pour les propositions et suggestions concernant l'amélioration des services de la bibliothèque. La première priorité après l opérationalisation d un concept ayant la forme d un questionnaire est de veiller à ce qu'il mesure un simple concept, c est-à-dire de déterminer s'il est unidimensionnel. La méthode de choix est l'utilisation de l'analyse exploratoire par laquelle est identifié le nombre des facteurs couvrant variable instrumentale. Dans notre cas, les conditions de l'application de cette méthode d'analyse sont accomplies, parce que le discriminant est positif, l indicateur Keyser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) a une excellente valeur (0,80), résidus calculés entre corrélations observées et reproduites indique 33,0% des résidus non redondantes, avec une value absolue plus grande que 0,05. Bien que la solution factorielle fournie est de 6 facteurs, tous les 18 articles ont de saturations moyennes, et grandes seulement dans le premier d'entre eux, couvrant 35,13% de la variance. Donc, même s il ne peut pas être considéré comme un facteur général, il est celui qui indique clairement la dimension unique du concept mesuré et implicitement la possibilité de totaliser les évaluations individuels dans un indice global. Pour determiner les dimensions du concept mesuré on a consideré la sollution rotative Varimax qui indique une solution factorielle ayant six dimensions, chacune composée de deux jusqu'à quatre élements. Cette solution fragmente le questionnaire en plusieurs parties; c est la raison pour laquelle nous avons utilisé une méthode supplémentaire, c'est à dire un type d'analyse structurelle, représenté par une analyse de cluster, appliquée aux éléments. Les conditions d utiliser cette méthode, la plupart communes avec celles de l'analyse factorielle, sont remplies; nous avons appliqué la méthode d'agglomération, qui a fourni la solution présentée dans la Figure 1. Comme on peut remarquer, les éléments du questionnaire sont regroupées par deux grandes groupes. La première consiste en des éléments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 16 et a été identifiée comme se rapportant aux services de bibliothèque. La deuxième groupe se compose des éléments restés, a deux dimensions adjacentes distinctes: l'une qui fait 101

113 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science référence à l'accessibilité de l'information et aux sources d'information virtuelle disponibles en bibliothèque (articles 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), et l'autre aux compétences du personnel et l'environnement de travail dans la bibliothèque (articles 12, 13, 14, 17, 18). Ainsi, l entière structure du questionnaire est réduite des six dimensions initiales jusqu à seulement trois, clairement définies par 5 à 8 articles pour chaque dimension. Dans cette situation, il apparaît justifiée la necessité du deroulement d'une analyse d'échelle pour chacune des trois facettes composantes du concept mesuré, ce qui constitue la satisfaction d utilisateur pour les services de bibliothèque. Figure 1. Le résultat de analyse typologique appliquée aux éléments du questionnaire Résultats de l'analyse d échelle sont résumés dans le Tableau 1. Dimension Tableau 1. Alpha Cronbach pour les trois dimensions et l echelle complète Services fournis (8 éléments) Acces aux informations (5 éléments) Competences humaines_climat (5 éléments) Total (18 élements) Alpha Cronbach L échelle dans son ensemble a une très bonne cohérence interne, une preuve supplémentaire de son trait unidimensionnel [10]. Toutes les trois facettes sont mesurés selon des échelles qui ont une forte cohérence interne, les compétences humaines et la qualité de l'environnement dans la bibliothèque ayant un coefficient alpha Cronbach très proche de celui de toute l échelle, même si elle ne se compose que de 5 éléments. L une des hypothèses fondamentales de la recherche était que la satisfaction liée aux facilités offertes par la bibliothèque est directement relationnée au degré de leur accès et utilisation. Ce fait est confirmé, mais seulement pour l offre non-virtuelle de la bibliothèque, comme le montrent les graphiques de la Figure

114 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO M e a n T o ta l sco re Rare Average Frequently M e a n T ota l sco re Rare Average Frequently Resources (books, journals, DVD) Online resources Figure 2. Scores totaux de la satisfaction pour les deux types de ressources offertes. Pour obtenir une image détaillée de ce phénomène, on a fusionné pour former un score composite, les deux score: celui sur les éléments préliminaires liés à la fréquence de l'utilisation des ressources disponibles de la bibliothèque et celui concernant l utilisation des bases de données, qu elle offre (ressources online) Services quality Mean Rare 18 Average Frequently Information acces Human competences Figure 3. Les scores dimensions du questionnaire compte tenu de l utilisation des ressources de la bibliothèque. Comme on le remarque dans la Figure 3, à mésure que les ressources de la bibliothèque sont plus utilisées, cela vient d'être appréciée et valorisée par les utilisateurs. Les conclusions pratiques de cette situation sont considérables et visent une plus large activité initiale promotionnelle et de trajet pour l offre de services et d activités que la bibliothèque propose à ses utilisateurs. Par de telles actions, son objectif fondamental - d'informer et de former - est de mieux en mieux réalisé. 103

115 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Conclusions Les recherches effectuées dans le présent article montrent que les bibliothèques axées sur la qualité ont développé des outils online pour évaluer la satisfaction des utilisateurs. L'objectif de cet étude, celui de créer un outil pour évaluer la satisfaction des étudiants sur la qualité des services des bibliothèques universitaire, a été atteint. Le questionnaire résulté est facile à appliquer, sur papier et online, ayant des qualités psychométriques (cohérence interne, la validité conceptuelle et de contre-critère) très bonnes. Il fournit un double feedback, en partant des étudiants vers la bibliothèque et ensuite de cette-ci vers la direction des facultés et de l'université, concernant l'utilisation des ressources disponibles pour appuyer l'enseignement et la recherche. Une analyse supplémentaire des suggestions faites à la fin du questionnaire peut fournir des informations utiles pour l'optimisation de l activité de la bibliothèque. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Popescu, M., Helerea, E., Corneanu, E.: Implementarea managementului calităńii în bibliotecile universitare. In: ConferinŃa InternaŃională de Biblioteconomie şi ŞtiinŃa Informării, BIBLIO 200. Brasov: Ed. UniversităŃii Transilvania din Braşov, pg Popescu, M., Helerea, E.: University Library Performance Indicators, Harmonization with Quality Requirements in Higher Education. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference Institutional Strategic Quality Management in Higher Education, ISQM 2010, Vol.I, Sinaia october Popescu, M., Dascălu, A., Helerea, E.: Customer Relationship Management in University Libraries. In: Innovation in Library, Biblio Brasov: Editura UniversităŃii Transilvania din Brasov, 2011, pp Monash University Library, Accesed in 5 may Victoria University Melborne Australia, Accesed in 5 may Universitatea Eftimie Murgu, ReşiŃa, index.php?id= Universitatea Transilvania din Braşov, Despre Biblioteca/ Cereri.aspx 8. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, A.V., Berry, V.: A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and its Implications of Future Research. In: Journal of Marketing, Vol.49 (Fall 1985), Brogowich, A.A., Delene, L.M., Lith, D.M.: Syntehetisised Service Quality Model with Managerial Implications. 10. Niculescu, Z.: Şcoala bibliografică românească. În: Biblioteca, anul XI, nr. 1/2000, pp Clinciu, A.I.: Prelucrare computerizată a datelor cu SPSS, vol.1. Editura UniversităŃii Transilvania din Brasov,

116 INNOVATION IN LIBRARIES A MATHEMATICAL PERSPECTIVE Cristina HUIDIU, Monica MOCANU Library U.M.F. Carol Davila Bucharest Abstract: Human society worldwide is under the sign of innovation, both in terms of state-ofart technology and in terms of organizational structures. Libraries keep up with this trend. Over time, their evolution may be seen as a stochastic process, with manifold variables, whereof the human factor is the most difficult to analyze. Another variable is the development direction. The global trend towards state-of-art technology and even artificial intelligence is considered. All decisions should be made having the users needs as focus. Keywords: innovation, library, society, human factor, development, technology. Innovation stands for a defining feature of the libraries, considered either from the perspective of using various technologies, introducing new services, or from the perspective of the organization underlying the research. To innovate has turned into the motto and at the same time the motor of the century; and the librarians are to a certain extent directly involved in the information traffic resulting in amazing solutions to problems, many of them not acknowledged yet. Relating to what Abraham Lincoln said to himself: Lincoln, you will never be able to become a lawyer unless you understand what to demonstrate means, no one can turn into a Librarian unless he understands which the implications of the INNOVATION are. If Lincoln found the solution in Euclid s Geometry, we will turn towards arithmetic, following an equation of the form, where U is the human factor (influenced by the economic, social and cultural context) during a certain time period t, which resorts to a certain technology, T. A correct analysis of these factors offers us the possibility to anticipate the development directions in certain fields, being thereby able to mould the Library s services according to the users needs. The evolution of the Library and its services must be deemed as a stochastic process, considering the manifold variables that influence the existence of the Library itself. Following the equation submitted above, let us analyze the Library s possible directions of development. In the first place, we must define the Library beyond collections and building. The Library is a space that encourages creativity, a space for research, communication and relationship, which is not confined to the physical location. The Library is structured knowledge, submitting functional models of information consumption. The human factor U or the information consumers represent the variable the most difficult to analyze as, in its turn, it undergoes several influences that define: the manner of deciding the required type of information, the form of reception and its manner of interaction with the information supplier. In order to exemplify, we will take the example of a university library specialized in exact sciences. U in this case is formed, on one hand, of students, teaching staff and researchers on a different level of knowledge. The desired form for the reception of the information may take into account both the support (traditional / electronic) and the manner of presentation (bibliographies / articles / photographs / video recordings / podcasts etc). These information may be directly solicited, at the headquarters of the library, or indirectly, resorting to the available technologies; and, depending on the type of information, a certain space will be necessary. The variable t represents the development direction on the following 5 years. T represents the variable that determines, to a certain extent, the library s usefulness, through its manner of exploitation so as to benefit the users. As Pranav Minstry, MIT doctoral student,

117 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science asserted in the presentation from TED 2009 of his project entitled Wear your world, or Sixth Sense, the development trend of the technology is to mould the already existing instruments and to create state-of-art pieces that should adapt to our needs. Therefore, there appeared the tablets, e-readers, Wi-Fi, cloud computing, holographic computers, smart tables, car with autopilot, Google glasses and also SoundWave [1], Microsoft project that enables us to interact with our gadgets through signs or Sixth Sense, mentioned above, that helps us to transform any surface into information support and at the same time we will be able to create mash-es print / electronic. Mention should be made of the researches in the field of artificial intelligence, where particularly interesting results have been obtained during the recent years. Watson, created in the project Deep QA [2] by IBM, is capable of understanding the human language regardless of the form of expression, being as a matter of fact the most ambitious project with positive results in the field. Another project, which this time is open to anyone wishing to become trainer of an intelligent system is supported by Ai[3]. In the framework of this project, various modalities are tested in order to learn the machines to reason, resorting to psycho-pedagogical techniques. The state-of-art computer generations, such as the quantum computers, which use features such as the quantum entanglement offer the possibility of simplifying operations that otherwise would have taken even a few months to solve. Considering all these variables, probably in 5 years, the Library as we know it will no longer exist. The Library s physical space will be as important as its online presence (regardless of the form), the difference consisting in the manner of using these spaces. The reading rooms will turn either into individual study spaces, endowed with state-of-art technology that should help the user understand the information, simplifying thereby the information acquisition process, or into teamwork rooms (team that may consist in researchers / enthusiasts within and even outside the borders, without their being deprived of the access to a certain type of information or technical service). For instance, a medical student will be able to come anytime to the library; and, in order to learn anatomy, he will be able to use the 3D applications, the table itself will be an informationcarrying instrument that the student should delimitate, modify, wherein the student should introduce new information to be published under the auspices that this one wishes (to offer the information only to certain colleagues, faculties, geographical area). This student will be able to communicate with the available machines without having to possess extensive IT knowledge, and they will offer him feedback according to the user profile. In the Library s transformation process from simple support used in research into innovation promoter, we emphasize that High-Tech is not necessarily synonymous to High- Priced. Open Source solutions are as viable as those with payment, one of the most interesting examples being Shibboleth [4], software used by the libraries to offer off-campus access to databases and other electronic resources. The paid alternative of this software is EZ Proxy, which is underlain by a code from Shibboleth. Once with the development of technology, the librarian will turn into one of the most important instruments in the process of determining the modalities of information dissemination and consumption; being now able to concentrate his efforts on the defining feature of his activity, INFORMATION, resorting to machines for minor activities. Such a change involves in the first place a good management strategy that should encourage the librarians to use, to understand and to exploit technology. The success of the Library s services and its usefulness from the users standpoint depend on its modality of approaching change. In conclusion INNOVATION must be considered from the cause-effect perspective and the users needs are obviously the focus of all decisions. NOTES 1. Gupta, S. "SoundWave: Using the Doppler Effect to Sense...Microsoft Research"2012. <http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/redmond/groups/cue/publications/ guptasoundwavechi2012.pdf> 2. "IBM-DeepQA Project." Mai <http://www.research.ibm.com/ deepqa/deepqa.shtml> 3. "Ai Research - Creating a new form of life." 17 May <http://www.a-i.com/> 4. ""Shibboleth - Home." Mai <http://shibboleth.net/> 106

118 MODERN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE "GEORGE BARITIU" BRAŞOV COUNTY LIBRARY Ioana OLARU Departmental Library "George Baritiu" of Braşov Abstract: The internal control systems are considered indispensable for effective performance of an institution. The process of improving the management control, in the public libraries, is at the beginning, but it is already experiencing a dynamic evolution. The many financial challenges are forcing managers to be aware that, to have control of the results, it is essential to assess the risks and describe a strategy for correcting possible dysfunctions. The study presents the way of organization and work of the Departmental Library "George Baritiu" of Braşov, for the preparation and development of management control system, while emphasizing the progress in the field. Keywords: internal control systems; standards. 1. Introduction Au moment de l'entrée dans l'union Européenne, après un demi-siècle d'isolement politique et économique, suivi d une décennie d expérimentations, la Roumanie s'est engagée à adopter l ensemble des lois connu sous le nom d'acquis communautaire. Celui-ci réglemente l activité des institutions de l'ue, le fonctionnement des États membres dans le marché unique européen, les actions et les politiques communautaires. On y retrouve aussi les droits et les obligations communs établis par des traités. L'acquis communautaire se développe continuellement par l'adoption de nouveaux documents: déclarations, résolutions et accords internationaux conclus par la Communauté et par les États membres de l'union. En ce qui concerne le système de gestion, l'acquis communautaire prévoit des principes généraux de bonne pratique, ou la fonction de surveillance est plus importante que celle de vérification. La mise en place du système est basée sur le Code de contrôle interne, un modèle de contrôle de gestion logique et homogène, composé des normes de contrôle interne, regroupées dans un minimum de règles de gestion, qui régissent l activité de l'ensemble de l institution. En Romanie, il est divisé en cinq chapitres, qui contiennent 25 normes, et il a été élaboré en tenant compte des lignes directrices du Guide sur la bonne gouvernance INTOSAI, recommandé par le Comité pour les normes de contrôle interne, et par l'expérience, dans ce domaine, de la Commission Européenne, du Comité des sponsors de la Commission Treadway et de l'institut canadien des comptables agréés. La nécessité de mettre en œuvre des normes s est imposée juste au moment du début de la crise économique, laquelle, malheureusement, se poursuit aujourd'hui. Le manque de ressources financières a empêché de nombreuses institutions publiques à faire recours à l aide des sociétés spécialisées; par conséquent, elles ont été obligées de mettre en œuvre le contrôle interne, par leurs propres moyens.

119 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 2. La mise en œuvre du système de contrôle interne à la Bibliothèque Départementale de Braşov Pour réussir une bonne gestion, la direction de la Bibliothèque «George BariŃiu» de Braşov s est proposée d atteindre les objectifs du contrôle interne, de recruter un personnel compétent et d encourager une bonne coopération entre tous les employés. En outre, une attention particulière a été accordée à la présentation réelle et juste de toutes les activités effectuées dans l'établissement, dans les documents élaborés. Le principe de la séparation des attributions relatives aux opérations spécifiques a été mis en pratique, de sorte que l'approbation, l'enregistrement et la vérification soient effectués par des personnes différentes. En plus, un contrôle permanent de la direction et une intervention prompte, responsable et corrective intervient pour remédier aux déficiences identifiées. Le manager a mis en place, par un document de décision interne, un groupe de travail - structure ayant des attributions de contrôle, de coordination et d orientation méthodologique du système; le groupe est composé des chefs des sept services, deux bureaux et 14 départements de la bibliothèque. En fonction de la problématique des cinq composants de base du système de gestion: l environnement de contrôle, la performance et la gestion des risques, l information et la communication, et, enfin, les activités de contrôle et d'évaluation, la désignation des membres de l'équipe a pris en compte les facteurs suivants: - le secteur d action; - le but; - les actions qu'ils vont entreprendre. La relation de communication entre le groupe de travail et les départements se fait par la circulation des documents, qui se présente comme suit: GROUPE DE TRAVAIL approbation DIRECTEURS ADJOINTS approbation DIRECTEUR élaboratio EMPLOYES application Fig. 1: Le flux des documents élaborés dans le processus des procédures de travail et de contrôle Il est à noter que, dans le processus d élaboration des documents obligatoires exigés par le système de contrôle interne, on a impliqué les parties constitutives structurelles de la bibliothèque à tous les niveaux de décision, et les résultats reflètent l'effort soutenu et permanent de l'ensemble du personnel spécialisé. Les services, les bureaux et les départements ont établi leurs propres objectifs, de sorte qu ils répondent à l'ensemble des exigences S.M.A.R.T, c'est-à-dire qu ils soient précis, mesurables, appropriés, réalistes, ayant une date limite de mise en pratique, et tenant compte des critères suivants: le but et le rôle de la bibliothèque; l utilisation efficace et la protection des ressources matérielles, financières et humaines de la bibliothèque; le respect des lois, des politiques et des règlements internes; la qualité des informations internes et externes; la protection des archives. Après avoir établi les objectifs des activités spécifiques de la bibliothèque, la rédaction des procédures de travail et de contrôle a débuté, avec une préoccupation à part pour la clarté et la précision. Le modèle d élaboration comprend la description de toutes les étapes à suivre dans 108

120 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 l'accomplissement des tâches, de même que les départements concernés et les responsabilités de chaque poste impliqué. Tous les départements, bureaux et services ont rédigé leurs propres manuels de procédures de travail pour leurs activités spécifiques. Le processus de rédaction, relativement court, s est déroulé pendant deux ans. La bibliothèque détient, actuellement, un portefeuille de 125 procédures, ce qui représente 85% du total des activités spécifiques de notre institution. Un souci constant du groupe de travail se manifeste également pour la révision, la mise à jour et la communication des procédures aux employés, lors des changements inhérents, qui se produisent dans la structure organisationnelle, les règlements et la législation, ou lorsqu on établit les mesures correctives, suite à l'identification des risques. Un instrument utile à la vérification de la compréhension et du respect des procédures de travail, par les employés, s avère la soi-disant liste de contrôle. Elle prend la forme d'une série de questions, auxquelles, les personnes à fonctions de gestion doivent répondre périodiquement. Un autre groupe de normes abordé fut celui de la gestion des risques. La gestion des risques, qui utilise comme outil de travail Le registre des risques, permet à la direction d'identifier l'élément d'incertitude dans la réalisation des objectifs établis, et le risque associé. A cet effet, une procédure a été conçue, qui fonctionne en plusieurs étapes: - l identification des risques; - le diagnostic des risques; - l attitude à l'égard du risque; - le suivi et la révision des risques. Le processus est en cours, les membres du groupe de travail, en collaboration avec les employés subalternes, font l analyse des activités spécifiques, et identifient les risques importants, tenant compte de la probabilité de leur réalisation, de l'impact impliqué et des causes générées. GROUPE DE TRAVAIL approbation DIRECTEURS ADJOINTS approbation DIRECTEUR identification EMPLOYES application elaboration RESPONSABLE R.R. archivage Fig. 2: Le flux des documents élaborés dans le processus de la gestion des risques Dans chaque compartiment, les risques assumés sont évalués, en utilisant une échelle de notation du type: élevé, moyen, faible. Ceux-ci, combinés avec les mesures de contrôle identifiées pour la prévention, sont envoyés à la direction pour être approuvés. Tel que l on observe dans la figure 2, le responsable du registre des risques fait la centralisation et l archivage des données reçues de l'ensemble de l'institution. L achèvement de l'enregistrement de ces données dans le registre des risques permettra une analyse complète sur l'élimination des risques, l'amélioration des activités internes et des services, que la bibliothèque offre à la communauté. Les règles internes relatives à l'embauche, à l évaluation des performances et à la promotion ont été traitées également dans l'environnement de contrôle, de même que le Code d'éthique professionnelle; celui-ci a été élaboré afin d'établir une conduite éthique et professionnelle dans l'exercice des attributions de travail, applicable aussi bien aux employés qui exercent des fonctions de gestion, qu à ceux qui ont des fonctions d exécution. 109

121 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Comprendre et respecter les principes fondamentaux de la profession tels: l'intégrité, l'objectivité, la confidentialité et la compétence professionnelle représentent les elements essentiels dans la prévention et la notification des irrégularités, s y ajoutent les règles de conduite pour le personnel impliqué. L'information et la communication sont très importantes pour l accomplissement des objectifs de contrôle interne. Le groupe de travail a établi les types d'informations, qui ont été classées en fonction de leur origine interne ou externe. La communication interne consiste en la transmission de l'information verticalement et horizontalement. Le canal vertical de communication entre le personnel de gestion et les employés est destiné à informer le personnel sur les problèmes d'orientation, de respect des lois et des règlements, d approche du contrôle interne, de délégation de pouvoir et de la rétroaction. La communication verticale ascendante vise l'information de la direction au sujet de la performance, des étapes parcourues, des risques et du contrôle interne. Cependant, quel que soit le type de l information, pour qu'elle soit fiable et pertinente, il est obligatoire qu elle soit enregistrée et classifiée rapidement. Dans la Bibliothèque «George BariŃiu» de Braşov, l évolution du système de contrôle interne est conçue pour une période de plusieurs années, et ce processus est intégré dans un programme de développement de gestion, comprenant les étapes à suivre, les échéances et les responsabilités. Il est mis à jour annuellement, en fonction des résultats obtenus par la suite des auto-évaluations, et il est rapporté au Conseil Départemental, l ordonnateur principal de crédits. A la fin de l'année 2011, à travers les structures organisationnelles, des questionnaires d auto-évaluation ont été remplis, ce qui a permis au groupe de travail de conclure que le système de gestion est partiellement mis en place. 3. Conclusions Il y a encore, évidemment, un long chemin à parcourir pour finaliser l introduction du Code des normes, mais, par la mise en pratique des documents ci-dessus, on a enregistré déjà des avantages: prendre plus facilement des décisions concernant la mise à jour de la structure organisationnelle, des lignes de responsabilité et d'autorité; identifier les solutions les plus efficaces pour atteindre les objectifs de la bibliothèque, avec le respect du plafond budgétaire approuvé; réduire le temps d adaptation aux activités spécifiques, pour les nouveaux employés, ou pour ceux qui sont transférés d'autres départements de la bibliothèque; établir un dialogue constructif, sur les risques, entre les employés de la bibliothèque; agir prestement pour la suppression des irrégularités. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Drăgulănescu, Nicolae-George : Acquis-ul comunitar. CirculaŃia liberă a produselor în cadrul pieńei unice europene. Disponible àl l adresse:http://www.ndragulanescu.ro/ publicańii /CP38.pdf. 2. Ghid de evaluare a sistemului de control intern în entităńile publice, Disponible à l adresse GHIDCONTROLINTERN.pdf. 3. Ispir, Ovidiu : Controlul intern al activităńii instituńiilor publice. Dans: FinanŃe Bănci Asigurări nr. 10, 2003, p Ordin nr. 946/2005, republié dans: Monitorul Oficial nr. 469/ Popa, Gabriela : Sistemul de control intern susńine performanńa companiei. Disponible à l adresse :http://www.ensight.ro/newsletter/no26/articol2.htm. 6. Tătaru, Violeta : Sistemul de control intern / managerial (1). Disponible à l adresse:http://www.graiu-gorjului.ro/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 1736:sistemul-de-control-internmanagerial-i. 110

122 DEVELOPING AN INFORMATION LITERACY PROGRAMME FOR THE USERS OF BIOMEDICAL INFORMATION Octavia-Luciana MADGE University of Bucharest, Faculty of Letters, Library and Information Science Department Crina MIHĂILESCU The Central Library of the "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest Abstract: Most universities have changed in the last years their educational strategies and encouraged a closer co-operation between the academic staff and librarians. The learning process must be based now on access to all types of information resources so the involvement of librarians will have to intensify and they should be perceived as partners of the higher education institutions. Librarians can support the education and research process by teaching their users the information skills, the methodology and the necessary approaches to locate and use effectively relevant information. Starting from the results of recent research which analyzed the information needs and the user behaviour in the process of information search and retrieval, this paper emphasizes the need to develop an information literacy programme for the users of the Central Library of the "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest and suggests aspects which such programme should cover. Key words: information literacy, information users, biomedical information, information skills, information search and retrieval 1. Introduction At present information literacy has become absolutely necessary and we all must get advanced information skills which could allow us to live and work better in a technologybased society dominated by information in electronic form. Information literacy is at present a key concept which has a lot of definitions in the specialized literature. The most often mentioned definition is the one elaborated by the American Library Association s Presidential Committee on Information Literacy which states that To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. [1] Other specialists define information literacy as the adoption of appropriate information behaviour to obtain, through whatever channel or medium, information well fitted to information needs, together with critical awareness of the importance of wise and ethical use of information in society. [2] Along with the increase of electronic information volume and with the use of computers in the process of information retrieval, users need besides the reading, knowledge and evaluation skills for both the access tools and materials retrieved with those tools also the ability to critically

123 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science evaluate the information retrieved as to its authenticity, currency and appropriateness to the problem solving process which in fact characterizes information literacy. In this way no matter what definition we start from, an information literate person is essentially one who can use information effectively in all its forms and when confronted with an information need, an information literate person knows what information to look for, how to search efficiently, is able to access relevant sources and also has the ability to evaluate critically and select appropriate information sources, and to use information ethically. Thus, in the curriculum of the higher education programmes information literacy has a great importance because it improves the teaching and learning environment. [7] Also a special attention must be given to the information technology skills because they enable an individual to use computers, software applications, databases, and other technologies to archive a wide variety of academic, work-related and personal goals. [10] 2. The users of biomedical information and their need for information literacy The professionals in the biomedical field need permanently current, validated, and directly exploitable information in their activity, so their training for an efficient search, retrieval and use of information is very important. The huge volume of information, the diversity of media, the retrieval systems and the new modalities of information transfer are aspects that led to the appearance of many difficulties in the process of information search and retrieval for all information users, including those in the biomedical field who also have to manage with the continuous changes in practice, the problem-based approach of biomedical education and evidence-based medicine. For the professionals in the biomedical field the need for information literacy is clear and according to a Medical Library Association definition, health information literacy is the ability needed to recognize a health information need, to identify likely information sources and use them to retrieve relevant information, to assess the quality of the information and its applicability to a specific situation, to analyze, understand, and use the information to make good health decisions. [4] But when designing an information literacy course for the professionals in the biomedical field one should start from their information needs and behaviour. According to I. Fourie the information behaviour of professionals in the biomedical field refers to the awareness of their information needs and of the value of information, the different types of information they may need (factual, retrospective, current etc.), their interest or lack of interest in information, the information sources and channels they prefer, the factors that influence their behaviour in the information search and use etc. [3] The educational role of academic libraries have been underlined in the literature of the field and specialists give as example the information literacy user education and mention the challenges which academic libraries face in trying to develop their role as a formal learning arena in higher education. [14] Other specialists refer to the mission of the university library which is to support the study program, offering resources, services, informational technologies to the beneficiaries and supporting them in searching, selecting, using information. [11] Co-operation between the academic staff and librarians could come with many benefits for the integration of information literacy courses in the curriculum of different academic specializations. Librarians can use their knowledge and experience in the teaching process of these courses. C. M. Torras and T. P. Saetre consider that a main task of librarians should be now to facilitate students learning process so that they become independent information searchers, managers, and producers. [15] 112

124 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO The needs and behaviour of biomedical information users in Romania Recent research in large medical libraries in Romania which analyzed the information needs and the user behaviour in the process of information search and retrieval revealed that the training sessions offered every semester by most libraries for using the databases to which they provide access are not attended by many users and are not so helpful. 93% of the respondents in a survey undertaken in 2007 in three Romanian medical academic libraries didn t participate in any training session organized by the library about the use of the electronic resources and they didn t really know how to access the databases, 43% of the users considering they needed assistance to access electronic materials. [9] The results of another study that took place in 2008 among the users of the Central Library of the "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest indicated no recent significant changes in user behaviour and practice. Most users (91%) of the library included in our survey still came at the library to consult paper documents, only 30% of the respondents indicating electronic resources. The respondents preference for paper information sources was clear (62%), with only 29% preferring electronic information sources and approximately 9% preferring both types. The reasons for which users prefer paper information resources were: it is easier to access and use them, and to learn using them (40%), better information (19%), you don t get so tired using them as it happens with the electronic ones (18%), the routine (9%), quick access to current information (6%). The users preferring the electronic information resources indicated the following reasons: quick access to information (25%), quantity of information (9%), current information (8%), they are practical (4%), better information (3%). 70% of the participants declared they didn t have difficulty with using the electronic information resources, and only 23% said that they had a difficulty with use. The difficulties they confronted when using electronic information resources included: lack of experience (7%), limited access (5%), problems with computers (4%), too much information (1%). Due to the low percentage of users that consult the electronic resources offered by the library and in order to find ways of increasing their use, we considered it very important to know how and from where the participants in the study found out about medical electronic information resources. The answers were as follows: colleagues (23%), Internet (by searching) (21%), teaching staff (19%), the library (12%), announcements (conferences) (5%). Concerning the way the users learned to consult electronic information resources, 62% declared they taught themselves and the rest answered as follows: they were trained at the first visit to the library (8%), they read the instructions (8%), they were helped (6%), the librarian helped them (16%). [8] Having in view these results, for an improvement of the situation at the Central Library of the "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest, institution which was included in both surveys whose results we mentioned before, we propose more adequate training sessions on specific themes and adapted to the different categories of users (students, teaching staff, researchers, physicians) and their specific information needs and in the case of the students we propose through a collaboration with the Medical Informatics Department a compulsory information literacy class which could be included in the curriculum and should be taught by the librarians. A better collaboration with the teaching staff could provide valuable information to the librarians about the main interests of students and also to students about the electronic information resources and this could lead to an increased use of these resources. Many higher education institutions in the biomedical field introduced in the last years information literacy courses for their students. In Romania we can give as an example the information literacy courses provided by the Iuliu HaŃieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Cluj-Napoca together with the Library for the students of the 1 st year, for the students of the Postgraduate Programme and of the Doctoral School. [12] 113

125 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 4. Suggestions for an information literacy programme which should be developed for the users of the Central Library of the "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest An information literacy programme developed for the specific situation of users from the Central Library of the "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest, as revealed by the results of recent research mentioned above and also having as example the experience from medical libraries from abroad [13, 5], should include in our opinion theory and practice elements taught in compulsory classes by librarians. When planning such a programme librarians should have in mind and start from the following aspects: the learning goals, content, learning activities, didactic conditions and assessment. [16] The information literacy theory classes should focus on: - The use of the computer in the library (especially in the process of information search and retrieval); - Printed and electronic scientific information resources available in the medical library; - Types of scientific articles; - Procedures of scientific reviewing; - Principles of scientific methodology; - Principles and application of evidence-based medicine; - Evaluation of literature; - Writing a scientific article and making references in a correct way; - PubMed, keywords, MeSH, index, thesaurus, Web of Science. The practice classes should focus on aspects regarding: - How to find various forms of biomedical information; - How to select relevant information resources; - How to retrieve information through a computer search; - How to formulate questions using controlled vocabulary and Boolean operators; - How to search biomedical information on Internet, in bibliographic databases and other databases; - How to access full text articles in specialized databases; - How to retrieve references in PubMed; - How to search in Cochrane Library and other biomedical databases. In time the structure of these classes could be changed and the content adapted depending on the results obtained in the teaching of the information skills to users and also on the new developments regarding the biomedical information resources, the technologies and the tools used in the process of information search and retrieval. 5. Conclusions The difficulties mentioned by the users who participated in our research strengthen the need for an intensification of user education in Romanian medical libraries and for a continuous analysis and evaluation of their information needs and behaviour. The users of biomedical information need to know the adequate tools for the retrieval of relevant information, and to have the abilities for deciding on its scientific value and for using it in their professional activity. [6] There are many models of information literacy courses developed by higher education institutions from abroad together with their libraries for the 114

126 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 users of biomedical information but every such information literacy programme should be designed, taught and improved according to the specific situation of that library and of its users. The good elements of other courses must be taken into account and adapted to the specific situation of each library and group of users when developing such an information literacy programme. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. ALA. A progress report on information literacy: an update on the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report, Boon, S.; Johnston, B.; Webber, S. A phenomenographic study of English faculty s conceptions of information literacy. In: Journal of Documentation, (2): 205. Apud Fourie, I. Information literacy for healthcare professionals Learning from studies in human information behaviour (HIB). In: Proceedings of the EAHIL Workshop Pathways to New Roles: The Education, Training and Continuing Development of the Health Library & Information Workforce. Krakow: EAHIL, p. Available at: pl/eahil/ proceeding s/oral /Fourie.pdf 3. Fourie, I. Information literacy for healthcare professionals Learning from studies in human information behaviour (HIB). In: Proceedings of the EAHIL Workshop Pathways to New Roles: The Education, Training and Continuing Development of the Health Library & Information Workforce. Krakow: EAHIL, p. Available at: conferences/krakow2007/www.bm.cm-j.krakow.pl/eahil/proceedings/oral/fourie.pdf 4. MLA. Apud Robu, I. Librarians and information literacy in the health sciences: a bird s eye view. In: Proceedings of the EAHIL Workshop,,Pathways to New Roles: The Education, Training and Continuing Development of the Health Library & Information Workforce. Krakow: EAHIL, s. Available at: 5. Pasleau, F.; Brouwir, C.; Durieux, N. et al. Sharing inter-faculty teaching experiences for improved training in information literacy. In: Proceedings of the EAHIL Workshop Pathways to New Roles: The Education, Training and Continuing Development of the Health Library & Information Workforce. Krakow: EAHIL, p. Available at: proceedings/oral/pasleau%20et%20al.pdf 6. Porumbeanu Madge, O. L. Bibliotecile medicale şi utilizatorii de informańii din România în era digitală. Bucureşti: Editura UniversităŃii din Bucureşti, p. 7. Porumbeanu, O. L. Information Literacy for Professionals in the Biomedical Field. In: Lucrările ConferinŃei InternaŃionale EducaŃie şi creativitate pentru o societate bazată pe cunoaştere EdiŃia a II-a, Bucureşti, noiembrie Bucureşti: Editura UniversităŃii Titu Maiorescu, 2008, pp Porumbeanu, O. L. Is electronic always the right choice? In: Proceedings of the International Congress on Medical Librarianship Positioning the Profession. Brisbane: ICML, Available at: 9. Porumbeanu, O. L. The impact of electronic resources and new technology in academic medical libraries in Romania. In: Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26, 2009, pp

127 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 10. Repanovici, A. Information Technology Implication in Student Behaviour for Information Literacy Skills. In: Proceedings of the 4 th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on Educational Technologies (EDUTE 08). Book Series: Recent Advances in Computer Engineering. 2008, pp Repanovici, A.; Cristea, L.; Cotoros, D. Infodocumentary Automatization Systems: RFID Technology. In: Proceedings of the 9 th WSEAS International Conference on Signal Processing, Robotics and Automation. Book Series: Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering. 2010, pp Robu, I. Librarians and information literacy in the health sciences: a bird s eye view. In: Proceedings of the EAHIL Workshop,,Pathways to New Roles: The Education, Training and Continuing Development of the Health Library & Information Workforce. Krakow: EAHIL, s. Available at: /www.bm.cm - uj. krakow.pl/eahil/proceedings/oral/robuppt.pdf 13. Schallier, W. Information literacy in academic curricula A case study of integration at the biomedical faculties of K. U. Leuven University. In: Proceedings of the EAHIL Workshop Pathways to New Roles: The Education, Training and Continuing Development of the Health Library & Information Workforce. Krakow: EAHIL, p. Available at: krakow.pl/eahil/proceedings/oral/schallier.pdf 14. Torras, M. C.; Saetre, T. P. Information Literacy Education: A Process Approach. Professionalising the Pedagogical Role of Academic Libraries. Oxford: Chandos Publishing, 2008, p Ibidem, p Ibidem, p

128 NEW TECHNOLOGIES AN ONGOING CONTINUAL CHALLENGE FOR MODERN LIBRARIES Cristina POPESCU University of Bucharest Abstract: Today, new technologies used for achieving the most important activities in institutions of any kind, and the info-documentary structures should not be an exception, are indispensable for the contemporary epoch. Libraries have always been easily adaptable to changing times, whether the information has been stocked on parchment, papyrus, celluloid paper, magnetic tape or digital disc. They shall be used as long as people need information, irrespective of other suppositions. Although, at the beginning, there was a rivalry between the Internet and libraries, the latter rather introduced it among their sources of documentation, appealing to many users who showed interest in exploiting other means of information to be found in the respective info-documentary structure. Key word: information technology, electronic resources, informational resources, document digitization. 1. Introduction The unprecedented development of the information technology has created major changes in the variety of forms of information and communication, of the ways of organizing and disseminating knowledge. Interdisciplinarity became, thus, possible, new specialties emerged radically changing our thinking and the operational instruments to systematize knowledge. The abundance of information and format media led to reconsidering hierarchy information systems, as well as to stimulating the library staff to find innovating and safe methods of the latest technology to present and disseminate information. The present paper aims at briefly analysing the impact of the new technologies on the infodocumentary structures and the feedback generated by their implementation in libraries, widely known as conservatory structures. 2. Libraries and the digital documentary legacy Libraries, among the oldest institutions of the world, have continuously changed, according to the types of documents held: clay tablets, bricks, papyruses, animal skins, parchments, paper books, which represented, for hundreds of years, means of transmitting information, irrespective of their nature. The continuous change has finally reached the electronic documents considered by certain people a threat to the traditional ones. Nevertheless, libraries shall not vanish. The digital documentary thesaurus is essential for mankind, as the digital technology has become the main means of creating knowledge and the way of expressing it. In all fields of activity, the output of digital information increases substantially and should remain not only authentic, but also, technologically speaking, stable and accessible both to the contemporary generations and to the future ones.

129 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Moreover, compared to the new digital documents, digital copies of traditional documents, ready to allow democratic access to information and knowledge, form a continuously increasing digital legacy as well. Thus, in the information era, communication can be transmitted written on a screen, virtually propagated, creating a meta-informational world which is more and more significantly marked by the artificial intelligence in the development of knowledge. Besides, the technological revolution allows information to be easily personalized and adapted, so that the agents of knowledge may offer clear access to the information solicited. Digital libraries, as alternative of future libraries, announce a structurally innovative library in processing and discharging information by complex applications, based on a system of organizing knowledge which can be created locally or by data import from another source of another system later modified by adding or erasing pieces of information.[2] (Figure 1) Figure 1. Start page of National Digital Library A possible image of the digital library could be that of a gate open to information for anyone, anytime, accessing from anywhere its multiple information bases to encourage active and permanent learning.[1] (Figure 2) Figure 2. DACOROMANICA site: Digital Library of Romania The computer has proved the most powerful tool ever imagined to register and communicate representations and human knowledge in coded or symbolic forms. Consequently, digital information grasping, processing, transmitting and consuming have become critical functions for mankind and have strongly influenced social culture and relations. It is hard to say in what respect. Probably Gutenberg had no idea where his invention would lead. Eventually, society, not only technology, had its determining role to play in what happened to the printing press. [4] Digital technology, an integrant part of the modern society, facilitated access to various sources of information all over the world. Information is easy to create, reuse and recombine in a new form in order to contribute to the development and improvement of the human condition. 118

130 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The continuation of digitization means to identify problems in order to overcome: - technological challenges: obsolescence, loss of integrity; format diversity, codification; nature of technological infrastructure; incoherence of the norms; safety of numeric deposits; stages of conservation programs; dynamic content (streaming etc); multiplatform services; metadata; - law and ethical issues: data/documents/registrations, authenticity, authentication, management of the intellectual property rights and economic control of the data offered to the service suppliers, protection of the confidential data (monitoring unauthorized personal data), exceptions to the author s rights to allow digital conservation without property license; - economic challenges: technological costs, expertise and education cost, digitizing costs, preservation and human processes, - cultural and professional challenges: lack of cooperation between experts in information technology and those in archives, libraries, museums; organizational and institutional culture; divergent interests between creators and preservers, as well as between access and preservation modalities. 3. The Internet in the service of the library of the 21st century The internet, as a complex phenomenon marking mankind s progress and dominating the beginning of the 21st century, a media instrument characterized by interactivity, with worldwide access possibility and encompassing a diversity of information fields, presupposes a harmonious combination of the most performing electronic techniques with imagination, has entered our daily life, being accepted alongside with the environmental reality. Even if the Internet is not as popular as television, it tends to have more and more adepts, addicted to it, spending hours in front of the screen of a monitor, lured by the virtual copy of the reality itself, but finding also realities impossible to find in their daily existence. The virtual community reunites people separated by geographical barriers, but who can take part in debates on hot topics of common interests, obtain information or let a message for someone interested in the respective subject, by means of the blogs. Librarians, in turn, have understood the role and importance of this new means of communication, information and documentation and used it as a new information resource, and as a dissemination information instrument, by means of sites. (Figure 3) Figure 3. Digital Library of Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest Moreover, digital librarians, by identifying, selecting, organizing, describing and evaluating information resources of the internet, contribute to creating virtual libraries, true valuable collections added to the internet resources, helping users to find information, programs and communities online. [3] Virtual libraries belong to the structure of this hyperspace, supplying a hierarchy organized by trees of subjects, navigational from one level to another. They also index the whole text of the web pages, so that searching is not limited only to the theme of the site, the title and a short description introduced in the data bases. (Figure 4) 119

131 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Figure 4. Digital Library of University Central Library Lucian Blaga, Cluj Lately, we witness an increased interest of the readers in new technologies. They turn to new ways of finding information, trying to survive the informational attack, preferring those which help them reach their objective in a short time. If, a few years ago, it was necessary to browse dozens of books to obtain the answer to a simple question, now it is a click distance away. In the opinion of most users, searching the data bases by means of a key word represents the solution of everything that is connected to the process of information. All the instruments of searching online tend to differ regarding the degree of consistency and coherence offered, as well as from the point of view of functionality, editorial control and subject control on which they are based. No matter of the chosen source, as in any searching online, searching the internet presupposes a few stages of preparation [3]: - understanding the subject of interest; - selecting one or several important concepts of the question; - identifying useful terms to adequately represent these concepts; - selecting possible resources and instruments to use; - performing the search. It is important the framework which supports the research in many of these stages. For instance, as there are only a few standards of indexing or classifying the resources in the network, it is almost impossible to use controlled vocabulary and thesaurus. Instruments as Library of Congress Subject Headings or Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms do not solve the problem completely. Colloquial phrases, dialects, non-standard writing or metaphorical meanings of the words are the most frequent, and can hide the potential useful resources, or can be combined with other words in the text, so that they may create larger sets of finding information. In this context, users decision making becomes much more critical. In fact, many of these decisions are similar to those already familiar to the librarians. Which are the best resources to use under such circumstances, based on the experience of using the instruments of searching which cover various fields, on characteristic features of usage, time and money restrictions, quality of information, source reputation? Quality of the search results depends on the following factors [5]: - ability to choose pertinent key words and the way they are used; - knowledge about the size, content and strategies of searching specific to the data base to search; - type of searching motors. 120

132 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Users should know the methods of finding relevant information and what they could find by means of each searching motor. In the information era, electronic documents have been subjects of arguments among specialists, some of them supporting the idea that they would become preponderant over the traditional ones in the near future, others opinionating that traditional documents would persist, although they admit the advantages of the modern ones. The amazing liberty of publishing and communicating ideas clearly has an enormous potential for the intellectual exchange and knowledge sharing. Moreover, this vehicle is very dynamic. Each resource can change, new versions appear, others can be modified or not by certain issues, but the potential for a rapid answer and for creativity is surprising, bringing forth difficulties. As there can be no control over those who participate in achieving this virtual world, situations are permanently changing because of the fact that there are no longer certain standards for what librarians call intellectual control. In the present context there are virtual institutions that contain the word library in their name. Many of these can be physically located, they detaining only collections of electronic documents to which virtual readers have access by means of the internet on the basis of a subscription. Is this the future of the information and documentary structures? Shall people give up the old book in favor of the electronic one? Our followers shall be forced to push a button to turn the page, without knowing the verb to browse? Knowledge of informatics shall be compulsory for a pertinent documentation? Paper, ball-point pen or pencil shall become history? All the initiatives taken at the European level encourage the creation of digital data bases for a better information dissemination to allow the online access to resources, to support the formation of electronic documents to promote and preserve digitally the European and national cultural electronic heritage. It is obvious that the information-based library shall not be absent from our future, but how is it going to develop and what shall it consist of? Book shelves are not going to disappear, anyway, but they shall co-exist with the variety of multimedia information means. Libraries shall have traditional collections, but, at the same time, they shall offer the possibility to access remote information. Most users speaking of a digital or virtual library have a superficial image about building such an institution or which the advantages and disadvantages of it presuppose. The respective terms cover everything the users collective mental needs to be informed and to get information as quickly as possible, but the digital library means much more. By issuing new electronic documents, a plus of informational value is added to the existent documents already, aspect ignored by users in the first stage of information. 4. Conclusions It is a fact that we live in an epoch in which new technologies are indispensible in achieving the most important activities of any kind of institutions, and their info-documentary structures should not be an exception. The new types of libraries holding electronic documents aim at putting them at the disposal of users observing the author s right law, this representing an alternative to the traditional info-documentary structures. Therefore, the person supplying the document solicited is no longer a librarian, but an information agent, able to select the most relevant information for the user, meeting his needs. The electronic book, although offering multiple advantages, does not succeed in convincing too many readers to give up turning the page instead of reading on a screen. 121

133 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Anyhow, sales of such documents are increasing from a fair to another which demonstrates the interest of users in this invention. Libraries have always easily adapted to times, irrespective of the fact that the challenges were stocking the information on parchment, papyrus, celluloid, magnetic tape or digital disc. They shall exist as long as people need information, disregarding suppositions. Although, at the beginning, there was rivalry between the internet and the libraries, they preferred to introduce it among the information sources, attracting a number of users ready to exploit it, as well as other means of information from that info-documentary structure. The ambition of the librarians to hold on in such a skeptical world to keep up with the times is definitely to be acclaimed. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Babel ou le choix du caviste : la bibliothèque a l heure du numérique. [Accessed: April 5, 2011]. Available on the Internet: ConfText_ID= Ershova, Tatiana V.; Hohlov, Yuri E. Migrating from the library of today to the library of tomorrow: re- or e-volution? [Accessed: January 2, 2012]. Available on the Internet: 3. Holm, Liv. ONE and ONE-2 European Network Projects: results, experiences and plans. In: European Commission, EUR Convergence in the digital age: challenges for libraries, museums and archives: proceedings of a conference held in Amsterdam on August 13-14, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999, pp Lupovici, Catherine. De la bibliothèque classique a la bibliothèque numérique: continuité et rupture. In: Documentaliste-Sciences de l information, vol. 37, nr. 5-6/2000, p Scurt istoric al internet-ului: [online]. [cited January 2, 2012]. Available on the Internet: 122

134 THE FIELD OF INFORMATION TODAY - FROM THE TEXT TO THE HYPERTEXT Tamara PETROVA West University of Timişoara Abstract: Because of the widespread use of technologies in all fields of human activities, concepts such as information technology and information management have become the object of interdisciplinary research. The current study focuses from the historic perspective of mass media on the evolution of the two distinct ways of structuring the document s content (the text and the hypertext), and aims at emphasizing from a conceptual, informational, and functional point of view both the converging and the diverging aspects. The ideas formulated in this study are based on the thesis stating that both the text and the hypertext, seen as elements of inter-human communication, belong to a long lasting process of searching new solutions to problems such as organizing and increasing knowledge. Theoretical foundation of this study has been provided by the principles formulated by researcher Roger Fidler. He states that the transformation of the media is the result of three corollary concepts: co-evolution, convergence and complexity. In conclusion, any new form of communication has to be treated as an extension of a previous form, while the beginning of each new medium of communication does not mean that the older ones have disappeared. Key-words: communication science; history of books; information management; information technology; text; hypertext. L univers actuel de l information est marqué par le développement sans précédent des technologies, de telle sorte que les concepts de technologie de l information et de gestion du contenu sont devenus des mots-clés dans tous les domaines d activités : recherche, culture, affaires, vie de tous les jours. La devise qui s impose comme modalité ontologique de survie à l époque postmoderne est de type néo-cartésien Je communique, donc je suis [5, p.38]. La nouvelle ère de l information nous offre une vision dynamique de la connaissance, rendant possible la navigation sur les tronçons virtuels de l Internet, par lesquels la culture globale, grâce à l écriture en réseaux, circule aux quatre coins du monde. L ordinateur programmé électroniquement qui propose des activités de plus en plus complexes, devient un associé organique tant du cerveau que de l utilisateur d informations. Ces métamorphoses conduisent, à leur tour, à la modification tant du concept de l acte de création que de celui de l acte de lecture, impliquant le passage d une structure intellectuelle à une autre. Les avantages inhérents à la technologie de l information sont déterminés par une modalité qui semble tout à fait nouvelle de sélection, traitement, organisation, présentation et diffusion de l information, visant à faciliter la communication entre les créateurs et les consommateurs d information. Malgré cela, aussi radicaux et spectaculaires que semblent être les changements qui se sont produits ces derniers temps, l histoire de l humanité est un palimpseste, et l homo connectatus [12, p.46], qui revendique sa légitimité dans la longue chaîne de l évolution de l espèce humaine, est le porteur de multiples civilisations.

