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1 SPECIAL SECTION: ÎLE-dE-FRANCE N 77 - Fall American Chamber of Commerce in France COMMERCE IN FRANCE Info Technology/ New Media Zoom: Real Estate (p. 31)

2 Since 1840 INTERNATIONAL MOVING - STORAGE MOVE MANAGEMENT - RELOCATION PARIS: Tel.: Fax: OFFICES IN LYON, MARSEILLE, NICE et TOULOUSE

3 SPECIAL SECTION: ÎLE-dE-FRANCE N 77 - Fall American Chamber of Commerce in France COMMERCE IN FRANCE A merican Chamber of Commerce in France COMMERCE IN FRANCE n 77 Fall Editorial - Winston Maxwell, Co-chair, New Media & IT Task Force Info Technology/New Media 6 Data Inundation Making Sense of the Rubble - Jim Vint, Anthony Charlton (FTI ConsulTInge) Info Technology/ New Media Zoom: Real Estate (p. 31) 8 The Mobile Internet Revolution - Luis Lucatero (AlCATel-luCenT) 10 Working in Virtual Teams - Denis Leclerc (ThunderbIrd) 12 Opérateurs du Web 2.0 : Appréciation distributive du régime de responsabilité - Marc Schuler (nixon PeAbody) 14 Balancing Data-Privacy Rights with the Freedom of Expression and the Freedom to Transact Business - Carol A. Umhoefer (dla PIPer) 18 Social Media What Does the Future hold? Mike Hardaker (AngloInFo) Commerce in France is published four times yearly by the American Chamber of Commerce in France, 156 boulevard Haussmann, Paris. Web site: Ph: +33/ Fax: +33/ Directeur de la publication : Marina Niforos Editor: Shari Leslie Segall Numéro de Commission Paritaire Subscription: Yearly, 60. Per copy, 15 Régie publicitaire : F.F.E. 18 Avenue Parmentier PARIS Tél. : Fax : Responsable de la publicité : Delphine Drean Tél. : Fax : Responsable technique : Aïda Pereira Tél. : Conception & réalisation maquette : Valérie Mounier - The views expressed in the articles in Commerce in France represent those of their authors and not necessarily those of the Chamber. They have been edited to meet the publication s house style. Reproduction rights available on simple request. Les informations fournies dans cette publication ne peuvent en aucune manière engager notre responsabilité. Au cas où une erreur se serait glissée dans notre présentation, nous remercions nos lecteurs de nous en faire part, de façon à ce que nous puissions émettre un rectificatif lors de notre prochain numéro. Marina Niforos Managing Director +33/ Vancheng Khou Events Manager +33/ Michelle Barton Marketing and Communications Assistant +33/ Shari Leslie Segall Editor +33/ The Impact of New Media on Our Outlook and Behavior - Ahmad Hassan (russell reynolds AssoCIATes) 20 Optimisez l usage d internet dans votre entreprise - Arnaud Rouzade (dynatéra) 22 If You Are Not a Blogger, You Are Not a Marketer - Nicolas Jambin (AdnovA) 24 Legal Issues and Opportunities Stemming from the Use of the Web 2.0 Ecosystem for Producing and/or Marketing User-Generated Content - Laurent Szuskin, Eve-Christie Vermynck (baker & MCkenzIe) 27 Les sites américains de vente en ligne en France : quelques éléments fiscaux à garder en mémoire - Anne Quenedeye (bird & bird) 28 Network Providers at the Front Line of Cybersecurity - Dr. Edward G. Amoroso (AT&T) Zoom : Real Estate 31 Panorama du marché immobilier français - Emilie Vidaud Special Section: Île-de-France 34 Four questions for Denis Tersen, CEO of PREDA (PArIs region economic development AgenCy) Echoes from the Chamber 38 Task Force Portrait: The Training and Education Task Force 39 New Members 40 President's Council 40 Members 41 Logos 42 Profile: Parametric Technology Corporation, un acteur mondial et incontournable sur le marché du PLM Product Lifecycle Management - Marc Diouane (PArAMeTrIC TeChnology CorPorATIon.) 44 Regional Chapters 44 Côte d Azur-Monaco Alsace-Lorraine 45 Rhône-Alpes Auvergne France Nord 46 Midi-Pyrénées Marseille 48 Events 50 In the AmCham Archives Commerce in France N 77 Fall

4 EdIToRIal by Winston Maxwell Co-chair, New Media & IT Task Force This issue of Commerce in France focuses on online business. Blogging, mobile Internet, social media, cyber-security, Web 2.0, tax, data privacy: many of the digital issues impacting businesses in France and the U.S. are covered here in one way or another. As co-chair of AmCham's New Media & IT Task Force, I am proud that AmCham is taking on such a visible role in facilitating trans-atlantic dialog about these fast-moving themes. In his June 30, 2010, speech to AmCham members, Alcatel Lucent CEO Ben Verwaayen underlined the challenges faced by ubiquitous digital networks. Exponential growth of data traffic will strain both fixed and wireless networks. As consumers upload and download videos and share critical financial and health information online at an ever