Physical and mechanical modeling of ageforming in 7050 Al Alloy

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1 Physical and mechanical modeling of ageforming in 7050 Al Alloy * Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris ** Dassault Aviation Baptiste Escoffier * Yvan Chastel * André Pineau * Guy Sola ** Gilles Surdon **

2 Presentation content Introduce Ageforming Short review of Ageforming A new behavior modeling of age forming 3D modeling for Finite Element Analysis Summary and Conclusion Question period 2

3 Introduction Age forming process Allows to combine within one single process : the forming of a panel and the artificial aging treatments, which are necessary for achieving the final properties of heat treatable alloys, into a single process. Forming pressure Specimen Applied heat and forming pressure Specimen in contact with tool Tooling 1 Loading stage at room temperature The pressure on the panel can be applied using an autoclave, or mechanically. Aging temperature Room temperature 2 Aging stage Spring back 3 Unloading stage After an initial loading is elastic, a heat treatment can transform part of the total strain from elastic to plastic. After removal of the die, there will still be a degree of springback. Consequently, the specimen will have a new shape and the material will exhibit mechanical properties as if it had been aged normally. 3

4 Short review of age forming For B1B (long range combat aircrafts) top and bottom wing skins (by TEXTRON) Al 2124T351/T851, Al 2419T351/T851, age formed by autoclave Integrally stiffened skin For commercial jets top wing skins (by TEXTRON and by AIRBUS for A330/340 and A380) Stringers of top wing 7150W51/T651, 7449TAF/T7951 4

5 Short review of age forming For business jets Top wing skins (by TEXTRON for Gulfstream) Al 7075 T651/T7351, age formed by autoclave Top wing skins (by Dassault Aviation for F7X) Al 7050 W51/T7651,age formed mechanically 5

6 Short review of age forming Aluminum alloys for Age forming Age hardenable aluminum alloys 2219 T3/T8 : hours 2419 T3/T8 : hours 2124 T3/T8 : hours 2022 T3/T8 : hours 7050 W/T76 : hours hours 7075 T6/T73 : hours 7449 W/T79 :.. 6

7 Behavior law for age forming 7050 W/T76 : hours hours T Solution heat treatment Quench Age forming strain Stretching Artificial ageing Time 7

8 Mechanical principles Total loading cycle and relaxation-induced deformation Physical phenomena Stress relaxation during the artificial ageing cycle on loading Relaxation stress in the plastic domain time Time (s) Stress A B D C OA : loading AB : heating BC : creep CD: cooling DE: unloading -50 Stress chargement à froid sur TAF 7050 TAF/T76, total strain = 1.2% O E Strain heating Contrainte (MPa) Sophisticated thermomechanical relaxation stress relaxation models (containing creep laws) allow to predict accurately the elastic springback Tools can be designed to anticipate these phenomena in order to obtain the desired final geometry { m The creep law is often written as & ε = Aσ n t 8

9 Metallurgical principles Precipitation hardening (aging) of Al 7XXX The different stages : A previous quenching has retained supersaturated solid solution within the aluminum matrix (α) First stage of aging (W51) : ordered and solute-rich clusters (GP zones) form. They are coherent with phase α and increase the hardness of the alloy Second stage : GP zones are replaced by the stable phase η (intermediate precipitate) which is semi coherent with α. The size of precipitates increases. Last stage : the precipitates become larger, the dislocation-precipitate elastic interaction decreases as the precipitate spacing increases. The phase η (MgZn2) forms as large incoherent particles. T Solution heat treatment Quench Stretching Artificial ageing Time 9

10 Metallurgical principles Plasticity Due to dislocations and defects The displacement of dislocations is the origin of plasticity The relaxation or creep rate depends on the dislocation rate During the precipitation hardening, the phase evolution could modify the dislocations movement; dislocations become free or are stopped or slowed down. Preferential precipitate orientation and variant selection. Eventual TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) effect. (1) Stress relaxation 1 : Zhu and Starke : Stress aging of Al-xCu Alloys. Acta Mater., vol 49, 2001, pp

11 Material behavior during age forming : investigation on 7475 Al. [Ref 2] e a 7475 W51/T73 TEM analysis No preferential alignment of the phases η and η at any location through the slab thickness (no direct effect of the bending stress on nucleation) SAXS diffraction No great variation of particle radius through the slab thickness tensile compression Over ageing (T73), Initial bending stress : driving force to the dislocation activity 2 : Bakavos and al. G5RD-CT AGEFORM 5thPCRD 11

12 Model based on thermally activated phenomena & ε = ρ m bv ν : speed of dislocation, b : Burgers vector, ρm : mobile dislocation density precipitate L r dislocation φ + v = v v = v = + v v 0 0 Q0 σba exp kt Q0 + σba exp kt Q v = 2v exp 0 0 kt σba sinh kt Qo (activation energy) and A (surface scanned by the dislocation) = function (precipitate radius, shear energy of precipitate, L) & ε = ρ m bv Q = 0 σba & ε 2ρ mbv0 exp sinh kt kt Need to find the values of A, Q o, ρ m bν o 12

13 Material behavior during age forming : test and analysis & ε & ε & e ε & p ε & th ε & 0 = relax + ε v ε th is known & ε 0' = & ε e + & ε & p + ε & relax + ε v & ε & = & ε + & ε + & ε ' 0 ε p = 0 e relax v e : elastic strain p : plastic strain th : thermal expansion relax : creep v : volume variation & ε relax + & ε v = & ε e = & σ E σ is measured during the tests tensile and compression tests 13

14 Material behavior during age forming: investigation σ=f(t) ln & σ = F( σ ) & ε v Defined No influence of gradient value ( σ σ ) Q & ε = 2 Β exp sinh kt kt S ba Including a threshold stress to jump one level of stress to an other one 14

15 Material behavior during age forming: application 3D model of behavior for 7050W51/T76 Q ( ) ( σ i σ ) ba ( = Β 2 S v σ ) S σ 0 i ε& 2 1 v exp sinh sinh i = kt kt 1 v kt Value of law parameters ba Identified from creep tests (tensile and compression) and from bending tests (elastic and plastic strain) Use of Optimization algorithms to find the values of parameters (A, B, σ si ) using basic tests 15

16 Implementation in FE code Finite element calculation Shell element S4R for panel and R3D4 rigid element for tooling surface Contact and friction conditions with tooling surface Specific development for integrating the new constitutive law User material subroutine Specific material data file ABAQUS software 16

17 Results Forming of coupons (7050 W51/T76) Tooling radius : 500, 3000, and 7000 mm Thickness of coupons : 4, 6 and 10 mm forming tests by batch : 0.03% < strain < 1% heigth ( ln) mm 10 height 1 exp A exp B Calculation 0,1 R7000ep04 R7000ep06 R7000ep10 R3000ep04 R3000ep06 R3000ep10 R0500ep04 R0500ep06 R0500ep10 17

18 Application to tooling design of wing skin Definition of constitutive laws ( σ σ ) Q & ε = 2 Β exp sinh kt kt S ba Simulate Age forming process on basic panel Simulate Age forming process on wing panel to define tooling Age forming of wing panel OK? END 18

19 Summary and Conclusions A new model including physical and mechanical behavior was established for Al 7050 Integrated to Abaqus and OPTIM (in house Dassault code) to define the tooling design available to reach the shape after springback Extensions for new aluminum alloys such as New damage tolerant material as 2022T3/T8 (AlCuMg) for bottom applications New high strength material as 7449W51/T79 (AlZnMgCu) for top applications 19

20 Questions? Déformation en fin de mise en contrainte Déformation en fin de retour élastique 20

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