135 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science L apparition de toute forme nouvelle de communication doit être regardée comme une extension d une forme antérieure, puisque que toutes les accumulations et les transformations sont le résultat d un processus de longue durée comparable, sous de nombreux aspects, à l évolution des espèces. Le système de communication interhumain est un univers complexe, dynamique, qui interagit avec le milieu social, en vertu de sa capacité à s auto-organiser spontanément, en réponse aux pressions externes, et à s adapter continuellement aux changements : «A mesure que chaque nouvelle forme apparaît et se développe, elle influence après quelques temps et à des degrés différents le développement de toutes les autres formes existantes. La coévolution et la coexistence, plus que l évolution séquentielle et le remplacement, ont été la norme, déjà dès l apparition des premiers organismes sur la planète. La richesse des technologies de la communication que nous considérons maintenant comme allant de soi n aurait pas été possible si la naissance de chaque nouveau moyen de communication avait entraîné la mort d un moyen plus ancien»[3, p.33]. Pour conclure, l histoire de la communication ne représente pas une succession de révolutions visant à remplacer des formes anciennes de communication par des nouvelles, mais «l histoire du plus»[3, p.36]. Une approche de l évolution des moyens de communication d un point de vue diachronique, nous révèle que l histoire des systèmes de gestion de l information a commencé avec l invention de l écriture, parcourant par la suite plusieurs étapes en créant divers supports portables de documents des tablettes d argile, aux rouleaux de papyrus ou de parchemin ; des ardoises cirées aux codex ; des livres manuscrits à ceux imprimés ; des CD- ROM et DVD à la même forme de tablettes (e-book), qui referment la boucle et marquent un saut qualitatif le début d une nouvelle étape dans l évolution des moyens de communication. Les mutations radicales survenues du fait de la révolution numérique, comparables en importance à l invention de l imprimerie, ne se réduisent pas à l apparition de nouveaux supports de stockage de l information, ceux-ci se sont toujours améliorés, mais sans impliquer le changement de l essence de la communication. Les nouveaux média étendent les possibilités de l intellect humain et déterminent l apparition d une nouvelle forme culturelle, dont le topos est l Electropolis, là où se produit la connexion de l information et se construit assidûment la civilisation de l audio-visuel, conformément à une nouvelle architecture, fondée sur le passage de la hiérarchie aux réseaux, confirmant ainsi le fait que l on peut arriver au Centre du Monde depuis n importe quel point de la Diversité chercheuse d Unité. Dans le contexte de ces changements radicaux, le concept de texte, qui est une entité théorique du vingtième siècle, prend des valences et des significations nouvelles. Le texte, en tant qu unité fonctionnelle de l ordre de la communication et élément essentiel du système cognitif, est soumis à des approches interdisciplinaires, en corrélation avec ses mécanismes de fonctionnement et avec les diverses possibilités qu inclut ce système cognitif. Dans le domaine de la science du texte sont véhiculés aujourd hui des termes tels qu architexte, contexte, intertexte, paratexte, metatexte, hypertexte, etc, qui apportent des corrections essentielles aux problèmes relatifs à la compréhension du texte, aux conditions de création, d existence, de fonctionnement et aux modalités d interprétation de celui-ci. Dans un cadre de succession de ces théories modernes, «les éléments du champ de lecture incluent : a. le texte (comme repère, comme prétexte); b. l architexte (comme cadre/encadrement "théorique": roman, satire, journal); c. le contexte (social, esthétique, etc.); d. le paratexte (les indications "techniques": le titre, la préface, le glossaire etc.); e. l hypertexte (élément transdisciplinaire, la capacité d un texte de dériver d un autre etc.); f. l intertexte (les relations entre textes, relations de coprésence des textes dans les textes); g. le métatexte (les références au texte, la relation critique etc.)»[2]. La notion d hypertexte, bien que dérivée du terme de texte, transcende le domaine de la sémiotique, constituant l objet des recherches interdisciplinaires dans le domaine de la technologie de l information, de la gestion de la connaissance etc, sans éluder l importance de ce concept plus spécifiquement dans l histoire du livre et de façon plus générale dans l histoire de la science de l information et de la documentation. Considéré par la majorité des experts comme une invention due au développement du domaine virtuel, autrement dit du 124

136 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 système World Wide Web, l hypertexte est en fait la matérialisation d une idée plus ancienne, qui s inscrit dans un long processus de recherche de nouvelles solutions aux problèmes de l organisation et de l acquisition de la connaissance. Suivant l évolution de l idée d hypertexte, on observe la récurrence systématique de certaines séquences conceptuelles qui, progressivement, ont dessiné les contours définissant ce mode d élaboration d un texte. Roland Barthes, se référant à un type idéal de textualité, part de l assertion que celui-ci se définit comme «un réseau formé de blocs de signification qui peuvent être découpés arbitrairement. Ce qui serait spécifique à ce type de texte, nommé aujourd hui hypertexte, avec une histoire de plus de cinq mille ans, est la relation qui existe entre le mode linéaire d écriture et le mode non-linéaire de pensée. La non-linéarité, le caractère séquentiel, serait donc l une des caractéristiques de l hypertexte ; partant des définitions classiques du terme, la conclusion est que l hypertexte n est pas lié à une technologie particulière, mais qu il représente une forme d organisation de l information, la plus répandue mais pas la seuleétant l hypertexte électronique»[13]. On sait que la principale fonction du livre est celle de médiation : «les livres sont les médiateurs entre auteur et lecteurs, entre une époque historique et les autres, entre civilisations et cultures, entre une région, un pays, un empire, un continent et le reste du monde»[14], formant des ponts et étendant, tant du point de vue spatial que temporel, les limites de la communication. Dans la tradition orale des différents peuples des temps les plus anciens, est présente la métaphore du Monde comme un Livre et du Livre comme un Monde. Malgré la diversité des représentations symboliques, l obsession perpétuelle de l humanité de reconstruire le Livre Unique, le Livre Total, qui comprendra tous les livres du monde, transparaît de la texture des mythes. Les bibliothèques en elles-mêmes ne sont-elles pas la preuve des essais faits pour concrétiser ce rêve? Née de l ambition des Ptolémées de rassembler en un même lieu tous les livres du monde, la bibliothèque d Alexandrie, la 8 ème merveille du monde, prend, avec le temps, la valence de symbole de la Bibliothèque Totale [15]. En extrapolant, on pourrait affirmer que les réminiscences de telles approches holistiques se retrouvent aussi dans le projet initié en 1981 par Ted Nelson, celui qui a inventé la série de termes qui sont à la base de l hypertexte [8]. Nelson a pensé un programme global Xanadu- qui fonctionnerait tant comme un serveur hypertexte, que comme un milieu littéraire universel, tentant ainsi de créer une immense bibliothèque virtuelle une variante électronique de la Bibliothèque Totale. Le procédé de l accumulation des livres sans aucun sens est créateur de chaos, réitérant l expérience de la Tour de Babel. L encyclopédiste Gonrad Gesner, qui a toujours été à la recherche de solutions pour organiser la connaissance, se plaignait de «cette multitude de livres qui provoque irritation et confusion» [1, p.154], et le savant français Basnage, pour décrire le désordre qui dominait dans les bibliothèques suite à des accumulations dues en grande partie à l invention de l imprimerie, utilisait même le terme de déluge. Animés de la volonté d atteindre l absolu gnoséologique, les bibliothécaires-savants des écoles alexandrines ont été les premiers qui ont élaboré un impressionnant catalogue ou Tableau Bibliographique en 120 livres une bibliographie biographique, historique et critique, nommée "Pinakes"[4, p.207], qui avait pour objectif de conférer unité et cohérence à cet univers syncrétique la Bibliothèque d Alexandrie. En principe, les catalogues, les bibliographies, les encyclopédies et les dictionnaires peuvent être considérés comme des extensions de la mémoire, une mémoire artificielle, qui a pour rôle de faire des associations entre différents concepts, notions ou images. Dans le même temps, ces techniques d organisation de l information représentent le mode d expression et d incarnation d une certaine perspective de la connaissance et du monde. L existence en soi de ces instruments destinés à retrouver l information, la présence de certaines catégories mentales, de même que la façon dont celles-ci sont conçues, dévoilent la même propension holistique, qui se manifeste cette fois sous une autre forme par l essai de cartographier l ensemble de la connaissance humaine. Un exemple concluent en ce sens est l Encyclopédie de Vincent de Beauvais, qui a été intitulée de façon suggestive Bibliotheca mundi [1, p.154]. 125

137 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science La Bibliotthèque Parfaite ne vaut rien sans le Bibliothécaire Parfait, elle se transforme en une "non-unité de l unité"- discordia concors [6, p.261]. Dans le tableau Le Bibliothécaire de Giuseppe Arcimboldo, se produit une transposition de sens : le bibliothécaire lui-même devient une somme de livres, incarnant la tendance à la concordia discors. Ingénieur, constructeur de voitures et dessinateur de masques et costumes, Arcimboldo, en quelque sorte, a pressenti la technique et l essence de l Hypertexte. Regardée non seulement comme une métaphore mais aussi, et plutôt, comme une allégorie, l image Le Bibliothécaire d Arcimboldo, reflète le lien dialectique entre concordia discors (l unité de la non-unité) et discordia concors (non-unité de l unité). En principe, dans les deux cas le but est le même donner du sens à un conglomérat d entités, les réunissant en un tout qui puisse être, à l infini, construit, déconstruit et reconstruit. Seule la méthode diffère, dans le sens où le facteur de synthèse le un seul - «peut être divisé selon des modalités très différentes, chaque partie prise en soi reflétant toujours la totalité»[6, p.261]. Une autre métaphore, spécifique au Moyen-Age, qui reflète la vision sur le système de la connaissance, est l arbre à plusieurs branches Arbor Scientiae, comme l ont imaginé et esquissé les érudits de l époque, mais plus particulièrement, Raymundus Lullus. Ce mode de pensée suggère en fait une structure hiérarchique, dans laquelle la distinction est clairement faite entre dominant et subordonné entre la racine le tronc et les branches. L image de l arbre illustre un phénomène caractéristique de l époque médiévale la tendance de naturaliser le conventionnel, de présenter la culture comme une composante de la vie [6, p.133]. Au dixseptième siècle, au lieu de l arbre, on a commencé à utiliser un terme plus abstrait pour décrire l organisation de la connaissance celui de système. On pourrait dire que l Europe de la période moderne est une période où l on s intéresse à la taxonomie, et la carte de la connaissance a été réécrite à chaque fois qu est apparu un nouveau système de classification. Initialement, les catalogues avaient la forme de registres, structurés de façon linéaire, dont le but était de mettre en évidence chaque unité inventoriée. Progressivement, ces listes, en plus du fait qu elles indiquaient l existant en bibliothèque, ont commencé à être complétées par des blocs d information supplémentaires qui constituent des éléments de la description bibliographique. Ainsi, ont été rendus possibles le groupement et le regroupement des éléments de description bibliographique selon des critères logiques temporels ou spatiaux et l organisation des documents en fonction du type de catalogue : alphabétique (général ou par auteurs), topographique, systématique etc. Le document est l élément de base des collections de bibliothèque, et les registres, les catalogues et les bibliographies peuvent être définis comme des meta-textes ou meta-documents, qui contiennent des données concernant les documents de la bibliothèque, sur la base desquelles ces documents sont classifiés, indexés, rangés sur les étagères, selon différents critères. L objectif de ces techniques et de ces pratiques de gestion d une bibliothèque est la création de systèmes de repérage de l information, qui définissent la place de chaque document en bibliothèque en rapport avec les autres documents, créant ainsi des liens d interdépendance entre éléments, comme parties d un tout. Ultérieurement, les métadocuments créés et utilisés en bibliothèques à titre d instruments de travail pour l organisation et la recherche des informations ont été à la base de la création des langages documentaires, qui sont définis dans le domaine de l information comme des meta-données et qui représentent le support logique dans la gestion du contenu de la bibliothèque digitale, structurée sous formats hypertexte. En synthétisant, on pourrait affirmer que l hypertexte se définit dans un premier temps, comme un texte ayant des liens vers les autres textes. Les notes de bas de page, les notes marginales, les annotations et autres résumés, qui, au début, se trouvaient soit en marge du texte, soit sur des morceaux de papier nommés fiches, sont aussi des exemples de meta-textes. L avantage de ce procédé mnémotechnique la possibilité de grouper, regrouper et intercaler les fiches, à chaque fois que cela était nécessaire, selon des combinaisons différentes, sans que cela n affecte l ensemble a été rapidement apprécié. Etant donné que les fiches simples, de papier, pouvaient être détériorées très facilement, on a commencé à utiliser des cartes de jeu, qui ont ensuite été remplacées par 126

138 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 les traditionnelles fiches de carton. Jusqu à la fin du dix-huitième siècle cette pratique s est généralisée, et les bibliothèques ont remplacé les catalogues linéaires, de type texte, avec un système de catalogage de type fiches, qui, on doit le reconnaître, a des similitudes avec l hypertexte sous de nombreux aspects. Il faut remarquer le fait que dans le cas de l imprimerie aussi, l invention de base qui a révolutionné la technologie de production de livres est la découverte et l utilisation des lettres mobiles. Les bénéfices de cette méthode sont si évidents que les catalogues des bibliothèques et les fiches de lecture qui se basent sur le même principe, sont devenus pratiquement irremplaçables dans la vie intellectuelle, jusqu à l apparition récente des ordinateurs, qui ont repris la fonction de traitement de l information, bien qu ils aient encore beaucoup à "apprendre" des vieilles fiches en carton. Il est certain que le fait que l un des traits caractéristiques de l hypertexte la fragmentation des éléments d un tout et la restructuration de ceux-ci d une manière non-linéaire qui leur confère leur indépendance est "hérité" de cette catégorie de meta-documents. En d autres termes, les éléments de l hypertexte peuvent être parcourus, comme les fiches mobiles, dans n importe quel ordre, sans qu une telle lecture ne compromette le sens du texte dans son ensemble. Le feuilletage des catalogues traditionnels des bibliothèques est comparable au processus de navigation par les nœuds qui relient de façon non-hiérarchique les éléments de l hypertexte. Pour que ces documents puissent être différenciés et retrouvés, ils ont chacun une adresse unique (Unique Resurs Locator- URL), tout comme les documents de bibliothèque ont une cote unique, non répétable, qui indique la localisation du livre dans l étagère. Par la technique de l hypertexte, un nombre illimité de documents peuvent être liés entre eux dans une structure web. Une collection d hyperliens est appelée web, et WWW (World Wide Web) est un système d hypertexte à l échelle globale [16]. L idée de réseau, de "toile", de liens non-hiérarchiques entre différents éléments du texte, n est pas une innovation qui relève strictement du domaine de la technologie de l information, elle est, jusqu à présent, l objet d études interdisciplinaires, qui partent de l assertion de référence selon laquelle : «le texte a une productivité». Cette productivité est abordée soit du point de vue de la capacité du texte à être à la fois destructif et constructif, soit par le prisme de l intertextualité, se référant dans ce cas à un hypertexte des idées [16]. Julia Kristeva mentionne : «Un texte est toujours inspiré d autres textes», ou plus exactement : «Il n existe pas de point zéro dans l écriture, chaque écrit répète normalement des textes ou des fragments de texte antérieurs, qui sont absorbés et transformés, selon une modalité ou une autre»[10]. Pour Umberto Eco, comme pour les autres théoriciens du texte, tout énoncé narratif est un intertexte, il ne peut exister que par ses adhérences culturelles, par la lecture et la reprise d autres textes. Une autre caractéristique de l hypertexte, présente dans la majorité des définitions de ce terme, est celle de profondeur, le texte acquérant une troisième dimension : la profondeur : «l hypertexte doit être compris comme un texte plus profond qu un texte normal. Par exemple, une page d hypertexte n est pas seulement une simple page de texte comme on serait tenté de le croire à première vue. C est une page qui, à côté du texte proprement dit, contient aussi des liens (hyperliens) vers d autres textes qui abordent le même sujet que celui traité dans la page d où se font les liens. Ainsi, on constatera que, pour n importe quel sujet, on a à disposition une documentation impressionnante qui peut être accessible depuis une simple page d hypertexte» [9]. Il semblerait que, du fait de ces renvois vers d autres textes, l hypertexte acquiert une profondeur beaucoup plus marquée que dans le cas de textes traditionnels, si l on néglige le fait que la technique des "renvois" est utilisée depuis longtemps dans le processus de rédaction des textes. La complexité de l univers de l information actuellement ultra-développé grâce aux technologies hypermédia, donne l impression d une ouverture du texte vers d innombrables horizons. En réalité, en comparant les notions d intertexte et d hypertexte, on remarque que, dans le premier cas, la profondeur du texte est due à la profondeur dans le temps, l acte de création ou de lecture du texte équivalant à une plongée dans l abysse de la mémoire, tandis que dans le deuxième cas, la profondeur des hypertextes n est pas une profondeur réelle, mais virtuelle. La structure est de nature rhizomique, puisque l interruption, la disparition du réseau d un fragment n est pas essentielle pour l ensemble qui est toujours au centre et, donc, sans (une seule) hiérarchie [9]. Paraphrasant Pascal, on pourrait dire que ce centre est partout et ses marges nulle part. «Le 127

139 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science chaos, nouvelle science du tout, représente l intégration de tous les types de média dans un seul modèle (ou pôle d attraction), une structure chaotique» dans la mesure où le «chaos est paradoxal ; il est stable ; il est structuré»[17]. Ces structures discontinues, changent, comme on l a dit précédemment, non seulement le mode de création du texte, mais aussi le mode de lecture de celui-ci. L accent se déplace vers la lecture extensive, au détriment de celle intensive. La logique de parcours du texte n est plus de nature linéaire, privilégiée, de même qu il n existe pas de localisation privilégiée dans le réseau. Le terme de lecture, lecturare reflète de façon incomplète l itinéraire parcouru par l utilisateur, qui réalise, pratiquement le saut, le télé-portage ou la navigation d une source à l autre, sans plus saisir qu il existe un lien évident entre le point de départ et celui d arrivée. Le mode d accès est simple, interactif, il permet le passage de l option exclusive à l option multiple et éloigne toute discrimination géographique. Tant les pessimistes que les optimistes reconnaissent le fait qu il existe une supra-abondance d options, une supra-abondance d offres d information qui dépasse de beaucoup l humain, notre capacité d accumuler et d agir avec cette offre. Le rôle de la bibliothèque en cette époque est fondamental, dans la mesure où elle est sensée offrir à ses utilisateurs des points de repère dans cet espace infini de sables mouvants. Autrement dit, «la bibliothèque cherche aujourd hui ses limites dans un monde sans limites» [11, p.51]. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Bruke, Peter. : Une histoire de la connaissance. De Gutenberg à Diderot, Iasi, Institut Européen, Ciobanu, Mircea V. : Champ de lecture, article_3/ 3. Fidler, Roger : Mediamorphosis: comprenons les nouveaux médias, Cluj, Edition Idea Design and Print, Gramatopol, Mihai : Civilisation hellénistique, 2 ème édition Brasov, Edition de l Orient Latin, Herrenschmidt, Clarisse : Ecriture, monnaie, réseaux, trad. Par Andrei Niculescu, dans " le XXème siècle". 6. Hocke, Gustav René : Le monde comme labyrinthe manière et manie dans l art européen de 1520 à 1650 et de nos jours, Bucarest, Edition Meriadiane, Iacovescu, Irina : Hyper-text et hyper-media, 9. Ioan, Augustin, Cyberspace en tant qu hétérotopie, Augustin-Ioan/Cyberspaceca-heterotopie.html 10. Kristeva, Julia : Recherches sur une semanalyse, Paris, 1969, Ed. du Seuil, p.113, apud Ioan Radulian, Le concept d intertextualité, simpozion/conferinta 11. Lahary, Dominique : Les bibliothèques à un carrefour, dans "Magazine bibliographique", N 1-2/ Levy, Pierre, apud Dominique Lahary : Les bibliothèques à un carrefour, dans "Magazine bibliographique", N 1-2/ Nedelcu, Marius : Hypertexte, multimedia, hypermedia, les nouveaux media, 14. Pavel, Dan : Bibliopolis: essai sur les métamorphoses du livre, Bucarest, Cartea Româneasca, Petrova, Tamara : La Bibliothèque d Alexandrie-archétype de la Bibliothèque Totale, dans "Biblio-Brasov 2003: Conférence Nationale de Bibliothéconomie", Brasov, Edition de l Université de Transylvanie, Pilchin, Maria : Le texte comme vie/ la vie comme texte, 17. Zingrone, Franck, Le chaos et le sens de la culture électronique, search?q=cache:kzb3-gcxttsj:ro.altermedia.info/mass-mediacenzura/haosul-i-sensulculturii-electronice. 128

140 TOOLS AND SERVICES FOR OPEN ACCESS TO INFORMATION Maria Ionela BÂRSAN, Angela REPANOVICI, Transilvania University of Braşov Abstract: The movement for open access to scientific information aims to transform education and research through: the provision, free of charge, of the literature in scientific magazines, to all researchers, regardless of the country they carry out their activity in or the institution they are affiliated to, while observing the natural award and quotation rules. In order to have his/her article published in a quality scientific magazine, the author is almost always requested to transfer the copyrights to the respective magazine's editor. The editor thus becomes the only one authorized to decide if and in what way the text is to be published after the initial issue - e.g., through its inclusion in a scientific database. RoMEO is considered one of the most important service for the development of the access to the scientific research in accordance with the observance of the copyright and of the publishers policies. RoMEO-Rights Metadata for Open archiving was founded by Joint Information Systems Committee from United Kingdom for the investigation of the rights concerning the research self-archiving in the academic environment under the Open Access I auspices. A series of marketing quantitative researches extended to world level were conducted referring to the opinions of the academic communities on the open access to information. The policies of the publishers referring to the editing contracts and to the copyright were equally analyzed. As a conclusion of these researches, the following extremely useful services for the humanity, scientific research, visibility and progress were created. Practically, the instrument by which the author agrees with the publisher observing the legislation was created. The publishers collaborate for the scientific research and impose their rights. Thus, a classification of the publishers was made up taking into consideration the conditions in which they accept self-archiving. The paper presents a research carried out within the academic community of the Transilvania University Law Faculty concerning the professors' opinion on the AUTHOR UNIVERSITY EDITOR relationship. The editing contracts signed by the community members and the laws in force are analyzed. The work ends with a classification of the Romanian editors in terms of the permission to publish under open access terms. Key words: Open access, Intellectual property right, Editing contracts, Qualitative research. Open access to information The information boost has completely changed the classical scientific data posting, access, dissemination and use procedure. Due to the Internet, which is a public data communication and transmission domain, the scientific publications migrated from the traditional form to the digital one. Scientific communication developed extensively in that direction. All conferences schedules, all research agreements' results are now available online. Researchers have adapted, they use these new technologies in the data research, communication and transmission process.

141 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Open access is the electronic version of the printed scientific publication that can be read online, distributed without any commercial purposes, free of charge and limitations. Digital repositories This concept appeared when researchers posted the electronic version of scientific articles on their individual websites. Universities expressed their interest in creating digital repositories containing the university's scientific materials. The scientific world started reacting. "Transilvania" University of Braşov implemented the DSpace system, thus creating the first Romanian institutional repository, referred to as ASPECKT (Statistic Analyses and Forecasts of Economic-Social Phenomena and Marketing Research) where researchers can archive their materials individually. This archive for open access to scientific data is a rich source of information and documentation. (Fig.1), Figure 1 Aspeckt DSpace digital repository at "Transilvania" University of Braşov (http://aspeckt.unitbv.ro/jspui/) Figure 2. DSpace System at the "Carol I" Central University Library of Bucharest 130

142 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 In Bucharest, the "Carol I" Central University Library has created another institutional repository, using the same DSpace open source platform (Fig.2 ), referred to as IRCULB (the Institutional Repository of "Carol I" Central University Library of Bucharest). Another source of information is The Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) reuniting the web addresses of several institutional repositories (Fig.3). Hosted by the Nottingham University (UK), OpenDOAR is supported by Open Society Institute (OSI), as well as by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and by The Consortium of Research Libraries (CURL). Figure 3 The OpenDOAR Directory of Open Access Repositories website (http://www.opendoar.org/) Some of the institutional repositories' advantages are: easy and quick access to the scientific materials available in these repositories, free use and the possibility for several readers to access the resources simultaneously. Case Study at Transilvania University of Brasov The first institutional digital repository was implemented at the Transilvania University of Brasov, containing the scientific publications of the academic community in Romania. This repository was the result of the research of marketing department of economic sciences faculty. The Advanced Mechatronics Department, the Motorvehicle Department, the Law School and the Computer Engineering Faculty adhered to it and developed their own communities. During March-April 2012 a qualitative marketing research was carried out concerning the opinions of law school professors on copyright and open access to information. The research concerned the two positions: those of the academic community member as researcher and author. The study population consisted of 37 authors. The A-P-U triangle was considered as the research basis, where: A - Authors of scientific articles drafted in the academic environment, P - Publishers, U - Universities. In 2000, there was a strong "periodicals crisis". The periodicals prices considerably increased generating a crisis in the scientific research field. The "open access movement" appeared as a reaction to such crisis. The copyright matters were then very seriously considered. The matter under debate was: WHO IS THE COPYRIGHT OWNER? A, P or U? The research considered these elements and monitored the attitude of the three parties involved in copyright ownership. 131

143 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Research results The research was carried out through an electronic questionnaire containing 10 questions available at The results of the answers to those questions are presented below: 1. For how long have you been working in the academic field? Less than 5 years 0.0% years 73% years 26.7% 4 More than 20 years 0.0% 0 Figure 4: Professors' seniority in the academic field Concerning the seniority in the academic activity, it is confirmed that the law school is relatively young, with personnel in full development of their didactic career and 73.3% out of the respondents have a seniority between 5 and 10 years. 2. Number of articles published as single author Below % % % % % 1 Figure 5: Number of articles published by professors as single authors Most of the respondents (64.3%) published articles as single authors and 60% out of them published less than 10 articles in collaboration. How many articles did you publish in collaboration, with several authors? Below % % % % 1 Figure 6: Number of articles published by the professors in collaboration 132

144 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO In your opinion, who holds the copyright over the articles you wrote? The University 0.0% 0 The author(s) 73% 11 The Publisher 20.0% 3 I don't know 6.7% 1 Figure 7 : Holder of the copyright over the articles published by professors Concerning the intellectual property right, 73.3% out of the respondents believe that in case of articles they wrote, authors are the holders of the copyright. 20% believe that the publisher is the holder of the copyright. None of them sees the university as an institution holding the copyright. 6. What are you most interested in? Moral rights 73% 11 Patrimony rights 26.7% 4 Figure 8: Professors' interests in terms of copyright 73.3% out of the respondents are interested in the moral rights, while 26.7% are interested in the patrimony rights. 7. When you published, did you assign to the publisher the copyright free of charge? Yes 33% 5 No 53% 8 You did not assign the copyright 13% 2 Figure 9: Professors' opinion on copyright assignment An interesting result was obtained in terms of copyright assignment/transfer. 53.3% did not assign copyright for free, while 33.3% did. 13.3% did not assign the copyright. 8. Do publishers ask that? Yes, it is their condition in order to publish the article 21.4% 3 You did not sign such agreements 78.6% 11 Figure 10: Publishers' terms 21.4% believe that publishers request the assignment of copyright, while 78.6% did not sign such agreements. 133

145 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 9. Would you agree to have your articles published under open access terms, i.e. visible online? This would increase the visibility of researches and the chance to be quoted. Yes 73% 11 No 26.7% 4 Figure 11: Professors' opinion on open access publication 73.3% out of the law school professors would agree to publish their articles under open access terms, while 26% do not agree. 10. Do you use articles available online for free for documentation purposes? Yes 73% 11 No 26.7% 4 Figure 12: Professors' habits in terms of accessing articles available online for free 73.3% out of the law school professors use articles available online for free, while 26% do not. Conclusions of the research related to the authors' attitude The purposes of the research for the analysis of the authors' attitude were: - To understand current practices on the creation of and copyright over scientific articles; - To understand the desires of academic community members for the protection of scientific articles available online for free and to inform them on the rights they hold; - To understand the opinion of academic community members on the free use of other articles available online for free; To conclude, the academic community is concerned by the intellectual component of intellectual ownership. Authors are interested in the moral rights over their work rather than in patrimony rights. Most of them see their work as an intellectual extension, not as an extension of the portfolio in economic terms. This is understandable since authors are remunerated for an article very rarely. REFERENCES 1. Repanovici, A.: Ghidul de cultura informańiei, Association of Romanian Librarians, Bucharest, Repanovici, A.: Promovarea producńiei ştiinńifice a universităńilor prin depozite digitale. Bucharest: Romanian Academy Publishing House, DSpace System at "Transilvania" University of Braşov. [Interactive] [Quote: ] 4. DSpace System at "Carol I" Central University Library of Bucharest. [Interactive] [Quote: ] 5. DOAJ - Directory of Open Access Journals website. [Interactive] [Quote: ] 6. Stan, Doru: Managementul resurselor electronice în bibliotecile universitare contemporane, PhD thesis, Scientific coordinator Prof. Mircea Regneală, PhD, University of Bucharest,

146 THE INFORMATIONAL CONSUMER S BEHAVIOUR IN THE DIGITAL CULTURE S CONTEXT Marius Mihail STOIANOVICI, Angela REPANOVICI Transilvania University Braşov Abstract: A society s development is strongly connected to the evolution of communicational resources. The technological innovation is an outcome for the society s demand, but simultaneously a revolutionary communicational resource which influences the society in which shows up. The digital revolution is defined by technology. The digital culture has fundamentally changed the informational requirements of the consumer/customer. One of the main element of the Information s Culture is represented by the Digital Culture. Consumer behavior is a concept which incorporates numerous and complex aspects. Thus, the study of informational resources gradually transforms into a necessity as it becomes the fundamental element in the transfer circuit of the information. In the context of the evolutions that take place at the level of information production which has as consequence the phenomenon called informational boom and the implementation by the info-documentary structures of some more and more sophisticated technologies, it is by far more necessary to study the users, the behavior and the specific information needs, the users being disoriented by the digital culture phenomena. For the fulfillment of the mission of dissemination of information and knowledge and in order to offer products and quality services to the users, the info-documentary structures should take to different actions by which to identify the needs and expectations of the users, to know as well as possible their behavior in the process of information, to identify the factors which influence this behavior. Simultaneously, the info-documentary structures need to know what products and services the users require, both from the point of view of content and of the way it is provided. The article brings up a study of the informational requests/needs regarding the daily news which are offered by daily newspapers and presented both in traditional and online format. The qualitative research has been worked out by a sample consists of citizens from Brasov city. At the end the reader s profile is revealed and also his informational need. Finally, a digital format newspaper is suggested which complies with the study s conclusions. Key words: the culture of information, digital culture, qualitative research, informational need, digital newspaper. 1. Introduction The behavior of the user is based on the research of three important factors: public s needs, desires and motivations. The needs that a person has influence his/ her behavior, even if s/he is not aware of this fact. It is difficult to evaluate the needs of a person and how important they are for that person. It is yet considered that all people act in such a way as to satisfy their needs in an optimal way.

147 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science People can have highly varied needs that act differently in time. Not all sensed needs have the same importance. Generally, it is considered that they are ranked on a scale from basic needs to fulfillment needs. The more a certain need is lower in the hierarchic pyramid, the more it is felt as being more important, and its pressure on the person s actions and thought is greater. The order of these needs, starting from the vital, is: physiologic needs (food, clothes), safety needs (security, protection), social needs (love, feeling of belonging), prestige needs (esteem, acknowledgement, status), self-actualization needs (fulfillment, personal development). This ranking of needs is temporary, being valid for very many people. Yet, in case of certain people, the hierarchic order is different. For example, there are persons who might consider the self-actualization needs as being more important than the safety or physiologic ones. The way of needs satisfaction is influenced by several factors, the most important being: the values, principles, desires, and the social and economic situation of each person. Because the needs decisively influence the actions and thoughts of people, whatever organization has to know the needs of its clients as they understand them, what are their specific needs and the clients categories according to the needs they have, etc. ( Repanovici, 2010) Services answer to varied needs: education or self-teaching, entertainment, participation in collective activities, group belonging, etc. These are part of the last three mentioned categories: social, prestige or self-actualization. Motivations are internal states of the users that mobilize them, trigger a purpose for which to act. Due to the fact that the motivation is the result of the action of many factors, either internal or external to every person, it is difficult to be known. In many cases, not even the person who took to an action can exactly identify the causes that urged him/ her and the reasons that s/he had as it is a combination of needs and desires. Similarly, motivations can vary from person to person. These, together with the spare time and accessibility are factors that influence the decision of cultural consumption. The main motivations which determine the interest for scientific production and different programs related to that are: education, spiritual enrichment, cultural development, pleasant free time spending, curiosity, prestige, development of social and cultural activities. (Repanovici, 2010) Equally, it is important that the organization knows different influence factors (Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders, & Wong, 1999), of the decisions taken by the users of these products. These can be extremely various: internal or external, lengthy or conjectural. The most influential and frequent factors are: family life cycle, education, context and family tradition, ethnical belonging, information sources, customs and interests, expertise, cultural and social factors, life style, reference groups, tendencies and fashions manifested in this field. 2. Consumer behavior in digital era Consumer behavior is a concept which incorporates numerous and complex aspects (Cătoiu & Teodoresci, Consumer behaviour, 2004). A general comprehensive definition consider the consumer s behavior as an assembly of decisions taken individually or in groups, directly related to getting and using goods and services with a view to satisfying current and future needs including the decisional processes which precede and determine these acts. The observation and comprehension of the consumer s behavior are difficult necessitating a cross-disciplinary approach: economic, psychological, sociologic, anthropologic, etc. 136

148 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The definition of the consumer s behavior presupposes taking into consideration a variety of elements which results in a series of definitions presented by the specialty literature in the last decades. Given the complex and delicate problematic of the study of consumer s behavior, the specialists appealed to different sciences starting with anthropology, sociology and psychology and ending with economy and marketing. ( Repanovici, 2010) In the case of electronic information, one must take into consideration the double hypostasis of the beneficiaries of the service, and namely their behavior as users of electronic international resources and the one of producers of informational products, self-archiving of the products in repositories. The existence of a favorable environment for communication, collaboration, knowledge sharing and transfer as well as easy identification of the organization's knowledge assets is essential for this approach and facilitates it. (Porumbeanu, 2010). According to the encyclopedic dictionary the behavior represents the totality of reactions of a complex object belonging to an whatever level of organization (biologic species, social groups, etc.) to environment factors for the maintenance in optimal conditions of the form and function of its organs and (psychologically) the totality of facts, acts and motile, verbal, affective reactions by which a person answers to the physical and social demands (Dictionary, 1993). The behavior, psychologically speaking, designates the ways of being and acting of animals and people, objective manifestations of their global activities (Pieron, 2001). Taking into consideration the totality of definitions proposed by acknowledged and famous specialists, consumer behavior can be defined in a holistic approach as representing the totality of decisional deeds, either individual or taken in groups, directly connected to obtaining and using goods and services, with a view to satisfying current and future needs, including the decisional processes which precede and determine these acts (Cătoiu & Teodoresci, Consumer behavior, 2004). The consumer s behavior represents a type of manifestation of the human behavior in general, behavior defined by Maria Moldoveanu as the totality of acts and decisions concerning the valorization of opportunities for obtaining and using the goods and cultural services (Moldoveanu & Ioan-Franc, 1997). For the fulfillment of the mission of dissemination of information and knowledge and in order to offer products and quality services to the users, the info-documentary structures should take to different actions by which to identify the needs and expectations of the users, to know as well as possible their behavior in the process of information, to identify the factors which influence this behavior. Simultaneously, the info-documentary structures need to know what products and services the users require, both from the point of view of content and of the way it is provided. ( Repanovici, 2010) The attempt of analyzing the users confronts the ambiguity of the used concepts for defining and classifying them, for recognizing their information needs and specific behavior. The used concepts for identifying the information consumers and for determining their information needs are multiple: readers, beneficiaries, users. The concept of user is the most fashionable in the world of professionals in information and documentation, so called due to the diversification of the library services which go beyond the exclusive sphere of reading, and the reader as a consumer of services and documents on traditional supports. ( Repanovici, 2010) 3. Braşov mass media case study. Research methodology Brasov case research on online readers of one successful newspaper, Monitorul Express, had principal objective to identify reader profile witch prefer online version and indentify needs, attitude and wishes of reader to be satisfied by one quality newspaper. 137

149 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 4. Research data results The research was carried out through an electronic questionnaire containing 10 questions available at We had 148 respondents. The relevant and important results of the answers to those questions are presented below. Regarding preferences of Brasov readers 79% wants to read local news, 74% national news, 42% international news, 34 % economic news and entertainments news.( Figure 1) Fig.1: Favorite news 99% of the respondents have as main reason for reading the newspaper the need of getting information. Just 29,3 % are interested in the opinions and only 24,2 % are looking for entertainment. Classified adds and advertising are of interest for 18,2 % and just 6,1 % are looking for the horoscope while TV schedules are wanted only by 6,1%.Figure 2) Fig. 2: The purpose of reading newspapers The majority of respondents are using the web for getting informed- 87,8 %. 73,5find their info from TV and only 41,8% from newspapers and 32,7% from radio.( Figure 3) 138

150 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Fig.3 : Information sources The most disagreeable aspects for the newspapers readers are the pointless/meaningless news- 75% and the grammatical errors/mistakes 67,7%. Far behind follow the blared or poor quality photos. Small print is as also an annoying factor, 29,2% of the respondents indicating this. Disproportionate advertising space is sanctioned by 18,8% and to vibrant colours bothers 11,5% an those interviewed. ( Figure 4) Fig.4 : What the readers not like in newspapers On the other hand the respondents are valuing most the editorial content-69,4%; photos 12,2%,other aspects 11,2 % while the printing quality is valued by just 7,1%. ( Figure 5) 139

151 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Fig. 5: What the readers appreciate in newspapers Most of the respondents- 30 are aged between 50 and 59, followed by those between 30 and and those between 40 and 50, 18 respectively. Individuals answering and aged above 60 were 17 and young people between 18 and 29 were only 11. From those below the age of 18 years old only 3 answers were registered. (Figure 6) Fig.6: Segmentation by age 56, 7 % of the respondents were female and 43,3 % male. ( Figure 7) 140

152 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Fig.7 : Segmentation by gender The majority of respondents are university graduates- 42, 9%, followed by those with a PG degree 15, 3%, or high school graduates 15, 3%. 14, 3% have post secondary studies and only 5, 1% graduated the Gymnasium, 4, 1% vocational training and only 3, 1% PhD. (Figure 8) Conclusions Fig.8 : Level of education The newspaper reader s profile in information society is one of an individual who wants to be informed about both local and national news. Consequently, the news are satisfying the need for information. Therefore the content of the news should objectively reflect reality, using an impersonal and attractive style so as to successfully compete with television and radio news broadcasts. The women/ men proportion is balanced. The online preference indicates a class of users with a certain level of instruction or having completed a form of education. Population segmentation by age shows that 30% of the respondents were aged between 50 and 59. The quality of the images and the used fonts should be brought in accordance with this aspect. Journalists should permanently use this instrument of evaluation in order to meet the readers requests. The culture of evaluation, of determining the news products consumers behaviour and market research must become the main pillars of marketing policies and strategies used in the field of mass-media. A special attention must be paid to media market segmentation, to the need for market and consumer knowledge based on marketing research, in order to provide an objective strategic planning. The stress must be laid both on qualitative as well as on quantitative research. The aproach model of this research may be extended to other information products as well. 141

153 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science REFERENCES 1. Cătoiu, I., Teodoresci, N. (2004). Comportamentul consumatorului. Bucureşti: Uranus. 2. Cătoiu, I., Teodoresci, N. (2001). Comportamentul consumatorului: abordare instrumentală. Bucureşti: Uranus. 3. DicŃionar enciclopedic (1993). Bucureşti: Editura Enciclopedică. 4. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Saunders, J., & Wong, V. (1999). Priciples of marketing. Prentince Hall. 5. Moldoveanu, M., Ioan-Franc, V. (1997). Marketing şi cultură. Bucureşti: Expert 6. Pieron, H. (2001). Vocabularul psihologiei. Bucureşti: Univers Enciclopedic. 7. Porumbeanu, O.L (2010).:Implementing Knowledge Management in Romanian Academic Libraries:Identifying the Elements that Characterize their Organizational Culture. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36 (6), Repanovici, A. (2010) Promovarea producńiei ştiinńifice prin depozite digitale, [Promotion of scientific production by institutional repositories], Editura Academiei Române, Bucureşti 142

154 500 YEARS SINCE THE PRINTING OF THE BOOK OF GOSPELS (TETRAEVANGELION) FROM TÂRGOVIŞTE Agnes ERICH Valahia University of Targoviste Abstract : The beginnings of the Romanian printing press - which, during the centuries, has piously gathered the deep thought and the elevated feeling and has given them an immortal apparel - do not include only the story of the first books that were printed within the Romanian boundaries, but represent at the same time an enduring testimony on the solidarity of the Christian peoples of Eastern Europe and on the role of leader that the Romanian people has held among them. In June 2012, we celebrate the 500 th anniversary of the appearance of the third work belonging to the cycle of three monumental works printed at monk Macarie s printing press in Târgovişte, namely the Book of Gospels (Tetraevangelion), which concludes this cycle realized on the order and with the support of the Church and of the reigning prince. The initiative of offering these three printing and ecclesiastical culture monuments to the public has the role of completing the spiritual and social image of the Romanian society from the period when these books saw the light of the printing press, were read and circulated all over the Romanian territory - and not only there - demonstrating the initiators concern for the knowledge and the protection of these true spiritual values. Key words: Tetraevangelion (The Book of Gospels), Macarie, Neagoe Basarab, Wallachi. 1. Introduction The birth of the printing press in Walachia needs to be seen in the larger framework of the country s social and cultural history, as it was not an isolated phenomenon, but one that deeply influenced its subsequent international perception. The princely residence of Târgovişte from Wallachia was, at the beginning of the 16 th century, a significant cultural center, and the bringing of the printing press here occurred at a moment when the need for liturgical books was imperative, its role being that of strengthening the new centralized leadership instrument. The books printed in Wallachia are the usual ecclesiastical texts: the Book of the Priest / Litugikon (Liturghier) (1508), The Book of the Eight Tones/Oktoikh (Octoih) (1510) and the Book of Gospels/Tetraevangelion (Tetraevangheliar) (1512), which do nothing else but putting into practice, in a printed form, the Church and the political leadership desire to realize in a unitary manner the largest and the most essential part of the church services. To write or to print a book meant back then to do something for the glory of God, for the ascension of the Christian soul and at the service of faith. The one who accomplished this important cultural and also social act was the monk Macarie, who had printed at Cetinje an Evhologhion/The Priest s Prayer Book (Molitvenic) (1496), an Oktoikh/The Book of the Eight Tones (Octoih) ( ), and, in 1495, a

155 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Psalter/The Book of Psalms (Psaltire). Due to the invasion of Montenegro by the Turks, the printing activity there ceases, the typographer taking refuge in Venice, together with prince Cernoievici, after which he shall come to Wallachia, laying the bases of the printing activity here. 2. The appearance of the Tetraevangelion The third book printed by Macarie in Târgovişte was a Tetraevangelion (Book of Gospel), comprising the four Gospels placed in the canonic old Eastern order (Mathew, Mark, Luke and John), but with the indication of the pericopes in the margin, so that the priests may know the Sunday, the celebration or the day when they need to read the respective pericope.[1] It is the oldest way transmitted by tradition to all the old manuscripts and printings of Tetraevangelions and practiced until 1682, when the Gospel Book (Evangheliar) took the place of the old type of tetraevangelions. This phenomenon was marked by the printing of the Evangel by the Bishop Teodosie, during the reign of Şerban Cantacuzino, translated from Greek into Romanian by Iordache Cantacuzino and which comprised the evangels as they are read in the Church, starting from Resurrection/Eastern Sunday (John s Evangel) and going up to the sixth Sunday of the Lent, namely Palm Sunday (Mark s Evangel). The significance of the Tetraevangelion (Book of Gospel) appeared during the reign of Neagoe Basarab consists in the fact that it is the first one printed for all the Orthodox who used the Slav language as official language for the liturgy.[2] The book s epilogue points out the ruling prince s role in this action, according to his own statements: For God the One glorified as a Trinity blessed His Church with holy books for glorification and for the benefit of their readers, so have I, believer in Christ the Lord and protected by God and powerful ruling prince, Basarab great ruler and lord of the entire Hungro-Walachia and Podunavia, son of the very good and great ruler Basarab, have desired [to write], on the exhortation of the Holy Spirit and out of love for the godly holy churches, and have written this soul redeeming book, the Tetraevangelion, which the Holy Spirit through the mouth of the apostles has disclosed for [our] knowledge, for the accomplishment of the glorification of the Holy Trinity. [3] Just as in The Book of the Eight Tones/Oktoikh (Octoih) (1510), Macarie asks those who will read the book and will find errors in it: to correct them and to bless us, who have endeavored to complete this work. In the end of the epilogue, there appear again the ruling prince and the one who endeavored for the realization of this book, as well as the date when it was completed: On the order of the ruling prince Basarab, great voivode, I, the servant of Christ, Macarie, have labored for it and have finished this book in the year 7020, the period 20 (see note 4) of the 9 th month, indiction (see note 5) 14, month of July, day 25 [6] We can notice, here as well, the appearance of the title Podunavia [7], a title not to be found in any other act issued by the chanceries of the ruling princes Radu cel Mare, Mihnea, Neagoe Basarab; the typographer may have taken it from an older chronicle. At the same time, Macarie uses the same chronological system as for the two preceding typed texts, namely the style of January 1, according to which all the princely and particular acts of the respective epoch used the Byzantine style, which set the beginning of the year on September 1. So, the epilogue appears as a personal contribution of the typographer, which does not take into account the country s rules and traditions, the same chronological system having been used by him in his books printed at Cetinje. As far as the date is concerned, P.P. Panaitescu considers that the indiction is wrong in all the three printings.[8] So, in the date of the Tetraevangelion, crugul soarelui 20 corresponds to the year 1512, yet crugul lunii 9 corresponds to the year 1511, while the indiction for the year 1512 is 15. To conclude, the date is neither unitary, nor exact. 144

156 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Concerning the language in which the text was conceived, it is the ecclesiastical Slav language of the Bulgarian environment, just as in the case of the first two printings of Macarie, a language in which all the churchly manuscripts, chronicles or official acts in Walachia were edited, which proves that even though Macarie had come from an environment in which the Serbian language was used, this thing did not influence him and is not noticeable in his printings. 3. Decorative art Macarie defined the specifics of the Cyrillic printing press with the Romanians in the context of the entire Cyrillic printing press of 16 th century Europe, characterized by aspects taken over from local manuscript books. It is known that during the ruling of the Muşat family, a particular style emerged in the manuscript book art: izvodul moldovenesc, namely the Moldavian style, its features being: geometric decoration, chromatic harmony, impeccably realized miniatures. The first to have noticed the similarity between the printings of Macarie (1512) and the Moldavian manuscript Tetraevangelions of the time of Ştefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great), especially as far as the decorates initials, vignettes and frontispieces were concerned, were B.P.Haşdeu and N.Iorga. The latter resumes B. P. Haşdeu s idea, demonstrating that the old Romanian manuscripts lay at the basis of the realization of Macarie s printings: The opinion of Haşdeu that inspiration comes from the old manuscripts is certainly true, and the contrary opinion, coming from Odobescu, should be taken only in the sense that these ornaments were translated into the larger and merrier spirit of the Renaissance. [9] The taking over of the decorative elements of the local manuscript books and their usage in the printed book appears natural, as the Liturgikon and the Tetraevangelion are liturgical books printed for the first time in all the European Cyrillic printing press by Macarie in Wallachia.[10] For this reason, as the typographer did not have an already printed source of inspiration, he had to create an original decorative type matching the text, which was inspired by the manuscript books. Comparing the frontispieces of the manuscript books from the time of Ştefan cel Mare to those of the books executed by Macarie, we notice the same type of decorative elements made up of enchained circles, from whose combinations results a great variety of ornamental motifs, the intersecting lines forming interlaces [11] at the crossroads of the geometric figures, while towards their exterior, in the four corners of the frontispiece, there appear floral representations. From a stylistic viewpoint, the ornamental motifs present in the Tetraevangelion belong to the Byzantine art disseminated in Walachia via the Slav channel. It has also been stated that the decorations of the frontispieces of Macarie s printings have a style that is similar to the ones realized in the Armenian style [12] from Dealu Monastery (ornaments outlining intermingling circles and squares, made up of stalks of stylized plants), which seems likely if we think that the artisan may have had this model in front of him and may have drawn inspiration from it. In the third printing of Macarie are reproduced rectangular or square frontispieces of odd dimensions, made up of intertwined stalks. The narrower ones are made of twigs intertwined into circles, at the intersection points being represented buds and zigzagging intertwined in the shape of a rhomb. The median frontispieces follow the same decorative motif, in the external lower corners being beautified with long stalks with flowers on the extremities and in the upper corners with short stalks having at their end the same flowers bending towards a central cross made up of intertwined twigs, surrounded by the short form of the inscription: Jesus Christ conquers, namely IC XC NI KA. There appears as well another inscription, not yet deciphered: CX ΠB 145

157 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Large frontispieces, covering about half a page, appear at the beginning of the evangels. Those from Mathew and Luke are square, containing the coat of arms of Walachia in the middle, surrounded by a medallion of small dimensions, which in its turn is surrounded by a circle of intertwined stems, inscribed in its turn into a square. The bird is viewed with its head from profile, having a crown on its head and a cross in its beak. Centrally, one can see a Greek cross at the end of the branches ornamented with flowers.[13] From the outer lower corners start long stalks made up of intertwined twigs ending with crowns and a flower bud each. The upper outer corners have the same floral buds, yet with short stalks, turning towards a cross placed in the middle. With the Evangels from Mark and John, the coat of arms from Wallachia, the heraldic bird with the cross in its beak is surrounded by a square made up as well of intertwined plant stalks. The bird is represented without any crown, with its head turned to the left, in a semi-open flight, looking like something in between an eagle and a raven, keeping the cross in its beak. This coat of arms marks a transition between the image of the heraldic bird of the Walachian Principality from the previous seals (an eagle with a cross, with a crescent having its ends directed upwards and a star with five rays on the right, which belonged to Vlad Călugărul / Vlad The Monk) and the hybrid representation (eagle and falcon) from the frontispiece of the Liturgikon of 1508.[14] The two celestial bodies present in the Liturgikon (1508) disappear, and as a characteristic element in this representation one can notice the long cross, going up to the terrace, a cross identical to that figuring on the princely seal of Neagoe Basarab from the year At the same time, we can notice the presence of a new element, consisting in the appearance of two trees with thin bodies and a triangular leaf crown (the tree on the left having as well a smaller bunch of leaves on a branch, starting from the lower part of the stem), flanking the bird.[15] The stalks that start from the lower corners of the frontispiece are shorter than those from the evangels from Mathew and Luke, while those from the upper corners are also short and with the flower bud turned towards the cross situated in the center; only now (in the copy on parchment) there appears as well the short form of another inscription than the classical one, namely: MЛ PБ The place of joy is heaven ( Mesto lubnoe Rai bâst ).[16] The decorated initials are extremely numerous in the Tetraevangelion, being engraved by Macarie as intertwined twigs, making up ornamental letters realized by putting together floral stalks and plants, while others are carried out from long lines decorated with small leaves. The print is the same as in the Liturgikon except for the use of some new characters, or of certain characters realized in a different way. For instance, the letter X appears as disorderly in the Liturgikon, while in the Tetraevangelion it tends towards a geometrical shape. In the case of the letter O we can even talk about three variants [17]: one round, one narrow, with and without accent, and another one that is enlarged. At the same time, the letter C is presented in three variants. The work is printed in black and red, with 20 lines on page, equal, the mark of the ink being homogeneous, unlike the Liturgikon, executed on thick paper coming from different producer brands [18]: encircled pair of scales, encircled anchor, cardinal hat, a coat of arms including two crossed swords (of German origin) and a coat of arms shaped like a pair of scissors. The format of this work is large, representative for a liturgical book. Macarie printed several Tetraevangelion copies on parchment as well, which explains the appearance of two such editions of this printing. So far, only one copy of this edition is known, which can be found at present at the National Art Museum of Romania and comes from BistriŃa Monastery. For this reason, we cannot say if we are dealing with a luxury edition or just one such copy was realized, being meant for the ruling prince himself. It has 292 pages made of parchment, plus six more made of common paper. The parchment copy is manually colored with gold, carmine, blue, cherry and green, while the outline of the letters in the words printed in red is retouched, which gives the impression of being in front of a manuscript. [19] The decorated initials are colored in gold, green, cherry and blue, while the others are colored only with gold, to which some very discreet details were added in red or green. 146

158 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The Tetraevangelion of Macarie has been a source of inspiration for almost all the Slav Tetraevangelions issued during the 16 th century in the South-East European area. So, Filip Moldoveanul /Philip the Moldavian will print in Sibiu, in 1546, a new Tetraevangelion, the purpose being to enlarge its area of circulation. The decorations of the tome generally follow the motifs present on the Macarian frontispieces, the initials made of intertwined twigs, created by Macarie, being taken over as well. To this, one can add the Slav Tetraevangelion printed by Coresi in 1562, but whose reproduction is less artistic. As far as its translation is concerned, there are certain elements leading to the statement that the translators relied on another text as well, not just on that of Macarie. We should also recall two more Slav Tetraevangelions realized by Coresi, namely those printed in 1579 and 1583, and the one printed in Braşov in 1565 by Călin or the one of LorinŃ from Alba Iulia of South of the Danube, the text of the four Evangels was printed for the first time at the Monastery of Rujan in 1537, by monk Theodosie together with eight brothers, monks from the monastery. The model that inspired them was also Macarie s printing, this fact being obvious from the decoration of the book, in the sense that the same types of frontispieces, vignettes and decorated letters were used, as well as the same dimension of the ordinary letters. So, at the beginning of the Evangel according to Mathew, in the 1537 Tetraevangelion from Rujan, there is the frontispiece in the middle of which one can see the Walachian coat of arms in a small medallion, under the form of the crowned bird with a cross in its beak, yet the image appears reversed compared to that of the printing of Macarie. During the second half of the 16 th century, the South-Danubian printing presses issue two more Tetraevangelions, both printed by the hieromonk Mardarie from the Mrksina Crkva Monastery, situated near Montenegro. In the Tetraevangelion from Belgrad (1552), the ornaments from the beginning of the Evangels imitate, almost identically, the Romanian printing; even the Walachian coat of arms (the heraldic bird with the cross in its beak and the two trees on its right and on its left) is reproduced. Later on, as the typographer probably noticed the lack of concordance between the presence of the Walachian coat of arms and the place where the book was printed, so he no longer reproduced it, the respective space of the frontispiece remaining empty. At the same time, there appears as well the frontispiece that used to contain the Walachian coat of arms represented on a smaller scale, but, this time, this coat of arms is replaced by a central cross. As far as the decorated initials are concerned, in the Tetraevangelion of 1552, they are of two types: both framed initials (of Venetian origin) and initials intertwined with twigs (of Macarian origin). The similarity between the 1512 Tetraevangelion and the 1552 one is so significant that even the printing mistakes and the epilogue were copied (in the epilogue, the proper names and the year of printing were replaced). The second printing realized by the hieromonk Mardarie is the Tetraevangelion of 1562, realized at la Mrksina Monastery. The epilogue mentions that the letters for this book were executed with hard labor by the hand of the hieromonk Mardarie, out of iron and copper, its model being his printing of 1552, which relied, as we have already mentioned, on the Tetraevangelion of Macarie. In this work, the frontispiece, which used to comprise the Walachian coat of arms, is the same; only the coat of arms was replaced by a cross flanked by two trees. The decorated initials are similar to those made by Macarie, yet their aspect is less tended. Conclusions After the printing of this book, the printing activity ceased in Walachia for about 33 years, yet it seems that the ruling prince Neagoe Basarab continued to be preoccupied with the printing of some new works, as, in a letter addressed to the mayor and the 12 members of the Administration Council of Braşov, he asked for them to send some molds that we need" [20]. 147

159 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Yet, the reasons why the printing activity ceased so suddenly are not known. It was resumed by Dimitrie Liubavici, also in Târgovişte, much later on, in 1545, when The Priest s Prayer Book (Molitvenic) saw the light of day. The present initiative to bring these three printing and ecclesiastical culture monuments in front of the interested public has the role of completing the spiritual and social picture of the Romanian society from the period when these books saw the light of the printing press, were read and circulated all over the Romanian territory - and not only there - demonstrating the initiators concern for the knowledge and the protection of these true spiritual values. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Simedrea, Tit. The Tetraevangelion of the treasurer Mateiaş, a manuscript of the year Bucuresti, 1934, p Molin, Virgil. The printings of the hieromonk Macarie for Walachia. In: The Romanian Orthodox Church, an LXXVI, 1958, nr , p Panaitescu, P.P. Macarie s Liturgikon and the beginnings of the printing press in the Romanian Countries. In: The Romanian Orthodox Church, 1939, p A chronological period of 28 years, after which the days of the week fall on the same month date. 5. The Church celebrates the "Indiction" (with the Romanians, it means: commandment and appearance) on September 1 also because on this day Jesus Christ entered the Jews synagogue. 6. BRV, I, p A title dating since the first half of the 15 th century, in relation to the dominion of Mircea cel Bătrân over Dobrogea and Chilia. 8. The rule to know what year of the Indiction is a certain year after Christ is the following: one adds 3 to the respective number and divides everything by 15. If the rest is 0, the year of the Indiction is 15, and if the rest is a certain number different from 0, this number will be the year of the Indiction. 9. Iorga, N. L ornementation du vieux livre roumain. In: Procès verbaux du Congres international des bibliothécaires. Paris : Jouve, 1925, passim 10. Sweipolt Fiol printed in Cracow in 1491, the following liturgical books: Hymn Book (Octoih), Book of Hours (Ceaslov), Lenten Triodion and Pentecostarion (Triod de post, Triod Penticostar) and the Psalter/Psalm Book (Psaltirea). The hieromonk Macarie printed in Cetinje, between 1493 and 1496, the following books: Hymn Book (Octoih), Psalm Book (Psaltire) and Evhologhion (Molitvenic). 11. Decoration made up of enchained, intertwined lines or vines. 12. Ghica-Budeşti, N. The evolution of architecture in Walachia. In: The Bulletin of the Commission for Historical Monuments, no Ornamental element shaped like a stylized flower or leaf. 14. Cernovodeanu, D. Heraldic representations from the old Romanian printings and manuscripts (16 th century)). In: Târgovişte, a fortress of the Romanian culture. Bucureşti, 1974, p Ibidem, p Odobescu, Al. Works, vol. II. Bucureşti, 1967, p. 553, note Molin, Virgil. The printings of hieromonk Macarie for Walachia. In: The Romanian Orthodox Church, year LXXVI, 1958, no , p B.R.V., Tom I p Păcurariu, M. The History of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Iaşi, 2004, p Ibidem, p

160 WHAT IS TELLING US A 17 TH CENTURY ALMANAC? Hajnalka ILYÉS-BARTHA Babeş-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca Abstract: People of the 17th century enjoyed reading almanacs printed at that time in Cluj providing them with useful information about weather, fairs, lifestyle, medications and others; printers also liked them because they were easy and cheap to be printed, quite easy to be sold, and therefore, representing one of the most profitable publications. Comparing and analysing the almanacs printed in Cluj during the 17th century was an inetersting way to find out things about people`s mentality and their way of living and in the same time to know a little bit more about the activities of printers who tried to provide diversity for their readers year after year. Keywords: old books, history of printing, almanac, Cluj, 17 th century. Introduction Almanacs can be considered a special group in the category of old books because their survival has been the most challenging throughout the centuries. One almanac content is related to the events in the year of publication so that its value decreases with time. Almanacs were designed to be small-format books (16) in order to fit easily in a pocket, so that they could be taken anywhere and their pages to be browsed. Their intensive use by their masters and their attractive appearance somehow worked against them so that they lost pages, got irreparably damaged and faded away. Nevertheless some of these books managed to survive up to the present and they have become treasures for us: not only in form - old books, but also as content, providing various information on the former centuries. Yet it is almost impossible to appreciate their importance in history, literature, folklore, astronomy, geography, etc. This topic can be approached from different perspectives, even interdisciplinary, with the possibility of exciting new discoveries. In this paper I present a study based on thirty six still existing almanacs that were printed in Cluj during the 17th century and I try to compare and analyse them by pointing out the different changes that occured in time, the methods printers used in order to provide diversity for their readers. The Contents of the Almanacs All the almanacs of the 17th century are structured in two main parts: the calendaristic part and the Pronostication, both of them generally having separate front pages. After this it comes the list of the fairs and, in the end, the Chronicle. This structure was kept in the almanacs that were printed at Cluj as well, but obviously, some changes occure from time to time, following the fashion at that time or according to the printer`s perception. Nine parts can be distinguished in an almanac as it follows: 1.The front page of the calendar; 2. The Year Is Counted ; 3. Legend of Planets and Symbols ; 4. The Twelve Star Signs ; 5.Calendar; 6.Fairs; 7.Prognostication; 8.Chronicle; 9.Mail. i