increasing pace, network and technology companies including AmCham members Verizon, AT&T, Cisco, Microsoft, Alcatel Lucent, Google and IBM will continue stretching to find new technological solutions to maintain quality of service, security and privacy in the cloud. Luis Lucatero's article (page 8) demonstrates some of the daunting challenges posed by mobile Internet, while Edward Amoroso's (page 28) highlights "botnets" and other frightening cyber-security threats that can potentially paralyze key infrastructure such as water, electricity, even military aircraft! Both the French and U.S. governments recognize the importance of business-led solutions to these security threats. To meet the demands of an increasingly mobile and connected society, policymakers need to make sure radio spectrum, a valuable and scarce public resource, is used efficiently. On June 8, 2010, FCC (Federal Communications Commission) Commissioner Robert McDowell and ARCEP (Autorité de régulation des communications électroniques et des postes) Commissioner Nicolas Curien met with AmCham members to discuss spectrum policy in the U.S. and France. Participants raised questions on issues such as 4G mobile, femtocells and the use of spectrum located in so-called white spaces left vacant by television and radio broadcasters. The discussion showed that France and the U.S. are moving toward more flexible use Robert McDowell, Nicolas Curien of radio spectrum, in a manner that will encourage innovation while minimizing historic command and control regulations that could inhibit new wireless services. However, as changes in spectrum rules can severely disrupt existing business plans and investment, they must be phased in carefully. The upcoming French auctions for so-called "4G" spectrum will be an important test for the implementation of these principles. Carol Umhoefer's article (page 14) on data privacy highlights another theme on which AmCham members have been active. The New Media & IT Task Force and the AmCham Data-Protection Working Group recently prepared a white paper on the so-called right to erasure (droit à l'oubli). AmCham President Jean-Claude Gruffat sent the white paper to France's Digital Minister Nathalie Koscuisko-Morizet, in the ongoing dialog between AmCham and this important ministry. As with previous AmCham data-protection initiatives, the white paper on droit à l'oubli highlights the similarities and differences between the U.S. and French approaches to this issue. The "right to erasure" does not exist as a separate right under U.S. law, but several of its underlying components do exist in the U.S., including measures destined to protect minors online and measures to protect against data loss and theft. As Carol's article and AmCham's white paper aptly point out, these data-protection measures need to be balanced against other fundamental rights, such as freedom of expression. The French concept of droit à l'oubli may be debated this fall in the French Parliament, as part of legislation to update France's privacy laws to comply with EU directives revised in 2009 within the new Telecom Package. Net neutrality is also included in the new Telecom Package, and will be high on French policymakers' agendas this fall. The recent agreement between AmCham members Verizon and Google on certain key net-neutrality principles will no doubt be scrutinized carefully by French policymakers as they examine measures to implement this Package. Last March, the New Media & IT Task Force welcomed AT&T's vice president Rich Clarke for a lunch briefing on net-neutrality issues, including a primer by Rich on some of the key technical aspects of network management. If you are interested in participating in AmCham initiatives on data protection, please contact AmCham Board member Carol Umhoefer of DLA Piper. If you are interested in being involved in our New Media & IT Task Force, please contact one of the task force co-chairs: Olivier Esper of Google, Dominique Baroux of AT&T, or myself at Hogan Lovells. Meanwhile, sit back and enjoy this issue of Commerce in France! AmCham France extends a hearty welcome to our new Managing Director, Marina Niforos! Look for more about and from Marina in the Winter issue of Commerce in France, whose Editorial she will be writing, and where we will highlight her pre-amcham accomplishments and her vision for our Chamber. 4 Commerce in France N 77 Fall 2010

5 Commerce in France N 77 Fall