161 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science I will discuss further about each separately, pointing out the differences between them. All the almanacs are sextodecimo containing 32, 36 or 40 unnumbered sheets. Both the calendar and prognosticon have separate front pages but sometimes, towards the end of the century, it may happen that the prognosticon is deprived by its separate title page and it receives just a title, eventually written in red. The main front pages do not show any changes during the century. They are printed in black and red, the latter being used for highlighting the word Calendar ( Kalendárium ), the year and the astrologer`s name. Sometimes the red is randomly used for stressing some other words as well, contributing thus to the decoration. The almanacs from Cluj are not famous for their illustrations. ii The decorations are simple, we can notice just the use of different typesfaces, tailpiece, coat of arms (of the town Cluj and the Apafi family) or in a very few situations some small illustrations (allegorical presentation of planets, the Moon or the Sun) are included in the end of the book. iii The next page starts with The Year Is Counted a part which tells how many years have passed since certain past events. The years are counted from either a real historical event (e.g. The beginning of the Roman Empire ) or from a biblical event (e.g. After the Flood ) iv. Obviously, in the latter situation the counting cannot be taken for real. Mihály Veresegyházi Szentyel introduces the counting of the years from the foundation of different towns, for instance in the 1681 Almanac it is written that Cluj was founded 503 years ago, Sibiu 521, Brasov 451 and so on. He is also the first printer who considers important to say how many years have passed since printing was discovered. Mihály Némethi, forced by the current historical events, v mentions some events related to the Habsburg Empire and this will be kept in the following years as well, even by Miklós Tótfalusi Kis. On the bottom of this page there are common information like the dominical letter (A to G), vi the golden number vii (usually indicated by Roman numerals from I to XIX), the date of the Carnival, the number of weeks between Pentecost and Advent and the numbers of eclipses for the given year. All of the events are presented according to the Old and New viii calendar as well and in 1633 there is an unique abordation of this because the printer arranges the facts in two columns. One stands with the Hungarian names and dates according to the Gregorian calendar while the other column contains the dates of the Old calendar with the corresponding Latin names. The next page is shared by: the Legend of Planets and Symbols occupying about two third of the page and the remaining part is divided between The Seven Planets ix and the The Twelve Star Signs x. The information is divided under different titles but all of them are in fact the explanation of the symbols used in the book, a sort of legend. These conventions are quite stable and common, they are preferred not to be changed because that might confuse the readers. Some of them can be found in all the almanacs: a black circle indicates the new moon, a red circle the full moon, a black crescent is the sign for the moon in the first quarter while for the last quarter stands a red crescent. Towards the end of the century their numbers are increasing and new ones appear. For example at the beginning of the century only the red three-leaves clover is used for marking the days that are good for planting. A few decades later the red three-leaves clover stands for the days which are good for planting in wet soil and the same sign but in black stands for the days when you can plant in dry soil. These signs stood for a number of words that would have been impossible to print in one line, so they gained space by using them and beside this, it was also very important that through these symbols the almanacs could thus address a popular market whose literacy was functional or minimal. In this way even the half-illiterate people would spend their money on almanacs because they represented the only book that could be read by them. The Calendar section contains the twelve months, each month covering two pages and in most of the cases a blank page is included after each printed one. This was good for taking notes or mentioning important events and they provide precious information from a cultural-historical point of view or it can be used to reconstruct a period from somebody` s life especially if we have more than one almanac that belonged to the same person. xi Every month bears two names 150

162 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 the Latin-originated and the old Hungarian one as well ( Januarius = Boldogasszony ). There are examples for almanacs from the same year with or without having blank pages, and I think it means that the printer made different models and probably sold for less money. xii The days of the month are listed in vertical columns adding near each of them the religious feast (if there is any on that particular day), the saints` names, the corresponding symbols (discussed previously), a short weather forecast and a syllable. Each day of the year has an equivalent syllable and reading them together, words and sentences are formed which usually do not have any logic, they just rhyme. They were learnt by heart and helped the person to identify the days by combing each syllables according to their order in the text with a day from the month. xiii At the end of each month it is displayed two or four lines in distichons xiv, containing some sort of advice or prediction related to weather, health, agriculture, farming etc. Its origin can be led back to 4 A.D. but slowly they made their entrance in the Christian-culture of the Medieval Ages and then they were translated into different nations` languages. Towards the end of the century, from 1687, they appear as short texts in plain sentences, but they still kept their shortness and promptness. In the almanac of 1667 printed in Nagyszombat xv these verses appeared for the first time together, in a collection named Prognostica Perpetua. Soon enough other printing offices follow this example and in Cluj it can be noticed starting from But it is interesting to mention that in Cluj, in 1641 Abrugi already gathers these predictions under a common title ( Poems for the Months ) xvi and places them at the end of the calendar section. His method is quite similar to the one that is considered to have its origin in Nagyszombat but it does not have a continuation, it is just an isolated case. These predictions are part of the popular culture, they are based on ordinary people`s wisdom that evolved through many centuries, on their wisdom and some of them are still known and believed especially at the countryside. For example there is a prediction referring to 8th of June, when it is the name-day of Medard, and people believe that the weather on that day will be the same the next 40 days. This belief is deeply rootened in our culture, people being interested in it because it is like getting a 40 days weather prediction, so it is understandable to be present in 1631 ( The weather you notice on Medard`s day/ Will be the same when you are harvesting ) as well as in 1696 ( The weather you notice on Medard`s day/will be the same for the next forty days ) xvii The repetition of the same predictions, eventually using different words but definitely with the same content, are a good proof that these have been part of the popular culture ever since. Probably the more often they were used the more credible they were and vice versa. Another common topic, often present in these verses was health because it was important to provide different advice in order to keep one`s health under different circumstances or seasons. It may look funny to a reader from the 21st century but they do not deserve to be laughed at because they reflect somehow the level of medicine from those times. It was a serious business to tell people what to eat or drink in different months in order not to harm your body and health condition, which were the ausspicious or inauspicious days for bloodletting or taking medicine. Some of these beliefs have their origin in ancient times, for example the moderation in eating and drinking during the dog days ( dies caniculares ) xviii dates back to the Roman Empire when this period was linked with the prevelance of diseases. All the calendars have similar warnings for this period of the year. For example in July 1633 we can read I will not bath, I will not drink too much wine, I will not ask for a doctor, in 1671 The heat of the Sun will hurt your body or in 1685 If the dog star awakens during the daytime your vineyard will suffer of a terrible disease. xix The Prognostication is the mirror of the scientific development of the century, a mixture of science and superstition, christianity and paganism. Famous astronomers and mathematicians of those times contributed to the compilation of the almanac, the major part of the work was theirs and less of the printers`, because it was astronomy that underpinned the various information in these calendars. Although it had a realistic side they never forgot mentioning the possibility that God`s intervention.astrologers taught that God was the first cause and defined the stars as 151

163 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science secondary causes which were always operating by divine permission. They believed in God`s omnipresence and his possibility of changing his mind according to different happenings, especially people`s misbehaviour. But in the same time this was a kind of insurance in case their prognostications turned out not to be true. They could not afford losing their credibility so they let a room for God`s ultimate will, which was definetely accepted by the society as being impossible, even for the brightest mind, to know for sure in advance. They did not experience any conflict between the two systems of supernatural explanation, they could truely believe that God`s will and the position of stars have an influence on people. The astronomer`s name whose work contributed to the birth of the calendar was also printed on the front page and a famous astrologer`s name could help the printer in selling his almanacs. xx The Prognostication is divided in different chapters, dealing with the analyses of the fours seasons (each of them taken separately), ecclipses (of Moon and Sun), wars and peace, diseases and farming. These chapters had more or less the same titles, only small changes can be noticed during the ages and from time to time new ones were also included, for instance in 1641 there was a chapter with predictions for pregnant women or in 1632 and 1633 a chapter about mining. In a way these provided novelties for the reader and a diversification of the look. Although the appeal of the almanac did not lie in its literary value, we have two printers, Mihály Veresegyházi Szentyel and Miklós Tótfalusi Kis, who tried to raise the standard of their almanacs even by including different stories or anecdotes and turn them in some sort of artistic works. An examples for this is the 1678 almanac where the printer provided such kind of extra material after each chapter, except the one about the diseases. For experiencing the style of these stories I present here the English translation of the one called About a Pregnant Woman xxi : While a nobleman`s wife was delivering her baby, her husband together with the other children went in the garden. There the father told his children to pray together for their mother to have an easy delivery. Soon a servant arrived and told them that the baby was born. The father happily rewarded the servant with a coin and went back to his children asking them to continue their praying. Soon after, the servant appeared again with the news of the second baby. In that moment the nobleman went to his children and told them Stop praying because you fill my house with children. xxii The next part in the almanac, the monthly enumaration of the places and times of the fairs, plays a very practical role. Its style did not change, only a growth in the number of the fairs could be noticed. Yet, this part bears importance from an economical geography point of view and from this perspective it may give accurate information for scholars. xxiii In the end of the almanacs stands the Chronicle relating the events that happened from a given past time up to the present in a strict chronological order. The starting point was usually the birth of Jesus or a later event and they finished around the summer events of the year when the almanac was printed. For example in the case of the 1631 Almanac the last event about which we could find some information was late spring-early summer of 1630 because in autumn they had to start the printing of the almanac for being able to finish it in time. The further the event was from the printing date the shorter its presentation was and the closest the events were the more detailed descriptions appeared. All in all they were a mixture of different kind of information, there were local but also European historical events, natural disasters, astronomical events and others. Because of these caracteristics I dare to call these Chronicles the ancestor of the first newspaper, because they helped in developing people`s interest in being informed about the latest events and definetely contributed to their change of mentality despite of their yearly appearance.the majority of the events are historical ones, but since there is little chance of finding new things, nowadays they are more interesting as some curiosities and less valuable as primary documents. Although the title of this chapter suggests that the clear majority of the events are historical, we should not forget about the other types of reports. In order to comprehend the importance of them I summed up the events that took place in the 17th century but had no direct connection to history. The majority of them were speaking about local (Cluj) and Transylvanian events but some European ones were aslo included, like the earthquake from Germany (1691) or the tsunami that affected Sicily in January Between these events the majority were dealing with extreme weather conditions like flood, drought, hail, storm, long 152

164 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 rainy periods, hard frost and others. Another serious event was the fire that affected the different towns; sometimes just the amount of the disaster is mentioned while in a few situations even the cause is presented (lightning, explosion of a gun powder warehouse). The mice, maybeetle and locust invasions that destroyed all the plants and crops were also reported but here only the surrounding places were included. The meteorites that could be seen during the 17th century were also mentioned and of course the plague and periods of serious dearth when people died as a consequence of these disasters. The last change that occured in the 17th century took place in 1699 when as a response to the population`s new needs, a new utilitarian chapter was included, which was dealing with the mail, presenting its schedule and the exact route and stops from Vienna to Sibiu. Conclusions The separate discussion of the different chapters of an almanac from the 17th century showed us that these books tried to fulfill various needs of the population. They were not just simple calendars showing the passing of the time but they had many other functions as well. They provide information related to weather, health, lifestyle, different works, fairs, mail and past events. Or they could be used as diaries or just simply read for learning or entertainment. These books could be used by different kind of people and for different reasons, all these characteristics providing them popularity and in the same time a secure income for the printer. These kind of beliefs did not have national characteristics but they were quite similar all over Europe. The mentality of the 17th century was reflected almost in the same way in every almanac of those ages, no matter where they were printed. One example of this is the prediction I mentioned above, related to Saint Medard`s Day. This prediction can be found exactly on the same day and same name in the French culture ( S'il pleut à la Saint-Médard, /Il pleut quarante jours plus tard.") xxiv. Also very similar to this is the British Saint Swithin`s Day ( St Swithun`s day if thou dost rain/for forty days it will remain ) although it is celebrated on 15 th July or the prediction on Saint John the Babtist`s Day ( Dacă plouă de Sf.Ioan Botezătorul/patruzeci de zile va ploua neîncetat ) in Romania, on 24 th June. All these popular beliefs must have a common origin even if the date or the name differs. The study of the almanacs do not stop here and this cannot be considered an end because they can still provide a great variety of information and data to those who are interested in history and history of culture, literature and folclore, astronomy, geography and probably others as well. And if other fragments or copies are found in the future even the history of book will take advantage of them. They are small at seize but we should not despise them because of this aspect because they may be invaluable for science. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Binder Pál. Régi kalendáriumok az erdélyi és partiumi vásárokról vagy sokadalmakról. (Old Almanacs About the Fairs from Transylvania and the Partium) In: Néprajzi Látóhatár pp Dukkon, Ágnes. Asztrológia és keresztény hit a régi kalendáriumokban (Frölich Dávid). (Astrology and Christianity in the Old Almanacs / Dávid Frölich/) In: Irodalomtörténeti Közlemények pp Dukkon, Ágnes. Régi magyarországi kalendáriumok európai háttérben. Budapest, Dukkon, Ágnes. Woodcuts in Old Calendars. In: Iconography in Cultural Studies (ed.attila Kiss). Szeged. 1996, pp Hahn, István. Naptári rendszerek és az idıszámítás. (Structures Used in Calendars and Counting thetime). Budapest Hervay, Ferenc. Krónikák a régi magyar kalendáriumokban. In: Magyar Könyvszemle 1970, pp Kanyaró Ferenc. Néhány szó régi naptárainkról. (A Few Words About Our Old Almanacs) In: Magyar Könyvszemle, 1897, pp

165 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 8. Keith V., Thomas. Religion and the Decline of Magic. Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England. London, Salzman, Michele Renée. On Roman Time. The Codex-Calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban life in Late Antiquity. California, Supka, Géza. Kalandozás a kalendáriumokban és más érdekességek.(wandering Through Calendars and Other Interesting Things).Budapest Tóth Kálmán. A könyvnyomtató Makai János deák. (Makai János the Typographer) In: Kelemen Lajos emlekkönyv. Bucureşti-Cluj Webster, J.C. The Labors of the Months in Antique and Medieval Art to the End of the Twelfth Century. Chicago, i The original Hungarian titles, as written in the almanacs, are the following 2. Az esztendı számláltatik ; 3. A Plánéták és jegyek magyarázattya ; 4. Az égbeli tizenkét jegyek ; 6. Sokadalmok. ii There are only two books which contain illustrations at the end of the book. It is about the almanacs for the years 1631 and 1632, where two woodblocks are used from the former Heltai-press. iii This can be noticed only in the calendars for the years 1632 and iv It tries to tell how many years have passed since the biblical story that can be found in Genesis 6:9-8:22. v In 1687 Leopold I sent his army into Transylvania, in 1690 the famous Diploma Leopoldinum was issued and finally he overtook the reign and Transylvania was integrated into the habsburg Empire. vi Each day of the month is marked by a letter, starting with the first of January as A. The dominical letter indicates the day on which Sunday falls. In leap years there were used two letters. vii The golden number gives the position of the new moon. viii The so-called New calendar refers to the Gregorian calendar while the Old calendar is the Julian calendar. ix They enumerate the followings: Saturn, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, the Sun and the Moon. x Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces (the symbols and the names). xi There are several almanacs in the possession of the Special Collection of the Lucian Blaga Central University Library from Cluj- Napoca that belonged to the historian Mihály Cserey ( ) and they were already used for reconstructing periods from his life. xii This is similar to the fact that some of the almanacs were sold unbound, which also reduced costs. All these things are revealing some aspects related to the selling process of the books, the printer`s ingenuity to cover a wide segment of possible buyers by modifying the look and the price. xiii They derived from the former Cisiojanus, a medieval composition of 24 hexametrical verses with a syllable for each day in the year and its purpose was to memorize the most important feasts. (Circumsision, January, Epiphany etc.). xiv Distichon is a couplet consisting of a hexameter and a pentameter. xv Today it is called Trnava and it is a city in western Slovakia. xvi Az hónapokra való versek (the original Hungarian title). xvii The original Hungarian texts are Az minémő idıt Medardus napján látz/ Aratásban osztán ollyan idıt várhatsz (1631) and A minemő idıt Medardus napján látsz/ Negyven napig osztan ollyan idıt várhatsz (1696). xviii The Romans associated this period (second half of July-first half of August) with the star Sirius, which they considered to be the Dog Star because it is the brightest star in the constellation Canis Major. Romans used to sacrifice a brown dog at the beginning of the Dog Days to appease the rage of Sirius and to be protected by the unwanted consequences of the hot weather on people`s lives. xix The original Hungarian lines are the following: Nem firidem, nem iszom sok bort, nem hivatok orvost (1633), Napnak melegsége testedet megbántja (1671), Az eb csillag ha most nappal feltámad/bizony a szılıkre nagy ártalom ragad. (1685 ). xx The almanacs printed in Cluj were compiled based on the following astrologers, mathematicians` works: David Herlicius, Johann Habermann (latin Avenarius), Gáspár Simonfi, David Frölich, Gergely Lemki, Christoph Neubart and Janus Neubart. xxi Original title: Egy gyermekágyas asszonyról. xxii Original text Midın egy fı ember felesége gyermekszülésbe gyötrödnék az ura a többi gyermekivel a kertbe mené és inté ıket a könyörgésre, hogy Isten annál könnyebben az ı anyjukat megszabadítaná, azomba a szolgaló hírt hoz, hogy Isten az asszonyt immár megszabadította, kit egy tallérral megajandékoza az úr és gyermekeit ismét hálaadásra inté, de ahogy imádkoznának ismét jıvé a szolgáló illy hírrel: hogy az asszonya még egyet szült vala. Mondá az úr a gyermekeknek: hagyjátok már a könyörgést, mert a ti könyörgésetekkel egész házamat megtöltitek gyermekekkel. xxiii An interesting study in this respect is the study of Binder Pál. Régi kalendáriumok az erdélyi és partiumi vásárokról vagy sokadalmakról. (Old Almanacs About the Fairs from Transylvania and the Partium) In: Néprajzi Látóhatár Pp xxiv Saint Medard was originally a French bishop but it still raises the question how did he became known in the Hungarian culture. Project co-financed by the SECTORAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAM FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT Priority Axis 1. "Education and training in support for growth and development of a knowledge based society" Key area of intervention 1.5: Doctoral and post-doctoral programs in support of research. Contract nr.: POSDRU/88/1.5/S/60185 INNOVATIVE DOCTORAL STUDIES IN A KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. 154

166 LIBRARIES IN THE ROMANIAN PROVINCES IN THE 18 th AND 19 th CENTURIES Antonella CHEŞCĂ Sorina Anamaria CHEŞCĂ Transilvania University of Braşov Abstract: This paper presents all existing libraries in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Transylvania, Moldavia and Walachia. At that time, libraries belonged to the noblemen of Walachia and were less numerous. Libraries which existed at that time in Walachia and Moldavia were structured according to a French model. Some libraries known at that time belonged to the Moldavian library, respectively to the merchant Gregory Anton Abraham. In Transylvania, libraries were private. Among these ones, we may mention 51 princely libraries, 10 libraries belonging to noblemen and a few libraries belonging to teachers, priests, officials and townsmen of Transylvania. Bishop, Ignatius Batthyány of Alba Iulia founded a library of his personal funds, which he latter opened to the public. The library in Transylvania in the eighteenth century is dominated by Count Samuel Teleki in Targu-Mures, chancellor of Transylvania, known as a passionate collector. After a period of time, the library owned by Count Teleki turned into Teleki- Bolyai Library, by uniting the funds of the Reformed College, which belonged to the mathematicians of the Bolyai family. It is noted that the documentary library, Brukenthal Museum, had at that time many manuscripts and engravings books. Besides those mentioned, we may talk about the existence of libraries that were opened near schools and colleges since the sixteenth century. Libraries in Transylvania developed in the eighteenth century. Among these ones there were noted, at the time, the library of the scholar Şincai George and the one of Bishop Samuil Vulcan. Organized according to French and German models, all libraries in the eighteenth and nineteenth-centuries in the Romanian provinces constituted a substantial collection of books, which contributed to the development of the culture, the updating of the information in that period, which were partially preserved until present. Key words: libraries, culture, collections, information. 1. Introduction The importance of knowing and of acquiring information by writing and by printing means led to the apparition of books, fact that subsequently determined the incorporation of the libraries. From this point of view, acquiring knowledge due to the information explosion led to the formation of libraries, as representative places for research, fundament of the educational activity and stable support concerning the knowledge treasuring within complex scientific fields. The prestige gained in time by the libraries was noticed by means of technical means used as a support for the written text. These initially consisted in burned clay plates that evolved to papyrus, followed by the transit from parchment to paper, then by rolls to codes, followed by

167 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science the apparition of the manuscripts and more recently until present, to the apparition of the materials typed on paper and on electronic support, e-book type, written on CDs or DVDs. From this point of view, we may emphasize the role and the importance of the libraries during the centuries and the millenniums, by their contribution to the wide access to the information, for the social categories who desired to assimilate knowledge from various fields. In the context, the revolution determined by the information evolved to a complex communication and an extended dynamics, at the level of the communication of the information transmitted on the supports on which the scientific, educational materials were presented from the libraries [2,6]. According to the previously described data, the XVIII th and the XIX th centuries are characterized by certain particularities of the libraries, which occurred mainly in Transylvania, Moldavia and Walachia. 2. Libraries of Transylvania Transylvania in the XVIII th and XIX th was characterized by an exquisite functionality of the private libraries. From this point of view, we may distinguish the noblemen libraries, the princely libraries and a small number of urban libraries, respectively belonging to teachers, priests or clerks. Among the personalities of the above mentioned centuries who contributed to the incorporation of books funds, we may mention the episcope from Alba Iulia, Ignatius Batthyany, PhD in Theology, famous for his studies abroad. He was the fonder of the Astronomic Institute and of its library, consisting in a specific books fund, of rare publications and that was subsequently turned into a public library, as stipulated in his will. From the historic archive, we know that the library was incorporated by Ignatius Batthyany together with the astronomic observer, the library being kept in the former building of the Church of the Trinitarians Order, which was abolished towards the end of the XVIII th century. We also know the fact that the fund of the above mentioned library was extended by the donation or the purchase of the small libraries of the Jesuit monks, among which we mention the library of the episcope of Vienna, Christo plior Migazzi. The Batthyaneum Library, that became famous over time, owned an impressive fund of manuscripts, among which we mention the Codex Burgundus, manuscript of the IX th century. According to the historical data, we know that this library owned a sacred Bible, recorded in the XII th century and also a part of the famous Codex Aureus. Also, this library included German and Italian manuscripts together with printing art acquisitions. In the context, in the above mentioned library, the European press was represented by the workshops of Elzevier Manuzio, Frobenius, Plantin and the Romanian press was known as being best represented by the New Testament of Bălgrad, in the XVII th century. In Transylvania of the XVIII th century, the library of the earl Samuel Teleki of Targu- Mureş, the famous chancellery of Transylvania and passionate collector was recognized as a library of a great value. The catalogue of the library was constituted by the chancellery and consisted of four volumes. This was published in Vienna during these years since the end of the XVIII th century and the beginning of the XIX th century, in four volumes, gathering approximately registrations, among which we may mention the incunabulum and the books typed in English, French, Italian, Greek, Latin, Arabic and Hebraic. The catalogue of the library comprised the entire collection, being placed within an especially built building, at the end of the XVIII th century and the beginning of the XIX th century. Subsequently, the Teleki Library united their funds with the ones of the Reformed College that belonged to the mathematicians of Bolyai family, forming the Teleki-Bolyai Library [2, 5]. At the end of the XVIII th century, in Sibiu was constituted a valuable library, which functioned as a museum-library within the palace of Baron Samuel Brukenthal, governor of 156

168 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Transylvania, only for a short period of time, being subsequently publicly used. Being incorporated with a fund of approximately volumes, administrated by the librarian Samuel Hahnehamm, this was extended during the XIX th century, once with adding the collection of the city, by the contribution of the evangelic founder, but also by representing the former Law Academy, incorporating the Kappelenbibliothek. In this manner, it was constituted the famous collection of the documentary Library of the Brukenthal Museum. The above mention collection consisted in a variety of manuscripts, incunabulum and engraving books of Jean Moreau le Jeune. Among these ones, we mention also the Bravium Brukenthal manuscript of the XVI th century. [1,6]. Further, in the XVIII th century, the library of the Sfânta Treime Monastery of Blaj, historically famous was recognized as a Greek Catholic Cathedral, between 1738 and This owned, at the beginning, an approximate number of 200 volumes useful to the theological study, belonging to the bookman, Inochentie Micu. The first librarian here was the prelate, Grigore Maior, who diversified the content of the described Library, by adding certain duplicates acquired from the Imperial Library of Austria but also by enriching it with encyclopedia volumes as printings in Walachia and Moldavia. This library was joined in the XVIII th century by the library of Timotei Cipariu, and in the XIX th century by other printings from the personal collections of the bibliophile Ion Micu Moldoveanu and also of other metropolitans. Recognized as a museum at the beginning of the XX th century, the above described library was divided at approximately the half of the XX th century, its thesaurus being partially in Cluj-Napoca. Under the context of the informational explosion and of the need to constitute it in a public access writings fund, we may talk about the amplitude taken in the XVIII th century by the libraries of certain Romanian bookmen, especially of the ones from Transylvania. Among these ones, we may mention the library of Gheorghe Şincai, out of which certain books were donated to the Library of Blaj. Also, the library of the episcope from Oradea, Samuil Vulcan was recognized as a large library, uniting the masterpieces of some of the most famous and rare authors, which eventually acquired a public character. This was formed of the manuscripts of Gheorghe Şincai and of Samuil Micu and it was partially kept in the branch of Cluj of the Romanian Academy [1, 2]. As a consequence of gathering the complex information acquired from different cardinal points, we may reach the conclusion that towards the end of the XVIII th century, the Transylvanian libraries, together with the ones in Banat, expressed the influences of the European Culture [1, 6]. The incorporation of libraries in Banat during the above mentioned centuries, continued during the following century, respectively the XIX th century, mentioning the fact that among the particular boyar libraries of the mentioned century was the library of the Macedonian - Romanian family of Mocioni, from the Arad province. Furthermore, it was remarked the continuation of incorporating libraries both in Banat, in the XIX th century, and also in Transylvania, in the same century. The incorporation of the libraries in the XVIII th and in the XIX th centuries according to the German pattern, in Transylvania, consisted in the books and in the magazines brought from abroad. In this context, the written evidences occurred, in that period, that were of Austrian or German origin were part of the private libraries of certain tradesmen, among which we mention the one of Grigorie Anton Avramie. 3. Libraries of Moldavia and of Walachia The adoption of the French pattern concerning the incorporation of the libraries in Moldavia and in Walachia, in the XVIII th and in the XIX th centuries, contributed to the incorporation of some libraries with a wide content of information. 157

169 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science From this point of view, we may talk about the incorporation of the private type libraries in Moldavia and in Walachia in the XVIII th and in the XIX th centuries, belonging to the boyars or to the tradesmen. Furthermore, by comparison, we may state that besides the multitude of the libraries that occurred in Transylvania during the above mentioned centuries, in Walachia there were only several boyar libraries, Moldavia being the richest in terms of libraries containing informational or educational materials. From this point of view, the library of the illiterate boyar Costache Conachi, incorporated in the XVIII th century illustrated the influence of the illuminist period. In the context, some evidence of the existence of this library were found in the attic of a church, by Nicolae Iorga, these being subsequently deposited to the Academy [2,5]. A personality that involved in the development of the writing and of the incorporation of a book fund was Vasile Popp, author of a monograph of the Sf. Nicolae Church of Şcheii Braşovului that remained only as a manuscript. Furthermore, Vasile Popp was recognized as a personality that created the basis of the first retrospective bibliography of the Romanian book, in the first half of the XIX th century, emphasizing when traveling to Walachia and Moldavia during this period a large number of private libraries. Among these ones we mention the library of Miclauseni, which became complex, by the contribution of the logothete Dimitrie Sturza. Even if it was appreciated as the most representative Romanian library at the middle of the XIX th century, a part of it being offered to the Romanian Academy. Another part represented by an impressive number of incunabulum, manuscripts, rare and very rare book, also by old Romanian book, up to the Romanian Episcopate and the State s Archives determined its division [3]. Other libraries present in that period in Moldavia were represented by the library of the Rosetti-Roznovanu family found in the house of the Stânca estate of Iaşi, belonging to the bibliophile boyar Ioan Balş and the one of the boyar Scarlat Rosetti. The essential role of the libraries incorporation was discovered in the XIX th century by the apparition of the bourgeoisie library of the middle class, among which we mention the library from Botosani of that period and that was remembered in the writings, by Nicolae Iorga. Also we mention that for that period of time, the library that belonged to Constantin Cornescu Helniceanu of Walachia that was mentioned in the mailing of George BariŃiu represented a significant library. The latter was bought approximately at the half of the XIX th century by Dionisie Romano, archimandrite and abbot of the Monastery of NeamŃ, being subsequently donated to the library of the Academy. Furthermore, this one was joined by the libraries of Constantin Tufescu of Iaşi and also by the one of Zacharia Antinescu of Ploieşti, found in the former SfinŃii Petru si Pavel High School of Ploieşti and that according to the documentary attestations, was preserved by the Romanian Academy. The incorporation of the libraries in Moldavia in the XIX th century was characterized by the incorporation of certain savant libraries, of certain bookmen and intellectuals. Among these ones, we may mention the one of the metropolitan Calinic Miclescu, partially donated to the University from Iasi. In the context of the description of the incorporation of the libraries in the Romanian provinces of the XVIII th and the XIX th centuries, we may name other private libraries of certain intellectuals. Among these ones, we mention the library that belonged to Ion Heliade Rădulescu and that was partially kept within the Library of the Academy. Costache Negruzzi is another personality who contributed to the incorporation of a library that did not last that long. Further, we will mention the boxes of manuscripts and of old books that belonged to Mihai Eminescu and that were undertaken by Titu Maiorescu, being subsequently donated to the Academy [3,6]. 158

170 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Libraries incorporated for educational purposes in the XVIII th and the XIX th centuries The XIX th century was characterized by the libraries of certain societies and institutions. Among these ones we may mention the Library of the Scholars of CernăuŃi, registered at half of the XIXth century, placed near the Culture Department of CernăuŃi and that was managed for a period of time by I. G. Sbiera. Another famous library, in that period, was the Romanian Youngster Library of Vienna, whose head librarian was Mihail Eminescu. We may also mention for the XIXth century, the Petru Maior Lecture Organization Library from Budapest, ASTREI Library of Sibiu, which was incorporated by Timotei Cipariu and which was managed by the librarian, Nicolae Toganu, owning a wide variety of books constituted of approximately 250 libraries [5]. In the context, the incorporation of the libraries near the schools and the colleges in Transylvania, Moldavia, Walachia and in other Romanian provinces of the XVIII th and the XIX th centuries, revealed representative preoccupations concerning the development of this type of historically registered libraries in the XVI th century. Among these types of libraries, we may mention the Latin School of Cotnari, college incorporated by the prince Gabriel Betheen of Alba Iulia and Aiud and the Greek-Latin School of Târgovişte and also the Reformed College of Târgu-Mureş, which was incorporated approximately at the middle of the XVI th century [1]. Furthermore, during that period, occurred the idea of incorporating a public library. This fact was expressed in the anaphor of the Episcopate of the Schools in Moldavia at the beginning of the XIX th century. Also, this moment represented the expression of the need of incorporating a national library for the purpose of having access to information and the request was addressed to the ruler Alexandru Sturdza. The idea of extending the access to information led together with the mentions made within the Organic Regulation of Walachia, of the first half of the XIX th century, to the extension of the incorporation of libraries near these colleges. Among these ones we may mention the incorporation of the Library of Sf. Sava College, incorporated in the old hermitages of Gheorghe Lazăr and having as librarians Costache Aristia and also the incorporation of another library within the Central School of Craiova. Furthermore, the library of the Academy owned at the end of the XIX th century and at the beginning of the XX th century a collection of representative Romanian books, representing the continuation of the libraries of Sf. Sava College, XVII th century, of Bucharest Metropolitan Church, XVIII th century, of the ruler Constantin Mavrocordat and of the old monasteries. According to the historical information, the incorporation of this impressive scientific library in our country was organized by Ioan Bianu [4]. A representative element of the XIX th century, from the point of view of the incorporation of a books fund institution, was the incorporation of the university libraries. Among these, we may mention the Central Library of Iaşi incorporated after the transformation of the Mihăilene Library in a university institution, the Ulpia Library within which activated B P Haşdeu and Mihai Eminescu. In Transylvania it was recognized the University Library of Cluj, which was made public, owning their own collection, approximately after the half of the XIXth century [1,5]. Furthermore, we may mention the Library of Carol I University Foundation inaugurated in 1895, that was on the first place in 1873, being followed by the ones of Iaşi and Craiova, and then by the Library of the Central Seminary, the Library of the Senate, the Library of the Chamber, the Library of the Academic Society and the Library of Cernica Monastery. 159

171 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science In the context of the previously presented data concerning the Romanian libraries incorporated in the XVIIIth and the XIXth centuries, numerous materials and publications owned by the Romanian libraries may be found, at present, in libraries abroad constituting a part of their thesaurus. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Cloşcă, Constantin: History of Romanian culture and civilization: university course, Iaşi: DuŃescu, Victor: Traveling the world writing and printing, Bucharest: Sports-Tourism, Flocon, Albert: Universe books. Historical study of the origin to the late eighteenth century, Bucharest: Scientific and Encyclopedic Publishing House, Panaitescu, P.P.: Introduction to the history of Romanian culture, Bucharest: Encyclopedic Publishing House, Simionescu, Dan: Brief history of Romanian book, Bucharest: Demiurg, łepelea, Ioan: History of culture and civilization, Iaşi: Timpul,

172 THE INTERACTIVE DIMENSION OF THE ROMANIAN RETROSPECTIVE NATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS Maria BUTURUGĂ Romanian Academy Library Abstract: A project for structuring and managing the interactive dimension of the Romanian Retrospective National Bibliography of Books is developed in the Departament of National Bibliography of the Romanian Academy Library. Its aim is to establish an online dialogue between bibliographers and readers allowing the achievement of the goal of bibliographic completeness. The bibliographic information able to complete the data from Romanian retrospective bibliographies can refer to authors or titles not mentioned, but they may also show additional information to the existing titles or biographical references. New bibliographic records thus obtained will contain the statement of the origin of information, with data about the person who provided that information. Interactive dimension in the retrospective bibliography in work continues the good tradition of Romanian printed bibliographies. At this point, we benefit by the online dialogue through which our readers can participate in completing the Romanian bibliographies. Keywords : interactivity, completeness, retrospective bibliography. 1. Introduction La Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine est responsable de l'activité bibliographique rétrospective pour la bibliographie nationale. Au Département de Bibliographie Nationale nous déroulons trois programmes fondamentaux. L'activité bibliographique rétrospective des livres en est l'un de ces programmes. Le projet La bibliographie nationale rétrospective roumaine des livres - une bibliographie interactive est un projet visant ce programme, qui se déroule en vue d'atteindre à l'exhaustivité bibliographique. 2. La bibliographie nationale rétrospective en ligne La bibliographie nationale rétrospective roumaine des livres comprend trois étapes de réalisation: la Bibliographie Roumaine Ancienne, sur les années 1508 à 1830, la Bibliographie Roumaine Moderne, sur les années 1831 à 1918, et la bibliographie roumaine rétrospective sur les années 1919 à Nous avons terminé les deux premières étapes: en 1944 la Bibliographie Roumaine Ancienne et en 1996 la Bibliographie Roumaine Moderne. Ces bibliographies ont bénéficié, en 2011, d'une application SIMBNR - Sistem Integrat de Management al Bibliografiei NaŃionale Româneşti, qui donne aux usagers la possibilité d'accéder en ligne les volumes traditionnels.

173 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science À présent, nous sommes en train de réaliser la troisième étape. Il faut souligner que la bibliographie roumaine rétrospective sur les années 1919 à 1952 se réalise directement en ligne. Nous construisons ainsi une base des donées spécialisée, BIB, dans le catalogue en ligne de la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine (BAR). Nous réalisons le catalogue en ligne pour les livres parus dans les années 1919 à 1952, qui sont catalogués en BAR d'une manière traditionnelle, en même temps avec la bibliographie concernant ces années. C'est pour quoi les notices descriptives des livres catalogués en ligne comprennent de plus les annotations bibliographiques. Quand la base BIB sera complète, elle comprendra toutes les notices descriptives, bibliographiées d'une manière scientifique et rigoureuse, pour tous les livres parus depuis 1919 et jusqu'à 1952, imprimés sur le territoire défini par les frontières politiques roumaines, ou imprimés sur tout autre territoire, mais en roumain. 3. La communication avec les usagers dans la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine Dans la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine, la communication a été traitée, jusqu'à présent, comme quelque chose de collatéral, ayant une signification restreinte: l'usager demande au bibliothècaire et reçoit de lui des informations, et c'est tout. L'usager de bibliothèque n'était pas considéré comme source des informations. Sur notre site Web, il y a deux possibilités de contact entre les utilisateurs et les bibliothècaires Fig Contact en vue d'obtenir des références sur les documents de bibliothèque: On peut demander des références sur l'existence ou l'inexistence des documents de bibliothèque qui sont ou non catalogués en ligne. L'enregistrement des documents de bibliothèque se fait dans le système intégré de bibliothèque ALEPH. Malheureusement, beaucoup de documents de bibliothèque sont catalogués seulement dans le catalogue traditionnel, pas encore dans le catalogue en ligne Contact en vue d'obtenir des informations diverses: On peut aussi demander des informations sur les différents services de bibliothèque et des explications sur l'horaire des salles de lecture, les modifications saisonnières ou imprévues d'accès aux documents, les conditions d'acréditation. 162

174 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Les annotations dans la Bibliographie Roumaine Moderne Dès le commencement du travail bibliographique, les bibliographes ont tenu compte des opinions déclarées par les auteurs dans ou sur leurs oeuvres, par les éditeurs, les critiques littéraires, mais aussi des opinions parvenues sous n'importe quelle forme. Un livre publié à Sibiu, parvenu au prof. N. łane, bénéficie d'une recommandation personnelle. Le prof. Ion Ganea est celui qui a ecrit à George Baiculescu en faisant des mentions bibliographiques sur quelques livres (BRM, vol. I, p. 586): Carte *Carte de desfăcut farmecile. Sibiiu (În tip. eridei lui G. de Closius), [1867]. 16 cm. 20 p. (Proprietatea prof. N. łane din Brăila) Cu caractere chirilice. Comunicat de prof. Ion Ganea lui G. Baiculescu în scrisoarea din 6 iunie George Baiculescu est le bibliotecaire qui a organisé pour la première fois le Départament de la Bibliographie Nationale dans la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine, en c'est à dire il y a 55 ans. Il y a des notices bibliographiques provenant de prof. Ion Ganea même dans le quatrième volume de BRM, paru en 1997, quand le département était déjà sous une autre direction (BRM, vol. IV, p. 858), prouvant au moins que l'activité bibliographique a continué en conformité avec les principes établits dès le debut, pour conserver l'unité du point de vue bibliographique: ZIFER, J ~ *Părulu domnei Sărăciei. Tradidiune flamandă şi ReflecŃiuni assupra educańiunei [de Dr. J. Zifer]. Traduse din limba hellenă de Cleanthe C. Varveris. Brăila (Tip. H. D. Panicicoff), , 26 p. 16. (Proprietatea prof. Ion Ganea) Comunicat de prof. Ion Ganea lui G. Baiculescu în scrisoarea din 6 iunie On trouve une annotation plus ample visant le prêtre orthodoxe Sibian, Gavril Hango, qui a donné des informations sur les auteurs d'un livre de droit canonique greco-catholique. L'annotation renvoie aussi à deux articles apparus dans la revue Unirea de Blaj, où il y a des informations qui donnent beaucoup de crédibilité à la mention autographe (BRM, vol. II, p. 521): GRAMA, ALEXANDRU ( ) În colaborare: ~ Cestiuni din dreptulu şi istoria bisericei românesci unite, studiu apologeticu din incidentulu invectiveloru Gazetei Transilvaniei şi a d-lui Nicolau Densusanu asupra Mitropolitului [la vol. II Metropolitului] Vancea şi a bisericel unite, [de] Dr. Alesandru Grama şi Dr. Augustin Bunea. Partea I-II. Blaşiu (Tip. Seminariului gr. cat.), (21,5 x 15). 1 f., 269 p. 70 cr. v.a. (I) ; 400 p. 1 fl. v.a. (II). (II 28501) Descrierea vol. II, după copertă. Pe exemplarul din BAR, menńiunea autografă a pr. Hango, despre presupuşii autori: Dr. Alexandru Grama, la partea I, şi Dr. Augustin Bunea, la partea a II-a (vezi şi: Unirea, 19(1909), nr. 24, iun. 19, p. 209, articolul despre Dr. A. Bunea ; Unirea, 14(1904), nr. 43, p. 401: Bibliografie). Dans le texte de la Bibliographie Roumaine Moderne il y a plusieures annotations pareilles. Ces annotations enrichissent la bibliographie nationale rétrospective roumaine des livres avec des informations sans lesquelles on ne pourra pas espérer atteindre à l'exhaustivité bibliographique. Les exemples ci-dessus témoignent de l'activité pratiquée par les bibliographes roumains dans le cas de la bibliographie rétrospective, ou ils ont tenu compte de leurs relations privées avec les personnalités de la culture roumaine et même avec n'importe quelle personne interessée par la vie culturelle roumaine. 163

175 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 5. La dimension interactive de l'activité bibliographique rétrospective en ligne Pour structurer la dimension interactive de la bibliographie rétrospective sur les années 1919 à 1952, nous déroulons maintenant le projet: La bibliographie nationale rétrospective roumaine des livres - une bibliographie interactive. Les deux premières bibliographies rétrospectives peuvent être complétées par des informations inédites en utilisant le catalogue en ligne, où nous pouvons rajouter de nouvelles notices bibliographiques avec des annotations sur la personne source. Quand il sera possible, nous allons proposer de nouvelles éditions, même sur papier. L'application SIMBNR donne la possibilité d'accéder en ligne les deux bibliographies nationales déjà éditées. Les utilisateurs peuvent envoyer leur observations en utilisant un formulaire de contact (Fig. 2): Fig Les étapes pratiques d'implémentation de la nouvelle dimension interactive 6.1. Initiation En 2011, nous avons créé un nouveau point d'accès pour les usagers de la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine. Nous nous adressons aux hommes de letres, aux bibliothècaires, aux étudiants, et à toute autre personne intéréssée. Il s'agit d'un dialogue spécialisé sur les informations bio-bibliographiques que nous espérons offrir et obtenir. Aussi, la page Web pour la bibliographie nationale des livres dispose-t-elle de la possibilité d'accéder une boîte de dialogue indépendante (Fig. 3): Fig

176 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Publicité Pour ce nouveau point d'accès, nous avons fait de la publicité toutes les fois qu'on a eu la possibilité, commençant par les manifestations culturelles et scientifiques déroulées dans la BAR, pendant les dernièrs mois de l'année passée, en distribuant des dépliants: BIBLIOTECA ACADEMIEI ROMÂNE BAZA DE DATE BIB BIBLIOGRAFIA RETROSPECTIVĂ A CĂRłILOR ROMÂNEŞTI Contact pentru dialogul bibliografic : Biblioteca Vă îndemnăm să ne semnalańi orice informańie bibliografică în măsură să completeze datele prezente în baza de date BIB (titluri şi autori nemenńionańi, sau doar completări de informańii la titlurile prezente), inclusiv date biografice relative la autorii cuprinşi în baza de date BIB. Biblioteca Orice notińă bibliografică în baza de date BIB va fi însońită de date despre cel care a semnalat-o. Contact pentru dialogul bibliografic : Nos lecteurs trouvent des dépliants au Service d orientation des lecteurs, dans la salle des catalogues et dans les salles de lecture. Nous avons pris en considération les manifestations culturelles et scientifiques organisées par d'autres bibliothèques et institutions culturelles, pour offrir des matériels promotionnels. Une autre forme de publicité est la participation, avec des communications scientifiques et des articles sur le thème de l'interactivité bibliographique, aux manifestations culturelles et dans les revues spécialisés des diverses bibliothèques de notre pays ou d'ailleurs. Quand la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine aura les versions en anglais et en français du site Web, la possibilité de dialogue bibliographique seras disponible pour les étrangers aussi. Nous sommes intéressés principalement par des informations sur les publications hongroises inconnues par les bibliographes roumains Concrétisation L'étape principale du projet est la réalisation d'une bibliographie enrichie par les notices descriptives ayant comme sujet les livres qui ne se trouvent pas dans les dépôts de la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine. Pour cette raison, nous sommes préoccupés de ramasser et enregistrer les informations inédites provenant de différentes personnes considérées comme source bibliographiques. Cette étape de projet suppose un dialog actif entre les bibliographes et les usagers. Chaque message reçu sera étudié avec soin et, s'il apporte des précisions, des rectifications ou des rajouts pertinents, il figurera dans la bibliographie. Les notices descriptives bibliographiques nouvelles ainsi obtenues contiendront des annotations sur la personne qui les a fournies et, éventuellement, des informations sur le contexte dans lequel elles ont été trouvées et conservées. Les précisions et les rectifications sur les notices descriptives déjà existantes seront aussi accompagnées d'une indication de l'origine des renseignements. 165

177 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science À l'occasion de la célébration d'un siècle et demi d'existence de la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine, nous publierons sur notre site Web un index des personnes participantes à la Bibliographie nationale rétrospective roumaine des livres. Cet index sera publié aussi sous forme imprimée, quand la bibliographie rétrospective atteindra ce stade. Nous sommes en train de préparer une nouvelle édition de la Bibliographie nationale rétrospective roumaine des livres sur les années 1831 à 1918, sur papier ou stockés sur support informatique. En même temps, nous travaillons en ligne pour la bibliographie sur les années 1919 à Au début, ces bibliographies seront pour l'usage intern, dans les salles de lecture, parmi les plus usuels ouvrages en libre-service. Elles comprendront l'index des personnes source des annotations sur les livres qui ne se trouvent pas dans les dépôts de la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine ou d'autres bibliothèque publiques, mais dans les bibliothèques particulières ou dans les mémoires des différentes personnes. 7. Conclusions La nécessité de ce projet, qui s'est révélée pendant l'activité bibliographique rétrospective, est un impératif auquel nous avons répondu il y a quelques mois; nous espérons avoir ici un dialogue de plus en plus actif avec nos lecteurs. Par l'intermédiaire d'un projet bibliographique visant à structurer et gérer la dimension interactive de la bibliographie rétrospective nationale roumaine des livres, la Bibliothèque de l'académie Roumaine offre à ses usagers la possibilité d'un dialogue actif. Ce dialogue nous permettra d'atteindre à l'exhaustivité bibliographique et, aux lectuers, leurs permettra de participer à un tel projet culturel national. Nous attendons avec intérêt et impatience la participation des usagers de bibliothèque aux travaux bibliographiques, à l'adresse électronique: BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. BAICULESCU, George. Istoricul Bibliotecii Academiei Republicii Socialiste România: În : Biblioteca Academiei Republicii Socialiste România: : Cartea Centenarului. Bucureşti: Editura Academiei, 1968, p BIANU, Ion. Academia Română şi Biblioteca ei. În : Boabe de grâu: revistă de cultură. I, 1930, p DRĂGULĂNESCU, Dimitrie. Rolul Bibliotecii Academiei în dezvoltarea documentării în Ńara noastră. În : Studii şi cercetări de documentare şi bibliologie. IX, 1967, nr. 2-3, p MOLDOVEANU, Valeriu. Activitatea bibliografică a Bibliotecii Academiei. În : Biblioteca Academiei Republicii Socialiste România: : Cartea Centenarului. Bucureşti: Editura Academiei, 1968, p POPESCU-BRĂDICENI, Angela. Conceptul de bibliografie nańională retrospectivă română în lumina cerinńelor istoriei nańionale. În : Valori bibliofile din patrimoniul cultural nańional. Valorificare - cercetare. Rîmnicu Vîlcea: Muzeul JudeŃean Vîlcea, 1980, vol. I, p ŞTREMPEL, Gabriel. Cercetarea ştiinńifică în Biblioteca Academiei Române. În : Biblioteca, III, 1992, nr , p ***Bibliografia Românească Modernă. Vol. I. Bucureşti: Editura ŞtiinŃifică şi Enciclopedică, 1984; p. IX-XV: Introducere. 166

178 JULES DESTRÉE ( ), PROMOTER OF PUBLIC READING IN BELGIUM Jacques HELLEMANS, Bibliothèque des sciences humaines de l Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) Centre de l Édition et de l Imprimé Contemporains (CÉDIC) Abstract : In public reading, Jules Destrée s figure inevitably evokes the law of 1921 on public libraries, which took effect until the end of last century. We will discuss this point in a second step of this presentation. In a first step, we will briefly discuss the history of public libraries in Belgium, in order to pay special attention to Jules Destrée s stubborn character, as he had initiated, since the end of the nineteenth century, the establishment of the workingclass libraries within the people s homes. Since the late nineteenth century, socialist activists had been preoccupied with setting up libraries for the working class. Thus, at the turn of the century, Jules Destrée aimed at installing a library within each home of the people. Since November 1899 to December 1900, he used the journal Le People as a militants forum so as to ask them support and advice for constituting the first nucleus and for materially organizing the above-mentioned library. He took action and consequently the first library was varnished in the people s house from Marcinelle in November Keywords: late nineteenth century, history of public libraries, working-class libraries, Belgium. En lecture publique, la figure de Jules Destrée (Marcinelle, 21 août 1863 Bruxelles, 3 janvier 1936) évoque inévitablement la loi de 1921 sur les bibliothèques publiques qui a eu ses effets jusqu à la fin du siècle dernier. Nous aborderons ce point dans un second temps de cet exposé. Dans un premier temps, nous traiterons brièvement de l histoire des bibliothèques publiques en Belgique 1 pour nous intéresser tout particulièrement au caractère opiniâtre de Jules Destrée, puisqu il est à l origine, dès la fin du XIX e siècle, de la mise en place de bibliothèques ouvrières au sein des maisons du peuple. À tel point que l on pourrait titrer cette communication, «Jules Destrée, de la bibliothèque ouvrière à la bibliothèque publique». Les bibliothèques publiques datent pour la plupart de la fin du XVIII e siècle. Elles doivent en effet leur existence aux créations de la Convention nationale française qui, agissant par décret en 1792 (27 juillet et 2 septembre) 2 décide alors la confiscation au profit de l'état des livres et des manuscrits des communautés ecclésiastiques, ainsi que des condamnés dont les biens sont confisqués, leur réunion aux livres des bibliothèques d'état existantes et la formation d'une bibliothèque au chef-lieu du département. Le décret du 3 brumaire an IV (25 octobre 1795) organise de fait dans chaque département une école centrale, à laquelle est annexée une bibliothèque publique. Cette loi organique de l'instruction publique stipule qu'une bibliothèque centrale, un jardin et un cabinet d'histoire naturelle, un cabinet de chimie et de physique expérimentale sont institués près de l'école centrale du département. Les premiers fonds proviennent des établissements supprimés par la loi du 15 fructidor an IV (1 er septembre 1796). Les livres et les manuscrits provenant des 1 Jacques HELLEMANS, Belgique Bibliothèques, dans «Dictionnaire encyclopédique du livre, A-D», Paris : Éditions du Cercle de la Librairie, 2002, p Gabriel RICHOU, Traité de l'administration des bibliothèques publiques : historique, organisation, législation. Paris : société d imprimerie et librairie administratives et cla ssiques Paul Dupont, 1885, VIII, 422 p., (Répertoire du droit administratif)

179 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science établissements religieux supprimés ou qui appartenaient pour d'autres raisons à l'état sont rassemblés afin de constituer des bibliothèques d arrondissement, c est le cas notamment à Namur (1797), Bruges, Anvers, Bruxelles, Mons (1802), Gand, Liège, Tournai, etc. L'État se déchargeant des dépenses qu'elles occasionnent, la plupart d'entre elles deviennent, sous l'empire, des bibliothèques municipales 3. Sous la domination hollandaise et même après la proclamation de l'indépendance, les sociétés d'encouragement pour l'instruction élémentaire qui avait pour but notamment de répandre de bons ouvrages pour la jeunesse au plus bas prix possible fut manifeste. L'expression «bibliothèque publique» fait son apparition dans les textes officiels en Plus tard, vers 1848, les idées nouvelles amènent des philanthropes et des hommes animés d'idéal social à travailler au bien-être collectif et l'on assiste à la création de bibliothèques nouvelles. Ainsi, l'expression «bibliothèque populaire», est au centre du discours d'édouard Ducpétiaux ( ) au Conseil communal de Bruxelles quand il réclame, lors de la séance du 19 février 1848, la création de bibliothèques avec adjonction de cours publics et de lectures 4. Soulignons en 1851 la fondation, en Flandre, du Willemsfonds, contemporaine de la première constitution organique de la lecture publique en Grande Bretagne. L'acte privé détermine peu à peu la conscience publique. Comme le note Jean-François Gilmont, «En Belgique, les tentatives d organisation de bibliothèques populaires n aboutissent guère à des résultats notables avant Dues à l initiative privée ou communale, ces bibliothèques ont pour objectif l instruction et la moralisation du peuple. Elles sont marquées par une ségrégation sociale très nette. Du côté privé, les initiatives catholiques sont suivies à la fin du siècle par des créations libérales. Au début du XX e siècle, en réaction contre cette conception bourgeoise et paternaliste, des bibliothèques sont créées par les mouvements d émancipation ouvrière» 5. C'est en 1862 que se fait la première intervention de l'état. Par circulaire du 13 septembre, le Ministre de l'intérieur Alphonse Vandenpeereboom ( ) déclare aux gouverneurs de provinces : «Il serait heureux que bientôt chaque commune vit se former à côté de l'école la bibliothèque populaire qui en est le véritable complément». Sous l'impulsion du gouvernement, se constituent alors dans nombre de communes des bibliothèques populaires et des bibliothèques scolaires. En 1863, un mandement de Nicolas-Joseph Dehesselle ( ), évêque de Namur recommande la création de bibliothèques paroissiales. Elles s'enrichissent et deviennent plus nombreuses grâce au concours actif qu'elles trouvent auprès d'organismes, tels le Willemsfonds précédemment cité, la Ligue de l'enseignement (1864), sans compter des cercles locaux qui se donnent pour but d'organiser des cycles de conférences littéraires et d'alimenter les bibliothèques populaires, dont à Liège la société Franklin 6 née en 1865 à l'initiative d'emmanuel Desoer et qui se poursuit jusqu en Notons encore, à partir de 1875 pour le nord du pays, le Davidsfonds. Épinglons tout particulièrement le rôle de la Ligue de l'enseignement 7 qui se donne pour but la propagation et le perfectionnement de l'éducation et de l'instruction en Belgique. Elle poursuit ce but par tous les moyens légaux en favorisant notamment l'établissement de bibliothèques populaires. Se rendant compte qu'une collection trop réduite de livres vite lus par tous les lecteurs reste par la suite sans usage et sans emprunteurs au détriment de l'institution, la Ligue décide au tournant du siècle, la création de la première bibliothèque 3 André VAN AELBROUCK, Éducation populaire et bibliothèques publiques: les conditions historiques, sociales et psychologiques de leur évolution, Éditions de la Librairie encyclopédique, 1956, p. 29 // Auguste VOISIN, Documents pour servir à l'histoire des bibliothèques en Belgique et de leurs principales curiosités littéraires, Gand : Annoot-Braeckman, 1840, 350 p. // Jean-Pie NAMUR, Histoire des bibliothèques publiques de la Belgique, Bruxelles, C. Muquardt, , 3 vol. 4 Bruno LIESEN, Bibliothèques populaires et bibliothèques publiques en Belgique ( ) : l'action de la Ligue de l'enseignement et le réseau de la Ville de Bruxelles, Liège : Céfal, 1990, p Jean-François GILMONT, Une introduction à l'histoire du livre et de la lecture: du manuscrit à l ère électronique, Liège : Céfal, 2004, p M. MOUREAU, La Société Franklin à Liège, , U.C.L. (mémoire dactylographié), 1978 // Jacques LORY, Les Sociétés d'éducation populaire de tendance libérale, , dans «Revue Belge d Histoire Contemporaine», tome X, 1979, n 1-2, pp Jean MACE, Les origines de la Ligue de l'enseignement ( ), Paris: G. Charpentier et E. Fasquelle, 1891, 690p. 168

180 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 circulante. L'idée qui prévaut à la veille du XX e siècle qu'un même livre peut successivement faire les délices de beaucoup de lecteurs en beaucoup de points différents du pays est celle qui inspire toutes les itinérantes. Ce service, créé en 1899 par Joseph Nyns-Lagye ( ), bibliothécaire général à la Ligue de l enseignement, met à la disposition des instituteurs communaux des villages, un fonds de quelques livres. Ces ouvrages doivent donner, dans l esprit de son fondateur, le goût de la lecture aux enfants de la localité, voire aux adultes, et amener les autorités locales à créer une bibliothèque publique permanente. Le mot «circulante» implique que ces ouvrages, après un certain temps, retournaient à la Ligue pour être réexpédiés dans un autre village. Le service qui connaît un très grand succès (trois bibliothèques circulantes en 1899, trente en 1904, plus de septante en 1914), subit de graves dommages pendant la guerre Dès la fin du XIX e siècle, les militants socialistes se soucient de mettre sur pied des bibliothèques ouvrières. C est ainsi qu au tournant du siècle, souhaitant, par une œuvre de bienfaisance, honorer la mémoire de son père récemment disparu, Jules Destrée, député socialiste depuis le 14 octobre 1894, ambitionne d installer une bibliothèque au sein de chaque maison du peuple. De novembre 1899 à décembre 1900, il se sert du journal Le Peuple comme d une tribune auprès des militants pour leur demander aides et conseils pour la constitution du premier noyau et l organisation matérielle de ladite bibliothèque 9. Voici ce qu il leur livre en novembre 1899 : «Je donnerais vingt volumes. Cela ferait un premier noyau, le «fonds Destrée», autour duquel d autres donations, des achats à certains jours, pourraient venir accroître peu à peu le substantiel réconfort de l esprit. Ces vingt volumes seraient renfermés dans une petite armoire, pouvant en contenir une soixantaine. Elle serait placée dans les Maisons du Peuple, sous la surveillance du gérant et la sauvegarde du Parti. Quiconque voudrait lire pourrait entrer et consulter le volume. Toute personne connue comme affiliée aux organisations pourrait emprunter un volume, pour un mois. Le tout, absolument gratuitement voilà mon projet. Je le soumets à mes amis, connus ou ignorés, en les priant de m indiquer en quoi il pourrait être amélioré. Je suis très embarrassé surtout en ce qui concerne le choix de mes vingt volumes et c est ici que je fais appel à tous ceux qui ont des oreilles pour entendre des choses de ce genre, non seulement aux lettrés, mais principalement aux ouvriers. Je leur demande de me désigner quels sont les livres qui ont le plus profondément marqué dans leur vie, quels sont les livres après la lecture desquels ils se sont trouvés meilleurs, ayant plus de courage, plus de dignité, plus de bonté. Il y a ainsi un certain nombre de livres-phares, des ouvrages qui ont brusquement décidé l orientation d une existence entière, qui ont été comme des révélations, qui sont restés des directoires de l activité ultérieure. Ce sont ceux-là que je voudrais que l on m indiquât. Comme on le voit, il ne s agit pas d une bibliothèque socialiste au sens étroit et politique du mot. Je veux une collection qui comprenne les publications les plus aptes à favoriser le développement intellectuel, moral, esthétique de la classe ouvrière : romans, poèmes, relations de voyages, livres de sciences naturelles, peuvent y figurer aussi bien que des ouvrages de sociologie.» (Le Peuple, novembre 1899) Et d ajouter en décembre 1899, «L avis dominant et très juste est qu il faut, d abord, intéresser. Il faut donc faire une place, très large, à la littérature, au récit, conte ou roman. L étude sera plus féconde et plus attrayante si elle comporte en même temps une distraction, une émotion. Je suis pleinement d accord, là-dessus, avec mes correspondants et je crois interpréter leur volonté en décidant que la moitié de mes vingt volumes sera prise dans ce domaine. Occupons-nous de ceux-ci pour l instant ; nous examinerons plus tard le choix des dix autres, qui représenteront la sociologie, l histoire, le droit ou les sciences. Deux livres sont manifestement préférés : Les Misérables, de Victor Hugo, et Germinal, d Émile Zola. Et ce n est pas moi qui contesterai l excellence de ces choix.» (Le Peuple, décembre 1899) 8 Pol DEFOSSE, Jean-Michel DUFAYS, Martine GOLDBERG, Dictionnaire historique de la laïcité en Belgique, Bruxelles : Luc Pire, 2005, p Jules DESTRÉE, Bibliothèques ouvrières, Bruxelles, Reproduit dans Jules DESTRÉE, S les, Bruxelles, Lamertin, 1913, p

181 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science En juin 1900, ayant tenu compte de l avis d un grand nombre de correspondants ainsi que de ses amis du Parlement, dont Edward Anseele ( ), Louis Bertrand ( ) et Émile Vandervelde ( ), il divulgue comme suit la liste des titres devant former le noyau initial : «La liste des volumes devant former le noyau initial de la bibliothèque est maintenant dressée, avec le concours des lecteurs socialistes auxquels cette entreprise ne fut pas indifférente. Voici : Tolstoï, À la Recherche du Bonheur et Résurrection ; Émile Zola, Germinal ; Victor Hugo, La légende des Siècles et Les Misérables ; Ch. De Coster, Uylenspiegel ; L. Delattre, Contes de mon Village ; Eugène Sue, Le Juif-Errant ; Erckmann- Chatrian, Histoire d un Paysan ; La Bible et les Evangiles ; Ferrière, Le Darwinisme ; Geikie, Géologie ; Schäffle, Quintessence du Socialisme ; De Paepe, Services Publics ; Ant. Menger, Le Droit au Produit Intégral du Travail ; Enrico Ferri, Science et Socialisme ; Destrée et Vandervelde, Le Socialisme en Belgique ; Kropotkine, La Conquête du pain ; Bayet, Histoire de l Art ; Nansen, Au Pôle Nord ; Terwagne, Portez-vous bien ; Karl Marx, Le Manifeste du Parti Communiste.» (Le Peuple, juin 1900) D une part, les titres qu il reprend sont pour certains abrégés ou approximatifs, d autre part l édition qu il a dû se procurer est la plus récente et donc contemporaine de la création du «fonds Destrée». Aussi, voici les ouvrages en question dont nous présentons l identification bibliographique la plus proche de la réalité, et ce de manière thématique. - des ouvrages religieux avec La Bible et Les Évangiles ; - de la littérature russe avec À la Recherche du Bonheur 10 et Résurrection 11 de Léon Tolstoï ; - de la littérature française avec Le Juif-Errant d Eugène Sue 12, Histoire d un Paysan d Erckmann-Chatrian 13, Germinal d Émile Zola 14 ; La Légende des Siècles 15 et Les Misérables 16 de Victor Hugo ; - de la littérature belge avec Uylenspiegel par Charles De Coster 17, et Contes de mon Village par Louis Delattre 18 ; - un ouvrage sur l art, Précis d Histoire de l Art par Charles Bayet 19 ; - un ouvrage scientifique, La Géologie par Geikie 20 ; - un récit de voyage, Vers le pôle par Nansen 21 ; - des notions d hygiène usuelle, Portez-vous bien par Terwagne 22 ; - des ouvrages sur l évolution, qu il considère comme la vérité philosophique générale, avec Le Darwinisme par Émile Ferrière 23, et Socialisme et Science positive par Enrico Ferri 24 ; - Sans oublier quelques ouvrages sur la pensée socialiste, le Manifeste du Parti Communiste de Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels 25, De l organisation des services publics dans la société future par César De Paepe 26, La Quintessence du Socialisme 10 Léon TOLSTOÏ, À la Recherche du Bonheur, Paris : librairie académique Didier Perrin et Cie, 1886, IV, 268 p. 11 Léon TOLSTOÏ, Résurrection, Paris : librairie académique Didier Perrin et Cie, 1900, 592 p. 12 Eugène SUE, Le Juif-Errant, Paris : J. Rouff, ERCKMANN-CHATRIAN, Histoire d un Paysan, 1789 : États généraux : histoire de la révolution racontée par un paysan, Paris, Bibliothèque populaire d éducation J. Hetzel et Cie, 1869, 122 p. (Romans nationaux) 14 Émile ZOLA, Germinal, Paris : G. Charpentier, 1885, 15 Victor HUGO, La Légende des Siècles, Paris : J. Hetzel et A. Quantin, 1883, 5 vol. 16 Victor HUGO, Les Misérables, Paris : Émile Testard, 1890, 5 vol. 17 Charles DE COSTER, La légende et les aventures héroïques, joyeuses et glorieuses d'ulenspiegel et de Lamme Goedzak au pays de Flandres et ailleurs, Bruxelles, A. Lacroix, Verboeckhoven & Cie, 1869, VIII-480 p 18 Louis DELATTRE Contes de mon Village, Bruxelles, P. Lacomblez, 1894, 190 p. 19 Charles BAYET, Précis d'histoire de l'art. Paris, Quantin, 1886, 350 p., (Bibliothèque de l'enseignement des beaux-arts.) 20 Archibald GEIKIE, La Géologie, Paris : G. Baillière, 1885, 185 p., (Bibliothèque utile) 21 Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg NANSEN, Vers le pôle, Paris : Flammarion, 1897, 422 p. 22 Modeste TERWAGNE, Portez-vous bien! : Notions élémentaires d'hygiène populaire et rationnelle, Librairie néerlandaise, 1900, 77 p. 23 Émile FERRIERE, Le Darwinisme, Paris : Baillière, 1885, 192 p., (Bibliothèque utile) 24 Enrico FERRI, Socialisme et Science positive, Darwin, Spencer, Marx, Paris : Giard & Brière, 1896, 220 p. 25 Karl MARX & Friedrich ENGELS, Manifeste du Parti Communiste, Paris : L'Ère nouvelle, 1895, 36 p. 26 César DE PAEPE, De l organisation des services publics dans la société future présenté au Congrès de Bruxelles au nom de la section bruxelloise, Bruxelles, Brismée, 1874, 72 p. 170

182 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 par Albert Schäffle 27, La Conquête du pain par Pierre Kropotkine 28, Le Droit au produit intégral du Travail par Anton Menger 29, et Le Socialisme en Belgique qu il a coécrit avec Émile Vandervelde 30. Il énonce ensuite les conditions matérielles à l existence de la bibliothèque : «D abord, ces volumes devront être reliés, solidement, afin de pouvoir résister à de fréquentes manipulations. Ensuite, ils doivent être enfermés dans une armoire à ce destinée, afin d éviter leur dispersion. Enfin, ils doivent être confiés à la responsabilité du gérant de la Maison du Peuple, sous le contrôle permanent du Parti, et un règlement bien simple, pratique et clair doit en régir le fonctionnement. Je propose le suivant, que les intéressés modifieront, s ils le jugent nécessaire, au gré des divers besoins qui pourront se faire jour : 1. Cette bibliothèque est confiée au gérant de la Maison du Peuple, sous la surveillance et le patronage des groupes affiliés au Parti Ouvrier Belge, qui y tiennent leurs séances. 2. Les livres qui la composent pourront être consultés sur place, en tout temps et gratuitement par toute personne qui en fera la demande au gérant. 3. Ils pourront être emportés hors de la Maison du Peuple par les membres des groupes du Parti, sur seule justification qu ils sont en règle vis-à-vis de leur groupe. 4. Les livres ainsi prêtés devront être restitués en bon état dans le délai d un mois. Passé ce délai, l emprunteur s oblige à payer une amende de 10 centimes par semaine de retard. Les amendes seront recouvrées par le trésorier du groupe dont fait partie l emprunteur et versées au gérant de la Maison du Peuple, qui les emploiera à l acquisition de nouveaux volumes. 5. Tout livre gravement sali ou détérioré, perdu ou non rapporté dans les trois mois, sera, de même, remplacé aux frais de l emprunteur. 6. Chaque volume de la bibliothèque est renseigné sur un carton spécial. Chaque fois qu il prêtera un volume, le gérant de la Maison du Peuple inscrira sur le carton correspondant à ce volume, le nom de l emprunteur et la date du prêt, puis placera le carton ainsi annoté à la place du livre. Lorsque le volume sera rapporté, il mentionnera : rentré le. remettra le livre à sa place et le carton avec les autres cartons. 7. Chaque année, dans la première semaine de novembre, les groupes du Parti feront adresser au compagnon Jules Destrée, à Marcinelle, un rapport détaillé sur la situation, le fonctionnement et les besoins de la bibliothèque. Ca me paraît assez peu compliqué et facile à observer au mieux de tous. Les nombreux groupes qui réunissent dans les Maisons du Peuple penseront, par exemple, une fois l an, à donner une fête, concert, conférence littéraire, spectacle ou bal, au profit de la bibliothèque et peu à peu s augmentera le trésor laissé à la disposition de tous. Tous, y ayant droit, seront intéressés aussi à ce qu il ne soit point dilapidé, à ce que des négligents ne détériorent ou ne perdent les livres. Aux volumes que possédera ainsi l organisation socialiste locale, viendront s ajouter ceux qu elle recueillera par dons, ou encore ceux que pourra lui prêter, si elle se constitue définitivement, l institution des bibliothèques circulantes. Un des modes les plus recommandables d utiliser les bibliothèques sera, comme certains compagnons m en ont suggéré l idée «des lectures périodiques et familières, faites à haute voix par tel ou tel de bonne volonté, avec explications et expressions difficiles à comprendre.» (Le Peuple, juin 1900) Et d ajouter en décembre 1900 : «La première difficulté, c est la question financière. Bien que mon libraire ait consenti à me faire une réduction importante sur le prix des volumes destinés aux bibliothèques ouvrières, il faut compter que les vingt ouvrages choisis coûtent 85 francs environ. La reliure, qui est indispensable pour assurer aux livres une certaine durée, revient à 40 francs 27 Albert Eberhard Friedrich SCHÄFFLE, La Quintessence du Socialisme, Bruxelles, Parti ouvrier, 1886, 138 p., (Bibliothèque populaire) 28 Pierre KROPOTKINE, La Conquête du pain, Paris : Tresse & Stock, 1892, XVI, 298 p. 29 Anton MENGER, Le Droit au produit intégral du Travail : étude historique, Paris : V. Giard & E. Brière, 1900, 250 p., (Bibliothèque internationale d'économie politique). 30 Jules DESTREE & Émile VANDERVELDE, Le Socialisme en Belgique, Paris : V. Giard et Brière, 1898, 515 p. 171

183 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science au moins. Enfin, le menuisier m a demandé, pour le petit meuble nécessaire pour contenir les volumes, 25 francs. Ajoutez-y les petits frais accessoires, impression des règlements, des fiches, etc : chaque bibliothèque coûtera de 150 à 160 francs. Certains m ont déjà adressé leur contribution : j en espère d autres, mais l indication de ce chiffre suffira à démontrer aux Maisons du Peuple, qui m ont écrit à ce sujet, que je ne puis réaliser que peu à peu mon projet. (Le Peuple, décembre 1900) Il se mobilise tellement que la première bibliothèque est inaugurée à la maison du peuple de Marcinelle31 en novembre Il s occupe bientôt de celles de Courcelles, Gosselies, Monceau-sur-Sambre, Dampremy, Montigny-sur-Sambre et Ransart. Au-delà de l initiative personnelle de Jules Destrée, suivent, à partir de 1911, celles de la Centrale d'éducation ouvrière du Parti ouvrier belge qui se transforment par la suite en bibliothèques publiques communales32. En 1899, l'annuaire statistique de Belgique indique que 606 bibliothèques communales et populaires sont établies. Le recensement de 1902 indique 632 bibliothèques populaires appartenant aux communes et 425 dues à l'initiative privée. Il mentionne par ailleurs pour l ensemble de ces bibliothèques un stock de volumes, le nombre de prêts s'élevant pendant l'année à Pendent la guerre 1914/18, les bibliothèques triplent leur nombre de prêt. Peu à peu, l'effort et l'initiative des pouvoirs locaux et des associations et groupements privés va aller de pair avec l'engagement législatif. Ce n est par contre véritablement qu après la fin de la première guerre mondiale que la lecture publique, ouverte à tous sans distinction de classe, est reconnue. Jusqu'en 1920 néanmoins, l'initiative privée précéda toujours l'action publique. Ainsi si déjà en 1826, la société royale pour la propagation des arts, sciences et lettres dite société littéraire Concordia 33 fondée à Bruxelles par Van Marle et Van Ghert, rassemble plus de 80 périodiques pour les mettre en lecture, un centre culturel avant la lettre, il faut attendre 1837 pour la loi organique de la Bibliothèque royale de Belgique, 1863 pour la première inscription au budget d'une province et 1890 pour le premier intitulé au budget de l'état d'une subvention officielle à une bibliothèque. Il se crée à Bruxelles, en juillet 1915, un «Comité central des œuvres de lecture publique» qui envoie des caisses de livres dans les différentes communes. Son action est favorisée par l'appui financier de la «Commission for relief in Belgium». Ce comité met en circulation 950 bibliothèques itinérantes de quelque 50 à 75 volumes dont nombre d'entre elles sont à l'origine de la création de bibliothèques définitives. En Hainaut, en février 1916, se constituait la «Fédération des Bibliothèques, Conférences et Cours populaires du Centre», œuvre indépendante qui entreprend d'éveiller les cercles en sommeil et d'en créer d'autres. La Province de Hainaut l'y aide. Cette fédération organise un service de bibliothèques circulantes. Elle fait don de plusieurs milliers de livres et crée, en 1917, un cours pour candidats-bibliothécaires, le premier à être organisé en Belgique. Au lendemain de la Première Guerre mondiale, il s agissait de compléter la loi sur l obligation scolaire de 1914 en invitant chaque entité locale à se doter d une bibliothèque ouverte à tous les citoyens. Ministre des Sciences et des Arts, Jules Destrée gère ce département du 9 décembre 1919 au 24 octobre 1921, à l époque d un gouvernement d'union nationale avec les catholiques et les libéraux. Promoteur de la lecture publique et mû par des idées très avant-gardistes, Il dépose en 1920 un projet de loi relatif à l'organisation des bibliothèques publiques estimant qu'une restauration nationale ne se conçoit point raisonnablement sans une restauration intellectuelle. Jules Destrée, le promoteur de la loi, songe à répandre la lecture dans les classes ouvrières afin de travailler ainsi à la restauration intellectuelle que les effets de la guerre rendaient nécessaires. Le vote de la loi des huit heures 31 Jules Destrée sera conseiller communal ( ) et échevin (1903) de l'instruction publique de Marcinelle. 32 INSTITUT INTERNATIONAL DE COOPERATION INTELLECTUELLE, Bibliothèques populaires et loisirs ouvriers : enquête faite à la demande du Bureau International du Travail, Genève, Société des Nations, 1933, 324 p. (Dossiers de la Coopération Intellectuelle). 33 François-Joseph-Michel Noël CARPENTIER, Nouveau dictionnaire des origines, inventions et découvertes, dans les arts, les sciences, la géographie, le commerce, l'agriculture, etc., Bruxelles : Fréchet, 1828, vol. 2, p

184 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 donne en effet à la classe ouvrière des loisirs. Il importe de donner une large part à la lecture en mettant des livres nombreux et bien choisis à la portée de tous ceux qui veulent s'instruire ou se distraire en faisant appel au livre. La commission constituée par Arrêté du 30 août 1920 lui remet son rapport en février Le «Projet de loi relatif aux bibliothèques publiques» sera présenté à la Chambre des Représentants en sa séance du 6 avril. À cette époque, des communes, il en est environ qui ne possèdent aucune bibliothèque publique. Parmi les reconnues par le Ministère, petit est le nombre de celles qui sont convenablement outillées, installées et dirigées. De ces bibliothèques, si l'on excepte celles de l'agglomération bruxelloise et des chefs-lieux de province, 601 possèdent moins de 300 volumes et 46 plus de volumes. Ces bibliothèques fonctionnent en général comme service de prêts et n'ont point de salle de lecture. Elles ne répondent que bien imparfaitement aux besoins de la communauté. Elles sont mal tenues, pauvrement éclairées, avec des rayons resserrés, montant jusqu'au plafond. Le public ne peut faire choix d'un livre qu'en consultant un mauvais catalogue déchiré sur un pupitre à l'entrée de la salle. Tel est en substance le constat que le député catholique Hendrik Heyman, le rapporteur de la loi, fait, au nom de la Section centrale, sur la situation des œuvres de lecture à la Chambre des Représentants en sa séance du 21 juin Après un amendement présenté par le gouvernement en date du 15 juillet 1921, la discussion générale prend cours du 2 au 5 août. Le texte est ensuite transmis au Sénat qui présente son rapport au cours de sa séance du 23 août. La discussion et le vote du projet de loi se déroulent le 20 septembre. La législation se fixe définitivement le 17 octobre 1921 avec le vote à l'unanimité des deux chambres instaurant la loi organique des bibliothèques publiques. La loi Destrée de 1921 met en place un système de subvention des bibliothèques publiques qui reconnaît les bibliothèques communales, les bibliothèques adoptées par les communes et les bibliothèques libres 34. Avec la loi organique de 1921, l État prend, pour la première fois, une part active dans le développement de la lecture publique, tout en laissant une assez grande liberté en termes d initiatives 35. Cette loi prévoit que les autorités publiques initient ou développent de tels centres de lecture ou qu elles «adoptent» des bibliothèques préexistantes. Celles-ci étaient en effet nombreuses et pouvaient être publiques, paroissiales, universitaires, scolaires, populaires... La majorité d entre elles était le fait d initiatives privées portées par des valeurs et des intentions très diverses, qu elles émanent par exemple des Conférences de Saint- Vincent de Paul ou de la Ligue de l enseignement. La loi Destrée encourage la création et la reconnaissance des bibliothèques publiques. Après avoir milité un temps au sein de sa commune et de sa fédération afin de favoriser l éclosion de bibliothèques, il parvient à en faciliter l organisation par cette loi votée le 17 octobre 1921, soit une semaine avant que ne s achève son mandat. Il sera par la suite toujours attaché aux bibliothèques. En 1931, il préface d ailleurs le Répertoire des archives et bibliothèques que publient Bacha et Bersou 36. Jules Destrée fut aussi un grand bibliophile à en juger par la bibliothèque qu il laisse derrière lui et qui sera dispersée les 5 et 6 juin Jean-François GILMONT, Une introduction à l'histoire du livre et de la lecture: du manuscrit à l ère électronique, Liège : Céfal, 2004, p Charles DEPASSE, Historique et organisation des bibliothèques publiques en Belgique, Bruxelles, Ligue de l'enseignement, 1932, 72 p. Pierre RECHT, Les bibliothèques publiques en Belgique: commentaire pratique de la loi du 17 octobre 1921, à l'usage des mandataires publics, des fonctionnaires communaux et des bibliothécaires, Bruxelles : A. de Boeck, 1928, 152 p. 36 Eugène BACHA et L. BERSOU, [Préface de Jules DESTRÉE.], Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique, répertoire par localités..., Bruxelles, M. Lamertin, 1931, 102 p., (Commission nationale belge de coopération intellectuelle) 37 Bibliothèque de Monsieur Jules Destrée, livres sur les beaux-arts, ouvrages anciens et romantiques, éditions originales, avec envois autographes, manuscrits et autographes, aquarelles, dessins, estampes. Vente à Bruxelles, Galerie Léopold les 5 et 6 juin 1936, R. Simonson, 1936, 72 p. 173

185 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Annexe. Chambre des Représentants. Séance du 6 avril Projet de loi relatif à l'organisation des bibliothèques publiques. 38 ANNEXE A L EXPOSE DES MOTIFS. La Bibliothèque publique. La bibliothèque publique dont s occupent nos résolutions et notre avant-projet de loi est le complément indispensable des établissements scolaires et constitue peut-être l institution post-scolaire la plus utile et la plus féconde. Elle s adresse à tous les citoyens et à toutes les citoyennes de tous les âges. Elle leur offre une lecture pour la distraction, l instruction et l éducation au sens le plus large. Dans toute bibliothèque publique, à clientèle populaire, il y aura donc de nombreuses catégories de livres : des œuvres d imagination et de formation pour enfants, adolescents et adultes, des livres d histoire et des récits de voyage, des manuels de science, de technique, de culture artistique et morale, de littérature, etc. une documentation aussi complète que possible sur les divers métiers et professions, sur l économie politique et domestique, sur les droits et obligations des citoyens. Il y aura aussi, s il y a moyen, des livres de référence dictionnaires, manuels, etc. des guides de voyage, des revues, des annuaires et des journaux. Par un perfectionnement progressif mais continu, la bibliothèque publique doit devenir le centre de lecture et un centre de prêts à domicile. La plupart des bibliothèques dites populaires, actuellement existantes dans notre pays, n ont encore d organisé que le prêt à domicile. L expérience nationale prouve, comme l expérience internationale, qu une bibliothèque publique bien outillée pourrait exister partout, comme partout l école existe. C est une des conditions du développement intellectuel et moral de nos populations. Au moment où la loi des huit heures va donner des loisirs aux classes laborieuses, il semble bien que la bibliothèque publique soit plus indispensable que jamais. Le jour où le citoyen aura pris l habitude de se rendre une heure ou deux par jour dans la salle de lecture de la Bibliothèque, on pourra constater une notable élévation du niveau intellectuel et moral du peuple. Pour attirer la foule, cette salle de lecture sera claire et confortable. Les modèles sont nombreux à l étranger et même chez nous. Lorsque la localité sera trop petite pour créer dès le début une salle de lecture, on se contentera d une salle pour la distribution des livres en prêt. L essentiel, c est que le réservoir d alimentation intellectuelle existe, fonctionne et attire. Tels sont les caractères fondamentaux de la Bibliothèque publique dont notre Commission souhaite l établissement dans chacune des communes de notre pays. Pour réaliser ce but établir une bibliothèque publique en chaque commune faut-t-il recourir à une loi ou suffit-il d un certain nombre d encouragements officiels, comme dans les livres, subsides, etc? La Commission estime qu une loi est nécessaire. C est pourquoi elle a synthétisé ses travaux en un projet de loi clair et concis. Lorsque le pays se sera rendu compte des services qu il pourra retirer de cette institution, aussi précieuse que l école, il n hésitera pas à consentir les sacrifices nécessaires. 38 Belgique. Chambre des Représentants Projet de loi n 208, p

186 THE SPECIFIC NATURE OF INFORMATION IN THE FIELD OF HISTORY Mariana BORCOMAN Transylvania University of Brasov Abstract: The primary historical sources (documents) and scientific papers in the field of history are a historian s main tool. Some sources have been published in the corpus of documents, but the most interesting aspect of history labor refers to unedited documents that need being researched: dictionaries, encyclopedias, press etc. All these documents provide information and represent a foundation for historical research. Key words: archive, historiography, historical sources, documents. 1. Introduction Alexandru Sacerdoteanu defined historical sources as any trace that proves human existence, regardless of its origins or shape [1], whereas Luciene Lebvre regarded them as anything that a historian s imagination can use except for flowers, that is, words, writing, landscapes and clay cards, weeds, moon eclipse and harnesses, stone examination by geologists, metal swords analysis by chemists. In other words, everything that belongs to humans, is useful to humans, and signifies the humans presence, activity, gestures and way of being [2]. The information used in history is structured in primary sources and published sources, or written and unwritten sources. Archeological diggings reveal artifacts such as tombs or civil and religious foundations, which offer information related to human communities. Also, diggings provide reveal coins, pottery, metal tools and weapons, all of which delineate an image of the way people lived centuries ago. This process takes years, confirms various hypotheses and is then dated. The written sources, on the other hand, offer a different type of study materials: edits issued by various authorities, personal letters, monastery manuscripts, printed books, photographs, audio or video materials. Historical sources must be critically and objectively examined according to some clear rules and criteria. In time, historical schools and movements have been born, and some of them will be discussed in the hereby paper. 2. Stages of information collection The main stage in historical documentation is that of researching the existing documentation. In this respect, two main papers have been published: Modern Romanian Bibliography ( ) by Gabriel Strempel and Romania s Historical Bibliography, which has reached its 12 th volume and refers to papers published in They contain historical publications on main periods: Pre-history and ancient times, Middle Ages,

187 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Modern History and Contemporary History both Romanian and world s history according to the main fields: miscellaneous (bibliographies, dictionaries and encyclopedias), auxiliary sciences, local history, minorities, Romanians abroad, culture, science and civilizations, church and religions, great personalities. The first step is to examine the sources from the general to the particular. Numerous publications may be found in libraries as well as on the web pages. Periodical publications are also a good source of information, and they grouped on years and titles. Press provides a great variety of information: political, national, secular or religious, commercial etc. All of this helps us understand a certain historical issue. In order to prevent documents from deterioration, most of them have been made into microfilms, photographs or digital formats. The second stage consists of information formatting, e.g., an article, a book, a paper etc., according to the rules and procedures in the field. For the cited documents, the following steps will be followed: the document corpus is cited with its authors, publishing house, year of publication and page. If unedited documents are used, this aspect must be mentioned. In order to research documentary sources, one should know the language in which they were written: Latin, Hungarian, German, Greek, and Slavic. Their information is used in the paper, and a photocopy is annexed to it. 3. Documents archive s primary sources of information As an administrative unit, archives are a state s component meant to preserve the information related to a certain historical period. Since the Middle Ages archives have been established in towns or for guilds. They were kept by mayors or guild heads. In towns and villages births, weddings and deaths were recorded, which is a valuable local demographic resource. Also, family and property documents were kept in family collections. Due to the German type organization system applied in Transylvania until the 17 th century there were so called certification places in Cluj Manastur and Alba Iulia. The Austrian authorities made a significant contribution in this respect, too: civil records and documents belonging to the Reformed, Catholic and Orthodox churches functioning in Transylvania. On the other side of the Carpathian Mountains, in the first attempts to gather historical documents took place, which was rather late compared to similar efforts in Transylvania. Since the reign of Constantin Mavrocordat (1741) a law was passed to make copies of all the documents issued by various institutions for safety reasons. The archives of Bucharest were set up on 1 May 1831, and the Moldavian archives on 1 January This was much earlier that the archives from many European countries: England 1838, Ireland 1867, Greece 1914, Hungary 1915, Holland 1918 [3]. The great abbeys of Iasi and Bucharest were the preservers of religious documents. After 1700, in Transylvania the Habsburg authorities initiated an inventory of the documents existing in various institutions (monasteries, churches, mayor houses, guild houses etc.). At the same time, the first censuses took place in Transylvania, Banat and Bucovina in order to have an idea of the tax payers living in these areas. After 1867, Transylvania integrated in other Austrian-Hungarian structures until Most of the official documents were taken to Budapest and Vienna, which is why I underwent research sessions that I will further detail. 176

188 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO The archives of Budapest Here the Transylvanian documents are grouped into two main categories: the Transylvanian Archive of Chancellery and the State Governmental Archive of Transylvania. The former comprises court documents, clerks literary annotations as well as annotations of the two royal commissars in Transylvania Vlasitis and Ester Ferdinand. The latter is more complex and encompasses events unfolded in centuries: the archive of the state clerks of Alba Iulia and the archives of the reformed clerks of Cluj Manastur, accompanied by other Habsburg documents dated In the imperial period ( ), many documents were drawn up. It is when Transylvania was governed by Haller and the province s cameralia comissio thezauriatus and supreme commissariat were established, each of them having its own archives. In the first years of her reign ( ), the empress Maria Theresa made a profound reform of the state institutions, among which regulations were issued in terms of their functioning. The documents containing these stipulations can be found in a special fund of the Hungarian archives. At the middle of the 19 th century new structures were set up in Transylvania, and this required new documents, which changed into archives. The information contained in these funds has been microfilmed and it can be copied for a fee The archives of Vienna In this institution, the documents related to Transylvania are preserved in the following locations: Haus, Hof und Statsarchiv and Hofkamerarchiv. The archive of the imperial court comprises the following funds: a. Ungaria Specialia which also contains Transylvania Separata: resolutions, bishops personal letters to and from Vienna and documents related to the treasury; b. Comitialia-Ungarischen Akten, which contains old documents from Ferdinand of Habsburg (1563) regarding Hungary s assemblies and Transylvanian issues; c. Ungarn Miscellaneum, which contains documents of the autonomous province in the reign of Rackozy the 2 nd. The most numerous documents concerning Transylvania can be found in Siebebürgen Akten-Urkunden, which refer to aspects such as underground resources (gold, silver, salt, copper), decrees and other legal provisions of the Saxon Nation s fund. There are also 22 funds comprising various information: official documents issued by Transylvanian authorities, official documents issued during Michael Apafy period, lists of clerks that pledged the vow to Leopold the 1 st, the emperor of Austria, 1,700 projects regarding the status of silver in Transylvania, a project of the justice organization in the counties of Tarnava, Turda, Dabaca, Odorhei, Aries and Szolnok, documents referring to tax distribution on the Szeklers territories. The access to these funds is easy provided that one has a valid permit. The documents are available as microfilms in Budapest and in original in Vienna. Conclusions Research in the field of history implies persistent work, time, knowledge and passion. However, the results make all of this effort worthwhile. Gathering relevant information may take years, just like any other scientific endeavor. The most exciting part of this work is the study of the primary sources, for reading hand written documents gives you a special feeling. Sometimes, reading it two or three times reveals other relevant details. 177

189 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The access to Romanian archives is not always easy, due to subjective or objective reasons. Also, our archives do not have an updated web page, and some other times they do not have a web page at all. Hopefully, this will be solved in the near future. Bibliography research is the first step of a historian s work. Generally, historical papers are available in the academic libraries or in the specialized articles in the field. Periodical publications are also useful, as they provide us with a picture of the more recent periods in history: the 19 th and 20 th centuries. All of the above help us delineate an objective research paper. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. SacerdoŃeanu Aurelian: Arhivistica, Bucureşti, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, 1971, p Fevre Luciene: Comabat pour l histoire, Paris, 1965, p Berciu Adina: Arhivistica-Curs general, Editura UniversităŃii Bucureşti, 1997, p

190 CROWDSOURCING AND GLAM OR A STORY ABOUT WRITING THE STORY TOGETHER Cristina Ioana ROIU Romanian Academy Library Abstract: Actual management of GLAM institutions ( galleries, libraries, archives and museums ) takes more and more into consideration the participating of the users in all forms (contributory, collaborative, co-creative, on platform). Crowdsourcing, as a specialised form of audience participation plays nowadays a crucial part in the making of collections, presentations and communication. This presentation aims to describe a few successful European and International projects developed in various GLAM institutions focusing from Historical aspects like World War I to scientific contributions in subject areas as diverse as solar physics, climate science and papyrology.all of them are highlighting the importance for both public and GLAM by encouraging a sense of public ownership and responsibility towards cultural heritage collections. Key Words: Crowdsourcing, Cultural heritage, metadata, modern management. 1. Introduction -Zooniverse a very succesful project "Your job is very simple! When classifying you will be shown an image of a galaxy and be asked a series of questions about it. All you need to do is to look for features that mark out different types of galaxy and answer the questions as well as you can. This is a job that humans are much better at than computers,so most of the questions should be fairly easy " [1]. These were the words inviting the users to participate in GALAXY ZOO project, one of the most successful crowdsourcing projects which in time branched out into ZOONIVERSE (figure 1) - the home to the internet's largest, most popular and most successful citizen science project. The Galaxy Zoo was first released in 2007 and while it was expected to take two years to classify the million galaxies, within the first 24 hours there have already been received 70,000 classifications an hour from the public.. Figure 1. ZOONIVERSE- The Zooniverse Community

191 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The Zoouniverse community counting more then 475,000 volunteers at the end of 2011 has contributed with more then 300,000,000 classifications within the 12 currently running projects (mostly astronomy focused but now entering into climate change, biology and humanities). 2. Crowdsourcing -concept and recent developments Crowdsourcing has becoming more and more important to GLAM institutions, at an extent that made the Bodleian Librarian Christine Madsen ask herself whether 2012 will be the year of crowdsourcing in libraries or not [2], launching December 2011 a very interesting debate on this subject. At the same time, the Digital Heritage Award, an initiative of the Dutch Institute for Cultural Heritage and the Digitaal Erfgoed Nederland Foundation (DEN) was awarded in the year 2011 to the best digital heritage related crowdsourcing project. First introduced in 2008, it has since been awarded annually to a heritage institution or project that has used digital heritage in an innovative or inspiring way. In the 2011 edition there was a list of five finalists for the Digital Heritage Award 2011, with the competition won by Digitalkoot : Digitalkoot from the National Library of Finland - 50,000 volunteers are correcting OCR newspaper text to 99% accuracy ( 104,495 visitors have contributed a total of 375,454 minutes (7,056,785 microtasks) of their time). Old Weather from the National Maritime Museum, UK. -700,000 (97% )of navy handwritten ships logs with temperatures have been transcribed by thousands of volunteers harnessed in Galaxy Zoo. Remember Me: Displaced Children of the Holocaust from the Unites States Holocaust Memorial Museum: 61,000 people have viewed 1000 pictures of children lost in the Haulocaust. So far 180 have been identified and traced. Trove :Australian Newspapers from the National Library of Australia- 40,000 volunteers have corrected 51 million lines of OCR text in historic newspapers making them more searchable. Transcribe Bentham from the University College of London. Volunteers subscribe 44 handwritten Bentham manuscripts per week. Now, trying to describe even the term crowdsourcing it must be emphasized that it isn t that common among libraries yet and one will even have to add crowdsourcing to the spell checker. Searching the Internet for leads to crowdsourcing information, the Wikipedia ( also a famous crowdsourcing project started 2001) gives us the following definition : Crowdsourcing is the act of outsourcing tasks, traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, to an undefined, large group of people or community (a crowd ), through an open call. Wikipedia also has an alphabetical list of about 80 crowdsourcing projects provided for the person interested in researching the possibilities [3]. It is believed that the term was first coined by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article The Rise of Crowdsourcing as a combination of crowd and outsourcing. But, the concept of crowdsourcing has been around since at least the turn of the century, if we are not considering Project Gutenberg s distributed proofreaders crowdsourcing, which has been developed even earlier. Coming closer to the attributes of crowdsourcing, we must notice that it implies much more than social engagement,where the public is being given the ability to communicate with librarians and each other, to add value to existing data by tagging, rating, commenting, reviewing, text correcting and creating or uploading content to the library collections. Crowdsourcing envolves a greater level of effort, time and intellectual input from a person 180

192 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 ( for example in correcting the text of a newspaper or transcribing a complete shipping record ) thus helping a group of people achieving a shared, usually significant and large goal by working collaboratively and sustained as a group. GLAMs and their users are now beginning to inhabit the same, shared information space. New services are being launched that explore this fundamentally new paradigm of participation in the GLAM domain. Participation can have a thorough impact on the workflows of heritage institutions and it can be of the following types according to J.Oomen and L.Arroyo [4] : contributory ( designed by professionals, where members of the public contribute data), collaborative (designed by professionals, where members of the public contribute and analyze data, help in refining project design, or disseminate findings; Co-created - designed by professionals, where members of the public are working together, and some of those public participants are actively involved in (all) steps of a process. It can also happen on-line as well as off-line. 3. Tasks performed by users within crowdsourcing projects The users are performing the following tasks: 3.1..Correction and Transcription Tasks - Inviting users to correct and/or transcribe outputs of digitisation processes,with at least 8 significant projects currently running (as described in Table 1) : Table 1. Crowdsourcing projects and institutions envolved PROJECT INSTITUTION Web address Digitalkoot National Library of Finland Transcribe Bentham University College London (UCL) TROVE-Australian National Library Newspapers of Australia Map Rectifier Project New York Public Library What s on the menu? dishes transcribed from historical menus Old Weather transcribing ship logs Ancient Lives Transcribing Papyri What s the score? Describing music score collections New York Public Library University of Oxford and Citizen Science Alliance University of Oxford and Citizen Science Alliance Bodleian Library /whats-the-score-at-the-bodleian Special consideration deserves Digitalkoot for the original way of envolving people by Playing games( figure 2) : 181

193 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Figure 2. The Mole Bridge where one can write the words where the computer failed 3.2.Contextualisation: Adding contextual knowledge to objects, e.g. by telling stories or writing articles/wiki pages with contextual data as in the "1001 Stories Denmark"project based at the Danish Heritage Board [5]. 3.3.Complementing Collection implies active pursuit of additional objects to be included in a (Web)exhibit or collection e.g. UK_Soundmap project, British Library [6]. Another project from this category is Wir Waren So Frei,a cooperative project between the Deutsche Kinemathek and the Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung which gathered an impressive collection of images related to the fall of the Berlin Wall by issuing an open call for contributions of content and the stories behind them. But the most important currently running projects ( from European Historical point of view) are Europeana and Europeana Collections which are collecting Memorabilia and stories from the period of the First World War and are bringing them into EUROPEANA. 3.4.Classification which implies gathering descriptive metadata related to objects in a collection. Social tagging is a well-known example with steve.museum initiative [7 ] and Flickr [8 ] as examples. 3.5.Co-curation uses inspiration/expertise of non-professional curators to create (Web)exhibits Crowdfunding uses collective co-operation of people who pool their money and other resources together to support efforts initiated by others. Coming back to the already mentioned Europeana projects it must be emphasized that the digitized collected material is highlighting the importance of World War I for a common European identity and is being reflective of the different experiences of individuals and groups on all sides of the conflict including different ethnic, linguistic, political, social and religious communities and those opposed to the war. The public can participate either directly on the established Community Collection Days or by adding a picture of the item or type in the story online on the Europeana website. At the collection days' events, members of the public are invited to bring their documents, artefacts and stories from the First World War to be recorded by the project staff ( as the toys sent by Charles Grauss to his daughter Ghislain figure 3). The stories and scanned or photographed images of the objects are then added to the archive. 182

194 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Figure 3. Set of miniature farm animals contained in a metal box sent by Charles Grauss to his daughter Grauss was killed in battle on April 29, 1918, aged 37. So far, the Community Collection Days were a huge success everywhere confirming the human instinct of sharing,the great wish of being part in recording,harvesting and treasuring our common history. Neil 's words on the Europeana Blog [9 ] describe so well these events : "Untold and extraordinary real-life stories from World War 1 have come to light and will be shared online as a result of family history roadshows run by Europeana. They include a life-saving Bible ( figure 4). Two thousand people of all ages from across Europe have attended the roadshows to share family stories. Roadshow participants have been joined by online contributors and 45,000 photos of objects, scanned letters and diaries have been uploaded onto the website to date. Most of these are previously unpublished and have never been seen or studied outside the families." Jill Cousins, Executive Director of Europeana also declared: The project s success highlights the huge interest that Europeans have in their shared history. People pass their stories down their families, and in Europeana have found the means to preserve them for future generations, and make them universally accessible. Europeana brings a new approach to cultural history, linking people s own stories to the official histories of the war that we re collecting from the national libraries and archives [10] Figure 4. In 1917 a Bible saved the life of Kurt Geiler, an infantryman 183

195 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science So, there are a lot of reasons which strongly support the involvement of libraries in crowdsourcing projects, which would allow: Building new virtual communities and user groups. The libraries to achieve much more goals otherwise impossible to accomplish on its own,due to lack of time, financial or staff resource Achieving goals in a much faster timeframe than the library may be able to achieve if it worked on its own. New forms of involving and engaging the community with the library and its other users and collections. Utilising the knowledge, expertise and interest of the community finding at the same time the user desires and their answers to difficult questions Improving the quality of data/resource Adding value to data (e.g. by addition of comments, tags, ratings, reviews). Making data discoverable in different ways for a more diverse audience (e.g. by tagging). Helping libraries maintain and strengthen their relevance in society, a.s.o. 4. Conclusions This presentation din't aim to make an all- comprehensive and complete description of the crowdsourcing projects developed by GLAM institutions but to highlight mainly the success of this kind of projects. Here must also be mentioned that the enemies of this concept in the library world are not few, as not few are the mentioned disadvantages (sometimes wastage of more of your time for management instead of solution, an unreliable way to get a job done, cheap labor results, less credible product as compared to professionals, quality could be questionable,a.s.o.) Up until now libraries have been in control of creating, collecting and describing data and have held the power to do this. Individuals as well as organisations such as Google can now easily create, organise and describe content which is seen by some as threatening the role of libraries. But, by embracing this way we will be able to enhance and preserve the social history of the nation while meeting the ever-changing needs of our society, we will encourage a sense of public ownership and responsibility towards cultural heritage collections. By engaging the community, libraries can develop projects of equal scale, quality and output of commercial endeavours. Doing this requires to make a shift in thinking and an adjustement, to fully embrace the potential of crowdsourcing. And that is what a competent and visionary management of GLAM institutions should do. REFERENCES Christine Madsen: "Will 2012 be the year of crowdsourcing in libraries? at J.Oomen, L.Arroyo : Crowdsourcing in the Cultural Heritage Domain:Opportunities and Challenges at

196 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION IN THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Sultana CRAIA Amicala Association of Librarians and Bibliophiles, Bucharest Abstract: Communication has acquired an ever-increasing role in modern society. Libraries have kept up with this social trend and have shifted the stress from document conservation to communication. Librarians themselves should turn into educators, mediators in group and public communication, experts in information. In guise of auxiliary teaching staff, they should contribute, through counselling and orientation, to the library users education and training. State-of-art information technologies support this tendency worldwide and generate an immense information volume. Keywords: library, university, communication, user, student, survey. Ever since antiquity, the libraries, owners of written-communication means, have been set up as spaces for communication; however, in the contemporary world, wherein the new media create planetary-level connections, this role has spectacularly increased. Everywhere, the stress is laid not on document conservation, but on communication, on the development of the inter-human relations, on education and information, becoming aware that it eliminates the tension sources, the inequalities, the differences that obstruct understanding. Therefore modern libraries, wherever the managers understand the phenomenon, follow communication programs, selecting to this purpose the information means, organizing counselling, mediation, animation services, creating favourable situations to the exchange of ideas, to the expression of the individual and of the communities. According to Daniel Bougnoux communication consists in the first place in organizing the social connection, in structuring the daily life and in maintaining the community s cohesion. In Romania, where there is the tendency towards an individualism in conflict or in hostility with the others, and where there is no education for community values and for the public-space respect, where everybody does what he sees fit (and especially irreverence, resulting property and ambiance damage, standing for enormous losses from the public money), this space of communication with educational and civilising role should be the librarians first priority, they having become not only guardians of obsolete collections, but also educators, mediators in group and public communication, experts in information, they having been themselves educated and trained in this spirit, imposed by the new tendencies worldwide.

197 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The first step is becoming aware of the exigencies, evaluating the difficulties and searching for the psycho-social solutions so as to overcome barriers, especially where there is about professional behaviour, consequently not about money. Yves F. Le Coadic states that the development of the new information technologies radically changes the status of the user and of the use. His textbook, Usages et usagers de l information, targets overall contemporary society, but also the scientific world underlying the production of an immense information volume. In submitting his work, he enumerates his pursued goals: to familiarize the students and other interested experts with the variegated uses and users of information; the one of supplying methodologies and techniques for study and for evaluation of the users informative practices and techniques; the one of presenting the methods for adapting one s products, services and information systems; the one of helping them to better train their users. The attitude nurtured by many Romanian librarians, inclusively from scholarly libraries, shows that they understand neither the motivations, nor the real needs of the users, especially when the latter are researchers who consult many printed materials at once, asking more than five documents on their worktable. The French professor s work sets out to render the future librarians capable of conceiving and of achieving study programs for the use and user and of establishing the informational resources, fulfilling the information needs of the special groups of users. The first chapter submits A new paradigm for the information science in the conditions of the development of the new specific technologies. The dominant idea is the focus on the user, the librarian s utmost effort for this one to be well served and even the American slogan Please disturb, in the sense that the librarian is in the library to stay or, better said, to act permanently at the disposal of the user client. The university library is perceived to be more utilitarian, in the good sense of the word; but in its case there still is a lot to do in order to approach the European standards not only from the standpoint of the material resources, but also from the one of the relation with the user and of the effective communication. Many of the young Romanians who study abroad, especially those having already studied one-two years before becoming students, master or doctoral students within universities everywhere criticize the lack of flexibility, of attractiveness and of communication of the Romanian education. By comparison, they notice the deference in the relation studentprofessor, much closer, cordial, personalized, in the foreign universities, among foreigners, than at home, among your folk. As the librarians within university libraries are assimilated to the teaching staff (with the status of auxiliary teaching staff) it is their problem, too. A possible survey among the university librarians might surely reveal to what extent they know they have this status and whether they have the feeling of the responsibilities associated with this. As in the case of the teaching staff, from assistant to professor, the availability to mould the students, as information-independent persons, interested in information, knowledge, professional performance, useful values for their future, is barely visible. Only few universities are provided with modules of techniques for the intellectual work and for the information culture. 186

198 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The students (although the international standards emphasize the research dimension and it is formally called for in our country) are not learned to correctly quote, referring to the sources, to identify and select the relevant information for the subject, to draw up a bibliography according to the academic standards, to confront information sources. From personal experience, the author of this text has noticed that the master students, owners of university degree diplomas are not capable of compiling their dissertation bibliography by themselves, they cannot formulate synthetic conclusions, they do not know to summarize, paraphrase, quote, draw up a bibliographical card. Another possible survey, among the university librarians, would demonstrate that only exceptionally it happens to them (if it happens) to see an assistant, a lecturer or an associate professor from their university, in the library, in the company of the first-year students (or of the master students), guiding them, leading them to know the library, offering them consultation for orientation, placing a document in their hand or signalling it. If the survey answers were anonymous, therefore true, it is almost certain they would show indifference towards training the student for the autonomous, creative study or for research. Besides, not many librarians have seen a PhD supervisor with a doctoral student, consulting together a primary or secondary document in the library. With such mentalities, Romanian universities will hardly appear in the international rankings. If, then, the teaching staff are not aware of the obligation to help the students in orientation-study-research, one may ask why librarians would do this, as they are auxiliary didactic staff. For this very reason! The didactic dimension, in their case, consists precisely in compensating what the students are lacking, helping them through counselling and orientation, to acquire the necessary abilities for consulting the traditional documents (books periodical publications bibliographies - dictionaries) or the recent ones (CD, databases). On the other hand, it would be normal for the librarians to collaborate with the teaching staff in education (assistants) who prepare doctoral theses, who must submit communications, who must prepare their seminaries, who must participate in academic events etc. Not even this communication relation teaching staff auxiliary teaching staff is, in our libraries, a fruitful one, a current phenomenon, a consecrated partnership. From this communicational deficiency, the young members of the teaching staff are disadvantaged because, disregarding their fellow librarians competences, they deprive themselves of information services; and also the librarians, who are not perceived as equal partners by their teaching colleagues lose prestige and visibility. The students are disadvantaged in their turn because, if the librarians and professors developed together studies on their typologies, on their deficiencies that might be corrected and on their abilities that might be developed, they would conceive together strategies of attraction-training-information, they would graduate universities better intellectually endowed than they are now; and those who continue their studies elsewhere would make more flattering comparisons both for their former professors and for the librarians. 187

199 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Bougnoux, Daniel: Introducere în ştiinńele comunicării. Traducere din limba franceză de Violeta Vintilescu. Iaşi: Editura Polirom, BuluŃă, Gheorghe, Craia, Sultana; Petrescu, Victor: Biblioteca azi. Informare şi comunicare. Târgovişte: Editura Bibliotheca, BuluŃă, Gheorghe; Craia, Sultana; Petrescu, Victor: Biblioteca în societatea informańiei. Bucureşti: Editura Do-MinoR, Craia, Sultana: Biblioteca, informarea şi comunicarea, Bucureşti: Centrul pentru Formare, EducaŃie permanentă şi Management în Domeniul Culturii, Le Coadic, Yves-F : Usages et usagers de l information. Paris: ADBS / Nathan,

200 HUMAN RIGHTS AND MULTICULTURALISM Emilian CIONGARU Institute of Legal Research Acad. Andrei Radulescu of the Romanian Academy Abstract: It starts from the reality that human rights have been and are registered in the declarations that have been officially accepted and recognized not only by national or international authorities effectively engaged in compliance, but also claimed democratic authorities, but in fact, lead a internal and international policy permanent violation of human rights and the fundamental freedoms. At global level the multicultural, which should manage the ethno-cultural communities living within of a state has in fact contributed to the separation and not the peoples reunification, the ideological and political factors rather acting as factors of division and a connection, emotional, spiritual, can exist only between states who have profound similarities. In this sense is affected and the course of justice which aims to preserve human rights, with the foundation of human social sentiments. Keywords: human rights, the fundamental freedoms, multiculturalism, justice, social sentiments. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of individual rights and of fundamental freedoms in the context of multiculturalism, enhancing of migration as well and of globalization. Thus, by analysis of human rights in multiculturalism context can be make premises which can lead to an eventual rewrite of these rights according to the good individually, as part of regional good and then going to the general good, but also for democratization to any political regimes. These purposes can become more widely shared if it is considered the moral of human rights which should be sufficient to represent the only source of legitimacy of this multiculturality of rights and of fundamental freedoms. Although in appearance, the concept of human rights appear that it is a particular problem XXth century, however it is not absolutely new in human history. This rights are inspired from a planetary conception that takes into account interdependence of global and the need to establish a new international political and economic order based on justice by the state aimed at ensuring socio-economic and the cultural conditions that enable everyone to fully to enjoy their rights. Without them the power to practice civil and political rights is not possible. The idea of human rights begins since ancient times when, in the historic of Greek-Roman philosophy founded by Zeno outline the idea that every person is entitled to pretend the recognition and respect of his own dignities as a person. In ancient times there was no concept of universal human rights [9] though the ancient societies had developed a series of tax systems, concepts of justice, political legitimacy and human flourishing, which sought to achieve the human dignity, flowering, or welfare of the completely independent of human rights [3]. In terms of the expression of guarantee freedoms, the first relevant document is the Magna Charta Libertatum in 1215, by which English nobility has managed to enforce their privileges by the king.