6 Info Technology/New Media Data Inundation Making Sense of the Rubble by Jim Vint and Anthony Charlton Most data created in the world today won t ever be looked at by a human being. In any given day, mid-size companies across Europe generate Terabytes 1 of data in , spreadsheets and customer-order details. As the sources of information within an organization grow, the volume of data that it gathers expands exponentially. These sources have come to include mobile devices, web interfaces and up- and down-stream provider data, in addition to traditional resourceplanning databases, systems and backup tapes. To further add to the inflow, continuous changes in the corporate-it landscape now include rapidly evolving social-networking technologies, such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace, which facilitate sales and client communication. The amount of this data that is used, let alone understood, is dramatically smaller than the quantity that has been collected. While for most organizations there has always been a gap between the volume of data residing within its e-walls and the amount actually used in managerial decision making, the issue is now compounded by an ever growing number of data formats, applications and storage media. With the continuously exploding volumes of data, it can be a daunting task to extract pertinent bits from the rubble to ensure effective decision making. Hal Varian, the chief economist at Google, explains that data are widely available; what is scarce is the ability to extract wisdom from them. 2 Whatever the reason for this, the outcome for every organization is the same: disparate systems are often unable to communicate with one another, causing delays with reporting and analyses. The amount of this data that is used, let alone understood, is dramatically smaller than the quantity that has been collected." Worth a thousand words Fortunately, it is not all doom and gloom. What is available to assist in managing this data efficiently and effectively? The birth of data-integration and visualization tools is lending some much needed strength toward a resolution. While these are certainly not plug and play solutions, integrating and using almost any data is within reach. Datavisualization tools facilitate the integration of multiple data types and sources (i.e., systems such as SAP, Oracle, custom applications and manual-entry sources), allowing the user to pull data from disparate systems into a single view or an automated report. The dynamic nature of these analytical tools allows multiple dimensions to be visualized simultaneously and, if desired, overlaid onto geographical plots and customized grids embodying the adage a picture speaks a thousand words (see below). One single process. Tasks of report making, data extraction and calculations can be automated. Additionally, custom audit and transaction-monitoring systems can assist in compliance control and manage areas of concern. 1 A Terabyte is approximately 1,000 Gigabytes. All the catalogued books in America s Library of Congress total 15TBs, The Economist, Data, Data Everywhere, p.5 (inset: All Too Much Data Inflation ), February 15, The Economist, Data, Data Everywhere, p.4, February 15, Commerce in France N 77 Fall 2010

7 Info Technology/New Media For assimilating data already available in an organization, a cross-functional support team including business-segment representatives, IT experts and software endusers is required to create a roadmap of the company s resources. Moving forward, the company needs to consider the impact of new technology platforms and their integration with, or the migration of, existing data portals. While this may present a more costly short-term solution, the ultimate long-term benefits of visibility into client and product profitability, distribution and sourcing costs and other significant metrics will be immeasurable. The raw material of business Enterprise data are among an organization s largest and most often overlooked and undervalued assets. In the words of The Economist, Data are becoming the new raw material of business: an economic input almost on a par with capital and labour. 