201 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Registering itself on the philosophy of natural law and jus gentium and is based on the social contract theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the concept of human rights was first formulated in the XVIIIth century, but was materialized during the second major events: the bourgeois revolution in France (1789) and the rebellion of English colonies in the British against North America (1776). On July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence is adopted of English colonies from America, which, proclaiming the principle of equality between individuals, the right to life and liberty as inalienable rights and the establishment of government with the consent of the governed. In 1789 on 26 August, is adopted the French Revolution Declaration of human rights and citizen, document and give expression to the philosophy of natural law and enshrines the principle of equality of all persons before the law, that principle on which is based the other rights and freedoms, such as the right ownership, security, resistance to oppression, freedom of thought, expression and manifestation. Implementation of such rights proclaimed in both U.S. and in France was done by written constitutions. Should be noted that the idea of declaration of rights means that the document summarizes the existing rights, rights considered inherent to human nature - then translated in the constitutions of modern states and international treaties. We conclude that the concept of human rights was born during preparation of the bourgeois revolutions in Europe emerged from ideas that already existed in ancient or medieval political thought (...) and during the bourgeois revolutions were stated social practice.[1] Protection of human rights by legal instruments for transposition of these rights in the legal provisions, has become an imperative of the international community after World War II, following disclosure of Nazi atrocities, and later, and therefore perpetuating the practice of human rights violations in countries with totalitarian regimes. This need has resulted on the universal or regional regulations that followed the signing of the UN Charter (June 26, 1945). Thus, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaimed and adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948 is the first document of universal vocation on this area and establishes a unitary conception of the international community about human rights and freedoms, opening the way for a system of international protection of human rights. After 1948, the General Assembly of UNO adopted on this field over 60 conventions and declarations which were taken into account and establishment of specific mechanisms to protect these rights. In the preamble of this document are presented considerations on which was adopted, namely: Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity of all human family members and the equal and inalienable rights is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace. Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief, issued by the terror and misery, was proclaimed as the highest aspiration of human. Whereas it is essential that human rights should be protected by a legal system that the man is not compelled, as a means supreme, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression. Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Considering that the United Nations Charter the peoples proclaimed their faith in fundamental human rights, the dignity and worth of human person, in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and to establish conditions good life in larger freedom. Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of utmost importance for the full realization of this commitment. 190

202 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Universal Declaration has proven, for decades, total helplessness. The series horrors has continued with fury and nothing could stand in the way the Soviet gulag, the Canal and Pitesti from us, the Cultural Revolution in China, the plains of death in Cambodia or the dirty war in Argentina. During this period, has increased and boosted the phenomenon of globalization of problems of all kinds, including moral issues, as are the human rights, to sincerity and generosity, to respect other's property and life, compassion, and widened and sliding movements hostile to barbarism, vandalism and violence free, theft was widespread, and on these circumstances and considerations about ethics and its relation to morality and morality are more promising and much higher traffic. Of this is necessary and stronger involvement on issues of legal philosophy and political science, because that would be relevant above three concepts. Today the ethics of human rights and wants to be a theory but also a social and political practice is marked, but many contradictions: between Western Europe, USA and Canada and other former communist countries, between majority and minority, between people with nationality and stateless all kinds of undesirable qualities lacking the moral right. Even where such rights are recognized, some of them can be met (eg the right to have a home, have the right to childhood, to learn, work etc.). In many places on the planet, mention Arendt person is acting to destroy the the moral corruption of human solidarity, legal person is degraded by mixing political prisoners with criminals and delinquents of all such other practices contrary to human rights. They are supported with scientific arguments as those mentioned. Since 1989 in Central and Southeastern Europe, then on the former Soviet empire, moral contradictions always worsened by amplification phenomena immoral and amoral, both in individual human behavior, and collective, on the complex process of settlement of securities moral rights, honesty, generosity, respect other's property and life, compassion. They have also known and practiced. But education, family social assistance have been disturbed by the privatization often associated with corruption, more lies, calumny, and then transformed on organized crime or deliberate violence exercised by armed men on other people, deprived of weapons (terrorism). And thus morality has become increasingly immoral and amoral as her characteristic idealism is balanced by the appropriate ethics, codes and rules, practice ethical, legal, political and administrative measures to minimize the gap between what should be and what is the man. Speaking of new rights to express the idea that all individuals to be part of the scope of morality and justice, to protect human rights, is to ensure that people receive some degree of decent treatment. To violate fundamental human rights, on the other hand, is to deny fundamental rights and moral individuals. It is, in a sense, to treat them as if they are less than human and deserve respect and dignity. The examples are usually considered the acts of the crimes against humanity, including genocide, torture, slavery, rape, forced sterilization or medical experimentation, and deliberate starvation. Because these policies are often implemented by governments to limit the unlimited power of the state which is an important part of international law, the underlying laws that prohibit various the crimes against humanity is the principle of nondiscrimination and the idea that certain basic rights apply universally. Human rights abuses often lead to conflicts resulting from violations of these rights. Not surprisingly, then, that human rights abuses are often the focus of war and the protection of human rights is central to conflict resolution. Economic and political rights violations are the main cause of many crises. When rights to adequate food, housing, employment, and cultural life are denied, and large groups are excluded from decision making processes of society, is likely to be a great social unrest. Such conditions often give rise to conflicts in court, where the demand basic needs are met. Indeed, many conflicts are stirred and spread by human rights violations. For example, a massacre or torture may inflame hatred and strengthen an opponent on the determination to fight. Violations may also lead to further violence by the other and contribute to a conflict spiral out of control. 191

203 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science On the other part, the armed conflicts often leads to breakdown of the civic infrastructure institutions, which in turn undermines a broad range of rights. When hospitals and schools are closed, adequate health and education rights are threatened. The collapse of economic infrastructure often results lead to pollution, food shortages, and the global poverty. These various forms of economic breakdown and oppression violate rights to self-determination and often contributes to further human tragedy in the form of disease, hunger, and homelessness base. Breakdown of government institutions results in denials of civil rights, including the right to privacy, fair trial and freedom of movement. In many cases, governments are increasingly militarized and police and judicial systems are damaged. Abductions, arbitrary arrests, detentions without trial, political executions, assassinations, torture and however often followed. In cases in which extreme human rights violations took place, reconciliation and peace building has become more difficult. Unresolved human rights issues can serve as obstacles to peace negotiations. This is because it is difficult for parties to move towards conflict transformation and forgiveness when memories of violence and severe atrocities are still in their minds. Examining these situations, we can say that the proclamation and recognition of human rights should refer to all inhabitants of this planet. Recognizing the current, seemingly, human rights apply to a global - but the unanimous consent of the Member conceals divergent account the perception that a series of particularistic notions about the mechanisms of protection. Considering the scope geographical criterion, one must distinguish between the documents of universal vocation - that addresses all the states - and the regional vocation, expressing the solidarity and particularities of both ideological, political, economic, cultural and even religious states or groups of states. In this sense one can speak of a multicultural and intercultural education which should show a special interest that can overcome difficulties if social policies in different systems are known and accepted social realities. As a first step in the cognitive approach should be established for defining and operationalizing the concepts of multiculturalism and interculturalism. Although intertwined, they are used in different situations to express specific types of manifestation of social education. Intercultural education pay attention to how we interact with other cultures, societies or social groups. All societies today are characterized by a growing multiculturalism and cultural diversity. This makes the recognition and respect for minorities to be increasingly important. The old conception of national societies as homogeneous enitati be removed. European integration and social and economic interdendenta growing between different regions make these concepts to be old. Even in those parts of the globe where there is no record migration, conflicts can be seen that from a lack of understanding between different peoples or a certain way of life in society. Conflicts of Northern Ireland, of the former Yugoslavia or parts of the Caucasus are the sad examples of these problems that may arise from an inability to respect and get along with other cultures. Intercultural education is also a great way to access current issues such as racism or racial discrimination and intolerance. The cultural diversity is a valuable asset for the advancement and welfare of humanity as a whole and that it should be treasured, valued, accepted and really made a permanent feature which enriches our societies. There are certainly historical [4] evidence of the fact that a rapidly growing trend of human rights demands reconsideration of the principle of debts we have compared to others do citizens and our communities. They base their claims on these rights they may have future generations. 192

204 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Also a special importance should be given to the values of solidarity, respect, tolerance and multiculturalism, which constitute under moral and inspired the global fight against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, inhuman tragedies which have affected people around the world for a long time too. All peoples and all the individuals of the world are one human family, rich in diversity that has contributed to the progress of the civilizations and cultures and that is the common heritage of humanity. Preservation and promotion of tolerance, pluralism and respect for diversity can produce more inclusive societies. Representatives of international organizations more often talk about multiculturalism, with reference to the origin diverse and cultural heritage specific to each nation whose members operates within them and that has to integrate in a heterogeneous world unity and highly dynamic. The multiculturalism refers of course and to the different policy: anti-discrimination to ensure equal social status of members of different cultures, identity, to encourage different cultures; community for creating and promoting specific legal status of members of certain cultural communities (administrative policy, legal, etc..). A democratic society must treat, in principle, all its members based on these non-discriminatory, providing equal opportunities for expression of cultural and religious identity. The multiculturalism is a reality of the existence in the same space-time horizon of groups or individuals from many cultures reported stating his specific notes in isolation, avoiding usually contamination [6]. Multicultural and pluricultural dimension have a predominant static interactions in a multicultural approach is not excluded, but they are implicit concept[7]. This explains why multiculturalism leaves it considers sufficient juxtaposition of cultures free of racist and apartheid practices. Interculturalism is emerging as a concept with a broader content than those previously presented inter prefix sends thanks to interaction, exchange, openness, reciprocity, solidarity [8]. The same author defines culture: the recognition of values, lifestyles, symbolic representations to which the human beings, individuals or companies, in their interaction with each other and understanding the world, recognizing their importance, recognition of interactions that occur simultaneously across multiple records of the same culture and between cultures in time and space. Mutual knowledge of the culture of the peoples in their interaction favor the communication. In the knowledge intercountry involve the cultural patterns, symbols system, the specific languages, the experiences and the practices of each country taken as an ethnic group. Each country constitutes usually their own culture which is then passed from generation to generation and then defended whenever needed. It is true that very often the conflicts fueled by cultural differences and ignorance of each other, there was no intention to even understand otherness. In face of such realities should not remain only at the prospect multiculturalista or, worse, to adopt the viewpoint of assimilation, according to which the minority culture to be absorbed by the majority culture. Perspective the best approach is inter-culturalist who assumes that all cultures are equal emphasis on the interactions between individuals, groups or subgroups. Exploit inter-culturalist perspective and values the cultural differences and social conditions and facilitate mutual understanding and exchange between different communities. In a multicultural society the values are different, relative express particular views. The ensemble cultural society today is kaleidoscopic: cultures overlap, is influence, is reconfigured and at the same time, open and shut. You might say that there is only one form of reason and rationality. In this sense can not be accepted under any circumstances, in the name of cultural specificity, human rights violations, child or repression of any kind. The universalist ideology believes that cultural entities will disappear in favor of a single the World culture [2], centered on a specific cultural matrix. Such a thesis sins not only ethnocentrism, but by simplicity ignoring the complex cultural, the inability to establish the hierarchs and potential contradictions accompanying cultural evolution. 193

205 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Cultural pluralism affirms that each culture develops a personal vision of the world with meanings of universal value based on private experience. In addition to defending diversity, cultural pluralism question of communication between cultures that recognize that each contribute exactly by specific differences to enriching of human experience. Reason, and especially the public reason, is that imposed preserving cultural diversity of communities, has turned to tolerance and the individual liberties, and all it is called now to provide grounds and means of making possible the existence of a society in which this diversity can exist without insoluble conflicts. In conclusion the differences of culture and civilization does not contribute to separation and the reunion of the peoples, the ideological and political factors rather acting as factors of division. Establishing of a community should be based on emotional connection, spiritual, which can not exist only between states that are similar in depth. Certain structures or the political or legal institutions, some of which were inherited and persist and today, do not meet the multiethnic, multicultural and plurilingual of the population and in many cases, is an important factor discriminating by excluding indigenous peoples. The media should reflect the diversity of a multicultural society and play a role in combating racism, racist discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and generally defending all human rights and fundamental freedoms. It is imperative quality assurance of education can lead to the elimination of illiteracy and access to free primary education for all factors that may have a decisive role in the creation the united societies to equity, the stable and harmonious relations and friendship between nations, peoples groups and individuals and a culture of peace, to power mutual understanding, the solidarity, social justice and respect for all human rights for all. So human rights offers a adequate value frame of contemporary society that is multicultural and multiconfesional. Thus, human rights is an essential element of the modern citizens education. Platon, in Republica [5] wrote: Again, you forget, my friend, that the law cares not a single class to go particularly well in the city, but it makes the entire city to be happy, putting them in agreement citizens, by persuasion and coercion, causing them to make part of the benefit each other that each can bring him community. The law makes it the city as people, not to let each to move wherever they want, but she must use them to strengthen the cohesion of the city. REFERENCES 1. Birsan, C.: European Convention on Human Rights, Vol Rights and Freedoms. Bucharest: Ed. All Beck, 2005, pp Cucos, C.: Education. Cultural and intercultural dimensions., Iasi: Ed Polirom, 2000, pp Donnelly, J.: Universal human rights in theory and practice (ed. 2nd), Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Dragusin, N.: How Children Gave Birth to their Parents Explaining Generational Equity, Mediteranean Journal of Human Rights (University of Malta), vol. 11, no. 1, 2009 (special issue). 5. Platon: Republic, translation: Dumitru Vangelis, Edit. 2-th. Bucharest: Ed Antet, Rey, M.: From the logic of mono to the logic of inter mode. Tracks for an intercultural and solidarity education, Iasi, Ed Polirom, 1999, p Rey, M.: The intercultural education - experiences, policies, strategies. Iasi: Ed Polirom, 1999, p Rey, M.: The intercultural education - experiences, policies, strategies. Iasi: Ed Polirom, 1999, p Shaw, M.: International Law (ed. 6th ed.). Leiden, Cambridge: University Press,

206 TRANSLATION, TERMINOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS OF THE CORPUS Mihaela POPESCU Transilvania University Brasov Abstract: This work proposes a theoretical approach on the fundamental problems of the constitution of a terminological corpus - definition, characteristics and selection criteria, categorization and classification of the texts in a corpus taking into account the types of discourse, generic field and genre. The conditions and criteria for creation of ontologies constitute the final part of this work. Keywords: linguistics of the corpus, corpus, interdisciplinarity, genre, generic field, conceptual relationships, ontologies. 1. Approche théorique sur la constitution d un corpus terminologique Dans le domaine des sciences de l information, la terminologie joue un rôle crucial, en tant que discipline ayant un statut propre, un contenu propre, des concepts, de méthodes de travail, des principes de base et des applications pour la traduction et, en tant que discipline complémentaire à d autres sciences, dû à son caractère interdisciplinaire qui réunit la lexicologie, la linguistique, la logique, l ontologie et la théorie de l information. Un corpus est un regroupement de textes intégraux, documents rassemblés d une manière théorique - réflexive en tenant compte des discours et des genres -, et d une manière pratique destinée à différentes applications. Le corpus n est pas un archive de textes ou un «sac de mots», un vaste ensemble de mots ou même un intertexte nébuleux, au contraire, il est structuré en fonction d une typologie des textes, reflétée dans leur codage, et d une utilisation réalisée par les sélections des sous-corpus. Si le texte est pour la linguistique l unité minimale, le corpus est l ensemble dans lequel cette unité prend son sens. [1] Le corpus dépend de deux conceptions : 1) documentaire-celle qui ne retient que les variables globales caractérisant le texte sans tenir compte du caractère textuel ou structural et 2) logico-sémantique où le corpus est un échantillon de la langue, une archive d exemples et/et d attestations. En revanche, le corpus n est pas un ensemble de mots ou de fragments ou d exemples. Pour qu il soit un corpus, cet ensemble doit répondre à la première contrainte, celle de variables globales. Pour qu un corpus soit un moyen de documentation, il faudrait déterminer trois directions de regroupement des textes : a) le discours (juridique /vs/ littéraire/vs/ scientifique); b) le champ générique (théâtre, poésie etc.); le genre (conte, récit, roman etc.). Le champ générique est un groupe de genres qui contrastent dans une pratique. Ainsi, pour étudier un texte, le bon corpus est celui qui contient les textes partageant le même genre. Un corpus de champ générique est hétérogène et un corpus de discours comprend des textes écrits et oraux.

207 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Archive /vs/ corpus de travail. Il est nécessaire de distinguer quatre niveaux : L archive contient l ensemble des documents accessibles, mais elle ne se constitue pas en corpus car elle n est pas formée pour une recherche bien précisée. Le corpus de référence est constitué par un ensemble de textes sur lequel contrastera le corpus d étude. Le corpus d étude est destiné à l application en fonction des besoins des utilisateurs. Le sous-corpus de travail en cours varie selon les phases de l étude et peut contenir les passages pertinents des textes étudiés. L étude du corpus montre que le lexique, la morphosyntaxe, les problèmes sémantiques de l ambiguïté et de l implicite varient avec les genres, les champs génériques et les discours. Alors, les applications doivent tenir compte de ces spécificités. Pour soutenir cette affirmation, il nous faut préciser qu aucun texte n est écrit uniquement dans une langue, au contraire, il est écrit dans un genre au sein d un discours, en prenant en considération les contraintes de la langue. Dans ce cas, il faut tenir compte des genres et des discours lors de l étude des textes. La notion de genre. Pour constituer des catégories de textes dans un corpus ayant les mêmes caractéristiques extralinguistiques et les mêmes régularités linguistiques, il faut prendre en considération la notion de sens. L élément le plus important est l identification des caractéristiques qui reflètent des points de vue complémentaires et/ou contradictoires. Quant au contexte extra-linguistique, il faut spécifier : la production date, langue, niveau de compétences, caractéristiques de la rédaction, statut des interlocuteurs visés; l utilisation en fonction d une demande particulière - et la diffusion spécification du format sous lequel le texte est disponible. Pour mieux comprendre le fonctionnement du corpus, il nous faudrait recourir à une autre définition, soit-elle plus simple, mais plus compréhensible : le corpus est un ensemble de textes, assemblés selon des critères linguistiques explicites, sur support électronique, dans le but d être représentatif d une langue, d une variété de langue et d un sous-ensemble. L étude du corpus est basée sur des propriétés statistiques du langage et s appuie sur des données authentiques extraites de tous les domaines du discours. Dans ce contexte, les étudiants en master de la Faculté des Lettres, spécialisation Traduction, ont monté un projet de recherche ayant les objectifs suivants : la constitution d un corpus spécialisé et de vulgarisation dans le domaine du génie mécanique, l analyse de la terminologie et la phraséologie bilingue roumain-françaisen vue de la constitution d une base de données bilingues pour la rédaction d articles scientifiques, l analyse sur le plan linguistique et statistique de la distance terminologique et phraséologique entre un corpus de recherche et un corpus de vulgarisation. 2. Corpus et terminologie Corpus et terminologie est un thème de recherche interdisciplinaire, comme nous l avons déjà précisé, et permet d établir les liens entre recherche et besoin de l entreprise. L accès aux textes par des formes lexicales est facile à réaliser du point de vue technique, mais moins du point de vue sémantique. Pour la construction d outils de repérage des termes, la puissance de l Internet a rendu nécessaire d identifier les apports et les complémentarités des différentes disciplines, comme la terminologie, les sciences de l information, le traitement automatique des langues et la recherche d information. La représentation des connaissances sous la forme des listes de termes reliés par des relations est courante. Des taxinomies utilisées surtout en sciences naturelles, la classification universelle 196

208 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 de Dewey, des réseaux sémantiques ou des ontologies sont autant de méthodes de représentations qui mettent l accent sur l emploi des emplois lexicaux pour modéliser les connaissances. Ces représentations sont utilisées dans des systèmes informatiques, comme langages de représentation. Ce mode de représentation est limité s il est construit à partir des textes et à permettre l accès à des textes. La structure d un réseau conceptuel à partir des termes relève d une interprétation, voire, d une normalisation. [2]. Le développement de la communication par le truchement de l Internet a amené une accélération dans la réflexion sur la terminologie grâce à l informatisation des textes et au développement des outils pour les interroger, d une part. D autre part, la demande de la part de l entreprise est devenue pertinente. Cette rencontre a conduit à la définition du concept de base des connaissances terminologiques, structure de représentation qui associe à un réseau de concepts des termes et des textes justifiant l organisation du réseau [3]. La réflexion en terminologie est guidée par les besoins de la traduction, tandis qu en documentation elle est guidée par la nécessité de créer un lien entre documents et connaissance, voire, entre les documents. Le thésaurus jour un rôle important dans l interaction avec le document, lors de son indexation et de sa recherche. La science de l information ainsi que la terminologie, les deux doivent créer les outils pour la normalisation pour favoriser les échanges, dans une langue et dans les langues, mais normaliser c est imposer une vision du monde, dans ce cas, un pont este à bâtir entre ces deux éléments. Les deux disciplines ont en commun le mode de représentation, à voir, des concepts reliés par des relations qui se trouvent dans un système. 3. La création des ontologies À part les outils de normalisation, la création des ontologies est indispensable pour réutiliser les connaissances du domaine, de les gérer séparément des raisonnements et de faciliter l échange des connaissances. Pour communiquer, ces systèmes demandent des représentations du monde compatibles et cohérentes, traduisibles dans un même langage standard et simple [4]. Les ontologies reflètent la recherche d invariants dans un domaine, d une description générique. L utilisation des textes comme sources de connaissance présente un grand potentiel, d une part l automatisation partielle grâce au traitement automatique des langues, à l apprentissage automatique et à la réduction des coûts et, d autre part, une autre approche sur le statut des concepts et sur leurs liens avec les termes. Le concept est une représentation mentale qui retient les caractéristiques communes à un ensemble d objet. Pour délimiter les concepts, il faut les appréhender par une série de d opérations de classement [5]. En terminologie, lorsque l on travaille dans un domaine particulier, on se penche exclusivement sur les objets de connaissances propres à ce domaine La dimension normative et constructiviste est abandonnée et remplacée par la dimension de normalisation et de formalisation des concepts en fonction d un objectif particulier. Dans ce nouveau contexte, l utilisation du corpus devient un moyen d arriver aux connaissances d un domaine en complément de l expertise humaine. Les applications sur le web ont apporté de nouveaux enjeux techniques et économiques. Les architectures de «web semantique» font appel aux ontologies qui doivent fournir des représentations partagées par des agents logiciels, des méta-données pour annoter et indexer les documents et pour assurer la mise à disposition des connaissances consensuelles. Si les ontologies couvrent des réalités différentes, alors les liens avec les textes deviennent les éléments centraux. Grâce à l analyse informatique des textes, le corpus est interrogé en termes de : - acquisition de termes; - structuration de termes et regroupement textuel; - construction d ontologies. 197

209 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science L acquisition de termes suppose l extraction de termes candidats à partir du corpus analysé. Ce sont des mots ou groupes de mots susceptibles d être retenus comme termes pour une analyse et de fournir des étiquettes de concepts. La structuration de termes et le regroupement textuel renvoie aux outils de classification automatique des termes et des outils de repérage de relations. La classification des termes est une méthode pour l identification des concepts et le repérage des relations sémantiques qui permet une mise en relation des concepts, en favorisant surtout les relations hiérarchiques. La construction d ontologies est destinée à définir des concepts génériques et des relations ainsi que les contextes linguistiques de présence des concepts et les logiciels facilitent l indexation des documents. L élément que l on doit prendre en compte est la recherche d élément textuel pouvant être représentée sous une forme relationnelle. Alors, deux approches sont possibles : a) par marqueurs de relations conceptuelles et b) par l interprétation des contextes distributionnels. Les premiers sont des éléments syntaxiques ou lexicaux auxquels on peut associer à tout moment une interprétation relationnelle. Les contextes dans lesquels apparaissent ces marqueurs doivent être contrôlés pour éviter la polysémie. La deuxième approche comprend la distribution (l ensemble des contextes dans lequel le terme apparaît) détermine le sens d un terme. Alors, il est important de retrouver des relations entre les termes en tenant compte de la récurrence des contextes dans lesquelles ils apparaissent. Les deux approches sont complémentaires et l interprétation se fait par un ajustement entre connaissances langagières et données du corpus, jusqu'à une stabilisation interprétationnelle. Conclusions L analyse du corpus rencontre un obstacle majeur, voire, trouver les modes de caractérisation des textes pour les constituer en catégorie. La relation corpusterminologie-traduction dans sa dimension interdisciplinaire se situe au centre des préoccupations, mais rencontre des difficultés dues à l évolution très rapides des contextes, des besoins et des usages langagiers. En dépit du grand nombre d outils automatiques, des logiciels de recherche terminologiques, pour le traitement du corpus, l interprétation humaine n est pas exclue, aussi pour l analyse du corpus que pour la traduction spécialisée. L utilisation massive du web amène à s interroger sur les possibilités de contrôle des textes. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. F. Rastier : Le terme. Entre ontologie et linguistique. In : La Banque des mots, no. 7, Numéro spécial, 35-64, F. Rastier : Le terme. Entre ontologie et linguistique. In : La Banque des mots, no. 7, Numéro spécial, 35-64, I. Meyer, S. Douglas, L. Bowker, K. Eck : Towards a new generation of terminological resource; An experiment in building terminological database. In: Proceedings 16 th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, COLING, Nantes, , T. R. Gruber : A translation approach to portable ontology specification. In: Knowledge Acquisition, 5, , M. T. Cabré : La terminologie. Théorie, méthode et applications, (traduit du catalan), Les Presses de l Université d Ottawa et Armand Colin, E. Wüster : The Wording of the World Presented Graphically and Terminologically. In: Terminology, 9 (2) 7. A. Condamines: Corpus Analysis and Conceptual Relation Patterns. In Terminology, vol. 8, number 1, ,

210 A POINT OF VIEW REGARDING THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF UNIVERSITY LIBRARY SERVICES Cristina ALBU, Adriana CRISTIAN University Politehnica of Bucharest, Central Library Abstract: The quality of services offered to users represents the degree of satisfying their needs, expectations and requirements. For this reason, there is imperious needed to implement adequately the concepts, principles, methods and tools of Service Quality Management by all service providers, hence by university libraries too. The application of Service Quality Management to library means promoting user centered quality library services, because the user is the beneficiary of these services. The paper highlights the need for systematic solving quality problems identified in the university library, based on scientific methods and tools for quality improvement. Key words: user, university library, quality of services, management, performance. 1. Introduction Nowadays, university libraries operate in a new information and communication environment. The products and services offered by university libraries feature a series of characteristics induced by the electronic environment. Namely: they are information based, they are formatted as integrated resources, the information content features particular dynamics, they are available through networks, they are integrated in complex processes (for example: e-learning), etc. The library can change into an open, efficient, flexible information system that can successfully meet the users requirements which are in a permanent state of refocusing and change. The objective of this paper is to highlight the need for systematic solving quality problems identified in the university library, based on scientific methods and tools for quality improvement. 2. Levels of service quality offered to users The challenge facing a university library is to supply its users with best quality services. This involves, among others, making known the levels of service quality offered to users. As to the services offered to the users of a university library, we can identify three levels that correspond to their quality: Conforming quality; Perceived quality; Satisfactory Quality. From the view point of conforming quality, the service supplied by the library should comply with the service promised, while the fee charge (if required) should be adapted to the financial power of the user. For the perceived quality: the promise should be adapted to the users expectations; the service offered by the library should comply with the promised service; the fee charge (if required) should be adapted to the user s financial power.

211 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science In order to implement satisfactory quality: the promise should be adapted to the users expectations; the promise should anticipate and answer the needs of the users; the service offered by the library should comply with the promised service. Taking into consideration the competition as well as the evolution of the users requirements, it is recommendable to go for satisfactory quality. In order to put forth an offer that is long term attractive one should take into consideration the following aspects: - Full answer to user s needs; - Adaptation and permanent anticipation of the user s needs; - Diversity of services offered; - Design and implementation of new models of organizing information; - Provision of information finding criteria; - Making the user aware of the permanent service improvement. If the university library plans to offer a quality service, then it will have to take into consideration not only the user s requirements as well as his/her response after the service has been provided. 3. Stages in solving quality problems The university library represents one of the structures where the application of the principles of service quality management may lead to remarkable results. By developing a strategic plan and implementing it with a view to increasing the library service quality, the library can improve its performance. Therefore, solving the "quality problem" on a university library services offered to users involves certain steps, according to Fig PROBLEM 1. UNDERSTANDING PROBLEM 2. FINDING CAUSES 1. STAGE 3. ESTABLISHING SOLUTION 4. INITIATING ACTION 1. DEFINING PROBLEM 2. ACTIONS 2. IDENTIFYING PROBLEM CAUSES 3. SELECTING OPTIMUM SOLUTION 4. IMPLEMENTING CHOSEN SOLUTION OBTAINING INFORMATION ABOUT PROBLEM ACTIVITIES STATING PROBLEM 2. SEARCHING FOR POTENTIAL CAUSES DOCUMENTING AND RANKING REAL CAUSES MONITORING PROBLEM 3. ESTABLISHING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS CHOOSING OPTIMUM SOLUTIONS 4. APPLICATION OF OPTIMUM SOLUTION MEASUREMENT OF CHOSEN SOLUTION EFFICIENCY Figure 1. Levels of service quality The service quality offered to the university library user is action dependent. Decisions should be made after careful analysis of facts. Data analysis makes it possible to identify and solve problems. The cause-effect analysis has to be made for each specific problem. Graphs and diagrams are examples of instruments that may be used during the analysis. 200

212 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Modern tools for improving service quality The management of service quality should be constantly aimed at improving the quality of library service provision. One should not wait for problems to emerge as a trigger for spotting opportunities for improvement. The modern instruments for managing service quality have for their aim the gradual analysis of a problem, the identification of its main causes, and eventually, establishing the suitable measures for solving it. Out of the modern instruments for managing service quality in a university library, one can successfully use two methods: The WWWWHW method (Taylor s questions) together with Matrix of critical examination ; System of suggestions. In order to identify the information available with respect to a certain problem (for the sake of its better definition), as well as in order to define the means of implementing an action plan, one can use the WWWWHW method (Taylor s questions). This method may be used together with the Matrix of critical examination (Table 1) in case certain actions are not efficient and corresponding, alternative measure need to be identified. Table 1: Matrix of critical examination (General model) CURRENT APPROACH QUESTIONS ALTERNATIVES OPTIMUM SOLUTION What are we doing? Why is the action What else could one have necessary? done? What should one do? Who is the agent? Why these ones? Who else could have done it? Who should do it? Where is the action taking Where else could it be Why that location? place? done? Where should it be done? When are we acting? Why then? When else could it be done? When should it be done? How are we acting? Why ar ewe acting this way? How else can one act? How should one act? Case study The WWWWHW method together with the Matrix of critical examination was applied in the case of Reference Service, to increase its efficiency (Table 2). CURRENT APPROACH Specialist consultancy Competent custodians At library headquarters Permanently and concomitantly with the provision of other services Customized service provision, in their areas of special interest Table 2: Matrix of critical examination. Case Study QUESTIONS ALTERNATIVES OPTIMUM SOLUTION There are users who lack competence and experience in certain domains; many users are located at a distance and want information access They have greater experience It is what users want Users are aware that they need specialist consulting services It is the best appropriate and timely method, Improvement of service work provision depending on users requirements and expectations Young custodians trained afterwards Providing references Permanently Detailed presentation of service offer Making user aware of service needed to reach objectives. 201 Provision of bibliographical and reference searches. Provision of references. Indication of electronic references by providing full-text material. Bibliographical lists upon request with data base searches. Competent custodians helped by young trained custodians. Upon partners agreement Permanently Increase number of data base references. Acquisition of new data bases. Shorter response time. Customized offer

213 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science In present day circumstances, an increasing number of users find themselves at a distance, feature a wider range of information search skills and information needs and have increasingly higher expectations with respect to the referencing services and need information access 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In order to better meet their needs and requirements, traditional referencing services need to undergo some changes. The Internet and the new technologies have also penetrated the librarianship sector which eventually determines fundamental changes in the nature of the referencing activities. The access to an increasingly higher range of information, in a variety of formats, the training, of users in order to be able to use the information they find have become important, particularly with university libraries. Reference custodians may assist and direct users in searching, editing and saving the information they need. They can direct users in the editing processes of the information acquired. Upon request, the information can be saved by custodians on some sort of backup or listed on printouts. In order to implement the customer suggestion system, one should go through the following stages: 1) Custodians should be urged to put forth suggestions for improving their own activity as well as the activity of the whole team; 2) Managers should emphasize staff training, to ensure that the suggestions are feasible; 3) Custodians should analyze their suggestions together with the other mangers. System of suggestions is an easy to apply method and it is very useful for the continuous improvement of service provision quality. 5. Conclusions The main objective targeted by the management of service quality is the implementation of the modern tools that allow information access to both existing library users as well as potential users. Information access may be made both by capitalizing on classical documents from the library s own store as well as the capitalization of electronic resources. The aim of the service quality management provided by university libraries is to ensure user satisfaction and earn his/her long term confidence, by proposing and ensuring services of excellent quality. Bibliography 1. Cristian, A.: Aspects Regarding the Application of the Quality Principles in an Academic Library. În: ConferinŃa InternaŃională de Biblioteconomie şi ŞtiinŃa Informării, Inovare în în Bibliotecă, Braşov, 2-4 Iunie, 2011, Brasov: Ed. UniversităŃii Transilvania din Braşov, p Cristian, A.: Cercurile calităńii şi îmbunătăńirea serviciilor. În: Biblioteca, anul XIX, nr. 8-9/2008, p Drăgulănescu, N. Drăgulănescu, M.: Managementul CalităŃii Serviciilor. Bucureşti: Agir, 2003, 273 p. 4. IoniŃă, I.: Managementul calităńii. Bucureşti: ASE, 2008, 355 p. 5. Kondo, Y.: Managementul total al calităńii-modelul japonez. Bucureşti: Niculescu S.R.L, 2003, 270 p. 6. Oprean, C. Kifor, C. V.: Managementul CalitaŃii. Sibiu: Universitatea Lucian Blaga, 2002, 311 p. 7. Popescu, M., Dascalu, A., Helerea, E.: Customer Relationship Management in University Libraries. In: Innovation in Library, Biblio Brasov: Editura UniversităŃii Transilvania din Brasov, 2011, pp (ISSN ). 202

214 DISSEMINATION OF SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION IN THE DIGITAL AGE Cristina Nicoleta ALBU, Carmen PREDESCU Central Library of University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest Abstract: Digital age is par excellence about online access, storage and transmission of information. Nowadays, the information resources will be mainly in digital form and available in a variety of modes of communication. All these changes and innovations did determined library to act as information dissemination agency, assuming the responsibility to foster the flow of information in university community in an efficient and effective manner. To achieve this goal the library must build and develop its own information dissemination strategy, including the establishment of channels, methods and tools to reach target audience. In this respect, the paper aims to focus on the importance of information dissemination as a component of information managment process, to highlights the involving of library in dissemination of scientific information in community, and to presents the unprecedented possibilities to disseminate the information or to share the information in an online environment. Key words: Information Dissemination, Digital Age, SDI (Selective Dissemination of Information), Web 2.0, Library 2.0, Open Access. 1. Introduction Access to, dissemination of, and preservation of scientific information are major challenges of the digital age. The rapidly increasing use of digital content in research and in the dissemination of knowledge is a main characteristic of modern science. The Internet makes instant access to and dissemination of scientific information possible and new information and communication tools offer innovative ways to add value. They have opened up new ways to use masses of data resulting from experiments and observations in the scientific process and to extract meaning from this data stored in repositories in combination with other scientific information resources. Academic libraries are faced with not only the decision on what books and journals to acquire to satisfy faculty and students but also on how to remain relevant in the digital era offering quality learning support services. Now the academic library plays a central role inside the university by supporting the teaching, the research, and other academic programmes in various ways. One main challenge facing academic libraries in the networked online environment is to exploit all forms of digital and telecommunication technology and find new ways and means to provide feasible forms of collections, services and access to library materials.

215 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 2. Dissemination of information in the digital age - part of information management process Information management is defined as a cycle of processes that are intended to coordinate, to store, to retrieve, to analyse, to evaluate, to disseminate and to use information. Dissemination is the usual term for the part of the intelligence cycle that delivers products to consumers. (1) In the digital world, libraries are becoming more involved in the creation and dissemination of information. Libraries have responded to the challenges of content description for new digital media, extrapolating from existing cataloging practices to develop various metadata schemas. For libraries dissemination represents a challenge faced in trying to manage the vast amount of information. In this respect, libraries must improve the access to online information and this doesn t happen automatically. Being available on the web does not mean being disseminated, does not guarantee adequate visibility. This means on one hand the users, creators and technologists interact to develop demand-led information resources and on the other hand adoption and application of standards for managing information objects. (2) Information in digital environment needs to be structured and labelled so that technology can work with it.the electronic era offers a special environment where linkage, interoperability and unlimited dissemination are possible. To achieve this level of dynamism rules, standards, markup language (XML) and IDML (International Development Markup Language) are required. The OpenURL standard, open link technology, metadata standards such as MARC, ONIX, OAI, Dublin Core, controlled vocabulary or thesaurus terms improve the quality of the search results. A good organization and architecture of information, varied methods of access to information, creation of hypertext links, metadata harvesting, inclusions of active data, all this facilitate the efficient dissemination of content. The Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) offer an effective route for rapid dissemination, exciting possibilities for delivering information. The new dimensions for dissemination in digital age include the speed of delivery, real time updates, access controlled or freely available. With the incorporation of distributed technologies and more open and collaborative models, the library has the potential to become more involved at all stages, and in all contexts, of knowledge creation, dissemination, and use. Rather than being defined by its collections or the services that support them, the library can become a diffuse agent within the community. 3. The main information dissemination channels offered by library in digital age Digital age means access to information on a large scale. Aim of dissemination is to ensure transparency and to offer a large audience easy access to information. Effective dissemination relies on the use of varied channels: Internet, website, electronic catalogue, Selective Disemination of Information (SDI), digital repository, data bases, and so on We have to add the facility offerd by web 2.0, which brings interactive information dissemination and social networking. The Web is complex information medium. It is both a repository for information and a transmission vehicle. It provides free public access and increasingly fee-based access to an immense body of digital material. The Website space of information disseminaton. The website informs about the resources and services offered by library. Through website the user can simultaneously access the electronic catalogue/opac, electronic journals, data bases, institutional repository, etc. 204

216 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The page of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) which is called the web address. It consists of related web pages containing content (media), including text, images, audio, etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The Electronic catalogue/opac. OPAC represents an interactive system for information discovery and retrieval. The patrons in the library can search the bibliographic database and find specific information online. Now the modern libraries systems offer interface to OPAC, and provide access from anywhere in the world via Internet. An internet enabled OPAC is called Web OPAC. Web OPAC can be searched using any common browser, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Clearly, the OPAC represents an interactive system for information discovery and retrieval. Selective Disemination of Information (SDI) - refers to tools and resources used to keep a user informed of new resources on specified topics; is a service that consists in routing to readers, on a regular basis, news alerts corresponding to their readers' profiles. One can equally refer to it as a "documentation profile" or a "personalized profile" or even a "search profile".authenticated readers will be able to see SDI in the OPAC. Online scientific databases. The access to online scientific databases is an important way of promoting dissemination of scientifical and technological information. The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous scientific databases, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. To be proficient in any field, a research must have acces to scientific databases, journal articles citations or the full text articles. Scientists are both users and producers of databases. Remote access to a wide collection of digital resources such us electronic journals, e- books, online data bases to which the library is subscribed with the observation that each publisher handles remote access differently. A few publishers have restrictions on their products, so they are not all available remotely. The access is controlled via IP-recognition, or using Proxy sevrice or VPN User ID. Electronic Information Delivery (EID) is a variation on SDI models that uses the growing power of Web technology and content-oriented standards to respond to user requests from distributed content sources. A number of digital EID systems have been developed based on extensible Markup Language (XML). These services (SDI, EID) have been expanded to include automated information delivery and are built according to various interoperable standards Web 2.0 and Library interactive information dissemination Web 2.0 definition according to the World English Dictionary is the internet viewed as a medium in which interactive experience, in the form of blogs, wikis, forums, etc, plays a more important role than simply accessing information. The term is closely associated with Tim O'Reilly because of the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in late Tim O Reilly is the author of the Web 2.0 Meme Map (figure 1). 205

217 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Figure 1. Web 2.0 Meme Map This map illustrates a preliminary set of principles and practices and shows that web 2.0 is much more a new user interface, is a new way to interact each other, encourage collaboration, communication and information sharing. (3) Web 2.0 is about revolutionary new ways of creating, collaborating, editing and sharing user-generated content online and involves developing of online services that encourage collaboration, communication and information sharing. Web 2.0 includes the second generation web based services such as: collaborative publishing sites (Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, a.o.), wikis, blogs, social bookmarking sites, hosted services, web applications photo sharing sites. The benefits of Web 2.0 for library means that library can reach a vast audience, serving more people in the virtual sphere than would be possible at a physical location, presents new opportunities for large scale professional collaboration and cooperation. The result of introduction Web 2.0 in library is Library 2.0, which is the application of interactive, collaborative, and multi-media web-based technologies to web-based library services and collections (Maness 2006). Now Web 2.0 is really starting to mean a combination of the technology (like AJAX) allowing the users to interact with the information.(4) Library 2.0 is not about searching, but finding; not about access, but sharing. The best conception of Library 2.0 would be a social network interface that the user designs. It is a personalized OPAC that includes access to IM, RSS feeds, blogs, wikis, tags, and public and private profiles within the library's network. It is virtual reality of the library, a place where one can not only search for books and journals, but interact with a community, a librarian, and share knowledge and understanding with them. Library 1.0 moved collections and services into the online environment, and Library 2.0 will move the full suite of library services into this electronic medium. The library has had a web-presence for many years, and with Library 2.0, its users will be joining it. The integration of Web 2.0 technologies in library activity provides the user with tools to involved, to comment, to support a discussion, and to create content. 4. Open Access opportunity and challenge in scientific information dissemination Open Access (OA) is the practice of providing unrestricted access via the Internet to research paper or other scientific information without payment, meaning to allow anyone to 206

218 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. (Budapest Open Access Initiative). Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. This concept is the subject of debate among the research community, libraries, publishers and funding bodies. Researchers and libraries typically support open access, calling for better dissemination of research results, increased citation rates, greater research impact than nonopen access article; also, OA facilitates more effective search and retrieval of content, using technologies associated with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI). There are the two ways of implementation Open Access: - The green route involves self-archiving the article or conference paper in a repository of published research. This may be done by subject (e.g. PubMedCentral, arxiv, Repec) or by institution (also providing a way for universities to showcase their research and to preserve it). There is no charge for depositing the article or paper; the costs of running the archive are met by the institution.digital age provides an opportunity as concern the modern harvesting techniques and search engines which make it possible to discover publications of relevance if they are deposited in an OA repository with a particular metadata standard. There is evidence that articles available in an OA repository have more accesses (readers), citations and therefore impact. (5) - The gold route is also known as the author pays model, and it means that the publication of an article in an OA journal is usually paids by the author. There are two further options for the gold route: OA publishers (PLOS, BioMedCentral, Hindari) or traditional publishers with OA option (Nature, Elsevier, Springer). According to the Directory of Open Access Journals (figure 2), there are now over 4000 Open Access journals. This represents about 16% of the approximate 25,000 peer-reviewed academic journals in existence (6). Figure 2. DOAJ Open Access is the alternative to Closed Access (or Subscription Access or Toll Access) Open access articles have a greater citation and research impact than non-open access article. It is evident that open access is a valuable channel to facilitate dialogues and communicate ideas among researchers. (7) 207

219 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 5. Conclusions In the Information Age, the library is an intermediary between users and information. The library collections are in changeing becoming more interactive and fully accessible. The library services have changed, focusing more on the facilitation of the information transfer and of the information literacy rather than providing controlled access to it. The Library is able to help researchers disseminate their research findings and improve their research impact offering them different channels and options such as access to scientific and scholarly journals, publishing in OA, use of institutional repository and interactive web. NOTES 1. Intelligence dissemination management available at http: //en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/intelligence_dissemination_management [accessed at February 27, 2012) 2. E.Dodsworth. Effective Information Management and Disseminationin the Electronic Era, available at [accessed at February 27, 2012] 3. What Is Web 2.0, available at [accessed at March 5, 2012] 4. Jack M. Maness. Library 2.0 Theory: Web 2.0 and Its Implications for Libraries, available at [accessed at March 5, 2012] 5. Gold and green routes to open access publishing available at [accesed at March 15, 2012] 6. DOAJ. Directory of Open Access Journals available at Directory of Open Access Journals, [accessed at March 22, 201] 7. Open Access Information Sourcebook. Practical Steps for Implementing Open Access available at 146&Itemid=253 [accessed at March 27, 2012] BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Boulderstone, R.; Brown, D.J.: Impact of Electronic Publishing: The Future for Publishers and Librarians, K.G.Sauer Publ.House, E.Dodsworth. Effective Information Management and Dissemination in the Electronic Era, available at part0/p014.pdf [accessed at February 27, 2012] 3. DOAJ. Directory of Open Access Journals available at Directory of Open Access Journals, [accessed at March 22, 201] 4. Gold and green routes to open access publishing available at [accesed at March 15, 2012] 5. Intelligence dissemination management available at Intelligence_dissemination_management [accessed at February 27, 2012) 6. Jack M. Maness. Library 2.0 Theory: Web 2.0 and Its Implications for Libraries, available at [accessed at March 5, 2012] 7. Open Access Information Sourcebook. Practical Steps for Implementing Open Access available at &id=146&itemid=253 [accessed at March 27, 2012] 208

220 ONLINE INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CITIZENS Monica ANGHEL, Mihail DUMITRACHE National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics ICI Bucharest Abstract: This paper covers a range of online information systems mainly addressed to citizens that contribute to improving the life of the civil society. The emphasis of this article is on the digital initiatives belonging to the European area, mainly digital initiatives and projects developed and financed by the European Commission. Keywords: digital environment, information technology, information systems, online environment, e-services. 1. Introduction Nowadays, information means more than power, it means everything and it is everything. Therefore, by paraphrasing Andre Malraux s quote 1, we can say "that the 21st century will be about information or it will not be at all". Moreover, the traditional aspects of the information are now obsolete, seen as how today, in just a life span of 40 years, almost 25% "Figure 1" of the world s population uses Internet 2 thus online means of information access. Figure global Internet usage Source:

221 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Seen as how in such a short amount of time, the Internet has become such a big part of the citizen s life, it is only natural that we would dedicate time into studying the social phenomenon it has become. Therefore, although we shall concentrate more on the issues that have risen within the EU space, we shall also briefly bring into discussion other examples of good practice from important stakeholders and states that have developed, are developing or will develop their digital environments dedicated to their citizens and other interested parties. 2. Worldwide and EU digital initiatives Today, almost each country has its online information portal for its citizens, for its tourists and other interested parties 3, thus bringing people together, closer to each other than they have ever been, and more importantly, closer to the information they need. In 2010 as a natural follow-up to the "i2010" initiative, the European Commission launched the "Digital Agenda for Europe - i2020" "Figure 2" a plan for the EU s online environment for the next decade: The Digital Agenda is Europe's strategy for a flourishing digital economy by It outlines policies and actions in order to maximize the benefit of the digital revolution for all of Europe s citizens. Figure 2. The "Digital Agenda for Europe" logo Source: The overall aim of the Digital Agenda is to deliver sustainable economic and social benefits from a digital single market based on fast and ultra fast internet and interoperable applications, thus in order to achieve the goals set out the European Commission will work closely with national governments, concerned organizations, stakeholders and companies. Under the slogan: "Every European digital" 4, the "Digital Agenda for Europe" proposes seven pillars that symbolize the issues that need to be resolved until 2020: Pillar 1: A vibrant digital single market; Pillar 2: Interoperability and standards; Pillar 3: Trust and security; Pillar 4: Fast and ultra-fast Internet access; Pillar 5: Research and innovation; Pillar 6: Enhancing digital literacy, skills and inclusion; Pillar 7: ICT-enabled benefits for EU society. 3 e-mexic - e-austria etc. 4 Commissioner Neelie Kroes s message concerning the Digital Agenda for Europe. 210

222 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Figure 3. A graphic rendering of the seven pillars of the "Digital Agenda for Europe" Source: The Digital Agenda website Upon closer inspection, the Digital Agenda website offers valuable insight regarding the description of the initiative, with regard to what it does, timeline of issue resolvation and more importantly, a section of this website offers citizens our main focus the opportunity to give their feedback regarding the Digital Agenda 5. Figure 4. Source:

223 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Ever since 2010, the Digital Agenda initiative has stated - and proved it so that the citizen is its most important stakeholder and therefore feedback from citizens is extremely important and rightly valued [2]. Therefore, within the Digital Agenda website there is a dedicated section for citizens in which they can express personal opinions regarding the progress of the Digital Agenda fulfillments, ask important questions with regards to expenses, timeline and resolvations and, most importantly offer feedback, suggestions and ideas for improvement. One of the sections of the Digital Agenda website is dedicated to keeping the score with regard to the amount of issues resolved out of the planned actions, thus keeping citizens informed The Digital Agenda "Debategraph" website Also, independently from the Digital Agenda website, the citizen s right to information and knowledge is satisfied through the Digital Agenda "debategraph": 0, an extremely interactive website that rises the citizen s interest and stimulates feedback. As it is quite easy to deduce, the "debategraph" gets its name from the interactive online graphic that gets citizens to interact online and debate over various issues that concern them, thus creating an online environment that contributes to the constant improvement of the civil society s life. Figure 5. Source: 3. Transborder Services based on ICT SPOCS Project SPOCS Simple Procedures Online for Cross-Border Services is a three-year pilot project financed by the European Commission which aims to significantly facilitate life and increase transparency for Small and Medium sized Enterprises and citizens when they want to provide or use services in the single market [1]. 212

224 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The project consortium is composed of 34 partners, from 16 member states, including Romania, comprising of national public administrations, representatives thereof, local authorities, industries and universities, thus covering all walks of life. Representing Romania, the National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics - ICI Bucharest is the technical leader of Work Packages 1 and 4 (beginning July 1st 2012), thus developing the technical solutions that will eventually lead to the launch of the "Travel Agent" pilot. Also, representing Romania is the Centre for Advanced Studies on Electronic Services - e- CAESAR, an NGO funded by the Academy of Economic Studies and the Polytechnic University of Bucharest. Building on compliancy with the Services Directive (CE/2006/123), SPOCS has been set up on the basis of the 2008 CIP ICT PSP Programme (project reference: ). The implementation of the Services Directive concerns a large variety of economic activities (about 70% of EU GDP and total employment) and requires important legislative changes in all Member States (MSs) and the undertaking of a number of ambitious projects, such as setting up the national "Points of Single Contact" (PSCs) - egovernment portals for entrepreneurs active in the service sector and citizens [1]. For example, if a person wishes to open or extend a business abroad he/she has to travel to the city where he/she wants to expand the business, go to City Hall, the Trade Register, etc.. This means a waste of time and money and a lot of bureaucracy - applying for licenses, permits and completing other administrative procedures. With SPOCS, the entrepreneur can complete the formalities from his office, on-line, quickly and efficiently, only by filling-in the necessary forms and loading documents in electronic format. In order to fulfill the administrative obligations and formalities in a uniform manner, SPOCS and its contributors, reuse key building blocks from other EU projects (such as STORK - Secure identity across borders linked and PEPPOL - Pan-European Public Procurement OnLine) and build upon existing, interoperable standards, frameworks and national solutions to improve cross-border administrative processes. SPOCS will, therefore, be carried out in a transparent way to facilitate consensus by public administrations, their suppliers and partners, industry and standardization bodies without replacing national systems. The simplification measures foreseen by the SPOCS project should enhance the quality of completing electronic procedures for cross-border activities. The implemented project results will lead in reducing bureaucracy by electronic means, increasing transparency in the public sector, improving on-line services and generating benefits for global economic growth. 4. Conclusions In light of what has been analyzed and written in this paper we can now say that from a global perspective the situation is quite grim, due to the fact that only a staggering 23.6% "Figure 1" of the population uses Internet. However, from a strictly European perspective, things seem to be progressing in the right direction seen as how a good percentage of 63.2 of the EU s population has and/or is using the Internet. Therefore, the Digital Agenda s pillars seem quite resolvable within the foreseen timeframe, as already over half of the EU s population has access to on-line information systems. 213

225 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Banciu, D.: e-services in Future Internet - Study-case on Romania. At: Digital Agenda for Romania, 15 decembrie 2011, Bucureşti. 2. Banciu, D.: Managementul protecńiei informańiei din perspectiva Agendei Digitale pentru Europa i2020. In: ConferinŃa internańională Noile provocări globale de securitate cibernetică. Rolul structurilor de tip CERT, Palatul Parlamentului, Bucureşti, 29 septembrie Banciu, D.: Digital Culture and Informing the Citizen First Step in Reshaping the Economy: e-romania Concept. In: Global Forum, Bucureşti, Octombrie Banciu, D., Coardoş, D.: Pilot Systems for Information Documentation Based on Web Platforms. In: ConferinŃa internańională "Information Literacy", Sibiu, aprilie

226 MODERN WEB TECHNOLOGIES IN PROMOTING THE BOOKS IN LIBRARIES Livia SÂNGEORZAN, Corina POP Transilvania University of Braşov, Daniela NEDELCU Technical College Maria Baiulescu Braşov Abstract: Creating a special Web-application (software) that will present the new books entering in the library, implies to have special skills in Web technology. The Webapplication which was developed permit to view some important informations about the book in short time because it requires only a few clicks to view this information. Software goal is to increase the possibility for the reader to be informed about the new books entered in the library, in real time. Key words: library, book, HTML5, CSS3. 1. Introduction It is important to find methods to inform readers about new books entered in a library. It is important that readers be informed about the latest news published in a library. The trend in the use of Word Wide Web technology and Web design that aims at enhancing creativity information sharing and communication among users, is described by using the WEB 2.0 term, [1]. This technology uses the Internet / Intranet as a platform. This includes some of the following techniques: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS3), JQuerry, HTML5, JavaScript and so many others. This paper presents a WEB application that allows any time to know useful information about the new books entered in the library. The application is done using the HTML5 language, CSS3 rules, JavaScript language, JQuery [2-3]. The input data will be stored in special folder created for each domain of specialization, the books are organized into categories of books. 2. Web Application in promoting the books in a library By studying how to improve the process of presentation of new books in a library, we developed a web application that allows a particular view on the new informations about the book. HTML5 is a language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web. HTML5 syntax brings many new features divided in new items with new syntax, like <video>, <audio>, <header> and <canvas>, and other new elements <section>, <article>, <aside>, and <nav> that are designed to improve the semantic content of documents. HTML5 structure used on the index page in our Website is given in Figure 1.

227 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Figure 1. The structure of the index.html page The application is an online application, designed to achieve the desired information on the new book that are coming into the library. The site is divided into dedicated pages. There is a main page called index.html that is related to the other web pages. For each book category was made a separate page. Information about each book is JPG or PNG images which are stored in appropriate folders. The structure of each page is made as shown in Figure Semantic features of HTML5 Some examples of using semantic features of HTML5 that are found in the index.html. The item <nav>, is a section of a page that link to other pages, it is a section with navigation links ( Figure 2.) nav Figure 2. Index page (level 1 page) 216

228 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 <nav><! top nav --> <div class="menu"> <ul> <li><a href="despre_noi.html">despre noi</a></li> <li><a href="noutati.html">noutati</a></li> <li><a href="comanda.html">comanda</a></li> <li><a href="conact.html">contact</a></li> </ul></div> </nav><!-- end of top nav --> Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) was introduced 13 years ago with the goal to give a new design to the web-pages. CSS styles are of three types: browser style, inline style and style described in the external file. CSS3 has introduced a lot of features and new tools that allow easy modeling of an HTML element (tag).the effects obtained by CSS3 allow a unique visualization of the new books which are entered in a library. There are several interesting new features introduced by CSS3 like: text-shadow, RGBA and Opacity, multiple backgrounds, border-radius, border-image, box-sizing, font-face-attributes, etc. Effects are described using the items (tags) div or span. Some elements of the CSS3 used on the page level 2, the webpage categorii.html (Figure 3). The div element was used for fitting the content of the page (categorii.html). The div content includes a shadow box effect as seen in Figure 4. Also this element includes a rotation effect of the images to bring them into focus. div#wrapper div.polaroid.rotationimg1 div.container Figure 3. Categories of book (page level 2) The book pages containing categories of books (top-level 3) was used an another HTML5 element, the canvas element that allows to include the effect of magnifying glass (Figure 4). 217

229 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Canvas#showCanvas 3. Conclusion Figura 4. The visual representation of the effect of the magnifying glass For creating professional Websites it is required to know the modern Web standards and technologies as HTML5, CSS3 and many more. The site is user friendly and uses the stored information suitable on books, in specific folders. The advantages of implementing this Website are the following: it was used new technologies HTML5, CSS3; it stored the information specific folders designed by the user; ability to add new pages that are easy to be integrated in the proposed site. using semantic elements that describe their meaning is clear for browsers and web developer. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Mark Pilgrim: Ghidul incepătorului. Ed. 3D Media Communications, ***, CSS Tehnici esenńiale. In: CHIP. Kompakt. Available at: ***, Tehnici de Web Design. In: CHIP. Kompakt. Available at: Livia Sângeorzan: Tehnologii Web şi Web Design. Brasov: Ed. UniversităŃii Transilvania din Braşov, O Reilly, T.: Web 2.0 Compact Definition:Trying Again, Sângeorzan, L., Aldea, C.: Tehnologii internet. Brasov: Ed. UniversităŃii Transilvania din Brasov, ISBN ,

230 SERVICE ROBOTICS: APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Corina POP, Doru TALABĂ Transilvania University of Brasov Abstract: In the 21st century, life for humans being has become busy to the extent that they strive for a comfortable and easy life. Service robots can provide this comfort to humans by doing all their difficult and dirty work. In order to provide this service, robots should be able to work in the same environment as humans. Therefore it is essential for service robots to have communication and recognition abilities that can be used in any kind of situation to help humans in a real environment. Lots of studies have focused on these abilities of service robots and many system architectures for intelligent service robots are introduced. Service robots give the possibility of new fields of applications for robotics by wide spreading robots also into non-technical areas. Key words: service robots, robot markets, academic research trends. 1. Introduction. Brief History Between the 60s and end of 80s, most robot applications were related to industries and manufacturing and these robots were called industrial robots that were mainly intended for rationalizing production at a manufacturing site. A robot is usually an extremely flexible and complex machine, which integrates science and engineering. Soon after the introduction of industrial robots in manufacturing processes, the research and development efforts were directed toward robot technologies in applications where humans were performing manual hazardous, monotonous or tedious tasks. During the advances in micro-technology, microprocessors, sensor technology, smart materials, signal processing and computing technologies, information and communication technologies, navigation technology, and biological inspiration in learning and decision-making capabilities have led to a breakthrough in the creation of a new generation of robots called service robots. Service robot is a generic term covering all robots that are not intended for industrial use, i.e., perform services useful to the well-being of humans, and other equipment (maintenance, repair, cleaning etc.), and are not intended for rationalizing production. Service robots are manipulative and dexterous, and have the capability to interact, perform tasks autonomously/semi-autonomously (multi modes operation), and they are portable[1]. Table 1 outlines basic features that characterise industrial robots in contrast to completely new, challenging requirements that so-called service robots have to meet [2].

231 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Table.1. Industrial vs. Service Robots Industrial Robots A high degree of precision Repetitive tasks Stationary or mobile along predefined coordinates Closed world, i.e. exact knowledge of the environment Monolithic, straightforward programs No or very little co-operative ability Separated from humans Service Robots Adaptability to changes in environment (e.g. evasion of obstacles) Complex action sequences Free movement Open world, i.e. unexpected objects and events can be handled Variable programs; computational intelligence (neuronal networks, fuzzy logic, evolutionary arithmetic) Co-operation with human and other robots Close proximity to humans Three classes of service robots can be distinguished, the first being robots to replace humans at work in dirty, hazardous and tedious operations, such as working under high temperature, in a radioactive environment, in a vacuum, underwater, fire fighting, space, demining, military, construction, cleaning etc. The second class includes robots that operate with human beings to alleviate incommodity or to increase comfort, such as, entertainment, rehabilitation, assist the elderly and severely disabled, housekeeping, etc. The third class includes robots that operate on human being, such as medical robots mainly for surgery, treatment and diagnosis. Service robots with their free navigation capability target a wide range of applications, such as agriculture & harvesting, healthcare/rehabilitation, cleaning (house, public, industry), construction, humanitarian demining, entertainment, fire fighting, hobby/leisure, hotel/restaurant, marketing, food industry, medical, mining, surveillance, inspection and maintenance, search & rescue, guides & office, nuclear power, transport, refilling & refueling, hazardous environments, military, sporting, space, underwater, etc. Such robots aim to offer a useful service with reasonable cost compared to expected duties [3]. In the 1990s, robots were developed being equipped with manipulators and executed tasks such as moving objects. Bishoff (1997) developed a mobile robot called HERMES, which is an upper-body humanoid equipped with two arms with hands and an Figure 1. HERMES A Humanoid Service Robot omni-directional vehicle [4]. HERMES recognizes objects around it using stereo vision, and executes tasks such as moving an object from one place to another. Recently, service robots that can execute more complicated tasks using threedimensional distance sensors and more powerful actuators have been actively developed [5]. In 2000 Sony's AIBO entertainment robot has broken all records for the number of robots sold in the shortest time period. The AIBO is an autonomous home entertainment robot with artificial intelligence. Its behavior simulates a dog's in its ability to walk and play, with built-in functions for emotions, instincts, learning and growth [6]. 220 Figure 2. Sony's AIBO service robot

232 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Current market and market opportunities in Service Robotics - global characterization Depending on their functions and applications service robots are divided into professional service robots and personal service robots. The total number of professional service robots sold in 2010 rose by 4% compared to 2009 to 13,741 units. The value of sales increased by 15% to US$3.2 billion. 75% of the total unit sales of professional service robots in 2010 were defense or field robots (Figure 3). Figure 3. Defense (military) and field (milking) robots dominate the professional service robot market In 2010, about 2.2 million service robots for personal and domestic use were sold, 35% more than in The value of sales increased by 39% to US$538 million. Service robots for personal and domestic use are recorded separately, as their unit value is generally only a fraction of that of many types of service robots for professional use. So far, service robots for personal and domestic use are mainly in the areas of domestic (household) robots, which include vacuum cleaning, lawn-mowing robots, and entertainment and leisure robots, including toy robots, hobby systems, education and research (Figure 4). Some 14.4 million units may be added in the period Sales value in the forecasted period will be about US$ 5.4 billion (Figure 5) [7]. It is projected that sales of all types of domestic robots (vacuum cleaning, lawn-mowing, window cleaning and other types) could reach over 9.8 million units in the period , with an estimated value of US$4.3 billion. Sales of all types of entertainment and leisure robots are projected at well about 4.6 million units, with a value of about $1.1 billion (Figure 6)[8]. 221

233 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Figure 4. Medical robots and logistic systems increased further Figure 5. Considerable increase of field and defense robots 222

234 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Figure 6. Sales of all types of service robots According to the data presented by the Strategic Research Agenda EUROP (European Robotics Technology Platform), the dynamic of the main market segments for robot products and technologies, in the short, medium and long term (Figure 7) highlights a long-term potential of growth of the current market over 700%, with immediate prospects of expansion of conventional robot applications (in the field of industrial manufacturing processes) in the emerging domains of professional services in multiple industrial sectors, and, in the mediumlong term in the domain of robots for household, public services, personal service and social care applications [9]. Figure 7. The dynamic of the main market segments for robot products and services in the short, emdium and long term. 223

235 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 3. Service Robots Current Trends The new trends in robotics research focus mainly on autonomous and semiautonomous robot systems capable to operate in unstructured environments. Several researchers assign such robots to a class of service robots [10]. Autonomous service robots that assist in housekeeping, serve as butlers, guide visitors through exhibitions in museums and trade fairs (Toyota s Robina or Fujitsu s Enon - Figure 8), or provide care to elderly and disabled people could substantially ease everyday life for many people and present an enormous economic potential [11-13]. Figure 8. Robina, Toyota s tour guide (left) and Fujitsu s Enon (right) Service robots are also developing for equipment service such as pipe and window cleaning. They are designed to perform tasks such as inspection, maintenance and repairs. The market for educational robotic kits at $27.5 million in 2007 is forecasted to reach $1.69 billion by Home care robots introduced so far are rather simple (vacuum robots such as Roomba or lawn mowing robots such as the Robomawer ), but general purpose home-care robots are on the way. Consumer robot markets for house cleaning; lawn mowing, pool cleaning, and general home services reached $227 million in 2007 and are expected to attain $1.7 billion by Figure 9. The Roomba robot and the latest Care-O-bot Entertainment robots such as robot toys represent a growing part of consumer electronics and toy robots are usually Must-have for many children during the Christmas season. A good example of the success of toy robots is Robosapiens from Wow Wee that sold over 4 million units [14]. 224

236 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Curent trends in academic research Researchers of universities develope types of robots that can work in our daily life and fit naturally into human society. This robots will be a platform for developing various types of service robots, such as cleaning robots, security patrol robots, and entertainment robots, based on a rich communication ability. The 1st UJI (i.e. the acronym of Jaume-I University, Castellón, Spain,) Librarian Robot [15] is a representative example. The UJI service robot is a prototype mobile manipulator. UJI Librarian Robot is able to autonomously locate a book in an ordinary library, and grasp it from a bookshelf, by using eye-in-hand stereo vision and force sensing. The robot is only provided with the book code, a library map and some knowledge about its logical structure and takes advantage of the spatio-temporal constraints and regularities of the environment by applying disparate techniques such as stereo vision, visual tracking, probabilistic matching, motion estimation, multisensor-based grasping, visual servoing and hybrid control, in such a way that it exhibits a robust and dependable performance. The system has been tested, and experimental results show how it is able to robustly locate and grasp a book in a reasonable time without human intervention. The experimental setup, presented in Figure 10, requires a mobile platform (Nomadic), a robot arm (Mitsubishi PA-10, 7 DOF parallel-jaw gripper), and a camera-in-hand (MEGA-D Megapixel Digital Stereo Head) configuration. Additionally, a special design of the fingers of the parallel jaw gripper, was necessary, as can be seen. All experiments have been developed using a 266 MHz Pentium II Processor UJI Librarian robot Figure 10. The system in action. Figure 11. The system in action Finally, recent experiments show that the system is sufficiently robust to manipulate non-conventional books, as shown in Figure 10 (right) [16]. New experiments developed with this system, but using a different mobile platform (ActivMedia PowerBot) showed a significant improvement both in terms of results quality as well as regards the final time taken for locating, identification and extraction of a book as shown in Figure 11. E.g. with regard to the grasping process, a ratio of 1.5 seconds per 1 centimeter of book will be needed on average before the book is grasped (e.g. a book width of 4 cm requires 6 s). All these experiments were performed using a 1.2 GHz Pentium IV Processor. 225

237 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science At Limerick University in Island was developed the autonomous service robotic assistant known as LUCAS (Figure 12). The robot acts as a guide for users within the library to locate user specific textbooks. A complete autonomous system has been implemented, which allows for simple user interaction to initiate functionality and is described specifically in terms of its implemented localization system and its human robot interaction system [17]. At university level MobileRobots platforms represent a reliable base and powerful software that helps make students' robotics experiences a success. MobileRobots produces autonomous robots that are the de-facto standard robotic platforms for researchers. The company also diversified into service robotics by introducing delivery robots, security patrol robots, and tele-presence robots. Adept MobileRobots (Intelligent Mobile Robotic Platforms, 2011) offers an array of mobile robots; the Seekur Jr, the GuiaBot and the PowerBot. The most frequently used and most popular research mobile robot are the Pioneer 3DX (P3-DX) and Pioneer 3-AT (P3-AT). In laboratory of robotics at Transilvania University of Brasov researchers are interested in equippind mobile platforms like PowerBot and Pioneer 3-AT as well as the development of new types of service robots. P3-AT offers an embedded computer option, opening the way for onboard vision processing, Ethernet-based communications, laser, DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System), and other autonomous functions. The P3-AT carries up to 3 hot swappable batteries. Optional 8 forward and 8 rear sonar sense obstacles from 15 cm to 7 m. P3-AT's powerful motors and four knobby wheels can reach Figure 13. Robots manufactured by MobileRobots: PowerBot, Pioneer 3-AT Figure 12. LUCAS : Limerick University Computerized Assistive System speeds of.8 meters per second and carry a payload of up to 12 kg [18]. Following devices and equipments were installed on this mobile platform: a rigid structure-supporting the touch-screen; a touch-screen for simple and friendly interaction to provide the user with the necessary information; a web camera to detect the users faces; rechargeable batteries for longer autonomy. The pursued aim consists in achieving a mobile robot for information and publicity capable of interacting with the pedestrians via web interface while detecting both mobile and static objects. The robot will stop when it detects a person who wants to use the touch-screen for information purposes. After additional research and analyses, it was ascertained that a robot having such a configuration can be used as a guide. It can welcome persons and escort then on a preset route providing then with details about the areas traversed. It can be also reconfigured with slight adjustments, into a robot capable of transporting diverse objects from point A to point B (e.g. medical supplies from one room to another). 226

238 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Conclusions The fast advance of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and the continuously increasing complexity of the services sector due to lifestyle changes has resulted in a spectacular development and diversification of the service robots domain. In accordance with these technological and social processes, scientists, researchers and engineers undertake great endeavors in designing and developing service robots while improving their capability to integrate in there working environment. As was shown above, service robot markets experience a broad diversification and a rapid growth especially in activity fields like medical and household. In the long term sales predictions envisage exponential increases between 2012 and BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Maki K. Habib: Service Robots and Humanitarian Demining. In: Mobile Robots, Towards, New Applications. Edited by Aleksandar Lazinica, Published by Advanced Robotic Systems International and pro literatur Verlag, InTech Education and Publishing, pp Available at: new_applications. 2. Jesse, N.: Autonomous Mobile Robots From Science Fiction to Reality. StudFuzz Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag pp Available at: 3. Maki K. Habib, Yvan Baudoi: Robot-Assisted Risky Intervention, Search, Rescue and Environmental Surveillance. In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems. Vol. 7, No. 1, InTech, Croatia, pp Available at: com/journals/international_journal_of_advanced_robotic_systems/robot-assisted-riskyintervention-search-rescue-and-environmental-surveillance. 4. Bischoff, R: HERMES A Humanoid Mobile Manipulator for Service Tasks. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, Canberra, pp Hiroi, Y., Ito, A: Influence of the Size Factor of a Mobile Robot Moving Toward a Human on Subjective Acceptable Distance. In: Mobile Robots Current Trends. Edited by Zoran Gacovski, InTech, Croatia, pp Pransky, J.: AIBO the No. 1 selling service robot In: Industrial Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 28, Number 1, MCB University Press, pp Available at: 7. IFR International Federation of Robotics: 8. World Robotics. International Federation of Robotics, Press release, Frankfurt 9. Nicolescu, A.F.: Robotica prezent şi perspective economice şi tehnico-ştiinńifice. In: EUROP Strategic Research Agenda, July Available at: %C5%9Fi-tehnico-%C5%9Ftiin%C5%A3if 10. Bekey, G., Junku, Y.: The Status of Robotics, In: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp , March Haegele, M., Neugebauer, J. Schraft, R.: From Robots to Robot Assistants. In: Proceedings of the 32nd International Symposium on Robotics (ISR), Seoul, South Korea, 2001, pp Pollack, M. E., Engberg, S., Matthews, J. T.: A Mobile Robotic Assistant for the Elderly. In: Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop Automation as Caregiver: the Role of Intelligent Technology in Elder Care. Edmonton, Canada, pp

239 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 13. Siegwart, R., Arras, K. O., Bouabdallah, S.: Robox at Expo.02: A large-scale installation of personal robots. In: Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 42(3-4), 2003, pp X.Q. Chen, Y.Q. Chen, J.G. Chase. Mobiles Robots Past Present and Future. In: Mobile Robots - State of the Art in Land, Sea, Air, and Collaborative Missions, InTech, Croatia, pp Available at: Mobiles_robots_past_present_and_future.pdf 15. A. P. del Pobil, M. Prats, R. Ramos-Garijo, P. J. Sanz, E. Cervera. The UJI librarian robot: An autonomous service application. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Video Proceedings, Barcelona, Spain, J. Suthakorn, S. Lee, Y. Zhou, T. Thomas, S. Choudhury, G. S. Chirikjian. A Robotic Libarary System for an Off-Site Shelving Facility. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation. Washington D.C, 2002, pp Available at: 17. Behan, J. The Development of an Autonomous Library Assistant Service Robot. In: Advances in service robotics, Edited by Ho Seok Ahn, InTech, Croatia, p Available at: 18. *** Adept MobileRobots, Autonomous mobile robots. Software, and accessories. Available at: 228

240 THE ROLE OF THE LIBRARY IN THE DOCUMENTATION FOR SCIENTIFIC QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Aurel Ion CLINCIU Transilvania University of Braşov Abstract: The growth of qualitative methods of research in social sciences has led to resetting their relations with the quantitative methods. The tendency of integrating some methods of the same type or of different types (qualitative and quantitative) has had positive results concerning the development of internal and external validity of research. Simultaneously, the concern for a complex and accurate documentation of the qualitative research has resized the documentary librarians work. The present article intentionally refers to the way in which university library can support the research growth-up through contributions that are more adequate to the documentation stage which prepares and launches the qualitative research in social sciences field. Key words: qualitative research, documentation, library. 1. Introduction Through a constant evolution of many decades, we can say that today qualitative approach in social sciences has reached a level of maturity which allows it to be considered a really scientific approach which is as valuable as quantitative approach. In order to reach this level, qualitative research either includes several qualitative methods in its structure, or it appeals to the support of quantitative methods. This process has finally led to putting in perspective the borders between the two types of approaches. The term of multimethod research, another name for the mixed research designs, as well as the one of triangulation show that at present it is more probable that researcher should detect the biases and the inconveniences implied by using a single approach method. The direct results of this integrating way of approaching research in the field of social sciences reflect themselves in developing the internal and external validity of qualitative research and also its ecological validity as a result of confronting research results with reality data [1]. Whatever it may be, a field research, an interview-based investigation or a case study, qualitative approach can win a rigour advantage necessary to become comparable with quantitative approach through a special attention given to the process of documentation and data analysis [2]. Although qualitative approach in research may look like an adventure [3], it does not exclude rigour and thoroughness. More precisely, this type of approach must comply with some specific criteria of validation, such as the one of triangulation. Either they are obtained by different techniques, or they result from different research studies carried out on various groups or in various contexts and temporal sequences, the data obtained by triangulation present a plus of stability, coherence and consistency, hence the advantage of validity of the qualitative research results. Even if the term of internal validity of qualitative research should be replaced by plausibility or credibility [2], because the variables checking is lower than in quantitative research, even if in its turn the term of external validity

241 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science should be replaced by transferability which refers to the pertinence of the research conclusions extension to comparable situations from differences environments, qualitative research has reached a level of growth-up which allows a higher generalisability of results. In the same time, the combined or mixed research approach brings qualitative research on positions that are close to the ones represented by quantitative approach. 2. Quantitative approach a mixture of research methods Analyzing the combined designs issue, Patton [4] shows four possible types of triangulation present at the level of quantitative research. Thus, data triangulation represents their collecting out of a multitude of sources whose point of convergence is the confirmation of the same research facts. As we have already shown, the convergence of proofs about the data, events and facts of the study allows some invariants extraction which will produce an increase of research validity of construct, the sources of multiple data providing multiple measures to the same phenomena or theoretical constructs. Similarly, there can also be used other forms of triangulation, such as the one among researchers (several specialists approaching the same phenomenon), among theories (there are different theoretical constructions but their topic consists of the same facts which must be integrated explicatively), or among methods (methodological triangulation which can mix a multitude of approaches of the same type or of different types, like in the qualitative-quantitative designs). 3. Role of library and librarians: documents, archives and databases In order to point out the role of library and librarian in this process, we show that in the case study a qualitative method through excellence the data can be collected by documents studying, archive information, open interviews, direct or participative observations, poll making, inquiry holding or focused interviews. Centring all these types of information sources on the same event or studied phenomenon contributes to giving out invariant elements and implicitly a higher construct validity of the entire research. The first two information sources, documentation and archive research, place the library and documentary librarian into privileged circumstances. Both directions present strengths and intrinsic limitations which must be known. Thus, the documents are stable and can be reviewed whenever it is necessary; they have informational autonomy; they contain names, references and exact data about a fact or event, which confers them precision; they have a long durability and a large degree of covering; they involve events and connected contexts which are important to build a realistic research background. The weaknesses refer to their more limited availability which can be compensated through modern manners of storage (digitization, virtual access); collecting the significant elements can be incomplete and their reporting can show the author s biases, which can be counterbalanced through authors triangulation; some data access can be restricted or even blocked (classified data which are accessible only after a certain period of time but which are vital in the research that implies historical dimension). On the other side, archives have the same weaknesses and strengths like documents. Actually they are repositories of important documents organized for being used long time. To all these there can be added the quantitative dimension (archives are large repositories of data) and the addition of precision conferred by the possibility of selecting the most relevant data. The negative aspects specific to archives are connected to the necessity of rooms for adequate store keeping, to their limited accessibility because of confidentiality reasons and to the difficulty of making a proper selection of relevant information under the circumstances of a great body of data. The documentary librarian s present work consists in transferring these massive repositories of information on virtual storage or electronic supports, in generating high performance systems of clustering and classification which should facilitate the user s rapid access. 230

242 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Due to their importance in guiding qualitative research on priority directions, documents play a primordial role in the process of preliminary acquisition of study data. Systematic searches in significant documents contribute to the correct and complete research documentation which should not have in view only the library or archive. The files examination of the organizations involved in research, the study of the collections in local and national press, the study of the periodical reports or minutes can also provide useful information on which valuable working hypotheses can be drawn. The variety and increasing quantity of studied documents do not constitute the guarantee of an adequate documentation through themselves. Every document searched at present was produced in another temporal context, serving to a certain goal, another one than that of the researcher. The critical approach for identifying these contextual features, decentring from the own objectives, empathy (cognitive and emotional) with the ones who elaborated the researched documents will make easier the identification of contextual objectives and will increase the possibility to extract information really useful for the research itself. Among the data used in field research, the organizational documents such as charts, diagrams, budgets, registers of served clients inventories, maps and graphics, poll data or personal data like diaries, minutes, meetings or telephone calls lists, can have a practical utility in carrying out and sustaining the research. Thus it is necessary we should check the conditions in which they were produced, their accuracy and completeness as documents. The study of documents helps us understand not only the approached issue but also its carrying out environment or context [2]. The documents of the time press, and so much the more the archived ones, help us know the historical dimension of the studied issue, so that finally we can formulate the hypotheses that support qualitative research. A special category of data is that of the ones which have a quantitative expression because they are more precise and more easily workable: topographical elements, inventories of objects, indicators regarding life quality, demographical data (marital status, professional status, degree of kinship etc.), daily rituals and practices or in special circumstances. Documents can be presented in a multitude of forms: digital or verbal, iconic/visual or sonorous. The problem that occurs is that of the corpus of documents which must be processed and elaborating the system of extracting, selecting the significance of this material, namely the semiologic analysis. For instance, in the analysis of some problems occurred in complex social systems, the case study offers the possibility of a good mixture with monographic studies because the latter ones achieves systematic inventories of some material, symbolical and social characteristics in a community. Yin [5] points out the role of a few leading principles of qualitative research: using some varied and multiple sources of proofs, which has already been emphasized before; creating a database of the study. This fact makes possible the independent examination of gross information which amplifies the possibility of extracting the most pertinent information. An example of good scientific practice is that of ethnographical studies which stock the data of field research separately, making them accessible to the present researchers or to the future ones. Under these circumstances the data base must be relevant and relatively complete so that it can allow pertinent conclusions resulted from comparative analysis. This means that a database becomes even more valuable especially if it includes, besides the basic information, notes, annotations, sketches, photographs, commentaries, and other narrative texts which make easier the perception of basic data. 4. Conclusions Contemporary research in social sciences tends to get specialised, those who seriously treat the entire range of methods necessary to a good documentation being very few. 231

243 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Many programmes of master s and doctor s degrees lay emphasis on a single type of data collecting to the detriment of the other types. Not knowing the others well enough, the future researcher moves within a narrow methodological perimeter. One could go beyond this fact with a more complex training system by including the students in programmes of multidisciplinary research or by a thorough analysis of the remarkable research works in the field literature. In this way the future researchers can separate through their own effort the pluses and minuses of each method, as they result from professional usage. Conceiving pilot studies, coordinated by experienced researchers, within the programmes of master s and doctor s degrees, also offers an excellent opportunity for students to get accustomed to complex research designs which combine a multitude of methods that approach the same phenomena or facts. In their turn, the books on research methodology have an abstract and impersonal character which avoids offering the reader models of remarkable researches which should play the role of paradigms in the field [6]. They often have a fragmentary character, present the methods as separate, autonomous entities, and do not treat all the range of available methods with equal thoroughness. Although the growth-up of the qualitative research methods and their overlap with the quantitative ones represent a more clearly obvious trend, the qualitative methods are accepted in a reserved way further on by a significant number of experts because the great effort they are supposed to take and because of the high afferent costs in respect to the relevance of the obtained data. Libraries even the best provided ones and librarians, in this context, cannot replace the researcher but they can support him consistently in the process of both quick and deep documentation regarding the approached issue, through: creating complex documentary holdings which should combine a multitude of informative sources; creating collections of documents, organized on fields and kept up-to-date, containing books, magazines, journals and other materials and publications of speciality; creating - by the help of subject holders - some remarkable research works stores which should be easily accessible to students and young researchers; collecting, stocking and digitizing the research files for projects and grants of research that were won by the academic community members, including both doctor s degree students and professors and experienced researchers; editing and maintaining an own publication or a newsletter which should systematically keep informed the members of academic community in respect to the university s offer of publications and services; developing a specialization of virtual documentary librarian which should systematically search actual databases and virtual libraries worldwide on the asked themes of research or on the asked issues in order to be able to offer consistent and accurate information about the present stage of the studied topic of research. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Vogt, V. P. Dictionary of statistic and methodology. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage, Jodelet, D. Privire generală asupra metodelor calitative. In S. Moscovici, F. Bruschini (coord.), Metodologia ştiinńelor socio-umane. Iaşi: Polirom, Willing, C. Development and application of research. In R. Houser (Ed.), Counselling and educational research. Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage, Patton, M. Q. How tu use qualitative methods in evaluation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, Yin, R. K. Studiul de caz. Designul, colectarea şi analiza datelor. Iaşi: Polirom, Scott. D., Usher, R. Understanding educational research, London and New York: Routlege,

244 AUDIOVISUAL AND MULTIMEDIA SERVICES IN LIBRARIES Mihail DUMITRACHE University of Bucharest, Faculty of Letters Monica ANGHEL National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics ICI Bucharest Abstract: As audio, video and instructional technologies converge and as libraries and user s expectations for these resources escalate, multimedia services are the next major strategic asset for institutional success. Multimedia libraries, as information structures, link the collection of traditional libraries and new media resources. For these libraries, schools of librarianship and information science should provide optional courses for more detailed aspects for those wishing to specialize further. This article tries to define multimedia libraries in every aspect: personnel, equipments, advantages, access, copyright and licensing. Key words: audiovisual resources, multimedia materials, individual users. 1. Introduction Libraries can provide content to its users using tools as books and lectures on the Internet or even handheld computers. Each of these tools provides its content in different ways; for example, a book offers text and images (varying from drawnings to maps, photographs), thus being easy to read and not requiring electricity. A multimedia material, which can also provide text and images, can be modified depending on user s needs or linked to other materials. The Internet has another value as it offers updates and collaborative sollutions, being able to provide enhanced learning facility and with attention to the specific needs of individual users. Audiovisual materials are an important part of our cultural heritage, with a huge amount of information that should be preserved for future use. The rich variety of audiovisual and multimedia materials in society should be reflected in the services offered to users by libraries. Audiovisual materials should be regarded as neccessary components in a fully integrated library service as they can reach out to sections of public for which traditional print-based materials have little impact. In order to provide audiovisual and multimedia services, a library should take into consideration the 2 important actors involved: trained librarians (to consult, organize, manage media resources and services; they counsel and guide users in motivation, utilization and experimentation in terms of the best media or combination of media for the particular learning situation) and resources. Nowadays schools of librarianship and information science should provide optional courses for more detailed aspects for those wishing to specialize further; training in this field is all about: intellectual, legal and technical aspects; only few countries have training programs for librarians wishing to work with audiovisual and multimedia in libraries

245 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science (Australia, SUA). Besides the knowledge about literature when dealing with books [3], it is very important for a librarian to be trained about films, art, traditional audiovisual and multimedia materials. As techniques and products are changing rapidly, multimedia libraries should have a budget for keeping in line with these changes, taking into consideration purchasing of the new products and also continuing professional development of media specialists. It also involves regular maintenance, storage, repair and replacements of hardware when neccessary. In order for all users to produce professional quality multimedia works, apart from all the traditional paper-related service oferred by a library, a 21st century library should also provide information services based on digital medium; digital medium is responsible for better: access support, content availability, content interlinking, reduced costs and preservation. A multimedia library is a library that offers such facilities and services including: audio, DVD/VCR, multimedia resources in the library collection, multimedia resources on the web. Such a multimedia library should have computers equipped with production software and trained staff on hand to provide assistance with creating graphics, videos, podcasts, websites and much more. These services are for all users and are tools for improving the overall quality of personal and user related projects. The internet multimedia collections should be available to users within the library [1]; the documents can be either free of charge, either purchased. The computers in the library should enable using the multimedia on-line documents (software, graphic and sound). This is all because multimedia allows users to take a more active role in learning: they can watch experiments in action, use a keyboard to navigate pictures and interactive material. Audio resources should be provided to users as they have the following advantages [4]: - present contemporary and topical information easily; - no literacy skills required to use; - support asynchronous presentation; - information can be reviewed many times; - moderate production costs; - can be indexed or catalogued to enable nonsequential access. Video materials have the following affordances: - highly accessible; - concrete, specific, detailed information; - appropiate for users with visual intelligence ; - engaging and motivating for many users; - moderate hardware costs; - easily catalogued and reused. Other justifications to audio and video materials are [5]: - good, solid information can be found on video format; - some information is better transmited visually than in print; - many people learn better through the visual than through print; - video offers opportunities for learning and recreation for those reading skills are low; - film/cinema is a highly developed art form; - audio/video are in the same price range as books and usually circulate at a very high rate. Multimedia resources have the following affordances: - active-learning characteristics engage learners via several paths to reinforce concepts; - quantitative elements are supported and reinforce conceptual learning; - engaging and motivating for many users; - interactivity; - opportunity for users to change values or conditions and see what happens. 234

246 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO Copyrights and Licensing The most common multimedia materials that can be found in a library can be divided into 3: - resources that come from different producers (multimedia centers, publishing houses etc.); - resources produced according to individual orders or demands; - materials produced by users themselves, either individually or in groups including teams communicating via Internet. In terms of materials, there are many copyrights related to audiovisual and media resources that should be clearly established for every item of a collection: - Authors - Composers - Producers - Performers. Every library, based on national and internationl legislation, should keep good register of rights for each item in its collection and this register should be updated regularly; the collection may contain time-limited rights or sponsored rights. In Romania, the subsequent amendments and completions provided for in Law no. 285/2004 on the modification and completion of the Romanian Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights (no. 8 of March 14, 1996) describes the beneficiaries of legal protection, duration of copyright protection, limitations, transfer of rights. 3. Access to audiovisual and multimedia materials Audiovisual and multimedia materials should be included in each libray s cataloguing and bibliographic practices in order for the users to have access to these information materials; the entries should have technical information and information in legal position for usage. Of course, there are some challenges and barriers to providing access to audiovisual and multimedia materials [7]: - philosophical barriers: as audiovisual and multimedia materials are not a high priority in many libraries, it is not surprising that librarians offer services based on what they were taught during their training; - financial issues: almost everything about audiovisual and multimedia materials involves financial aspects (storage conditions, staffing needs, staff training, different hardware requirements, acquisition); - education: lack of level of training in audiovisual and multimedia services, having implications to the quality of those services; - staffing: traditional librarians are usually unable to execute the technical services associated with audiovisual and multimedia services; - inadequate infrastructural facilities: lack of spaces, lack of electrical supply needed to run electrically powered hardware; - content issues: cultural bias and misrepresentation of social and cultural factors; - rapid changes in technology: financially unable to entertain the constant upgrading and technological changes. Some initiatives which can improve access to audiovisual and multimedia materials are: - engaging librarians in providing information and not books; - interconnecting librarians with other professionals interested in information creation; - creating networks and partnerships at national level; - developing adequate library programmes; - fundraising for the acquisition of new materials; - collection development with all kind of formats. 235

247 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 4. Selection criteria for library multimedia materials The criteria used for selecting the multimedia materials should depend on the type of library and on the types of users. For example, if we take into consideration a school library, the selection criteria for library multimedia materials should be [6]: - useful for all levels (meeting informational and interest needs of every student); - according to curriculum and the objective of the educational program (reflecting the expected outcomes of the training program); - presented in a manner to the level of students (accurate in terms of content); - including materials by authors and illustrators of all cultures, thus promoting diversity as a positive attribute of our society; - informative, rather than indoctrinating; - appropiate in format in order to effectively teach the curriculum, meeting the needs and learning styles of a diverse student population; - cost effective in terms of use; - appropiate for students with special needs. 5. Conclusions The continuously growing amount of content and knowlegde from the Internet allows libraries to complete their own data and to present their collections in a new way. Users can now benefit from richer data collection and new search possibilities. Nowadays libraries have to deal with all sorts of materials, including print, audiovisual, electronic and multimedia; librarians should see the positive effect of audiovisual and multimedia formats as resource materials and include them in their collections. As multimedia resources (both products and processes) have great potential to enhance education, libraries must adopt these resources and be prepaired (with staff, equipment) to provide them to users, focusing on their motivations and challenges. Although there are many financial aspects concerning providing qualitative audiovisual and multimedia services in libraries, creative measures must be employed in order to support the development of such services. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Guidelines for Audiovisual and Multimedia Materials in Libraries and other institutions. Available at: a.org/vii/s35/pubs/avm-guidelines04.htm. 2. Kalusopa T.: Challenges of Digital Heritage Materials Preservation in Botswana. In: ESARBICA Journal, 2008, pp Multimedia Libraries Role of Digital Libraries in Content+to+Communitz Mediation, Metadata and Search Services. Available at: /6822/Multimedia-Libraries.html. 4. Nunes, A. A. Cesar; Gaible E: Development of Multimedia Materials. Available at: 5. Robinson, M: Developing and managing video collections. New York: Neal-Schuman, Selection criteria for school library media center collections. Available at: 7. Watson, E: Access to Audiovisual and Multimedia Materials: What are the Challanges for developing countries? Available at: Watson.pdf. 236

248 CAROL I CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY PRESERVING THE PAST WITH AN EYE ON THE FUTURE: USER SATISFACTION SURVEY Mireille RADOI Central University Library Carol I Abstract: Carol I" Central University Library of Bucharest is the place where living ideas are born, the place where one may travel in time and space, the place where social differences do not matter, the place where people have to get and give something they know, they feel and they are. It is a link between an elitist tradition sealed by the royal foundation act itself, a present in which any cultural institution hardly succeeds to harmoniously insert itself and the projection of a future in which authentic axiological models and inspiration sources are needed and meant to mark the emergence of new generations.therefore, in a world in permanent change and redefinition, the users satisfaction is crucial for the library. The paper presents the survey undertaken in April 2012 researching the users perception and attitudes towards the library services and the user-librarian relationship. Key words: user satisfaction survey, library services, user librarian relatioship. 1. Introduction The library is no longer a temple where books are kept for the future, the library is a growing organism, according to Ranghanathan s fifth Law of Library Science 1. Change is a prerequisite to growth and therefore libraries today are faced with real challenges. Libraries have already shifted from their old static status of conventional organizations to the so-called hybrid structures. This is partly due to the rapid changes in Information and Communication technologies and the ever changing needs of the users. As Sharon Gray Weiner states, visionary leadership, an elastic organization and receptivity among the staff to a different vision are required to respond to large-scale changes 2. The changes are important and discontinuous. In this context, libraries must overcome the routinisation and adopt innovation with the aim of transforming the old structure into an open, dynamic and more visible one. In this context, library services, library staff skills and library strategic objectives all have to shift from book-centric to user-centric, in accordance with Scupola s vision. 3 The user must be seen and involved in the innovation process as co-creator and as resource. 1 LEITER, Richard A. Reflections on Ranghanathan s Five Laws of Library Science. Web resource available at: [Last visited: 03/04/2012] 2 WEINER, Sharon Gray. Growing Pains. In: The Whole Digital Library Handbook. Chicago, 2007, p SCUPOLA, Ada ; NICOLAJSAN, Hanne Westh. Service innovation in academic libraries: is there a place for customers? In: Library Management, vol. 31, issue 4/5 (2010), p

249 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience 2. Aim of the survey In order to become more connected with user perception of the Library and to maintain up to date with their specific requirements, we engaged in a process of assessing the library services and resources. We crafted a questionnaire survey and collected data that enabled us to get a better grasp of the relationship between Library, librarians and users. The sample size was 651. The calculation was based on the number of active registered users (29,950) with a confidence level of 99% and a margin of error of 5%. 192 questionnaires have been distributed and returned in the Main Unit and 459 questionnaires in the Branch Libraries. The distribution took into account the users frequency. 3. Design of the questionnaire The questionnaire was designed to maximize the amount of information obtained, while maintaining a balance between the number of questions and the time required to provide the answers. The questionnaire numbers 13 questions for the respondents in the Main Unit and 12 questions for the respondents in the Branch Libraries. Some different questions were required for the Main Unit and the Branch Libraries, but all the questionnaires shared a common structure: a section with information about the respondent, a section regarding the library services and a section about the user-librarian relationship. The questionnaire did not include identification data for the respondents in order to obtain maximum of sincerity for the openended questions regarding the library-user relationship. The questions primarily consisted of tick-boxes. Two open-ended questions were added for free comments. The decision to treat separately the Main Unit and the Branch Libraries was based on the following facts: - all user categories, including high school senior students, have access in the Main Unit while only students, doctoral students and teaching staff at the University of Bucharest have access in the Branch Libraries; - borrowing services are provided only in the Branch Libraries, through the Borrowing Centers, for students, teaching staff and doctorate students registered at that department. The collected data give an image of the users perception of the library services, identifie the problems and the disfunctionalities, indicating potential solutions and follow-up actions. 4. Survey results 4.1. Categories of respondents The respondents can be categorized as follows: Table 1 Main Unit Branch Libraries First year university students 8.33% 14.89% Second year university students 13.33% 26.81% Third year university students 28.89% 24.68% Fourth year university students 17.78% 7.87% Fifth year university students 1.11% 0.43% Sixth year university students 2.78% 0% Master students, researchers 9.44% 14.04% Professors 4.44% 8.94% Other categories 13.89% 2.31% Students represent the most significant group of respondents (72.22%), the figure confirming the official record of 77.37% for student frequency in Third year university students are more numerous, their needs being fulfilled by the collections in the Main Unit, 238

250 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 whereas the first year university and second year university students find the information at the Branch Libraries. Fifth year university and sixth year university students are users coming from the Faculty of Medicine attracted by the richness of the collections and by the modern study environment in the Main Unit. The number of other categories users is important, confirming the fact that the Library is attractive through its collections and spaces to a large range of people. Other categories Professors Reasearchers Master students Sixth year univ. students Fifth year univ. students Branch Libraries Main Unit Fourth year univ. students Third year univ. students Second year univ. students First year univ. students 4.2. Questions and answers 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% Figure 1. Categories of respondents Question 1. How often do you visit the library? Table 2 Main Unit Branch Libraries Daily 29.69% 20.56% Weekly 39.06% 54.82% During the exam period 15.10% 10.28% Occasionally 16.15% 13.92% Very rarely % More than a half of users in Branch libraries prefer to visit the library weekly. 20% of them come daily to study. The same trend is registered in the Main Unit where 39% of students visit the library weekly and 29% daily. It is interesting that no user come to the library very rarely in the Main Unit and only 0.43% of users in the Branch Libraries have a low interest in using the library s services. The most active are the master students, followed by the fourth year university and third year university students. Their number is predominant among those who visit the library daily. At the opposite side, the first year university and second year university students register the lowest frequency. They are coming to study at the library especially during the exam periods. 239

251 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Main unit 30 Branches daily w eekly during the exam period occasionally very rarely Figure 2. Visits frequency Question 2. What is your purpose in going to the library? Table 3 Main Unit Branch Libraries Book study 50.34% 31.85% Study environment 24.32% 11.26% Scientific Databases access 9.12% 12.27% Internet browsing 8.12% 7.65% Journals reading 8.10% 12.02% Borrowing documents % Half of respondents in the Main Unit declared that their interest is to study the library s books in the reading room. In the Branch Libraries the number is lower due to the additional service of borrowing documents through the Circulation Centers which is used by 24.92% of readers. A quarter of respondents (24.32%) come to the library for the study environment which is very special in the Main Unit, while in the Branch Libraries only 11.26% of users are interested to study their own materials in the library reading-rooms. 9.12% of users in the Main Unit and 7.65% in the Branch Libraries are interested in consulting the scientific electronic databases subscribed by the library, compared to 8.12% respectively 12.02% using the library mainly for Internet browsing. 8.10% prefer to study the journals in the Main Unit. Internet browsing is the reason for coming to the library declared by most of the other categories users. 240

252 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Borrow ing documents Journals reading Branch Libraries Main Unit Internet brow sing Scientific Databases access Study environment Book study 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Figure 3. Visits purpose Question 3. What are the preferred information sources used for your study in the library? Table 4 Main Unit Branch Libraries On-line Catalogue 68.48% 48.1% Full-text scientific databases 13.59% 22.16% Both 17.93% 29.74% The On-line Catalogue is the main tool used in retrieving information 68.48% of users prefer it in the Main Unit and 48.1% in the Branch Libraries. As for the full-text scientific databases, it is obvious that the users are not taking advantage, as much as they could, of this valuable and expensive resource. We need to find methods to better promote this service. In the Main Unit, the teaching staff, the researchers and the master students are frequently using both information sources. First year university and second year university students are mainly using the on-line catalogue % 60.00% Main Unit Branch Libraries 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% On-line Catalogue Full-text scientific databases Both Figure 4. Preferred information sources 241

253 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Question 4. Do you consider that the access to the full-text databases should be available from the computers in the Main Unit, Branch Libraries, Faculty and/or home? Table 5 Main Unit Branch Libraries Main Unit computers 19.15% 8.76% Branch Libraries computers 14.04% 15.25% Faculty computers 18.30% 30.45% Home computer 48.51% 45.53% Almost half of respondents wish they were able to access the databases from their homes. The teaching staff has already used this facility through the Mobile platform enabled by UEFISCDI through the ANELIS project and Serials Solutions of Proquest. 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% Main Unit 10,00% Branch Libraries 0,00% Main Unit computers Branch Libraries computers Faculty computers Home computer Figure 5. Computers location preferred by the users for access to scientific databases Question 5. To what extent do library publications respond to your information needs? Table 6 Main Unit Branch Libraries To a great extent 48.09% 56.75% To some extent 40.98% 40.47% To a small extent 10.93% 2.78% User satisfaction regarding the publications retrieved in the library on the subject they are interested in is high for more than 56% of users in the Branch Libraries. In the Main Unit, almost half of users consider that the publications in the library cover their interests. 40% of users consider that the library publications partially respond to their information needs. Those who are not happy with the documents on the shelves come to the library to study their own materials and to make use of the library facilities. 242

254 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO ,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% Main Unit Branch Libraries 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% To a great extent To some extent To a small extent Figure 6. User satisfaction Question 6. How useful do you consider the guided tour in the library? In the Main Unit people who want to become library users are given a guided tour in order to get acquainted with services provided by the library. Therefore, Question 6 and Question 7 address only the users in the Main Unit % of those appreciate the usefulness of the guided tour while 10.67% of respondents think that the tour is a waste of time because they can ask for information whenever they need. Question 7. How do you assess the information given by the librarian during the guided tour? 87.16% of users consider that the given information is clear and appreciate the presentation made by the librarian but 12.84% of users are not satisfied and therefore we have to analyze the problem, to identify the reasons of dissatisfaction and to find the solutions. We are talking about the library image and we need to continuously improve it. Question 8. Do you ask the librarian assistance in the Main Unit? The question refers to three areas in the library because in these areas the reference services are delivered by different departments: - the ground floor including the Information area, the Library Card Office, Reference Services Area, Seat Reservation Desk, Internet Area and Online Catalogue area; - the reading rooms; - the Professors Room where the access is granted only to academics, researchers and doctoral students. Table 7 Often Sometimes Never Ground floor 13.54% 66.67% 19.79% Reading-rooms 19.77% 71.19% 9.04% Professors Room 20.00% 60.00% 20.00% 243

255 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience The findings show that users are not very often willing to ask for assistance, probably only when they need to do so and depending on the librarian s approachability, receptivity and friendliness. It appears that the users in the Professors Room and in the reading-rooms are more comfortable in the relation with the librarian because approximately 20% of them often ask for help. In Figure 7, it is obvious that, in general, users prefer to get the information with minimum librarian s assistance and therefore about 60-70% of them often ask for help. 20,00% Never 9,04% 19,79% Sometimes 60,00% 66,67% 71,19% Professors Room Reading-rooms Ground floor 20,00% Often 19,77% 13,54% Figure 7. Users request frequency for assistance Question 9. To what extent the information delivered by the librarians has been useful? (1- minimum, 5- maximum) The question refers to the same three areas in the Main Unit and the answers attempt to measure on a 1 (minimum) to 5 (maximum) scale. Table Ground floor 2.73% 3.28% 7.65% 30.60% 55.74% Reading-rooms 3.85% 1.65% 6.59% 29.12% 58.79% Professors Room % 16.67% 16.67% 58.33% More than half of users consider the information delivered by the librarians very useful. We have to identify the causes for which approximately 40% of users have different levels of satisfaction regarding the information they get from the librarians: gaps in the collections, poor information available on a specific topic versus too much information on a specific topic, librarians poor knowledge and skills, librarians attitude or other reasons. 244

256 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO ,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% Ground floor Reading-rooms Professors Room 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% Figure 7. Users satisfaction Question 10. Please evaluate the quality of the circulation services in the Branch Libraries (1- minimum, 5-maximum) Table Circulation services 4.49% 6.18% 23.60% 37.64% 28.09% The service is available only in the Branch Libraries and it s highly appreciated by 28% of users. 37% of users are satisfied with the service but 4.49% of users do not like it at all. The follow-up action will be the problems identification and solving. Question 11. Do you consider that in the Main Unit the librarians attitude towards you is courteous? (1-minimum, 5-maximum) Table Ground floor 2.87% 4.60% 10.92% 20.11% 61.47% Reading-rooms 1.59% 1.13% 5.65% 21.47% 70.06% Professors Room 0 0% 9.09% 0% 90.91% The answers are very interesting. It is obvious that the librarians attitude in the Professors Room is highly appreciated, while in the other two areas there are only a few problems in the user-librarian relationship. Question 12. Do you consider that in the Branch Libraries the librarians attitude towards you is courteous? (1-minimum, 5-maximum) 245

257 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience Reading-rooms in Branch Libraries Table % 1.30% 3.43% 14.81% 80.04% It is obvious that the user-librarian relationship in the Branch Libraries is stronger than in the Main Unit. Question 13. What changes would you propose to improve the user-librarian relationship in the Main Unit? Some of the users proposals are: an attitude change is required for some of the library staff more courtesy and patience from the librarians working in the Access area smiling and friendliness faces recommended for the librarians more flexibility in attitude Question 14. What changes would you propose to improve the user-librarian relationship in the Branch Libraries? the number of librarians to be higher. Question 15. What are your proposals for improving and innovating the library services in the Main Unit? simplified access in the library wireless connectivity in all the library s areas Ipads available in all reading-rooms digital content available through the library s catalogue more new titles in the collections more new titles in domains like Law and Medicine lower taxes for photocopying facilities more scientific databases available, including Jstor access to the full-text databases from the home computers electronic version of table of content available in the online catalogue for more journal titles borrowing services are requested in the Main Unit a library newsletter for the users lower prices for the food at the Cafeteria permission in the Cafeteria for users to eat home-packed lunch a more visible signing system in the library Question 16. What are your proposals for improving and innovating the library services in the Branch Libraries? updated collections, more e-books available book acquisitions doubled 246

258 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 a better acquisitions policy more computers available in the reading-rooms better Internet connectivity in terms of reliability and speed longer loan periods for the documents photocopying services in the library access to full-text databases from home computers Question 13. Please indicate how satisfied you are with the following facilities in the library for having lunch? (1-minimum, 5- maximum) Table Spaces for 6.15% 10.77% 25.38% 29.23% 28.46% food services and socializing Libro Bistro 10.6% 15.89% 16.56% 24.5% 32.45% A number of 76 users did not answer the question because either they were not aware about these facilities or they are not interested in using them. The satisfaction rate is a medium one. Those who are not happy with these facilities left some comments and solutions. 5 28,46% 32,45% 4 24,50% 29,23% 3 16,56% 25,38% Libro Bistro Social space and catering 2 10,77% 15,89% 1 6,15% 10,60% Figure 8. User satisfaction 5. Conclusions The general tenor of the answers is positive. In terms of library services, user satisfaction is high, and so are expectations. As for the user-librarian relationship, the overall impression is that there is a good level of communication, but some improvement is welcome. The questionnaire revealed that users are very interested to deliver proposals for library s services quality improvement and innovation on different levels like collection development, 247

259 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Sience IT equipment and performances, electronic resources, library facilities and user-librarian relationship. In a fast-developing environment, there will always be room for developing new services for the library s users. Beyond the traditional services, through projects like Strada de C Arte and other cultural events organized in the last two years, we managed to open the library towards the community with the aim of transforming the old structure into an open, dynamic and more visible one. This policy enables users to become part of the library; it surprises and empowers them, and proves that the library represents a real force which could bring benefic changes in the educational & cultural landscape. We think, and the result of the survey confirms, that we succeeded in tackling the emerging challenges being competitive and determined to step up the pace to meet - and hopefully surpass - our users expectations. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Leiter, A. Richard. Reflections on Ranghanathan s Five Laws of Library Science, Web resource available at: Archives/Vol-95/pub_llj_v95n03/ pdf [Last visited: 03/04/2012] 2. Scupola, Ada, Nicolajsan, Hanne Westh. Service innovation in academic libraries: is there a place for customers? In: Library Management 31. 4/5 (2010): Weiner, Sharon Gray. Growing Pains. In: The Whole Digital Library Handbook. Chicago, 2007, p

260 CONSIDERATIONS ON THE STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE VIRTUAL LIBRARY CONCEPT IN ROMANIAN ACADEMIC LIBRARY Mădălina ALBU Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieşti Abstract: Virtual Library is a library consisting of electronic data collections interconnected through the Internet network, and remotely accessible. Virtual Library can provide free access to electronic books and informations of all kinds. A title mediated by a virtual publishing house or a virtual library is visible anywhere in country or world. One or more specific titles may be acquired by one beneficiary, based on information provided by a Virtual Library, either for a fee or free. This Paper presents considerations on the stage of the virtual library concept implementation in Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti. Key words: virtual library, e-learning. 1. Introduction The virtual library is a modern alternative to classic. Mankind needs to keep up with technology development, modernization arrangements for access to reading. The virtual library facilitates the remote booking directly from home using a loyalty card. Virtual Library is a library consisting of electronic data collections interconnected through a computer network like Internet, and accessible remotely. Virtual Library can provide - with fee or free - access to electronic books and informations of all kinds. Financial effort and work invested in creating such libraries are rewarded by several advantages such as: User access to a large amount of documents from a static place of. Workplace must of course be equipped with a device like a computer or an e-book reader Access to the library of an increasing number of users (e.g. users across the globe via Internet) Multiple users simultaneously access the same document Protecting the originals from negligent or malicious treatment Ability to create electronic copies (backups) of all libraries The ability to move the backup on a different server in another building in another town, to exclude data loss in case of unforeseen circumstances like a fire, flood, act of terrorism, etc Simplification (automation) of toll collection.

261 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The primary advantage is overcoming regional purchasing activity book. It is known that most of the times to pick up a book distributors, libraries and readers make use of local resources, local. A title introduced by a publisher, bookstore, library Electronics speaker is visible anywhere in the country (or world). Based on information found in the Virtual Library is the beneficiary can purchase reward or free title or titles desired. 2. Virtual library concept in the academic romanian field E-book concept is a relatively new concept in Romanian academic space, especially since the Internet began to be widely used after the 90s. It consists of a computer connected to the Internet. Students have access to online courses, accessing an account in the virtual library and faculty can print the desired information they can use as they wish in exams or in everyday life without buy more books. Also in these libraries can no audio files, especially useful for language courses. The virtual library can be accessed from home, office or at a friend's, day and night. The SEI program, a system that implements the concept of virtual library and is implemented with the Ministry of Education, in addition equipped with computers for each school in Romania, is aimed at supporting the teaching / learning modern instruments, compatible with the current level of educational systems used worldwide. The system is useful both teachers, pupils and students by fostering creativity and competition. This modern system of training and management of elearning is AEL system and can be used for other current methods such as distance learning / assisted us. Storing information in existing manuals intended structure being configured according to: chapters / lessons with title, description, content, presentation graphics, bibliography, links to related subject matters addressed, self-assessment tests at the end of chapter / lesson or test global. Materials in the library is open a web browser window, was created in hyper-text format. 3. Stage of the virtual library concept implementation in Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti Library Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti was founded in 1948 with the advent of the Oil, Gas and Geology in Bucharest. Library work in 1967 in Ploiesti, where he moved with the first university moved from Bucharest. Library collections are encyclopedic structure determined by the evolution of the University. It provides such opportunities for documentation and information for all majors. Petroleum Gas University of Ploiesti library is mainly aimed at ensuring that information and documentation of students, teachers and researchers from the university, offering unlimited access to the documentary itself or other specialized units. Since 2009, the Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti began to be implemented e-learning concept. E-learning is learning by interacting with a computer, this interaction can take place both to the educational institution and from any computer with internet access. Course materials are presented as the student via the Internet or intranet through a portal that can connect logging in with username and password, as shown in Figure

262 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Figura 1. Access to e-learning platform For project implementation or modification of existing site) and implementing a specific application in the site. Here are some features of the application and the benefits it brings to any institutions that choose to implement it [2]: Supporting the lessons taught in class by audio and video presentations and simulations of experiments that can not be created in laboratory Ability to teach courses directly through the portal, in a room specially arranged room equipped with enough computers so that each student / student to have in front of a PC: teacher portal upload teaching material based on their course and submits it and each student reading the real-time computer teacher taught material The possibility of building a very diverse tests that can be sustained throughout the semester or end it Organize documents in folders and subfolders course for each subject in hand, in a variety of electronic formats and providing the opportunity to include multimedia content such as movies or audio presentations Access students in each course material may be limited or schedule or previous condition of covering material or a minimum grade obtained in a test of the previous Virtual room discussions in which students / pupils can interact with teachers and discuss the material taught, both during and outside their hours Teachers and students access to e-learning portal can be done from any computer connected to the Internet, using a username and password (created automatically by the application administrator). Each student has access only to materials that are destined portal with a well defined access rights that can be edited as needed The application can be used both by teachers and students without the need for special courses or studies in the field of IT, application with an intuitive user. Besides the features of e-learning portal has role to maintain an open dialogue between your school and students and their parents, by allowing an open forum (virtual discussion room) accompanying portal. UPG-eLearning is a web domain dedicated to distance learning programs organized by the Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti [3]. 251

263 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Access to platform-elearning.ro didfr.upg is reserved students from specialties which operates as distance learning and part of the Oil and Gas University of Ploiesti. In a relatively short period of time, UPG will have a functional e-learning platform that will serve business specialization in ID system at UPG. 3. Conclusions Lately, we can see that using internet and new information and communication technologies has become important part of learning and teaching strategies in many universities. Students today use multiple methods of communication continue, passing easily from communication "face to face" the communication online, being accustomed to work in virtual teams and learn the simulation. Their multiple styles of communication, ease of using the web, have opened new ways of learning formal and especially informal. Therefore, implementing the concept of virtual library and e-learning should become a priority for all universities. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Albu M.: Virtual Library, a necessity for Academic Area, The First International Conference in Romania on Information Literacy, The Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, April 2010, p Banciu D.: Informatizarea bibliotecilor. Concepte şi practici. Bucuresti: Ed. UniversităŃii din Bucureşti, platforma e-learning a UniversităŃii Petrol-Gaze din Ploieşti. 252

264 SOME LEGAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE IT ENVIRONMENT Ioana NICOLAE Transylvania University of Brasov Abstract: The rapid development of information and communication technologies followed by the rise of the Web2.0 along with the concept of ubiquitous computing has created an entirely different landscape in terms of social, economic and cultural relationships. These changes have also emphasized the importance of a different kind of perspective regarding a new conceptual approach on some essential legal issues concerning the use of the Internet and the new web technologies in light of their increasingly non-hierarchical and decentralized architectures. This paper attempts to provide a summary overview on some recent theoretical approaches with respect to the significant changes that characterize the current IT law environment from a broader interdisciplinary perspective. Keywords: IT, Internet, computer law, interdisciplinary approach, integrated subject. Introduction The previous conceptual framework of computer law has been developed along two, essentially different, although closely related, lines of thought. The first and relatively widespread concept herein is that of a traditionally one-sided regulatory intervention predicated upon the existing legal environment and addressing a broad range of computer-based artifacts and activities. However, such a limited perspective ignores some of the considerations relating to the inherent reciprocal influences between the domain of law and the new generation of IT technologies. A second concept in the field of computer law theory has emerged through the establishment of several specialized IT-based sub-domains, such as legal databases, e- government mechanisms, etc. intended as supportive instruments to be employed in traditional legal practices. Lately, a new series of theoretical approaches were developed proposing a collaborative action devised to bring together both concepts by emphasizing the two-sided relationships between IT and law domains [1], [2], [3]. These perspectives include a much broader range of aspects and issues extending beyond the traditional scope of the computer law domain and signaling the need for a interdisciplinary approach. The new regulatory concepts The complex problematic entailed by the different regulatory approaches in the domain of computer law have revealed the need for an open-minded, cooperative behaviour of the participating parties. Consequently, the concept of legal regulation had to be expanded accordingly, so as to include non-statal regulatory instruments and other different mechanisms among the established legal means of regulation [1].