3 They can be used to improve the performance of every operating segment in the organization or to mitigate the risk of catastrophic events. As the world continues to create an exponentially increasing volume of data, the companies that thrive will be those that are quicker at assimilating new data and that use more of it faster than their competitors and in more productive ways regarding the unexpected challenges of doing business. The need to capture and store data from every facet of the firm is well founded, but this action on its own can only be equated to collecting history s finest pieces of artwork and then hanging them in the closet. Jim Vint, a Managing Director at FTI Consulting in London, runs its EMEA Data Analytics practice. Anthony Charlton is responsible for the Forensic & Litigation Consulting Group of FTI Consulting France. Thomas Jefferson's BlackBerry? Thomas Jefferson was U.S. Ambassador to France when the U.S. Constitution was being written and was finally completed in September Although it seems inconceivable to us today, he was satisfied by the rapidity and regularity with which the news from Philadelphia reached him. As we stroll past his statue by the Seine, we can t help but wonder what he and his predecessor in Paris, Benjamin Franklin both men of science in addition to the myriad other fields in which they shone would have thought of the way the U.S. Government communicates today. From the president whose campaign messages cascaded into our e-inboxes and who fought tooth and nail (or, is that tooth and thumb?) not to give up his BlackBerry to the Tweet Your Senator about Healthcare campaign (http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=ohy4b3143ym), and so infinitely much in between, our politicians, legislators, diplomats and even Supreme Court justices have gone digital. Here are merely several examples of the electronic revolution all dressed up in red, white and blue: Everyone in the U.S. State Department has been on since the early/ mid-90s. One embassy official says that when he joined the department in 1988 he did not know what a fax machine was, and remembers when USIA s* Office of African Affairs proudly announced its acquisition of one, in around Today, use of a fax in not only U.S. Government offices but also most businesses is considered Paleolithic, with scanned attachments preferred. BlackBerries: When in 2004 or so the U.S. Ambassador in Israel acquired a BlackBerry, his colleagues reportedly acted like the apes in 2001: A Space Odyssey, standing around gawking at it. Today, every embassy officer has one, and it is considered bad form not to consult it constantly, including on weekends, holidays and vacations. Facebook: Nearly all U.S. Embassies around the world now have Facebook pages. Currently, U.S. Embassy Paris has over 2000 friends, and the number grows almost daily. (It hopes to have 5,000 by the end of 2010.) Commerce in France readers who have received from an Embassy Paris employee have likely seen Join us on Facebook/Rejoignez-nous sur Facebook at the bottom of the message. Twitter: When asked, U.S. Embassy Paris answers, Yes, we do tweet! www: Every American Embassy has had a web site for at least 10 years. U.S. Embassy Paris has two one in English, one in French. AmCham France Member since SLS FTI Consulting, Inc., All rights reserved. The views expressed in the article are held by the authors and are not necessarily representative of FTI Consulting, Inc. The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particular individual, entity or transaction. No one should act on such information without appropriate professional advice after a thorough examination of the particular situation. 3 The Economist, Data, Data Everywhere, February 15, 2010 * an agency that no longer exists Commerce in France N 77 Fall

8 Info Technology/New Media The Mobile- Internet Revolution by Luis Lucatero Mobile telephony has been one of the most transformational and successful business activities in the history of mankind and its humanempowerment success story will not stop soon. Mobile operators are in the process of creating a new societal revolution, one that will be far reaching and go well beyond all past successes. Nearly a year ago, in the large cities of Western Europe and North America, a much expected and yet surprising trend began. Smart-phones began to flow into the mass market. For the first time, thousands of people in buildings, parks and metro stations started connecting simultaneously to the mobile wireless Internet. Today, the number of Internet-enabled phones represents ten to fifteen percent of the total number of phones. This fraction could be higher, but price is a barrier to wider adoption. At present, Internet-enabled touch-screen phones have a wholesale price of between 200 and 400 euros. In the world of microelectronics, there is a trend known as Moore s Law. A measure of this world s constant evolution, Moore s Law predicts that electronic products will continually become cheaper, faster and more compact. A careful application of Moore s Law and a close look at the market for the electronic parts that compose smart-phones leads us to believe that sometime around the year 2015, the wholesale price of a smart-phone will be between 50 and 200 euros. Once the handset-price