265 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science With regard to the conditions of social interaction of Internet users, the mutual influences among different participants within a virtual community were investigated within a selfregulating application (e.g. Internet Relay Chat), and found to be sensibly marked by the system s hard and software configuration [2], [5]. According to this view, a code-based regulation type may be effective even in the case of absence of a central regulatory authority. Within this context, the system s configurators are deemed to be the source of intrinsic legal guidelines thereby exerting significant influence on the users social behaviour. It is however arguable if this so-called code governance represents a viable alternative to the traditional legal practices or is rather a possibility requiring further investigation and the collaborative endeavours of both law and IT experts. A somewhat different approach uses the end-to-end IT design principles as a departure basis for developing new regulations in the domain of computer law [3]. According to this concept, variable economic effects are produced through compliance (or not) with certain design principles, therefore the legal frame should be configured so as to provide maximum economic efficiency of Internet-based transactions without favouring any of the web platform providers. Yet this still raises the question of whether IT design principles are an appropriate premise for reconfiguring the existing legal frame. The integrative approach proposal In an attempt provide a more comprehensive description of the evolutive relationships between the domains of Law and (Informatics) Computer Science, in [1] is proposed an integrative approach model derived from the analogy with Business Informatics, a model which integrates selected aspects from both Economics and Computer Science alongside sections including specific and distinctive approach modalities. In a similar way, the term Legal Informatics was employed to describe an integrated theoretical subject which also relates with two separate domains Law and Computer Science and includes selected topics of the latter, complemented with new subject-specific aspects. Figure 1 below presents the interdisciplinary relationship between the Law and Informatics (Computer Science) domains and the integrated subject of Legal Informatics [1]. Law Legal Informatics Informatics Fig 1 The integrated subject of Legal Informatics including Law and Informatics In accordance with [2] and [3] the Computer Science (or Informatics) domain is not exclusively concerned with domain-specific activities such as hard-and software design and development, modeling, applications design, requirement analysis, etc. Moreover, aspects like code-based regulation (through specific network system architectures) or the effects produced by applying well established IT design principles should not be disconsidered when analyzing the two-way relationship between Computer Science and Law. This places concepts like code governance and end-to-end network design principles among the most important elements of the domain shared in common by the two subjects. Considering the present-day continuous advancement of the networking and ubiquitous computing environments, the previously accepted conceptions of centralized or centrally 254

266 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 coordinated systems are no longer valid. Currently, computer and network architectures applications are increasingly oriented towards decentralized and mobile applications, peer-topeer systems without any central coordination authority. Managing and organizing such systems presupposes a completely different type of legal approach in contrast to the traditional computer environment featuring centralized control and supervision procedures, access rights, resources allocation, etc. The significant changes of network system structures and computing environment has necessarily involved a radical modification of investigation and research procedures. A different perspective has emerged with the advent of the concept of ubiquitous computing signaling the urgent need for a new kind of theoretical approach relating to the latest developments in Computer Science. Many authors emphasize the necessity of introducing the term Web science [4] as a more appropriate designation describing the contemporary computing environment and the decentralized network-based processes. Such a subject would include much more interdisciplinary components in order to better explain the dynamics of contemporary computer systems considering the fact that the latter should no longer be viewed from a technologically centered perspective. Instead, the focus should be placed on the individual user and his/hers capability to utilize the technological environment. In the case of configuring distributed IT systems, economic aspects also play an important role The new computing environment features a significant amount of design-embedded economic principles and aspects. A similar situation is encountered in Law Science a subject wherein economic considerations have gained a firm position as illustrated by the solid establishment of the Law&Economics domain. Here again, economic methods and instruments are employed in legal framework evaluation and structuring, with a special focus on a normative branch of the Law&Economics subject, providing the possibility to select, based on economic considerations, which of the available regulatory alternatives is most appropriate with regard to the pursued aims. In light of the New Institutional Economics (NIE) a concept that emphasizes the importance of social and legal norms, this leads to a changed structure (Fig 2). This new structure allows to provide more appropriate solutions to problems relating to the Economics, Computer Science, and Law domains by integrating selected aspects from these subjects into an entity designated as New Legal Informatics [1]. New Institutional Economics (NIE) Law New Legal Informatics Informatics Fig 2 The extended integrated subject of New Legal Informatics [1] including economic considerations (NIE) 255

267 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Conclusion The massive economic, social and cultural changes occurring as a result of the rapid development of the new IT technologies have led to the emergence of a concept that is generally referred to as information society. Information as a service or commodity is produced, disseminated, and utilized worldwide with significant effects on everyone s lifestyle. These fast evolving processes have revealed some serious shortcomings caused by the absence of an adequate legal framework capable of covering the new problematic associated with the challenges posed by the rise of the information society. This paper outlines the theoretical approaches made in order to develop a coherent and efficient legal framework based on the interdisciplinary concept of integrated knowledge entities. The proposal emphasizes the importance of a broad interdisciplinary perspective to create a synergy for a more efficient use of discipline-specific knowledge resources. The outcomes of this approach will be of both theoretical and practical importance given the possibility of addressing the legal aspects regarding the problematic of the IT environment from an integrating perspective while providing a platform for future research and development. REFERENCES 1. Pallas, Frank: Recht, Informatik und neue Institutionenökonomik der Berliner Ansatz zur Regulierungstheorie. In: J. Taeger/I. Vassilaki (Hrsg) Wissenschaftliches Forum für Recht & Informatik, Edewecht, Ishii, Kei: Code Governance Code as Regulation in a Self-governed Internet Application from a Computer Science Perspective, Dissertation, T.U. Berlin, van Schewick, Barbara: Architecture and Innovation. The Role of the End-to-End Arguments in the Original Internet, Dissertation, T.U. Berlin, Shneidermann, Ben. Web Science: A Provocative Invitation to Computer Science. In: Communications of the ACM 50(6), Lessig, Lawrence: Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York,

268 INFORMATIONAL CONTENT OF A SCIENTIFIC EXPLORATION OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES Maria-Rodica VOLOVICI Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu Abstract: In the contemporary universities, together with the growth of the information in the scientific field, there had been a multiple plan development of the activities, departments and structures of documentary information. Built at the interference of some realities and contradictory tendencies - overflow of information, on one hand, and insufficient information, because of the access barriers linguistic, financial, organizational, etc.- on the other hand - scientific and technical availability, versus incapacity of relation and interrogation, - the structures of documentary information (libraries, documentary centers, etc.) bear the stamp of a less supervised development and the sign of a promising inter - disciplinarity. Keywords : scientific field, documentary information, university library. Introduction The exponential growth of the number of inner and outer documents that assault the top management of the universities, the necessity of studying more and more sources of scientific information, both on a classical support - paper and other types - and also the extension of the documents distribution systems, through the electronic mail systems ( ) worsened the problems in the field of the documents retrieval and of the control over the security of the documents access. This is the present situation and it explains why the traditional management approaches of the documents and records failed disastrously in any types of organizations, whether companies or universities. The exchange of information represents an essential category in the life of a society and especially in the university workability. Storing and retrieving the information are the two facets of processing the information: in order to find some information, that information must have been stored in one way or another. The way in which the information appears, text or image, makes difficult or even impossible obtaining clear and accurate answers to some questions that the user might ask. Searching in a collection of documents may be easy or complicate, according to the way in which the collection is organized. We shall focus on models and technologies that can be used in storing and saving information as documents that have a text, too: the text may include tabs, chemical formula, maps and images. Although we shall dwell up especially on the use of computers, the concepts and principles brought up are compatible to all ways of storing and retrieving the information, beginning with the wholly manual system, and ending with the completely automated one.

269 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Any information system has in its center a collection of data concerning the reality. Because this collection is always incomplete, new data are incorporated and the data that already exist are continuously redefined, in order to find correspondences closer to reality. Any informational system uses this data collection and not the reality itself. In any informational system, the real world is represented by a collection of data selected from observations of the real world and made accessible for the system (this is the first principle of abstraction). An individual uses an informational system in two different ways: - to store the information anticipating a future need; - to find information as an answer to a present need. In both cases, the user has an informational need that leads to using the informational system. If the user stores the information, then the way of storing the information will mirror the anticipated need. In other words, the user will try to store the information in a way which will facilitate its future use. The form under which the information can be stored is influenced, to a great extent, by the informational system. For instance, the information must be digitized in order to be used in a computerized system. If the user tries to retrieve the information, then this need must be shaped as an interrogation that is interpreted by the system. Once more, the system influences the shape that the informational interrogation might have. The need of a user to generate, store or retrieve the information is drawn in a manner that depends on the informational system that is to be used (this is the second principle of abstraction). These two abstraction principles represent the fundamental problem for those that develop the informational systems. The user has a need for information that should be satisfied by information from the real world. Still, the informational system cannot work but to an abstract level, by connecting the data to the question (fig.1) processing extraction REALITY DATA INFORMATION NEED OF INFORMATION INTERROGATION DECISION KNOWLEDGE Fig.1 Abstraction and architecture of an information system Organizing the Information Words as data or information had been quite often used in a non-scientific manner; it is time to make a difference between them. The description made here cannot be universally accepted, but it is used like this. Data are received, stored and retrieved by an informational inner system. Data are impersonal; they are equally available to any user of the system. 258

270 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Contrarily, the information is a set of data that had been adjusted to some needs for information. That is, the concept of information has both personal components and components depending on the time and that are presented in the data concept. For instance, even if a system can give the user the ingredients in a certain cereal breakfast, these data are not pieces of information if the user already knows them or if they are not relevant for the user s need. In fact, these data become a noise in the system, disturbing the user s conscience and concentration. Besides, they potentially dilute the system answer to the need of information. Another way of differentiating between data and information is the organization. Although data can independently be organized by individual users, organizing the information is something more personal, the user being obliged to actively intervene. Data may have a certain organization, may be the one imposed by the data collecting and storing process. On the other hand, the information has a high level of organization imposed by its relations with a certain need of information. In the system of a data base where the same types of needs and questions emerge repeatedly, a big amount of the organization necessary for these needs can be built in a storage system. But even there, the designers and users have multiple views over the data. Still, in most informational systems of data retrieving it might be impossible to anticipate the most suitable organization, without expressing different needs. Besides the data and the information [Buc01], there are still three terms that should be classified in this hierarchy, because of their high complexity: the signal, the knowledge and the wisdom. To another end, less complex than the data, there is the signal that has to be transmitted from one place to another during the information processing. This signal might be a flow/stream of bits, a form of electromagnetic wave or another form. This is exactly what the transmission engineer does, his task is to make the signal emit from one location to another. We must remark the fact that this task has nothing to do with the content of the signal. In order to use the most adequate terms, this domain of study should be called the theory of transmitting the information, but Claude Shannon initially called it in 1948, the theory of communication [Sha62] and now it is called the theory of information. The researchers in the domain are centering round the static properties of the signal in order to reach a valid transmission. The use of these properties permits the development of some transmission evaluation that can detect and correct errors occurred during the transmission. The word noise is used to identify errors in the transmission that damage the original signal. The received signal consists in data having a minimal quantity of noise. Certain data are selected and organized by the user in order to build up information that should answer to some necessity. The importance of processing the signal when storing the information and their retrieving lies in the fact that that some used algorithms and measures are based on fundamental concepts about the information theory. Beyond the signal, the data and the information, there is the knowledge. The knowledge is built on the information, integrating any new information among the already known one, in order to shape a large, coherent vision of a part of the reality. Thus, while the information is located as an answer to a certain question, the knowledge has a wider aim. The people working with the Artificial Intelligence are talking about knowledge bases. A knowledge base is built on the attempt of incorporating in the stored data and algorithms, different facts, concepts and rules that are representatives for one or more experts selected in a certain field. The system built on this knowledge base in called expert system. Finally, the wisdom completes this knowledge with a wider vision that contains all the known reality and that governs the use of the obtained information as well as the knowledge developed. It refers to the capacity of making balanced judgements in the light of some 259

271 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science valuable criteria. As far as we know, there has been made no attempt to incorporate wisdom into the inner-system of any informational system. signals data information knowledge wisdom A user generates and stores representatives data for the information that he (she) aims to retain. Another user finds these data; the user s aspiration is for finding information, that is data that fit his special need. The information that the second user searches is not necessarily the one that the first user tried to represent in data. The knowledge and the wisdom imply the individual user so much that they are beyond the aim of an information retrieving system. They imply the integration of the information from many sources, the large majority being beyond the reach of an informational system. Still, the development of knowledge and wisdom depends on the access to the high quality information; this development depends on efficient and effective systems of storage and retrieving the information. Indexing in Text Analysis An index is built on the basis of an indexing language or a vocabulary, made of a set of index terms. These terms can be isolate words, longer phrases, or both. In order to maintain a certain continuity in the data base, certain decisions concerning the indexing language characteristics must be taken, before assigning any index terms. The indexing has three main purposes in retrieving the information: - to allow an easy location of the documents according to their subject; - to define subject areas and consequently to make connections between the documents; - to predict the significance of a given document for a needed specific information. The indexing rules imposed by the editors and the others determine a certain degree of controlling the indexing language, even when the specific terms are being left opened and flexible. Many manual indexings are pre-coordinated. That is, term sub-sets are identified, every one being represented in the indexing language by a single term. For instance, an indexing language that is not very specific, might request that the terms coal, gas, crude oil should be represented by the term fuel. The most frequent cross-reference types are: The see type reference, that refers to the article of the standard vocabulary (controlled) The see also and the related terms type, that refer to the related articles. The larger term type that refers to more general terms. The restricted term that refers to more specific terms. The guiding principles in the automated indexing are: The set of words can be divided into two sub-sets words that appear mostly because of relational and grammatical reasons, and content carrier words. Among the content carrier words, more frequently a word appears in a document, more probably that word is important for the document. A word can be used to distinguish a document, whenever its publication in that document, significantly differ from the accidental publication in the collection of documents. 260

272 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 The Discriminating Value of the Term A common manner to define the resemblance between the documents is to compare the key terms that the two documents have. Two documents are very much alike if they share the same key terms (these documents must not be identical). Two documents essentially differ if they do not share any key word. For the time being it is enough to know that a measure for the resemblance between the documents, σ, can be defined and that such measurements can rely either on the presence or theabsence of terms in every document, or on their frequence of appearance. Whatever the case, the resembling measure can be normalized, so that σ(d 1,D 2 ) = 1, if D 1 and D 2 are very much alike and σ(d 1,D 2 ) = 0 if D 1 and D 2 differ essentially. Phrases and proximity The frequence of the phrase can be calculated the same way as the frequence of the word, and the share of the phrase can be applied the same way. Still, because the usual frequency of the phrase is usually rather small, such a balancing schedule should be used. Let's suppose for instance that the word information appears 172 times in a document, and the word retrieval 57 times. Consequently, the phrase information retrieval can appear at most 57 times, but probably less frequently. Thus, if the same balancing schedule is applied both to phrases and words, the smaller natural frequency of the phrase influences its balance, regarding the balance of the individual words. Phrases are often taken from a text. For instance, if the user is interested by the phrase information retrieval, he is probably interested by the phrase information storage. Still, these are different phrases, and it is very possible that the second phrase should not be so frequent, so that it might loose it s importance. It is still reasonable to suggest that the phrase retrieval and storage of information should be included in the calculation of the phrase information retrieval. A good method could be measuring the distance between words. Thus, by calculating the combination information and retrieval, these two words can anytime appear in the same sentence with at most two separating words, the calculation thus including: information retrieval,information retrieval and storage, and information storage. Pragmatic factors Finally and having a major complexity, pragmatic factors concerning the user can be introduced, too. Is the user a high school student or a candidate for a doctor's degree? Is the user well prepaired in the questions area or he is just trying to get into a new study area? Has the user direct access to the document and if so, had he read it? These factors and others depend on the individual user and must be used dynamically. Only when the users are forming a small and homogenous group, such factors in a system could be constant. Together with the development of technology and of the retrieval interractive systems which become the main activity, a more profound research is addressing to the adequate representation of the user as being apart of the information retrieving system. An important group of researchers are studying the retrieval systems, especially the on-line ones, with the aim of offering better models of users who could improve the retrieving systems performance. 261

273 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Conclusions In many situations, both in the real world and in the science world, we deal with plenty of documents more or less diverse. In order to subsequently retrieve them, to enlarge the period of their availability, we are interested in grouping these documents in smaller groups, by using different criteria. When the grouping is made according to well known criteria, this type of grouping is named classification. Because there is not always possible to achieve a useful classification, because there is a risk not to be able to group some very complex data, we must find ways to group scientific articles that resemble somewhat. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. [Bal05] 3 rd Balkan Region Conference on Engineering Education, Advancing Engineering Education, Sibiu, 2005/ Eds. C. Oprean; C. Kifor; N.Georgescu, Conference Proceedings, Sibiu, 3; 2005; 2. [Bal03] 2nd Balkan Region Conference on Engineering Education - Bridges for Cooperation in Engineering Education. Conference Proceeding Sibiu, 2003/ Eds.: C. Oprean; C. Kifor; N.Georgescu; 3. [Buc01] Buckland, M. - Review for Information Processing and Management, by Christine L.Borgman. In Information Processing & Management, vol.37,nr.4, 2001; 4. [Der00] Dertouzos, Michael - CE VA FI: Cum vom trăi în lumea nouă a informańiei. trad. din lb.engleză, coord. Filip, Fl.-Gh. Editura Tehnică, 2000; 5. [Sha62] Shannon, C.; Weaver, V. Mathematic theory of communication. University of Illinois, Urbana,

274 UNIVERSAL PATRIMONY IN THE OLD BOOK COLLECTION OF SAINT NICHOLAS CHURCH FROM ŞCHEII BRAŞOVULUI (14 th -16 th centuries) Vasile OLTEAN The "First Romanian School" Museum Braşov Abstract: The existence of a church library in Şcheii Braşovului can be followed back in time, up to before the 15th century, when books were donated by priests, scholars, noblemen or voivodes. In 1683 many books and documents disappeared; after that it was conceived the first Inventory-Book of the church. Other inventories followed: in 1693, 1753, 1759 and The most recent Catalogue, still in use today, was completed by professor Ion Colan. This study presents the most valuable books, from the 14th century untill 16th century, belonging to the universal patrimony available at Saint Nicholas church from Şcheii Braşovului. They are school and church books coming from Bulgaria, Russia, Serbja, Poland, Venice; their presence in Şcheii Braşovului can be explained through the wide cultural connections the priests and scholars of Saint Nicholas church cultivated constantly. Key words: universal patrimony, old book, church library, Brasov. Formed under the aegis of the ancient princely church Saint Nicholas from Şcheii Braşovului, the old-book collection herein illustrates the value of the cultural patrimony patronized by this church and its ministers; however, at the same time, the significance of other cultural environments whence great part of these books proceeded (Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, Venetia, Germany etc.) Through the recent volumes of the old-book catalogue from Şcheii Braşovului, edited at Iaşi, within Tipo Moldova publishing house, we have briefly presented this universal patrimony, attempting to explain the presence of this impressive foreign old book-thesaurus in Şcheii Braşovului. The existence of a library, therefore of a book-collection here, may be proved ever since the XV-th century, when the library had a silver seal (stamp), also kept to our days, applied on all belonging books; but also in the conditions of archpriest Michael s receiving from his forerunners a valuable library, also offering the church numerous book donations through his followers, archpriests Constantine and Basil. In these circumstances, the church itself forms a library through its ministers donation; however, also through the one of the princes and great boyars who, under various circumstances, offered books to the church. The intention for cataloguing them occurred quite late, only when they are endangered by the book detractors; but also by their turning into financial values over time. The first initiative pertained to the voievode Constantin Brâncoveanu, who had also given numerous books following an unhappy incident, when from Satan s order, rather from the carelessness of those in charge with keeping them, the church s document and old-book disappeared, and the Walachian prince sent from his court the Brasov citizen David Corbea to save the situation. This ones notes that In this archpriest s time (our note Staicu, year 1680) the Tatars went on the Beci (our note Vienna) to help the Turks. During the Tatars passage through łara Bărsei, great fear rose among people and everybody carried everything in the City. They likewise did with the church s tools (our note goods). After that fright had ceased, they brought again those tools to

275 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science the church and, being a poling board box containing many tools and letters and charters, they did not carry it in the church s treasury, but placed it where the wafers are collected, to stay there until the following day as, being heavy, they could not lift it in the church s treasury and, neither searching for that box, nor asking until the following year; deeming that, as many things had been placed in the treasury, this box had been put in its turn; as this priest, Staicu, took care of this; and so, because of sustenance-lack or deceit, the box was lost and never found again. Great loss was done through having lost that case, as within it many charters from the Moldavian and Walachian Countries parents and from Maghistratu in Braşov and since this holy church was built... all were in that box... 1 Following this incident, between the years 1684 and 1813, the church s first roll-inventory is achieved 2 also settling a chapter of goods, whereof also for the books, under the title Hence the learning of the books pertaining to the Holy Church of Şcheailor, all in their turn, where 51 volumes are registered, mixed through other goods of the church. Confronting the title of the books registered within this roll with the present ones, only a small part is kept, which proves that, over time, other books disappeared. Among the missing ones, we mention a "CeaslovăŃ scris cu mâna ( Book of Hours Written by Hand ), Un Praxiu coajnic (Homiliary Copied on Parchment), Beseada apostolică de la Voica ispravnic ( Apostolic Discussion from Voica Stewart ) (A Gospel with Learning) etc. The third catalogue in the same roll, achieved by David Corbea and by the archpriest Florea Baran at 1693 (and subsequently completed by other local copyists) selects the books under the title Izvod pentru cărńile ce se află în Svănta Bisearecă la Şcheii Braşovului, tot anume şi care cine o a dat, să să ştie ( Roll for the Books in the Holy Church from Şcheii Braşovului, Everything and Whoever Gave Whatsoever, to Be Known ), registering a number of 115 books. From their list, many are no longer kept ( Un Clici românesc de la Varlaam mitropolitul, adică Cheia înńelesului ( Romanian Faction from Varlaam the Metropolitan Bishop, namely Key of Understanding ), Bucharest, 1678, Noul Testament ( New Testament ) from Belgrade, VieŃile sfinńilor ( Saints Lives ) of Metropolitan bishop Dosoftei, Parimiile ( Parimiars of Dosoftei), Psaltirea în versuri ( Psalter in Verse ) of the Şchei inhabitant Teodor Corbea, given by the author to the church in the year 1725 etc.), and for the others we have precious specifications, such as the one that the noteworthy book Cărare pe scurt ( Path in Brief ) from Alba Iulia in the year 1699 is printed with the church s seal, which means edited and patronized by the church from Şchei. After more than half a century, in 1753, another roll-inventory of the church is written 3, which merely registers 60 books, only the immediate-utilization books or the depositingdirected ones in one of the church s recently built oratories being mentioned. Probably, the fact that the inventory during 1753 was incomplete, at only six-year distance, (in 1759) another Roll is made 4 including 177 books, whence we find that Slavish Bible was sold, likewise a Paucenie (Homiliary-Book of Sermons) was sold. Among the ones absent today, we again mention the Psalter of Teodor Corbea, Scrinul de aur (Chest of Gold), Două Taine tâlcuite într-o carte (Two Secrets Deciphered in a Book), O carte grecească împotriva Liuteranilor (A Greek Book against the Lutherans) etc. The last inventory in the rolls dates back from 1811, but with 56 books, all of ritual, ranged on specialties, obviously the daily-usage books. Meanwhile, the old-book collection enters the experts interest sphere. During forty-eighters, Ioan Bran de Lemeny, in guise of secretary of Saint Nicholas Church s Representation, begins reorganizing the library, his work being taken over by the famous archpriest Iosif Barac and by Şaguna-College teacher Vasile Glodariu; thereafter the great philologist Costantin Lacea eventually compiles a catalogue with 202 old books and a study published in a local magazine, 1 N.N.State (Nicolae Sulică), InştiinŃări Cateva capitole din trecutul romanilor din Şcheii Braşovului (Notices A Few Chapters from the Past of the Romanians in Scheii Brasovului), Braşov, 1906, p Collection Protocols, Roll no. 1, p Collection Protocols, Roll 2. 4 Collection Protocols, Roll

276 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Transilvania 5. The studies of the priest and Şaguna-College teacher Candid Muşlea followed, concretized in the church s valuable monograph, published in two volumes 6. The last catalogue, in use of our days, is owed to the teacher Ion Colan, who also organized the Public Library Braşov. We completed the catalogue, on the basis of the non-classified books, the figure of more than volumes being reached. The presence of the universal-patrimony values is explained through the relations that Saint Nicholas church and its scholars-ministers had with the universal cultural environments. One knows that archpriest Michael (priest between the years ), deacon Coresi s well-known collaborator, who translates together with the same church s archpriest Iane, the valuable Evanghelie cu învăńătură Cazania a II-a ( Gospel with Learning Second Homiliary), at 1581, studied at Ipek, in the famous theological academy from Serbia, whence he had surely brought the books afterwards kept in his library and given to the church. With obvious didactic purpose, there are brought in Şchei by the archbishop Michael, the three books of wisdom in Slavish from the XV-th century: Saint John of the Ladder LeasviŃa-Scara Sf. Ioan Scărariul din muntele Sinai (Leasvita-Saint John Climacus Ladder from Mount Sinai), written by Bulgaria s well-known bishop John of Rila and given to the church by the very archpriest Basil the chronicler at 1660, together with an icon and priestly garments (C.V.17) ; Cuvântările sfântului Efrem Sirul (Wordings of Saint Ephraim the Syrian), full opus by the famous sage of Damascus from the IV-th century, in Serbian version during the fifteenth century, comprising precious teachings on love, long suffering, gentleness, obedience, repentance, but also on flaws genuine sermons, subsequently used by all exegetic preachers ; The famous book of the emperor Ioan Cantacuzino( ),,Împotriva dogmei mahomedanilor (Against the Mohammedans Dogma) (C.V.25), given to the church by the archbishop Michael s daughter, Stanca, during 1631, adding a furious curse for the one who being greedy, will take it or sell it when there is no great sorrow or need of the Holy church may he be cursed by our Lord Jesus and by his 12 Apostles and by the 318 fathers from Nicaea ( se va lăcomi să o ia sau să vândă fără să existe un mare necaz sau nevoie a sfiintei biserici să fie blestemat de mântuitorul Hristos şi de cei doisprezece apostoli ai lui Hristos şi de cei 318 părinńi de la Niceia ). Among these, a Slavonic Menaion of the month of September on parchment from the XVth century was to be given to the church by archpriest s Michael s son, chronicler archpriest Basil (C.V.18). Both on this one and on another Slavonic Menaion of the month of December (C.V.28) likewise from the XV-th century, coming from the archpriest Mihai s house, the merchandiser Petru Cărăuş name appears, from Schei, who brought, of course, the book in Şchei. The Slavonic Menaion of the month of June dates back from the same period, given to the church for the pit of the archpriest Basil (archpriest Michael s son). The archpriest Michael s son, the priest Toma, former home child of Craiova s ban, afterwards herald in Moldova and Muntenia, having become a monk in 1572 at the monastery Babele from Muntenia, offering before his death to the church from Şchei, a Slavonic Menaion for religious holidays, also dating in the XV-th century (C.V.6). From Bulgaria, from the famous fortress Târnovo, the Bulgarians first capital, a Menaion from the XIV (C.V.34)-century is brought, in middle-bulgarian version, which keeps, in hand graphics, images of the old fortress, before its being killed by the Turks during The supposition exists for this book having reached Şchei through the voievode Nicolae Petraşcu, who is Michael the Brave s father, and through Petru Cercel, whose name is registered on the interior cover and whose connections with the Romanians from Şchei are well known. Testimonies about a famous patriarch of the Bulgarians, Eftimie of Târnovo, are kept in the oldest philosophy textbook, in Şcheii Braşovului, where we find the correspondence between this scholar and Nicodimus Tismana, the founder of the first monasteries in our country. Likewise from Bulgarian realms, a Prologar is brought (Saints Lives) compiled in Serbian version, during the XV-th century by a copyist named Novac and offered to the church by the 5 Costantin Lacea Biblioteca veche a Bisericii Sf. Nicolae din Braşov (Old Library of Saint Nicholas Church from Brasov), in Transilvania, XL (1909), nr.2, p Candid Muşlea,,Biserica Sf. Nicolae din Şcheii Braşovului (Saint Nicholas Church from Şcheii Braşovului), vol.i-ii, Braşov,

277 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science archpriest Basil the chronicler, who was archpriest Michael s son. During 1558, the grammarian Peter from Lovici (Bulgaria) wrote a valuable Missal that some philanthropists (Radohna and Nedelcu) bought with 65 aspri (Turkish silver coin) and gifted to the priest Nedelcu from the church of Beliş, whence the book reached to the church from Rucăr and whence, through the priest Aldea, in Şcheii Braşovului. Another Prologar from 1580 ordered to John the grammarian from Bulgaria by Jivko and his wife, was to be given to the church from Schei also by the archpriest chronicler Basil. The first Slavish printed matter, edited on the order of Stephen the Great, in Krakow, during the year 1491, by the Austrian typographer Sweipold Fiol, comprising a Triodos- Pentecostarion of holidays (C.V.128) was bought by the priest Smădu, son of Aldea from Râşnov with 7 florins, with the support of the archpriest Toma and of other inhabitants from Şchei and Râşnov, as Saint Nicholas Church from Râşnov was phile to the one from Şchei. From the Russians, there is also kept in Şchei, a Significance of Gospel, printed at Vilnius, during the year 1575, by the famous Russian typographer Timofeev MstislaveŃ (C.V.70) and gifted to the church by the chancellor Balea and his son, the cupbearer Necula of the Romanian Country, whose connections with Şchei are well known. The famous Bible from 1581 of Ivan Feodorov, the first Russian typographer, printed at Ostrog, is kept in Şchei, in two copies (C.V.127 and C.V.159), the last copy having been recently discovered. Many books are in Serbian version, as the priests from Şchei studied in Serbia. This way, we also explain bringing to Şchei, an important manuscript of the Great Octoechos written by the Serbian copyist Nicola Deac at Păuliş on Mureş on the order of the priest Mircea and brought to Şchei from the monastery Ostrov (Călimăneşti). It is natural to find in Şchei books brought from Venice, in the conditions in which Petru Cercel, after the Venetian stand, adorns with images and icons the church of the inhabitants from Şchei, surely giving them books; whereof we mention the Slavic Sbornik printed at Venice, during 1538, by the famous Serbian typographer Bojidar Vukovici and kept in the archpriest Michael s same library, whose connections with the Walachian voievode are well-known. Among the books of the same typographer, we mention a small Tripesnic from 1561, also kept in the archpriest Michael s library and given to the church in 1650 by the archpriest chronicler Basil together with manifold icons and priestly garments. From Germany, Frankfurt, in 1581, a book is brought comprising Comentarii la sentinńele sacre şi profane din autori greci şi alńii (Commentaries to the Sacred and Propane Sentences from Greek and other Authors) in Greek and Latin (C.V.1322). We limit ourselves to only briefly submit patrimonial book-values from the XV-XVI-th centuries, given the space circumstances, they being the proof for the most important scholastic period in Şcheii Braşovului, which culminated with editing Coresi s books and with the beginnings of the writing in Romanian, these ones obviously being sources for editing the first Romanian books. For better knowing these values, we achieved four volumes, presenting in detail all old books from the book collection in Şcheii Braşovului up to 1840 and we are able to continue their presentation until 1880, as for this last period we hold an impressive book volume from the national and universal patrimony. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. State N.N. (Nicolae Sulică): InştiinŃări Cateva capitole din trecutul romanilor din Şcheii Braşovului, Braşov, 1906, p Fond,,Protocoale : Catastif nr. 1. Catastif 2. Catastif Costantin Lacea: Biblioteca veche a Bisericii Sf. Nicolae din Braşov. In:,,Transilvania, XL (1909), nr.2, p Muşlea Candid:,,Biserica Sf. Nicolae din Şcheii Braşovului, vol.i-ii, Braşov, LinŃa Elena: Catalogul manuscriselor slavo-române din Braşov, Universitatea Bucureşti, Oltean Vasile, Catalogul de carte veche din Şcheii Braşovului, vol.i- II, Editura Edict, Iaşi, 2009; vol.iii-iv Editura Tipo Moldova, Iaşi,

278 ZSUZSANNA LÓRÁNTFFY, COMENIUS AND THE SCHOOL OF FAGĂRAŞ Florentin OLTEANU, "Negru Voda" Cultural Foundation in Fagaras Elena HELEREA, Transilvania University of Brasov Viviana MOLDOVAN The High school in Codlea Abstract: Between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, within Hungary-Walachia area, the system of education was being developed according to the model of Western countries. One of the personalities at the time, Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, had provided a full contribution to the socio-cultural development of the Provence of Fagaras. This paper presents a brief biography of the princess who reigned over the land of Fagaras. It also reveals the importance of encountering the famous pedagogue for Comenius for the reorganization of the School of Sarospatok. Following the principles of pedagogue Comenius, the princess has organized in Fagaras a Romanian school. The patent dated April 3, 1657, which testifies the founding of the Romanian School in Fagaras, underlines the modern vision of the princess, who goes beyond the mentality and the limits of that time, foreseeing the demands of the future Keywords: Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, Comenius, Romanian School, Fagaras. 1. Zsuzsanna Lórántffy la princesse sage Zsuzsanna Lórántffy ( ) a été l épouse du prince George Rákoczy I de Transylvanie ( ). Sa personnalité unique, le modèle de l idéal féminin vaut la peine d être suivi même aujourd hui, éblouit par sa grandeur et par la complexité de ses nombreuses formes. Elle fut admirée pour ses principes d une personne appliquée, avec des riches connaissances de la réligion, éduquée pour des disputes complexes en théologie, pour son habileté dans la gestion du ménage. Une femme puissante, mère et épouse aimante, elle a surpassé avec du courage et dignité les pertes dans sa famille les trois enfants et son époux. Mais, ce qui est le plus surprennant est son action au sein de la communauté, sa constante préocupation pour soutenir la culture, une mecena généreuse, un maçon de l école et aussi son statut de première femme écrivain en hongrois. Son image est celle d une princesse sage, intelligente, avec un fort esprit menager, économique et diplomatique. Elle est née en 1600, dans une famille reformée, des nobles du comté Zemplen. Son père a été Lorántffy Mihaly, et sa mère Zelenczei Kamáras Borbála. Son enfance fut marquée par la mort de sa mère et ensuite de son père. Orpheline à 16 ans, elle a affronté avec dignité la cupiditè de ses parents qui voulaient lui arracher la fortune. L hostilité des ces événements a contribué à sa formation comme une maitresse responsable, généreuse, mais

279 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science sévère, avec un caractère très fort 1. Elle se marie à 16 ans avec George Rákoczy, un jeune capitaine de la cité Onod, le prefect du comté Borsod I, et ce mariage contribue par sa fortune au prestige et autorité de son époux, en le transformant dans un homme d action qui prenait des décisions importantes, mais qui demandaient de l argent, du temps et même leur jeunesse 2. L année 1630 a apportè un tournant décisif dans la vie de famille, en ce qu après la mort du prince Stéphane Bethlen, le trône de la Transylvanie est donné à Rakoczy I, qui, le 24 décembre 1630, sera assermenté à Alba-Iulia. Princesse de la Transylvanie, Zsuzsanna Lórántffy restera à son côté, partageant avec lui toutes les difficultés du regne, en l aidant et lui offrant ses conseils. Leur principal but est maintenant Transylvanie, le centre du Cour Royale à Alba-Iulia. La Princesse a pris le nouveau rôle avec dignité, imposant des règles strictes à la cour royale et s écartant de la politique. Mais, le plus important rôle de Lorántffy Zsuzsanna a été de soutenir l ascension culturelle de Transylvanie, essayant d accomplir toutes les attributions d une maitresse éduquée, une vraie mecena. Premiérement, elle a prêté attention aux écoles et à l Académie de Alba-Iulia, en plus ses deux fils apprenaient à cette Académie. Ici il y a déjà de nombreux et fameux professeurs, comme J.H. Alstedt, professeur à l Université de Hernborn, un élève de Comenius, et L.Ph. Piscator, professeur à l Université de Heidelberg. La plus importante personnalité reste quand même, J. H. Bisterfeld, un théologue allemand et naturaliste de Nassau, un homme puissant et confident de Rakoczy I. Au sein de cette société des professeurs de l Académie, la princesse a pris contact direct avec les nouveaux courants siprituels et réligieuses de l époque. C est elle qui encourage les étudiants de Ardeal à continuer leurs études, en leur donnant des bourses généreuses et en leur assurant des ressources financières et pour les plus intelligents elle a facilité l obtention des bourses aux universités de l étranger. Elle demandait à ceux qui étaient partis faire des études à l étranger d apporter de nouveaux livres en Transylvanie et elle leur offrait des aides matériaux importants. Il est bien connu le cas de Csánáki Mate, qui a traversé l Allemagne, l Angleterre et les Pays Bas, étant soutenu par le prince à l insistence de son épouse et il a obtenu ainsi une licence de médecin à l Université de Bologne. A partir de l année 1629, il devient le médecin de la famille Rakoczy, au début à Sarospaták, et ensuite à Alba-Iulia. Csánáki est l auteur de la première dissertation sur des sujets médicaux en Transylvanie, intitulée La peste (Cluj, 1634). Dans ses voyages à l Occident, le jeune homme a remporté des boîtes pleines avec des livres commandés par la princesse et, de cette manière, la famille Rakoczy a réussi former une bibliothèque contenant des livres de tous les courants philosophiques et scientifiques de l époque. Le soutien important accordé par la princesse Zsuzsanna Lórántffy à l Ecole de Oradea a attiré des professuers fameux des centres universitaires de l Ouest d Europe, qui en 1640 s élève au niveau de centre scientifique du pays. Le recteur de cette école, Kecskeméti Miklos, a acquis ses connaissances aux universités hollandaises et anglaises. Il est nommé recteur à Oradea et il a introduit, pour la première fois en Transylvanie, les manuels de Comenius, Ramus et Amesius. Dans ces écoles il y avait d autres professeurs qui ont enseigné, comme Enyedi Samuel, il a obtenu la licence de medicinae doctor en Hollande et aussi Koleseri Samuel, un adepte de la révolution anglaise, ensuite Magyari Benedek, auteur de la première anthologie d oeuvres puritains. L immprimerie de Oradea, fondée en 1640 a eu un rôle très important. 1 Csetriné Lingvay Klára, Principesele noastre, Ed.Bisericii Reformate, 2004, p Nicolae Albu, Istoria învăńământului românesc din Transilvania până la 1800, Tipografia,,Lumina Miron Roşu, Blaj, 1944, p

280 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 La foi et le désir d accomplir sa mission ont aidé Zsuzsana Lorántffy à surpasser la perte de deux de ses quatre enfants et aussi la mort de son mari. Le 11 octobre 1648, le prince George Rakoczy I meurt et il est enterré à côté de son grand prédécesseur Gabriel Bethlen, dans la Cathédrale de Alba-Iulia. C est la foi qui lui donne de la force.,notre vie pleine de souffrances, on la dédie chaque jour à la foi en Dieu, disait celle qui allait continuer à servir le bien de la communauté, surpassant la mentalité et les limites du temps prevoyant les demandes de l avenir. Elle n a pas cessé d aider les enfants pauvres à apprendre, elle a encouragé l education des jeunes filles, a soutenu l enseignement dans la langue maternelle, elle a fait construire des écoles et des églises, elle a donne des institutions et hôpitaux. 2. Comenius, Apaczi et Szuszana Lorentffy Comenius (né Jan Amos Komenský le 28 mars 1592 à Nivnice, en Moravie (mort le 15 novembre 1670 à Amsterdam) est considéré «l enseignant des nations», et aussi l un des premiers pédagogues modernes. Transylvanie. Comenius fit ses études supérieures de théologie à l Académie d Herborn et à l université de Heidelberg. Comenius développa, dans plusieurs œuvres, ses conceptions sur l amélioration du système scolaire. Il décrit un système scolaire en quatre étapes dont tous les niveaux d éducation, éducation tout au long de six années dont la dernière unité fut l école de l'adolescence nommée l Académie. Comenius était le contemporain et le collègue de Janos Apáczai, car tous les deux étaient des enseignants. Apaczai (né en 1625, à Apacza, dans une famille paysanne libre de Apaczai) fit ses études dans des universités aux Pays-Bas: il put écouter les conférences des professeurs de renommée mondiale aux universités à Leyden et à Utrecht, à l'université de Harderwijk, il fut titulaire d'un doctorat en théologie. Susanne Lórántffy fut aussi qui intervint en faveur d Apaczai, pour le nommer à la tête du Collège protestant de Cluj. Une des grandes realisations culturelles de Szuzanei Lorentffy a été la transformation de l école de Sarospátak en Académie. La princesse, Suzanne Lórántffy appela Comenius à participer à la reconstruction du collège, pour transformer le collège Sárospatak en formation des prêtres et aider à y fournir un niveau élevé de connaissances modernes: Que vous êtes notre sainte aide pour éléver notre école de Patak et que vous faites la preuve juste et excellente de votre méthode naturelle, déjà connu dans tout le monde. Et, justement, le grand pédagogue a enseigné quatre ans à Sarospátak, donnant son apport au prestige de l école, composant dans ces lieux paisibles les plus importantes oeuvres. C est ici qu il a écrit son chef-d oeuvre Janua et la variante illustrée, Orbis Sensualium Pictus. 3. Zsuzsanna Lórántffy et la Cité Fagaras Le nom de la princesse est étroitement lié de Fagaras, un comté important de la Transylvanie. Le 1er juin 1634, la Diète de Alba-Iulia décida l inscription de Fagaras au nom de la princesse, pour un montant de florini. Faisant preuve d un esprit gérant, sériosité et responsabilité, la princesse a suivi l élévation du comté Fagaras dans tous ses domaines économique, social, culturel et réligieux. Nous avons aussi des informations sur la présence de Zsuzsanei Lorántffy à Făgăraş dans les inventaires de la Cité des années 1637, 1657 et Ainsi, l inventaire de l année 1637 présente la situation pendant George Rákoczy I son épouse étant la proprietaire de la cité. Il est mentionné que la partie du nord du chateau était occupée par les appartements de la princesse, une affirmation confirmée aussi par les indications de l inventaire, comme par l exemple la richesse des plafonds des chambres du troisième niveua:,,les 13 peinures et une table de jeu avec un pied 3. 3 Gheorghe Sebestyn, Cetatea Făgăraşului, p

281 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science L inventaire suivant, de l année 1656, présente la situation pendant George Rákoczy IInd, et la proprietaire fut sa mère, Zsuzsana Lorántffy, et dans cet inventaire il y avait des modifications importantes dues au passage de la princesse de la position d épouse du prince à celle de mère du nouveau prince et veuve à la fois. On peut remarquer que la princesse s est deménagée au second niveau de la pratie du nord, avec un accès direct à la cour. Le dernier inventaire, de l année 1676, présente la situation pendant Mihail Apáffy I, quand la proprietaire était (depuis 1663) son épouse, Ana Bornnemisza. On y mentionnait le fait qu au deuxième niveau de la partie du nord du chateau, dans une des chambres,,,zsuzsana Lorántffy occupait les chambres pendant qu elle était veuve 4. Pour bien connaitre l état réel de la région, beaucoup de visites et de rencontres avec les chefs ont eté faites. Les instructions pour le capitaine de la cité démontrent une bonne connaissance et son désir pour l épanouissement des trois cours de la région: Comăna, Făgăraş et Porumbacu. Cependant, elle offre 21 diplômes où elle se nommait: Nos Suzana Lorandffi serenissimi quondam Principis Domini Georgiis Rakoczi, Principis Transilvaniae, Partium Regni Hungariae Domini et Siculorum Comitis. Parmi ces diplômes on mentionne: - en 1651, comme Madame maitresse de Fagaras, avec le diplôme accordé à Fagaras, le 20 février 1651, confirmait de nouveau Radu Radocsa et ses fils et frères, tous de Bucium, dans leurs anciens droits pour lesquels ils ont perdu les documents; - elle confirmait à la fois, dans le statut de riches, le Judele de Herszeny( 1651), Bărbat de Ucea de Sus( 1652), Coman et Ilie Popenici de VeneŃia de Jos( 1652), Lia alias Liany de Herszeny( 1652), ensuite TrâmbiŃaş de Drăguş( 1654), Codrea de Drăguş( 1654), Ludul Sztoje de Şinca et ses enfants Many, Aldea et Mathei Sztojes. 4. Zsuzsanna Lórántffy et l Ecole Roumaine de Fagaras La princesse erudite continue sa politique scolaire à Fagaras, suivant les idées du fameux Jan Amos Comenius. Fondée d après le diplôme de 3 avril 1657, elle a fist connaitre son plan aux Roumains de Fagaras qui, enthousiasmés, aont promis eux aussi d après leurs pouvoirs à aider à réaliser cette chose sainte, venue de Dieu. L école, ouverte pendant l été de l année 1657, apportait un esprit nouevau: une organisation systématique, un plan bien étudié, comme une réponse à toutes les nécessités et conditions de fonctionnement, de maintenance du siège, du personnel didactique, des élèves et de leurs fonctions, leurs droits, toutes établies par un réglement dont le contenu vaut être connu, car il présente non seulement une importance documentaire, mais un indice de haut niveau culturel-pédagogique. Nous ne nous sommes pas proposés de faire une étude complexe sur l école roumaine fondée en 1657 à Făgăraş par Zsuzsana Lorántffy, mais nous esperons faire remarquer quelques idées qui dépassent la mentalité et les limites du temps, prevoyant les demandes de l avenir, parmi lesquelles deux sont très suggestives: - Les Roumains doivent avoir une habitation spéciale pour les enseignants et apprentices à la fois, ensuite un auditorium et une cour séparée où par une porte commune on puisse se rencontrer ceux qui vivent ensemble en bonne entente, autrement ils seront punis par les maitres. La motivation sera la même comme pour l école hongroise(cap. I, art. 2, du Diplôme); -,,Il faut tenir une bonne correspondance avec le maitre hongrois, comme entre amis et tous les deux vivent en bonne entente avec leusr élèves, car ni les Roumains de la part des Hongrois, ni ceux-ci de la part des Roumains n ont aucun souci. Au cas contraire, les maitres seront punis par les juges conformement à leurs fautes ou sinon la lourde censure sera à eux ( cap. II, Sur le maitre (le professeur) roumain art 5 ). 4 Ibidem, p

282 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 En ce qui suit, on mentionne le texte du Diplôme de 3 avril 1657, traduit par le professeur Ioan Lupaş:,,Nous Susana Lorantffy la veuve de son Altesse benie, George Rakoczi, par la grace du Dieu, ancien roi de la Transyilvanie, maitre de toutes les parties hongroises... Nous laissons tous entendre, par cette lettre, et surtout à l honnête et béni seigneur Ioan Kemeny de Gyergjomonostor, premier capitaine de Fagaras, à notre présent et futur prefet, à nos juges de la cour, à tous les dirigeants de Fagaras, les riches, les prêtres qui sont présents oiu de l avenir, que nous qui connaissons et considérons notre bubt comme chef est de protéger et répandre la réligion et protéger le bien pour tous, observant la méconnaissance de la nation, le peuple commun et les riches devront apprendre eux et les autres. A part cela, etant donné que les plus illuminés m ont prié, par la charité chretienne j ai ordonné qu on élève icic, à Fagaras, pour le futur bien, une ecole roumaine avec les enseignants et les apprennants, avec les matériaux necessaires. Pour l organisation et leur dirigeance, j ai commandé des reglements pour ce sorte des choses, proposées aux dirigeants de Fagaras, qui les ont acceptées volontiers, en promettant leur support pour cette chose sainte. I. Sur la place, les batiments et la motivation de l école roumaine. 1. Que l école roumaine soit emplacée à coté de l école hongroise pour un meilleur soutien et pour qu elle soit mieux verifiée, pour que les apprennants roumains apprennent l hongrois et pour qu ils puissent ecrire en hongrois et latine, et vice-versa pour les apprennants hongrois de parler et écrire en roumain. 2. Que les Roumains aient une habitation spéciale pour les enseignants et apprentices à la fois, ensuite un auditorium et une cour séparée où par une porte commune on puisse se rencontrer ceux qui vivent ensemble en bonne entente, autrement ils seront punis par les maitres. II. Sur le maitre (le professeur) roumain. 1. Qu il soit un enseignant sorti des écoles réligieuses hongroises, un homme vraiment eduqué, qui puisse écrire et parler très bien en roumain. 2. Que l instruction et l emploi lui donnent le Maitre de Fagaras en vertu de sa dignité comme dirigeant supérieur, le ministère ou le chef de Fagaras. Qu il soit tout le temps à son écoute. 3. Qu il enseigne tout d abord à bien écrire les grands et les petits à la fois. Le manuel roumain utilise les mêmes lettres et enseigne vraiment en roumain, surtout le Nouveau Testament, les Hymnes et le Catehism, imprimés à Alba Iulia, et après ou en même temps Capita Catechetica (les Chevets du Catehisme)en roumain, Notre Père, Le Credeau, les dix demandes, le baptisme, tous les reglemets de l église Que les Roumains apprennent les mêmes classes que les Hongrois. 5.Qu il maintient une bonne correspondance avec le maitre hongrois, comme de bons amis, en bonne entente avec leurs élèves, que ni les Roumains de la partie Hongroise et ni les Hongrois dela partie Roumaine n aient aucun souci. Au cas contraire, les maitres seront punis d après leurs fautes ou sinon ils subiront la censure Que le maitre (le professeur) ne soit pas envoypunié dans des villages roumains s il ne connait pas ecrire et lire en roumain, chanter et avoir appris le catehisme qu il va prouver par une épreuve durant des examens reguliers, pour la satisfaction des hôtes et des inspecteurs, sinon il sera puni en diminuant son salaire d après le jugement III. Sur les apprentices et autres apprennants. 1. Les apprentices de toute la region de Fagaras vont venir de toutes les alentours pour apprendre dans cette école roumaine, sinon ils vont être considérés des esclaves Ceux qui vont manquer les cours sans que le professeur le sait, ils ne recevront pas de pain Les apprentices qui aiment bine apprendre, qui seront capables à tenir une messe même pendant les cours de l école, dans l église roumaine de Fagaras et dans les villages autour, dans les jours fériés, les dimanches, quand ils ont le temps pour le faire. Mais cela seulement avec l approbation du maitre et du pretre

283 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science IV. Sur les inspecteurs scolaires. 1. Les inspecteurs de l école doive ntêtre tout d abord les prêtres de Fagaras et ensuite deuxtrois inspecteurs du Consistoriu, qui savent bien le roumain et qui ont de vraies connaissances, avec deux personnes importantes de la ville et les pasteurs roumains plus élévés. Sur le support des alumni (ceux qui habitent à l école). 1. Pour huit apprentices parmi les plus pauvres, mais qui veulent bien apprendre, qui habitent l école, j ai commandé qu ils recoivent chaque année, de la part de notre cité, sans cesse, quatre pains chaque jour. Ils seront nommés comme les premiers maitres et pasteurs... Conclusions Le prestige de l école a dépassé la région du Pays de Fagaras. Son renom est arrivé jusqu aux Pays Roumains, d où venaient les jeunes pour apprendre. Il faut mentioner le cas de Ionaşcu de la Valachie, qui, en 1677, est allé dans,,la Région d Olt pour remporter ce que les apprentices l ont enseigné, et il continuait son travail a la monastère Neamtu. Nous ne savons pas exactement pour combien de temps cette ecole a fonctionné, mais d après les documents de cette époque-là on soupçonne que c était pour quatre décennies. Ainsi, par un réglement daté le 6 mai 1662, du prince Michel Apaffy I, nous connaissons le nom du maitre Daniil Silvaşi (Silvassy) 5. Et par un autre réglement, daté le 23 juin 1662, le même prince refusait la pétition des dirigeants de la cité de croitre le salaire du maitre roumain 6. D autres témoignages sur son existence n existent plus jusqu à la fin du XVII ème siècle, en 1694 plus précis, quand elle est mentionnée de nouveau dans le diplôme par lequel Apaffy donnait la permission à Constantin Brâncoveanu de batir une église en pierre pour les Roumains de Fagaras 7. Il est possible qu elle a fonctionné jusqu au moment où les Roumains de cette région-là dépendaient au point de vue de la jurisdiction du dirigeant reformé de Fagaras. Zsuzsana Lorántffy a été une personnalité érudite, mise au courant avec les écritures politiques de cette epoque-là. Sa culture riche et complexe reflechie dans tous les domaines de la vie sociale, politique et familiale, lui ont donné la force de répondre à tous les défis du temps. Elle a offert des modèles a suivre ou a contester pour la majorité de situations possibles. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Adamik-Jászó, A.: History of Hungarian reading instruction (In Hungarian), Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó, Albu, N.: Istoria învăńământului românesc din Transilvania până la Blaj: Tipografia,,Lumina Miron Roşu, Csetriné Lingvay Klára: Principesele noastre. Ed.Bisericii Reformate, N. Albu, op. cit., p Ibidem, p Ioan cav. de Puşcariu, op. cit, p

284 BIBLIOPHILY IN THE DINICU GOLESCU ARGES COUNTY LIBRARY LucreŃia PICUI Dinicu Golescu Arges County Library Abstract: Created as encyclopaedic library, the Departmental Library Dinicu Golescu from Arges is well known for its contemporary-book collections, but also for its Romanian and foreign old books. In the present study, we stop on a part of the collection of books and special collections from the Departmental Library Dinicu Golescu of Arges. These are especially: manuscripts of the XVII th XIX th centuries; old Romanian books, rare books; anthumous works; deluxe editions; facsimiles; print and orientalpainting collections and also old and contemporary picture-postcard collections. Keywords : old Romanian books, rare foreign books, bibliophily, ex libris. L histoire de la bibliophilie dans la ville de Pitesti remonte à la naissance de la bibliothèque publique de la ville et leurs parcours s entremêlent de telle façon qu il devient impossible à séparer les deux trajets: l histoire de la bibliophilie et l histoire de la bibliothèque. Dans cette ville de commerçants, située à la limite de la Transylvanie et le Pays Roumain, il y avait beaucoup de gens riches, des intellectuels qui aimaient le livre et qui avaient des bibliothèques personnelles importantes, à caractère privé, qui n étaient malheureusement pas ouvertes ou accessibles au grand public. La passion pour la lecture et l idée de développement culturel se sont, petit à petit, répandues auprès des habitants de la ville. Dans cet esprit d émancipation, en 1870, Paraschiva Ştefu, un homme cultivé, légua par testament une somme importante à l époque, notamment 200 monnaies d or autrichiennes, pour la création d une bibliothèque publique. Celle-ci ne va voir le jour qu en 1880, après de longues et nombreuses démarches que les héritiers donataires ont entreprises auprès de la mairie et du gouvernement. Suite à une vente aux enchères, on a dressé une liste comprenant 230 livres roumains et étrangers, que le libraire Raicoviceanu de Pitesti a remis à Ion Trifonescu, professeur au Gymnasium I. C. Bratianu, afin que celui-ci puisse commencer l activité dans un des locaux (une pièce) de l Hôtel de Ville. En 1885, la bibliothèque avait son siège dans le local du Gymnasium I. C. Bratianu et, à partir de 1886, elle a eu son propre règlement d organisation et de fonctionnement. Le fonds de livres a vite commencé à augmenter grâce aux donations que faisaient les gens, qui offraient à la bibliothèque des livres de domaines bien variés. En 1904, Gh. Ionescu-Gion, journaliste et historien de Pitesti, fit une donation importante: 1000 livres en roumain, en français et en latin. Pour le remercier de manière symbolique et lui rendre hommage, les habitants de Pitesti demandèrent au sculpteur Frederik Storck de reproduire le buste de Gh. Ionescu-Gion, sculpture que l on a inauguré en 1911 et qu on peut encore voir de nos jours devant le Collège I. C. Bratianu.