barrier is lowered, mobile Internet will be more quickly adopted and will be everywhere: the voice-only mobile handset will disappear, and in no longer than five years Internet-enabled mobile phones will be the norm for most people in most countries. Handheld Internet devices will change most human activities." Yesterday s supply, tomorrow s demand Mobile phones connect to networks that require hardware strategically placed throughout cities in order to ensure adequate coverage. Until recently, mass Internet connectivity was not the guiding principle behind mobile-network architecture. Hardware locations were chosen in function of the fact that mobile voice services were dominant over other types of mobile services. Given the technologies in use today, this poses a problem, since the number of access points needed to provide adequate coverage for voice services is much lower than that needed for mass Internet services. As the number of devices keeps growing toward parity with the number of individuals in the population, the challenge becomes one of transforming a network that was originally conceived for mass-market voice services into a quality mass-market mobile-internet network. The cost for operators to do this would be determined by various factors, including: i) the number of access points required and ii) the access technology being used. The current number of access points or more technically, the current number of radio sites has taken billions of euros and fifteen years to build; adding new radio sites to a network requires not only financial investments from operators but also site-acquisition times ranging from six to twenty-four months per site. The idea of increasing the number of sites by a mere 20% in a city like Paris or London thus seems unrealistic. The mobile-internet technology used makes a tremendous difference in the number of sites needed to provide adequate mobile-internet coverage. The most efficient technology is called LTE, which stands for Long-Term Evolution; it delivers services today all the while assuring its long-term development. LTE is currently being tested or deployed in 50 countries and will become widely available to the public in the United States and parts of Europe and Asia in A connected computer in every pocket The availability of real-time information brought by fixed Internet access has guided business decisions, helped synchronize business operations and enhanced 8 Commerce in France N 77 Fall 2010

9 Info Technology/New Media biometric sensors to unambiguously identify individuals and protect their privacy and will help subscribers with critical health issues to obtain treatment in case of emergency. Beyond Western Europe and North America, mobile Internet will trigger financial inclusion for low-income individuals, increase social involvement where cooperation is needed and deliver remote medical assistance in places thus far unreachable. One mobile broadband connection per individual will bring change to the world in heretofore unimaginable realms. The near future is exciting and the potential for each of us to be part of this revolution has never been greater. commerce in ways that had not been anticipated. Now that mobile broadband Internet will be readily available anytime anywhere, handheld Internet devices will change most human activities, taking efficiency to new levels. A highly connected, truly personal computer in everyone s pocket will bring people together for business, pleasure and learning. Phones will read web pages aloud for the visually impaired, will teach illiterate users to read and write, will have Luis Lucatero is Wireless Policy Director of Alcatel-Lucent. AmCham France Member since Commerce in France N 77 Fall

10 Info Technology/New Media Working in Virtual Teams by Denis Leclerc Most of us work in team environments. Very few projects are accomplished due to our own individual work we have to manage, lead and influence people in order to accomplish our goals. On a weekly basis, we have faceto-face meetings, we conduct business via phone and and if we work in international organizations, virtual teams have become the norm. Most people in academia would agree that one of the simplest definitions of virtual team is: a group of people who routinely work interdependently for a joint objective across time, distance, culture and organization. As far as accomplishing that work, gone are the days of the slow telegram, telex and fax; now we live in a world of s, text messages, Skype, video conferencing and even, in some cases, Second Life. As technology progresses, so does the speed at which we interact on