285 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Sur la liste des donateurs il y a des noms importants pour les habitants de Pitesti et non seulement, tels que: Tatiana Bobancu, institutrice et organisatrice d événements culturels, Elena Perticari, fille du docteur Carol Davila et sœur de l écrivain Alexandru Davila, qui a offert à la bibliothèque de la ville toute sa bibliothèque personnelle de son manoir de Izvoru. L homme politique Armand Călinescu, originaire d Arges, est un autre grand donateur de livres. Sa femme, Adela, a accompli son désir et a donné à notre institution tous les livres de sa bibliothèque privée du manoir de Ciupa. Il faut également rappeler le nom du colonel Alexandru Enescu, un autre «pitestien», attaché culturel à Odessa pendant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, qui a donné à la bibliothèque plus de 5000 livre à grande valeur pour les bibliophiles. Nous mentionnons, parmi les donateurs, les personnes suivantes : ConstanŃa et Petru Vişoianu, qui ont fait des donations de meubles, des objets créés dans de célèbres ateliers européens; Dimitrie Dima, ingénieur civil et industriel (constructeur de ponts, de bâtiments industriels et de bâtiments de culte), qui a fait des études de spécialité en Allemagne ; Florica Steriade, peintre, et Emil PoruŃiu, ancien préfet du département d Argeş, en Vu la valeur des éléments de bibliophilie, toutes ces donations font partie du fonds des Collections spéciales. Le livre rare n est pas seulement un objet d étude et de lecture, mais il est une œuvre, un chef d œuvre, résultat conjoint du talent de l auteur, de l éditeur, du graphiste, du typographe et du relieur. Il faut également mentionner Le livre liturgique (Liturghierul) de SuceviŃa, redigé en C est une copie manuscrite, in quarto (21, 3 15,5cm), sur parchemin, comportant 126 feuilles non numérotées qui sont divisées en 16 cahiers numérotés. La graphie a été faite par un seul scribe et c est une écriture semi-onciale, avec 15 lignes par page. La langue en est le slavon utilisé dans les rédactions roumaines. Les lettres, en trois couleurs (noir, rouge et or) ont une élégance et une précision artistiques, la graphie étant plutôt décorative. L artiste calligraphe a donné beaucoup d importance aux lettres initiales et aux frontispices dans les cercles et les diagonales qui se répètent de manière symétrique. C est le prince régnant Ieremia Movilă qui a fait créer ce bijou pour le monastère de SuceviŃa, dont il est le fondateur, mais l ouvrage a été achevé par Teodosie Barbovschi, le évêque du même monastère. La note à la fin du manuscrit qui nous informe sur le don et la propriété a également valeur d ex libris, étant en dehors du livre par un autre scribe. Dans la catégorie des livres roumains anciens, nous voulons souligner quelques titres : L Evangile éducatif (Evanghelia învăńătoare), ouvrage dont l impression a été commencée à Govora en 1640 et achevée au Monastère Dealu, où tout le matériel typographique a été transféré, en Justesse de la loi (Îndreptarea legii), Târgovişte, 1652 ; cet ouvrage est considéré comme La grande loi des Roumains, puisqu il constitue la base de l ancien droit autochtone sous forme écrite. La clé du sens (Cheia înńelesului), Bucarest, 1678, le premier livre roumain paru grâce aux efforts et aux démarches entrepris par Şerban Cantacuzino ( ), dans sa première année de règne, c est l une des éditions «cantacuzines» à avoir marqué le point le plus haut d infiltration et de circulation des livres de la Munténie sur le territoire roumain. La Bibliothèque départementale «Dinicu Golescu» de Pitesti détient des ouvrages précieux des imprimeries importantes de Râmnic, de Buzău, de Târgovişte, de Bucureşti, de Buda, voire même de Câmpulung, la première capitale du pays. L imprimerie de Câmpulung a eu une activité très riche et elle a fait sortir des livres importants tels que: Le rituel slavon des prières (Molitvenicul slavonesc (Trebnic)), imprimé en 1635, pendant le règne de Matei Basarab. 274

286 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Enseignements de tous les jours (ÎnvăŃături preste toate zilele...), septembre 1642, a été imprimé aux frais du moine ordonné prêtre Melchisedec, supérieur du monastère de Câmpulung. «Antologhion» slavon (Antologhion slavonesc), 1643, dans la préface duquel on apprend des détails intéressants sur l importance du livre mais aussi sur l existence du moulin à papier qui a fourni tout le matériel. Le Psautier slavon (Psaltirea slavonească), 1650, imprimé pendant le règne de Matei Basarb, dans l imprimerie du monastère de Câmpulung. Les trois livres slavons ci-dessus sont des livres de rites, alors que le livre roumain est un livre à caractère dogmatique et moral, ayant comme but de fixer dans la conscience des croyants des normes et des sentiments moraux et chrétiens. De même, il faut souligner l existence, dans les collections de la bibliothèque, des livres rares étrangers, parus à de grandes et célèbres maisons d éditions européennes, dont nous rappelons: Epistolae familiares, imprimé à Lyon, en 1545, dans la typographie de Sebastian Gryphius, éditeur et imprimeur célèbre en Europe, le créateur de la marque typographique devenue ultérieurement la fameuse Grifon, un éditeur préoccupé par la qualité des livres qu il faisait imprimer dans sa typographie. Ferentinatis sacrorum... de Novidus Fracii, Ambrozius, imprimé à Anvers, en 1559, en latin et en format duodécimal. Postila sev enarratio evangheliorum, de Hemingius Nicolaus, paru à Viteberg, en 1563, aux maisons d édition de Iohannes Crato, c est un ouvrage préservé dans des conditions excellentes grâce à la reliure en bois, recouverte de cuir et muni de fermetures en métal. Reconnus dans le monde des collectionneurs et des typographes européens, les livres imprimés hollandais/en Hollande et, surtout, les imprimeries de la «dynastie» Elzevir de Leida et Amsterdam sont devenus de nos jours des éditions très rares. Parmi les 12 exemplaires, en format duodécimal, reliés en parchemin, qui appartiennent à la Bibliothèque «Dinicu Golescu», il convient de mentionner deux volumes : Republica et status imperii romano-germanici, Lugduni Batavorum, Elzeviriana, 1634 et Le premier tome est orné d éléments héraldiques et le deuxième porte la marque des Elzevir. Sur les deux tomes sont inscrites les marques d appartenance (les ex-libris) du Duc de Berwick ( ), fils naturel du roi Jacques II d Angleterre, qui a grandi/a été élevé à la cour de Louis XIV. Il est devenu maréchal de France et il a épousé une duchesse de la grande Maison d Albe d Espagne. Un ex-libris simple est collé sur les deux tomes ; le deuxième (tome) porte un ex-libris de plus, où l on peut voir l adoption du titre nobiliaire: «El Duque de Berwick i Alba». L œuvre de Voltaire occupe une place importante parmi les richesses éditoriales de la bibliothèque. La Collection complète des œuvres de M de Voltaire, ouvrage paru en 45 tomes aux éditions des frères Cramer, à Genève, en 1768, et ensuite à Paris, entre 1777 et 1796, est l une des 7 éditions anthumes, vérifiées partiellement par l auteur-même, pour lesquels il n a pas requis d argent. L édition a paru in quarto, avec 50 gravures, des frontispices et des portraits de Voltaire, réalisés par des artistes reconnus de l époque. Les sept premiers tomes ont paru au début de 1768, à Genève, mais la collection s est enrichie avec d autres tomes surtout dans les dix dernières années de la vie de l auteur, alors que les 15 derniers tomes, qui sont des recueils de correspondance, ont paru à titre posthume, à Paris, en Le volume Eléments de la philosophie de Neuton donnés par Mr. de Voltaire. Nouvelle édition, A. Londres, 1738, se matérialise dans le château de la marquise Du Châtelet, à Cirey. C est ici que la fameuse artiste et mathématicienne a hébergé l écrivain, vu les divergences de celui-ci avec l Eglise Catholique. D ailleurs, la marquise y avait accueilli un groupe entier de philosophes de l époque, qui partageaient les mêmes idées ou avaient des positions similaires, et avait mis à leur disposition son laboratoire personnel, participant directement aux recherches et aux expériences entreprises par ceux-ci. 275

287 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Voltaire avait 21 ans quand Louis XIV est mort; cet événement particulier a fait naître en lui l idée d une œuvre sur le despote éclairé, mais quelques décennies se sont écoulées entre les premiers et les derniers chapitres, ce qui se traduit par un apaisement de la veine polémique et de l admiration. Le siècle de Louis XIV, nouvelle édition. Revue par l'auteur et considérablement augmentée, tome premier, A. Dresde 1753, chez George Conrad Walther, libraire du Roi, avec privilèges c est un ouvrage d histoire de la culture de l époque de Louis XIV. L éditeur, George Conrad Walther, a fait ce livre en 8 0, dans deux tomes avec des vignettes et des frontispices, deux ans après la première édition de Berlin, en Parmi les milliers livres avec dédicaces et autographes dans les collections de la bibliothèque, il faut rappeler le grand nombre de livres portant les signatures des académiciens roumains. Le premier président de l Académie Roumaine, Ion Heliade Rădulescu ( ) a signé le volume Souvenirs et impressions d'un proscrit, Paris, De même, on peut trouver les dédicaces et l autographe de Mihail Kogălniceanu, président de l Académie Roumaine ( ), sur les livres suivants : Les annales du Pays Moldave (LetopiseŃele łării Moldovei), paru à Iaşi, entre 1845 et 1852, édité en alphabet de transition. Nous mentionnons également les académiciens : George Sion, Gh. Polizu, Gh. Ionescu-Gion, V. A. Urechia, Al. Lapedatu, Grigore Antipa, Ion Tanoviceanu, Victor Eftimiu, I. Al. Brătescu-Voineşti, Gh. Brătianu, Mihai Dragomirescu, Ion Pillat, Liviu Rebreanu, pour ne mentionner que quelques uns, car la liste de noms importants de l histoire et de la culture roumaine est bien plus longue. Il y a également des livres de collection, qui ont suscité, dès le début, d une attention particulière de la part de l auteur, du graphiste et de l imprimeur. Un exemple en est le livre Un port en Orient (Un port la răsărit) écrit par Radu Tudoran, avec des illustrations de Lucia D(em) Bălăcescu, paru aux Editions Socec et Co, S.A.R. Bucureşti, en Le livre a paru en édition de luxe, à un tirage limité aux bibliophiles, notamment 5 exemplaires sur papier chamois du type «Japan», numérotés de 1 à 5, avec 50 illustrations, planches, vignettes, cul-de-lampes, ayant deux planches hors texte, à savoir : une planche gravée «point sèche», numérotée, en 5 exemplaires, et une autre, gravée en linoléum, en trois couleurs. Les deux planches sont signées par l artiste exemplaires numérotés de 6 à 110, imprimés et parus avec les mêmes caractéristiques, mais ayant une seule planche hors texte, gravée en linoléum en trois couleurs. En plus, vingt autres exemplaires ont été imprimés, numérotés de A à T, exemplaires qui n ont pas pourtant été mis en vente. L exemplaire qui se trouve dans la Bibliothèque départementale Dinicu Golescu d Argeş est le premier exemplaire du tirage de luxe (numéro 1), mais ce qui le rend remarquable et particulièrement précieux est un dessin à la plume, en encre noire, élaboré par le même artiste, mais qui ne fait pas partie du tome ; c est un dessin à part, joint au livre, protégé par du papier de protection. Le dessin représente le personnage principal du roman, Tamara, et en bas de page, l artiste a écrit en crayon le texte suivant: A M. Tică, Pour avoir attendu si longuement un dessin original, une étude pour Tamara, l un des personnages de Tudoran. Avec reconnaissance et amitié éternelle, L.D.B.` 942 Le tome est relié partiellement en cuir et toile bleue, avec la page de garde (All. vorsatz ) marbrée en cinq nuances de bleu. 276

288 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 Le Mémorial des Alliés un ouvrage historique, comportant des pensées émouvantes, signées par les plus importants personnages de la vie politique, scientifique et culturelle, envers les héros de la Première Guerre Mondiale. Les auteurs ont composé avec dévotion cette épopée sublime, destinée aux enfants qui ont grandi sans pères, mais qui ont retrouvé les noms de leurs pères dans le livre d histoire du monde, à côté du nom de Louis XIV. C est un ensemble de 391 feuilles dont : 347 planches d illustrations, de fac-similés de lettres et de documents officiels, 16 planches couleurs et 45 planches de supplément non numérotées. L ouvrage a paru à Paris, en 1926, imprimé par l imprimerie Daniel Jacomelet et Cie, les Fils de la Liberté, Société d'éditions nationales. Le corps du livre a les caractéristiques suivantes : Longueur = 42 cm, Largeur = 32 cm, Hauteur = 13 cm, poids 10 kilos. Les pays à avoir contribué à l élaboration de l ouvrage sont les suivants : la France, le Canada, la Belgique, l Empire Britannique, la Chine, Les Etats-Unis, la Grèce, l Italie, le Japon, la Pologne, le Portugal, la Roumanie, la Russie, la Serbie, la Croatie, la Slovénie, le Siam, la Tchécoslovaquie, l Amérique latine, la Bolivie, le Brésil, Cuba, l Equateur, le Guatemala, le Haïti, le Honduras, le Nicaragua, le Panama, le Pérou, l Uruguay. La préface est écrite par le maréchal Foch et tous les dessins ont été dressés par Bernard Naudin. Pour la Roumanie, ont signé : le Roi Ferdinand, I. Gh. Duca, N. Titulescu, N. Iorga, Ion I.C.Brătianu, Take Ionescu, Le Métropolite de la Roumanie, Miron Cristea, Sextil Puşcariu, Le Général Averescu et d autres. L ouvrage est relié en cuir rouge, sous coffret cartonné, avec des lettres et des ornements dorés, pressées à chaud. Il est en très bon état. Jusqu en 2005, celui-ci était l unique exemplaire en Roumanie, fait confirmé par l Académie Roumaine, qui l a emprunté pour des recherches. Après 2003, quand la bibliothèque a emménagé dans un bâtiment neuf, conçu à ce propos par les architectes Maria et Alexandru MulŃescu, pour subvenir aux besoins d information de la communauté, on a également diversifié les moyens d utilisation du patrimoine culturel national et universel des collections spéciales. Il convient de rappeler quelques expositions : - Livres anciens de la région de Râmnic dans les collections de la Bibliothèque départementale Dinicu Golescu d Argeş (Carte veche râmniceană în colecńiile Bibliotecii JudeŃene Dinicu Golescu Argeş), où le public a pu voir un grand nombre d ouvrages imprimés dans l imprimerie de Râmnic, un important centre typographique roumain. La vidéo de cette exposition a été publiée sur le site de la Bibliothèque «Antim Ivireanul» de Vâlcea. Un colloque portant sur le même thème a été organisé le 4-5 octobre L exposition L ex-libris art graphique de petites dimensions sur les livres rares (Ex librisul - arta grafică mică pe carte rară) a été organisée suite à une recherche approfondie. La bibliothèque a présenté non seulement les ex-libris et les ouvrages où ils sont collés, mais elle a également expliqué au public la technique d élaboration de ces marques d appartenance (étiquettes, sceaux annulaires, paraphes, cachets, etc.) en soulignant leur importance dans le monde des collectionneurs et la valeur acquise par les ouvrages portant de telles marques. La bibliothèque a également présenté en exposition des moments du trajet des livres et de la vie des personnages importants qui ont fait faire et ont utilisé les ex-libris : Murat le beaufrère de Napoléon Bonaparte; Le Duc de Berwick fils naturel de Jacques II, Roi d Angleterre, George Bengescu, philologue et homme politique roumain, important bibliographe de l œuvre de Voltaire et de la famille Golescu. A travers la Venise du XIX e siècle (Prin VeneŃia secolului al XIX-lea), nous y avons entrepris des voyages aux grands palais, sur le Grand Canale, ayant comme guide les estampes originales vénitiennes, élaborées en 1856 dans l atelier du graveur Brizeghel, héritier de l art de Canaletto. 277

289 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Outre les informations sur la technique très difficile de l élaboration des estampes et des gravures, les visiteurs ont reçu des explications sur les endroits, sur les palais et sur les artistes de la belle Venise. Le but en était de fixer les connaissances antérieures des jeunes utilisateurs de notre bibliothèque. Née en même temps que le livre, la bibliophilie est une activité qu on pratique à travers la collection, la conservation et la mise en valeur publique du livre. Les valeurs «bibliophiles» conservées dans notre bibliothèque sont : les livres roumains anciens, les livres rares étrangers, les livres portant des dédicaces et des autographes, les ex-libris, les estampes originales et les cartes postales illustrées. Si, jusqu en 1989 ce fonds spécial n était pas à la disposition des utilisateurs, après 1989, la bibliothèque a essayé de trouver des solutions afin de le rendre connu auprès du public à travers des moyens tels que : l ouverture d une salle de lecture pour le public, où l accès est permis suite à un avis qui prend en considération l âge et la profession du requérant; l édition des catalogues; la présentation des études et des communications scientifiques à des colloques et à des sessions de communications, cette dernière méthode visant également le public académique qu on veut informer sur le fonds ancien et le fonds de livres et d éditions rares de la Bibliothèque Dinicu Golescu. Des expositions illustratives sont souvent organisées lors des événements de commémoration anniversaire, un autre moyen de mettre en valeur et de faire connaître le trésor livresque. De telles expositions ont été organisées dans le hall très spacieux de la bibliothèque, et, puisque la bibliothèque est encore un point d attraction pour les visiteurs aussi, nous avons aménagé dans la salle de lecture des collections spéciales une exposition permanente. Nous y exposons des manuscrits en hébreu et en vieux slave, des livres de musique byzantine, des livres roumains anciens imprimés en slavon, des livres avec autographes, ex-libris ou éléments de sphragistique, des éditions anthumes et des éditions princeps, des reliures, des albums d art, des cartes postales illustrées anciennes et des cartes. Les expositions ont été adressées à toutes les catégories socioprofessionnelles, elles ont été annoncées à travers les mass-médias (presse écrite, émissions de télévision) et à travers des programmes d exposition diffusés dans les écoles et les autres institutions. Les expositions thématiques vont suivre de près les études et les recherches sur les livres rares, les livres anciens, les collections spéciales, etc., de manière que la bibliothèque accomplisse son rôle principal, notamment de conserver et, à la fois, de faire répandre l information. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Bădescu, Marin; Mateescu, Nicolae: Liceul «Nicolae Bălcescu» din Piteşti, puternic focar de învăńământ şi cultură- documente inedite, Editată de Comitetul JudeŃean de Cultură şi Artă, Argeş, 1971, p Bengescu, George : Voltaire, bibliographie de ses œuvres, 4vol., Paris, Éd. Rouveyre & Blond, Cruceană, Ion: Momente şi figuri argeşene, Piteşti: Palatul Culturii, 1980, p Dimitrie, Dan: Mănăstirea SuceviŃa cu anexe de documente ale SuceviŃei şi Schitului celui Mare, Bucureşti: Tipografia Bucovina, Iosifescu, Silvian: Voltaire, Bucureşti: Editura Albatros, Rusu, Dorina N.: Membrii Academiei Române. DicŃionar. Bucureşti: Editura Enciclopedică E.A., Vianu, Tudor: Voltaire, Bucureşti: Editura Albatros, Voinescu, Silvestru D.; Rizescu, Nicolae; Sachelarie Mihail: Argeşeni în spiritualitatea românească, Piteşti, vol.i, 1980, vol. II, Voinescu, Silvestru D.: O viańă printre cărńi, vol.i, Piteşti: Editura Cultura, 1997; vol.ii, Editura Paralela 45, 2001; vol.iii, Editura Paralela 45,

290 PUBLIC LIBRARIES: CENSORSHIP AND REHABILITATION OF THE POETS UNDER THE ROMANIAN COMMUNIST REGIME Cristina PIPOŞ, Cosmina CRISTESCU Transilvania University Braşov Abstract: This article discusses the ideological dimension of the public libraries during communism in Romania. Due to censorship, important books belonging to Romanian culture disappear from the bookshelves. Works by writers who have made compromises with the communist power take the lead. Contemporary poets, as well as their predecessors, are not assessed by the aesthetic value of their works but by their political views that had to be proved to the party. These have a significant role in shaping the new man dependent on the binding communist ideology. Reading recommendations for the young generation include books aimed at educating them in the communist spirit. The samizdat literature sets a new competition against the public libraries, the works illegally shared among readers becoming an important element of dissidence. Party s claims to conduct the education inside libraries and its methods of doing so are representative of a totalitarian society. Keywords: library, literature, Communism, education, censorship. 1. The pogrom of the Romanian books Library is a means of disseminating knowledge, of making public the values of literature and art, of educating people. In Chevalier and Gheerbrant s Dictionary of Symbols [4] the library is associated with the meaning of intellectual awareness and that of one s cultural background based only on reading and not on empirical knowledge. The book hosted by a library signifies the knowledge in the whole meaning of the word, and that is the lived and recorded experience. The library is a place of information and education for both children and adults. The right of reading, an inalienable human privilege, is restricted in our country after the instauration of the communist regime. Romania s institutions and mechanisms, as a European state, evolving between 1859 and 1944, were abolished by force and replaced with those of a Soviet-style state. The one-party monopoly is expressed not only on politics but on all media. Education through the public libraries is based on the set of values, options and representations delivered by the system. Although books were luxury goods during the communism, intellectuals and ordinary people have found refuge in reading and succeeded in finding the hidden treasures of literature even though they were not at hand. The underground network of the borrowing system was functioning as well as the one belonging to the communist party, only that the

291 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science quality of the works was beyond comparison. We need only to think about Tudor Arghezi, Lucian Blaga, Vasile Voiculescu, Ion Pillat or Ion Barbu and it is uncomplicated to notice why the underground network was functioning as well as the public library system. The attention on books appears not only because the people were interested in reading, but because the valuable books were scarce. The spread of culture trough the masses - offering books and teaching reading to everyone - was one of the aims of the communist society. As this plan was achieved with relative ease through libraries, it led to the regression of culture and at the same time it increased the gap between the Western countries and the Soviet area of influence. The ideological path of communism in Romania ( ) can be traced through three distinct periods: Stalinization up to mid 50s, the ideological thaw (distance of rigid Stalinism from the time of Hruşciov in the 50s- 60s) and the ideological re-stalinization (National Communism in the 70s and 80s). The political regime established in 1948 through the will of Moscow will lead to the purification of libraries of major works belonging to Romanian culture. Romanian book pogrom that starts at the end of 1944 states the Final Report of the Presidential Commission for Analysis of Communist Dictatorship in Romania [5]. The list of indexed books increases, reaching in 1948 (when the Ministry of Arts and Information edited the volume entitled Banned Publications) a number of 8779 titles among which we can only mention George Bacovia, Radu Gyr or Constant Tonegaru. From public libraries valuable books, belonging to Romanian poets such as Vasile Alecsandri and George Topârceanu or fiction writers and reviewers naming Bogdan - Petriceicu Hasdeu, Titu Maiorescu, Liviu Rebreanu, Mihail Sebastian, and the list may continue, disappear. The library becomes a marketplace for Eastern cultural products and for the Soviet propaganda. The Russian Publishing House, founded in 1944, will aim to spread mainly Russian and Soviet literature. Following the relative liberalization beginning with Stalin s death in 1953 the communist party decides to reissue and to reintegrate in libraries a part of the banned writers of proscribed works that until then did not make thorough the strict rules of censorship. The final purpose of these new rules, considers Stelian Tănase [9], is reprinting the works belonging to Nicolae Bălcescu, Mihai Eminescu, Titu Maiorescu or Nicolae Iorga which was not only an act of reparation, restoring the flow of cultural values but these works were used as tools to serve the governmental elite as to achieve new political objectives. Rehabilitating and issuing the books that were banned by previous censorship do not lead to a lessening of the rigors of the regime for the new literary production. The republishing of some of the interwar poets writings belonging to Lucian Blaga, Tudor Arghezi, Octavian Goga and Vasile Voiculescu removed after 1948 from libraries is only partially made. The communist censorshiop agreed to rehabilitate only that part of the writers creation that met the ideological requirements. This relaxation and partial rehabilitation of the national values becomes possible because the party wants to gain more authority and popularity by creating a more attractive political ideology. In the public library the new volumes do not illustrate any more the principles of the Socialist Realism style used by A. Toma, Dan Deşliu, Maria Banuş or Mihai Beniuc from the previous stage. Beginning with 1960 up until 1964 we discover a revival of poetry. That is the emergence of a new generation of poets among whom we name Nicolae Labiş, Nichita Stănescu and Marin Sorescu. Their poetry sets an attitude of rejection of aesthetic compromises that the poets of the 50s made in exchange of monetary compensation and immediate recognition. 280

292 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 At the same time, this is a period for the recovery of authors from the past or with a less important political history and these are Ion Barbu and Lucian Blaga, as well as the rehabilitation of two Romanian language and literature theorists: Ion Helaide Rădulescu and Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu. Vladimir Tismăneanu in Gheorghiu-Dej s Phantom [10] states that beginning with 1971, after a trip to China and North Korea, Ceauşescu suddenly abandoned all reform efforts and decided to restore full control of the Communist Party over culture and society. Ceauşescu s Theses from June 6, 1971 which, according to the author, had to contribute to the improvement of the political ideology and cultural education, led in fact to the strengthening of the party s influence in humanistic and scientific fields. After 1974 (starting with the XI th Congress), the Romanian Communist Party is increasingly making use of the instrumental function of the library to promote and implement the political program. The education of the readers in libraries is paying more and more its tribute to the party s political and ideological objectives. 2. The education of the students in the library The library in the communist era is a method of influence and manipulation of the pupils. The ideological message has a greater resonance as it is addressed to younger minds. They are more vulnerable, easier to be indoctrinated, more likely to be changed, less able to filter the received information. Scânteia, the Romanian Communist Party s newspaper, in the September 10, 1948 issue requires the teachers together with the Youth Worker s Union organizations and the pioneers to cleanse all the public school libraries from harmful books. The majority of the teaching methodology books for Romanian language and literature published during the communist era, offer at least a chapter dedicated to the library s role in the education of young learners. Thus, Cecilia Caroni, author of Romanian Language and Literature Teaching Methodology for I-VIII grades [2] emphasizes that: The library is the most important means of organizing multiple extracurricular activities related to the entire educational process. Along with the Cultural Revolution, The spread of culture trough the masses was linked to the updating of the libraries with the newest book titles and all that because the public library was considered a very powerful educational means book is now of an unprecedented abundance in old school libraries, valuable works of universal thinking populate the shelves of all school libraries. Using the wooden language of the times, Caroni, characterizes librarians as cultural activists that have the duty to educate the readers and to advertise the books. Correlated with social and political realities of the times, teaching methodologies of Romanian literature emphasize the key role of the institution of library in training students inside the public libraries towards communist consciousness. The same idea is found in Article no. 120 of the Regulation for Organization and Operation of Secondary Schools, published by the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1961 that states the significance of the school library The school library for students is an important means of acquiring new knowledge and in-depth reading of books studies at school. It helps the communist education of students teaching them how to love and respect books. An example of manipulation, not education through reading, is taken from Teaching the Romanian Language by Ion Berca [1]: Books are talking today to children about what they didn t know from the cruel past exploitation of the bourgeois-landlord regime. At the same time, they talk about the heroic struggle of working class party children and even the heroic struggle of their parents for a better life. Let us take for example some poets who dedicated 281

293 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science their time to writing poems for the education of young generation with enlightening titles: Dan Deşliu Lazăr from Rusca, Maria Banuş The Boss, D. Th. NeculuŃă Choir of Bondsmen or A. Toma This is the song of bitter Bread. The authors recommended for reading outside class by Reading Methodology for Elementary School (grades I-IV) [6], published in 1950, are: Cicerone Teodorescu, Alexandru Sahia, Alexandru Corodar, Ion Pas, E. Cearuşin, C. Ciucovschi, B. Jitkov or M. Nasov. The sole purpose of those readings was the need to continue the implementation of the new cultural and political views in the young generation s minds. Reading suggestions for pupils, offered by different teaching methodologies, abound in examples of Russian and Soviet literature or obscure Romanian poets approved by the regime such as Valeria Boiculesi, Aurel Gurghianu, Emilia Căldăraru or Tiberiu Utan. With the help of the poetry a national mythology is created beginning with the pre- Christian heroes and finishing with the leader of the Communist Party. Gheorghiu-Dej s active role in the rebellious activities from CFR GriviŃa workshops is reflected in poems such as Comrade Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej at the trial written by Mihai Beniuc. The love for the previous and the present rulers gets fundamentalist accents. But that was only the beginning. After 1965, Nicolae Ceauşescu becomes an emblem of the Romanian communism. He is represented as The Brilliant Leader, The Great Man, The Strategist, and The Country s First Son. Ceauşescu s visits in 1971 to China and North Korea spring in his mind the admiration towards the personality cult. After he had seen the grand performances of adulation destined to Mao or to Kim Ir Sen, the Romanian president asked the same spectacles for himself at his return home. The schoolbooks reflect this urge to dedicate odes to the grand leader, and this is what his poets did. Mihai Beniuc writes The Son of the Country, Ion Brad comes with a poem named History and Virgil Carianopol says What We Wish You Today. The rejection of the communist party and that of the state, of any elitist, individualistic or intellectual framework is reflected in the message sent by the volume Methodical Problems of Teaching Literature [7]. Thus, referring to the number of readings made by students, the methodology stresses that they should not be too many because reading is sometimes a form of laziness and the avoidance of school duties. The speech continues in the same false didactic tone: This is found especially in the students for whom reading, without coercion, has opposite attributes to learning, avoiding effort, organized labour, they take refuge in reading, because reading is for them a means of entertainment. The abuse reveals in such cases superficiality, unnecessary waste of spirit. The anti-intellectual prejudice of the party is arising explicitly from these passages. The second argument, supporting the non-promotion of reading among pupils is even more absurd than the first: over-reading is pernicious for the spirit and ruins the intellectual forces. The educational and the formative roles of the library during the communist period are therefore minimized. 3. Forms of dissidence The decision taken by of the Council of Ministers no. 1542, published in The Official Bulletin no. 120 of 29 December 1951, is an essential document that will outline guidelines for development of the library under the communist regime. Later supplemented with other laws (Council of Ministers Decision no. 77/1962, etc.), the document will introduce censorship as a means of limiting free expression. The consequences will be dramatic, making it impossible for readers to access valuable books of Romanian culture. 282

294 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 As an alternative to the rigors of the communist regime reactionary personal libraries appear. During the communist period, people purchase a lot of products because they have somehow the means to do so, and through all the junk they buy cultural products. Also, competing against public libraries, many literary works and also many scientific works prohibited by censorship circulate clandestinely. The distribution of illegal documents (called inside the USSR samizdat = self-editing) was an essential element of dissident action, believes the French historian Jean-François Soulet in The Compared History of Communist States from 1945 to Today [8]. Prohibitions, censorship, purges, arrests and convictions were violent aspects the communist society members were subjected to systematically. Romanian writers were no exception. Official propaganda and censorship have created an alien culture to the Romanian tradition and history. The anticommunist dissidence was represented by the poets Radu Gyr, Nichifor Crainic, Mircea Dinescu, Ana Blandiana, Ileana Mălăncioiu, Mariana Marin, Ion Caraion just naming a few. Modesty and decency characterizes many of them: I would not want to create an aura of dissident, I would take the place of real victims who paid even the most expensive price possible confesses Mariana Marin a 80s poet in an interview for the Cultural Observatory [3]. Conclusions For the entailment and the establishment of faith in communist ideals, the library plays an important role with schools, press, radio or television. The formative nature of library education is overshadowed by its informative and propagandist character. The role of the reading is mainly to form the political consciousness of the readers, not the cultural one. Library education is not ideologically negligible and is effective in aiming the goals of propaganda. In Romania during the communist regimes of Dej and Ceauşescu, education is controlled by the state and politicized, with a significant role in shaping the new man dependent on a binding ideology. The mixture of values is a frequent practice for the totalitarian regime in Romania. On the bookshelves inside the libraries valuable poets are present together with the producers of junk communist literature. There is a continuous competition during the communist regime between the party who wants a literature that is serving its political and ideological needs and some writers that believe in the spontaneity of the creation. The communism lacks aesthetic assessment of the poets, the only important rule for publication and presence inside libraries of books was the reflection in the works of the communist values. On the shelves of all the communist public libraries there are mainly writers and their works that are previously approved by authorities. All these works are arising under political pressure and that is highly proved in the content of their writing. The children will suffer from the excesses of the regime. The patriotic and atheistic education of pupils, their training in the communist spirit will be one of the priorities of the regime. The recommended readings for school libraries were playing a great part in teaching. Resistance to the regime took on different forms. Anticommunist writers works and the underground resistance of the people belonging to Romanian culture represented an oasis of normality in an age saturated with ideology and propaganda. 283

295 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The consequences of the communist era on education through the library system cannot be removed completely and not primarily, forgotten. Manipulating memory in totalitarian society Romania occurred precisely because ignorance meant power. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Berca, I.: Metodica predării limbii române (Citit-scris, citire). Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, 1966, p Caroni, C.: Metodica predării limbii şi literaturii române pentru clasele I-VIII. Bucureşti: Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, 1967, pp Cârstean, S.: Cuvintele atrag realitatea. Interviu cu Mariana Marin. În Observatorul Cultural, nr. 621/2012. Disponibil la: 4. Chevalier, J.; Gheerbrant, A:. DicŃionar de simboluri A-D. Bucureşti: Artemis, p Comisia PrezidenŃială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România. Raport final. Bucureşti, 2006, pp Metodica citirii pentru şcoala elementară (clasele I-IV): Bucureşti: Cartea Rusă, 1950, pp Probleme metodice ale predării literaturii: Bucureşti: Editura de Stat Didactică şi Pedagogică, 1962, p Soulet, J.-F.: Istoria comparată a statelor comuniste din 1945 până în zilele noastre. Bucureşti: Polirom, p Tănase, S.: Elite şi societate. Guvernarea Gheorghiu-Dej Bucureşti: Humanitas, 1998, p Tismăneanu, V.: Fantoma lui Gheorghiu-Dej. Bucureşti: Univers, 1995, p

296 CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONTEMPORARY FANTASTIC LITERATURE OFFER Daniela SOREA Transilvania University of Braşov Abstract: In the young readers ranking of preferences, the new literary works with fantastic subject may be found. The relation to the fantastic is done in a traditional way (in Stephen King s novels and Twilight saga) or in a post-modern manner (in the novels from Harry Potter cycle). The orientation of the preferences towards these works indicates the need for fantasy. This need suggests the exit of the Western culture from the stage of sensuality, an exit foreshadowed by Sorokin and characterized by logicalempirical super-saturation, technological comfort and non-dogmatic religiosity. Keywords: fantastic literature, books market, postmodernism, religiosity. 1. Introduction Depuis quelques années, à l occasion de la Foire internationale du Livre et de Musique de Braşov, les étudiants de la spécialisation Sociologie observent, comme activité de séminaire aux disciplines Epistémologie et Sociologie de la connaissance, l offre de livres, les marques des politiques éditoriales et des stratégies de marketing, les préférences des visiteurs de la foire, les caractéristiques démographiques et le comportement des ceux-ci. Dans les rapports d observation élaborés par les étudiants il est signalé d une manière répétitive l ampleur de l offre de littérature fantastique. Il s agit des romans de Stephen King, des œuvres parmi lesquelles la saga Coucher du soleil de Stephenie Meyer est emblématique. C est ça la conclusion d un rapport d observation des «amours accomplis avec de beaux vampires» et aussi la conclusion des romans parus du fameux cycle de J.K. Rowling ayant comme héros principal Harry Potter. L ampleur de ce type d offre n est pas seulement une caractéristique de la foire du livre. Les choses se passent de la même manière dans les librairies de la ville, des librairies intégrées à leur tour dans des chaînes de distribution. La fréquence avec laquelle cet aspect est signalé dans les rapports d observation pourrait être corrélée, bien sûr, avec l ouverture des observateurs, des étudiants à peine sortis de l adolescence, vers ce type d œuvres destinées aux adolescents. Mais il est à souligner le fait que ces œuvres se trouvent dans le classement des préférences dans un marché sans restrictions et dans un contexte culturel où les parents et les professeurs sont très inquiets du fait que la jeune génération n est plus préoccupée par la lecture. Le présent ouvrage met en évidence les significations culturelles de la préférence des adolescents pour les œuvres fantastiques comme celles mentionnées ci-dessus, préférence confirmée également par l évolution du marché roumain du livre.

297 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science 2. Les manières dont les œuvres contemporaines envisagent leur relation avec le surnaturel Les romans de Stephen King signalent l existence et la proximité du surnaturel, la possibilité que celui-ci jaillisse au milieu du quotidien, quand on a des conditions favorables. Le réalisme de certaines scènes violentes choisissent les lecteurs de King selon un autre critère que l appétit pour ce type de relation avec le surnaturel, relation proche de celle des œuvres fantastiques de Mircea Eliade. Dans le cas des romans de Stephenie Meyer qui appartiennent au cycle Coucher du soleil le surnaturel est présent dans le monde naturel par l intermédiaire des vampires et des revenants qui se situent au centre de l intrigue et l action se passe dans notre monde. La saga met en évidence des croyances archaïques de l Europe centrale et orientale qui ont comme point de départ l existence de certaines formes semi humaines de vie. Humaines par leur forme diurne et par leur naissance, non humaines par leur forme nocturne, par leurs qualités et par leurs pouvoirs. Dans la saga les vampires et les revenants sont traditionnellement des ennemis engagés dans un conflit territorial. Leur interaction avec l humain pour lequel ils représentent un danger de mort ou un bon soutien peut avoir lieu n importe quand et dans n importe quelle des deux dimensions spécifiques pour leur manière d être. Les interactions quotidiennes, dans la plupart des cas de nature diurne, sont doublées par des interactions nocturnes, révélatrices pour la dimension surnaturelle des personnages impliqués. Humains, vampires et revenants partagent le même monde, fonctionnant dans le même espace, même si cela se fait selon des règles différentes. Dans les romans de J.K. Rowling qui ont comme personnage principal Harry Potter, la plupart de l action a lieu dans un monde parallèle. L auteur exploite elle aussi des motifs culturels anciens, la plupart étant occidentaux, celtes. Le passage relativement simple entre des mondes qui se trouvent à côté l un par rapport à l autre, le royaume situé entre les eaux, le vieux mage dont l autorité a comme origine son savoir ou la source magique en sont quelques exemples. Le monde où, au début de chaque semestre étudient les élèves du lycée Hogwarts, l école de magiciens ayant un programme d études ample et attentivement élaboré, n est pas accessible à ceux qu on peut considérer des gens simples, non initiés. Là-bas, dans un autre monde, ont lieu les conflits entre le bien et le mal, par les intermédiaires des supporters de chacune de ces deux armées. 3. Une approche postmoderniste du fantastique Le lieu principal où se passe l action ne constitue pas la différence la plus importante entre Harry Potter et les autres œuvres à caractère fantastique. C est la manière dont on traite les motifs culturels alors qu on construit l œuvre littéraire. Il s agit de leur approche composite. Selon Marie-Louise von Franz, unes des disciples de Carl Gustav Jung, les mythes et les contes de fées représentent des marques symboliques qui témoignent du passage par diverses étapes du processus initiatique d individuation, c est-à-dire l accomplissement absolu du soimême [5]. Les personnages et les séquences contextuelles qui composent les mythes et les contes de fées ont caractère archétypique, en marquant le début d un des conflits initiatiques inévitables avec les archétypes. Cela se passe grâce au fait que les gens désirent s épanouir, montre également Marie Louise von Franz en complétant la conception de Jung. Dans Harry Potter, le registre archétypique est doublé. La description du lycée Hogwarts contient beaocoup de représentations archétypiques. Provenant des endroits différents de la tradition culturelle, ces représentations archétypiques interagissent en tant que personnages de roman selon un schéma différent par rapport au schéma archétypique d origine. Ainsi, le vieux et sage mage est dans les romans le professeur Dumbledore, le directeur de l école, et anima, l archétype de la dimension féminine qui habite le psychique de chaque homme, prend le visage de Hermion, l amie toujours énergique de Harry. Les animaux fantastiques sont 286

298 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 protégés dans un but didactique dans la forêt qui pousse autour de l école. Presque tous les personnages du cycle pourraient soutenir des séquences narratives archétypiques propres, distinctes. Leur présence oblige le lecteur rendre actives leurs références culturelles et cette action constitue l une des sources de la joie provoquée par la lecture de ces ouvrages qui sont de cette manière plus que simples oeuvres de littérature pour les enfants. Les personnages mettent en œuvre, par leur interaction, l atmosphère très humaine d une école habituelle, un peu élitiste. On met en relief de cette manière des orgueils et des frustrations, des différences de classe, des groupes constitués en fonction des affinités, des accès de lâcheté et des peurs. C est sur le fond de ce recueil de personnages à potentiel archétypique, mais qui interagissent selon le modèle relationnel d une école habituelle, que se construit l histoire initiatique du personnage principal, Harry Potter. En croisant cette histoire, elle-même une histoire archétypique, les autres personnages mettent à jour d une manière précise et par épisodes leur potentiel archétypique. Ainsi, revenant aux exemples mentionnés avant, le professeur Dumbledore devient un excellent conseiller personnel au cas de nécessité, Hermion a des révélations utiles aux moments de tension et les animaux fantastiques se mettent au service du personnage principal. Apres avoir franchi l étape critique, significatif pour le parcours initiatique, les représentations archétypiques redeviennent personnages dans un roman sur la vie d une école, avec des histoires comiques, avec des compétitions, des récompenses et des châtiments. Par conséquent, un recueil de représentations archétypiques qui proviennent de zones différentes de la tradition culturelle, une interaction de ces représentations sur deux niveaux, comme personnages dans les scènes de la vie d une école et comme acteurs archétypiques dans l histoire initiatique du personnage principal et finalement cette histoire initiatique, c est-à-dire archétypique. Ces éléments confèrent le caractère composite de l approche des motifs culturels dans les romans du cycle Harry Potter. Il s agit d une association de motifs qui provient de sources différentes et en même temps d une valorisation de ces motifs aux niveaux différents. Une telle approche composite signale le postmodernisme. La culture postmoderne est une culture du type mosaïque, selon Aurel Codoban [2], qui emprunte d Abraham Moles [3] ce concept. Le postmodernisme est pluraliste, il met en valeur les dimensions culturelles hétérogènes associées dans une réception simultanée. En se construisant de cette manière, la mise en œuvre du fantastique est de nature postmoderniste dans Harry Potter et cela est la principale différence entre ces ouvrages et les autres ouvrages fantastiques préférés par les lecteurs. 4. L appétit pour le fantastique comme indice d une transaction culturelle La présence simultanée dans les classements de certains ouvrages à sujet fantastique élaborés d une manière linéaire, sur un seul niveau de mise en relation avec le fantastique, et de certains ouvrages élaborés d une manière composite signale l existence d une période de transition pour les modalités de mise en relation avec le fantastique. L évolution de la littérature vers la modalité postmoderne est en retard par rapport à l orientation de l ensemble de la culture occidentale à cause des réticences modernes de cette culture par rapport à toute approche du fantastique. Dans l approche traditionnelle ou postmoderne, le fantastique est présent dans les ouvrages situés dans le classement des préférences des jeunes acheteurs de livres. En signalant leur besoin de fantastique, cette situation peut être le signe d une transition plus ample. Pitirim Sorokin identifiait [4] une succession répétable de trois étapes culturelles parcourues par les systèmes sociaux : idéationnelle, idéaliste et sensualiste. La culture idéationnelle se construit autour du principe d un bien au-dessus du rationnel, en attribuant un caractère réel à une existence éternelle, immatérielle, et mettant en valeur d une manière apriorique des besoins et des buts spirituels. La culture sensualiste attribue un caractère réel à ce qui impressionne les sens et met en valeur les besoins et les buts de nature physique, visant la satisfaction des 287

299 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science besoins. La culture idéaliste représente une union équilibrée entre les éléments qui appartiennent au domaine des idées, éléments qui dominent, et les éléments sensualistes. Tout se fait d une manière harmonieuse et cohérente et cela engendre la transformation intérieure des gens et la transformation extérieure du monde. Tout système social passe par ces étapes en suivant cet ordre et le cycle se répète. Sorokin considérait, au milieu du siècle dernier, que dans l Occident de la période sensualiste les tendances idéationnelle se manifestaient d une manière de plus en plus forte. La vérité de la croyance exerçait une pression sur la vérité des sens, forçant l apparition d un changement culturel. L appétit pour la littérature fantastique et surtout la parution de nouveaux ouvrages de succès de ce genre peuvent être considérés signes de la sortie de l Occident contemporain de l étape sensualiste, selon le modèle de Sorokin. Ce serait une sortie déterminée par la sursaturation de positivisme (l éducation occidentale est depuis quelques générations une éducation excessivement empiriste et logique grâce à l influence de longue durée du Cercle de Vienne combinée avec la tradition cartésienne de l Europe) et déterminée également par la sursaturation de confort technologique. Dans ce sens, les désirs des occidentaux sont anticipés et accomplis avant même qu ils soient formulés [1]. La sortie du sensualisme se passerait aussi dans le contexte de l individualisation des options religieuses, dans la situation où un nombre de plus en plus élevé d occidentaux assume à son propre compte les réponses concernant les interrogations d ordre religieux [6]. Cet acte d assumer d une manière personnelle suppose la relativisation de la relation avec les dogmes de la confession à laquelle on a appartenu au début. Assumer suppose simultanément l ouverture à des représentations de la réalité distinctes des représentations dogmatiques. Le besoin évident de fantastique correspond à cette ouverture. Si Sorokin a raison, la sortie du sensualisme signifie l entrée dans une nouvelle étape de l évolution des idées, à travers laquelle les besoins spirituels ont la priorité, les contemporains étant de plus en plus libres de leurs croyances. Ayant une solide éducation empiriste et logique, l occidental contemporain n ose plus espérer qu il va rencontrer le fantastique dans les espaces destinés au culte religieux et dans les pratiques courantes des églises reconnues d une manière officielle. Il lui manque le fantastique et par conséquent il ose chercher ou créer de nouvelles voies. La nouvelle étape dans l évolution des idées pourrait être, dans ce contexte, le résultat composite de l association de ces voies. 5. Conclusions Par conséquent, empirisme logique, confort technologique et religiosité non dogmatique donnent naissance au besoin de fantastique d une part comme le reflet de mettre en valeur la liberté dogmatique, et d autre part comme réaction de compensation à l empirisme logique et à un confort technologique accablant. La littérature fantastique en est l expression. Sous une forme dramatique, romantique ou ludique, les nouvelles œuvres fantastiques essayent de satisfaire ce besoin. Leur naissance est un symptôme de l existence de certaines nécessités spirituelles que l orientation vers l empirisme logique et la technologie ne satisfont pas. BIBLIOGRAPHIE 1. Baudrillard, J.: Societatea de consum. Bucureşti: Comunicare.ro, Codoban, A. (coord.): Postmodernismul. Cluj: Dacia, Moles, A.: Sociodinamica culturii. Bucureşti: Ed. Ştiintifică, Sorokin, P. : Comment la civilisation se transforme. Paris: Librairie Marcel Riviere, Franz, M.-L. Von: Les modèles archétypiques dans les contes de fées. Paris: La fontaine de Pierre, Wilson, B.: Religia din perspectivă sociologică. Bucureşti: Ed. Trei,

300 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH AT TRANSILVANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY FROM BRAŞOV: PROFESSIONAL BENCHMARKS Sorina MICU Transilvania University of Braşov Abstract: The bibliographer is a librarian researcher, passionate about searching for predominantly bibliographical information, meant to fulfil the users information needs. With dedication, thoroughness and professionalism, resorting to various investigation paths and methods, he peruses the publications from the very old ones, of archive, to the very new, cutting edge aiming at a certain theme, to the purpose of achieving, at request, an information as accurate as complex. The paper herein refers to expert bibliographers with significant achievements both for the Library of Transilvania University and for the library science school of Braşov. Key words: bibliographer, research, information. Motto:... There is no other pastime more beautiful and more useful in the human being s life than reading books. Miron Costin (Foreword to De neamul moldovenilor) (About the Moldavians Ancestry) 1. Purpose of bibliographical researches Any activity is based on transmitting information. The apparition and evolution of information results from the development of science. This science is built on the foundation of the knowledge accumulated by every generation, which in its turn benefited from the overall knowledge created by the previous generation. The information sources in the library are the bibliographies and the biographies. [9] A few terms define the bibliographer librarian s activity, namely: information, documentation, documents, bibliography and bibliographical information. The information is any activity that takes note of a subject, and the documentation is the information through printed documents, starting with the bibliography. This activity consists in detecting, acknowledging and transmitting, in oral or written form, the bibliography referring to a subject. Hence the name of bibliographical information. [2] In order to retrieve information on a subject, several sources must be consulted. Among the working tools specific to a bibliographer, mention should be made of the dictionaries, encyclopaedias and also of the specialized magazines such as Revista Română de Biblioteconomie şi ŞtiinŃa Informării (The Romanian Magazine of Library and Information Science)(edited by the Association of the Librarians from Education-Romania), Biblioteca (Library) (specialized magazine of the entire National System of Libraries, which reflects interest-raising themes from the library and information science).

301 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science Therefore the most recently published materials and the knowledge of the data having preceded the treated subject are called for the bibliographer s research activity. The informational resources related to a certain subject are indicated through the bibliography. Bibliographies are works that refer to a certain subject, field or author. They are obtained through collecting, describing and classifying documents. [1] Bibliographies are of many types, critical, of recommendation, of evidence; and they may be submitted as independent publications, magazine articles, appendices to works, and also periodical publications. The parent of bibliography is deemed Conrad Gessner, who wrote the work with the title Bibliotheca universalis, in the year However, the term of bibliography appears later, when Mazarin s secretary and librarian, the Frenchman Gabriel Naudé, uses it for the first time during the year 1633, in the work entitled Political Bibliography. And the first Romanian bibliography of a personality, issued in the year 1880, is written by George Bengescu and is consecrated to Voltaire. [5] In his book Curs de metode bibliografice de cercetare (Course of Bibliographical Methods for Research) [8] Dan Stoica describes the bibliography as a poly-semantic term. This way, Bibliography may be a list of references of primary documents, and also the activity of drawing up such a list, namely studying the reference works on a given theme, sorting the relevant ones for the theme, systematizing them and compiling the ordered list according to the chosen systematization criterion. The object of the bibliography is the book and, over time, this has been the instrument, and also the object having influenced the human being s cultural development. The bibliographer draws up classified lists of books, to the purpose of achieving the bibliographies required by the users. A bibliography is more interesting for the reader if it makes a few specifications on the content of the documents, which may be a phrase or a critical analysis. In the beginnings of human civilization, having pertained to the scientists, afterwards having played the part of publication acquirer and keeper, the librarian turns into an active member of the research theme in a library. 2. Bibliography at request The first sources of information were the catalogues and the bibliographies; but also the books that were elaborated by the librarians. [3] In the framework of Transilvania University Library of Braşov, the reference department: - supplies information on various bibliographical themes, both from the library catalogue and from other sources; - participates in coordinating the information activities of the library, through the interlibrary exchange and the international exchange. The bibliography, from technical standpoint, is a list of works referring to a certain subject, field or person. In the modern informational system, the bibliographies stand for a basic instrument. At Transilvania University Library from Braşov, classified bibliographies on fields were elaborated. Among the documentalist librarians who brought and left valuable researches at Transilvania University Library, there are worth mentioning Mrs. Alexandrina Mihăilescu, Doina Toma and Elena Târziu. They made researches especially in the fields of wood engineering and sylviculture. The research methodology was underlain by the databases and 290

302 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO 2012 also by the publication collection in the library. From the respective publications, the descriptors were extracted, resorting to indexing. The structure of the research reflects the authors preoccupation for a competent systematization of all specialized information, the works being elaborated according to indices: of subject and of authors. Every title is described through the adequate indexing terms, and all publications within the bibliography also have their place in the library shelf. Elena Târziu achieved 94 bibliographical researches together with Adriana Popa, in the field of sylviculture, and wrote the course Tehnica inform rii documentare (Technique of Documentary Information) in the year 1997 and Toma Doina realized 22 bibliographical researches in the field of wood engineering. She also issued the course Bazele biblioteconomiei (Bases of Library Science) in the year Alexandrina Mih ilescu made 86 bibliographical researches in the field of wood engineering and mechanics, together with Matyis Maria and Popa Adriana. A few themes researched by the three authors: Mih ilescu, Alexandrina. - Biology of the pheasant, sawdust briquetting, surface quality at wood finishing, researches as regards the movement of the wood assortments in air stream, researches as regards the alder species, wood colouring, construction and drive of the hydraulic presses, wood constructions. Toma, Doina. - Wood constructions, contributions as regards mechanizing and automating the fasteners of the metallic accessories on furniture bodies, boring dynamics, log peelers, splitting machines, influence of the physical and mechanical properties of the wood on the chipboard properties, numerical methods for depositing. Târziu, Elena. - Fungi attacks, forest avifauna, foliar biomass, diseases of the pheasant, researches on the biotic agents involved in the pine-drying phenomena, bio-ecological and sylvo-productive researches on the beech and pine mixtures, tele-detection researches in sylviculture, researches on the fox, road construction, red-oak culture. 3. Conclusion In conclusion, the bibliographer is compelled many times to explore the content of the documents in order to classify them and to detect the material required by the user. And, to find the information is an art, not a science, says Jean-Pierre Lardy. The ever-increasing need for information extended the area of documentation and use of the information sources 1, the library playing an important part to this purpose. Due to the increasingly variegated sources, the users of the researches still need the mediation provided by the information and documentation professionals, who are much more familiarized with the types of instruments and who facilitate the access of the non-specialized user to the dispersed sources. [7] 1 Ioana Nicolae, Dreptul la informatie privind accesarea resurselor informationale ACUM 2007 Colocviul International de Stiinte Sociale, 29 noiembrie-1 decembrie 2007, Brasov, Editura Universit tii Transilvania din Brasov, ISSN ; p

303 BIBLIO 2012 International Conference on Library and Information Science The great researcher in folklore K. Mullenhoff said once that: What we pick up should remain to the country and should serve science; we thereby fulfil the mission that our forerunners delayed to do for their offspring. [4] Bibliography must not be regarded as a range of names and issues. It is not confined to facilitating the elaboration by the user of the bibliography for various work themes, but it is in itself a composition school. It shows the researcher the manner in which various authors deal with a problem: which aspects they deem more significant; in what frame they place the problem; what main ideas they set; in what order and range they deal with them. [6] BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. BIBLIOTECONOMIE: manual. Bucureşti: ABBPR, p BuluŃă, Gheorghe: CivilizaŃia bibliotecilor. Bucureşti : Editura Enciclopedică, p HERMENEUTICA bibliothecaria: Antologie philobiblon. Vol. 3. Cluj-Napoca: Presa Universitară Clujeană p Kargbo, J. A.: Bibliograp