this multitude of platforms, which have removed geographical limitations and thus allow independent people and teams to work anywhere and everywhere. It is of utmost importance that you embrace this virtual environment into which your younger co-workers were born." A few decades ago, as these virtual teams were perceived as second-tier groups, expectations about their productivity were lower than those for their face-to-face i.e., same-location counterparts. Today, in addition to focusing on the moneysaving (and carbon-footprint-reducing) aspects of these high-tech work methods, experts are studying the new group dynamics that surface when we deal in virtual teams. major mistake made. If team members understand only their own roles and their own work, they will always be mere individual contributors. This becomes extremely important in crosscultural teams and organizations. 2. Be mindful of how you communicate. Communication is always cited as the second most challenging issue of virtual teams. Here I am talking about paying attention to your own communication preferences and how you can adapt them to your virtual group. This is called style switching and is ever more critical if the main language of your virtual team is not your native language or that of your same-location team. While English has become the de facto international language of business, the context, speed and directness of our words are interpreted differently according to our interlocutors native languages and, especially, cultures. 3. Pay attention to your team s cultural differences. This goes beyond communication and language and includes considerations such as, among many others, group hierarchy/member-status, gender differences and attitudes toward collaboration. One executive working with a global organization described the process she used: she kept pictures of all her virtual-team members as well as information about their status in their organizations and how long they had been working together. From time to time, at the beginning of a meeting, she would hold an open forum where people could share cultural anecdotes. By doing this she reinforced the relationship building so crucial in many countries. Special techniques for managing virtual teams 1. First and foremost, your team members need to know and understand the team s goals and objectives. This might seem very simplistic, but I have seen in my years of working with global teams that not doing so is the first 4. Ask yourself: Am I using the right technology? We are all eager to use the most cost-saving devices and methods but are these really the best for our purposes? Research in the fields of education and social organization has confirmed what we ve all been perceiving for some time: younger employees are more connected with each other than those of any other generation (and as a result, there are fewer and fewer differences among them worldwide). For this age group, is too slow and clunky; texting is better. Social networking can also be 10 Commerce in France N 77 Fall 2010

11 Info Technology/New Media used as a means of communicating with some team members. 5. Be aware of time differences. Remember that a convenient time for you might not so for the rest of your team members. If you respect everyone s time zone, are flexible and always start and end your meetings on time, you will see that your team members will have greater buy-in to your projects and thus make better decisions. In today s climate of travel-budget cuts and increasing pressure for efficiency, virtual teams have become the norm for most businesses, institutions and organizations. It is of utmost importance that you embrace this virtual environment into which your younger co-workers were born. Denis Leclerc, Ph.D., is clinical professor of Cross-Cultural Communications and Global Negotiations at Thunderbird School of Global Management. AmCham France Member since Thunderbird executive-training programs on leading and working effectively in virtual Teams: communicating and negotiating with a global mindset - June 1-3, Thunderbird Geneva l eading global projects for strategic results - June 6-8, Thunderbird Geneva For more information, please contact: / or visit Commerce in France N 77 Fall

12 Info Technology/New Media Opérateurs du Web 2.0 : Appréciation distributive du régime de responsabilité par Marc Schuler La question de la responsabilité des plateformes web concernant les contenus mis en ligne par leurs utilisateurs a, durant ces dernières années, défrayé les chroniques tant juridiques que grand public. Après quelques vicissitudes, la jurisprudence a finalement consacré leur statut d hébergeur. Cependant, un arrêt récent de la Cour de Cassation 1 rendu sous l empire de la loi du 30 septembre 1986 applicable aux hébergeurs 2 a ravivé ce débat. Certains ont cru pouvoir déduire du fait qu elle ait réfuté l applicabilité du régime considéré à un opérateur permettant la création d espaces personnels aux destinataires de son service, un possible revirement de jurisprudence directement transposable au régime actuel. Tel ne devrait, cependant, pas être le cas. La directive La directive n 2000/31/CE du 8 juin 2000 sur le commerce électronique a notamment eu pour objectif de limiter la responsabilité de certains prestataires de services, afin d assurer le développement de l économie numérique. Elle définit spécifiquement le service d hébergement comme le stockage d informations fournies par un «destinataire du service». En droit interne, l application de l article 6 de la Loi pour la Confiance dans l Economie Numérique (LCEN) n du 21 juin 2004 s impose à chaque fois que la responsabilité du prestataire est recherchée du fait d informations stockées à la demande d un destinataire du service et dont le caractère illicite n est pas effectivement connu de celui-ci. la responsabilité de l'hébergeur ne peut être engagée dès lors qu'il n'a pas effectivement connaissance du caractère manifestement illicite des contenus mis en ligne par les utilisateurs." Le fait pour une plateforme web d offrir aux utilisateurs de son service une architecture et les moyens techniques permettant une classification des contenus ne permet pas de la qualifier d éditeur de contenu dès lors que lesdits contenus sont fournis par les utilisateurs eux-mêmes. L ensemble des opérations techniques de réencodage et de formatage des fichiers vidéo n induisent pas plus une sélection par l hébergeur des contenus mis en ligne 3. La jurisprudence a, en outre, réaffirmé que l exploitation du site par la commercialisation d espaces publicitaires, dès lors qu elle n induit pas une capacité d action du service sur les contenus mis en ligne, n est pas davantage de nature à justifier la qualification d éditeur 4. La responsabilité Les plateformes ne sont, en conséquence, pas responsables a priori du contenu des vidéos proposées sur leur site, seuls les utilisateurs l étant, et ne sont pas soumises à une obligation générale de surveillance des informations qu elles stockent, ni à une obligation générale de rechercher des faits ou des circonstances révélant des activités illicites. La responsabilité de l hébergeur ne peut être engagée dès lors qu il n a pas effectivement connaissance du caractère manifestement illicite des contenus mis en ligne par les utilisateurs ou de faits ou circonstances faisant apparaître ce caractère, ou si, dès le moment où il en a eu connaissance, il a agi promptement pour retirer ces contenus ou en rendre l accès impossible. 12 Commerce in France N 77 Automne 2010

13 Info Technology/New Media A la question que posait le représentant permanent de la France auprès de l Union de savoir si les «services dits du web 2.0» étaient «de nature à justifier une remise en cause des principes généraux établis par la directive du 8 juin 2000», la réponse de la La Direction générale Marché intérieur et services de la Commission européenne donnée le 31 juillet 2008 s interprète a priori sans ambiguïté : non. Et cette dernière de préciser que la Commission européenne n a pas jugé utile et nécessaire de procéder à une révision de la directive sur la commerce électronique et que si la France devait néanmoins conclure de son côté à la nécessité d une modification de la LCEN, elle devra être notifiée au stade de projet «afin de s assurer préalablement de la compatibilité des nouveaux textes avec le droit communautaire». Si tant est qu un doute, même raisonnable, puisse encore subsister quant à l application de l article 6 de la LCEN aux opérateurs du Web 2.0, les dispositions de l article 27 de la loi HADOPI n du 12 juin 2009 risquent de le diluer encore considérablement. L intention du législateur Ces dispositions n ont d autre effet que d étendre le régime de responsabilité dérogatoire de l hébergeur au directeur de la publication d un site de presse en ligne, concernant les contenus d internautes diffusés au sein d espaces de contribution personnelle identifiés comme tels. En consacrant ce principe, cette déclinaison du statut des intermédiaires techniques ne fait que conforter l intention du législateur quant à la nécessaire applicabilité de l article 6 de la LCEN aux opérateurs du Web 2.0. Sous l empire de la LCEN, force est donc de constater que l existence d un service de communication au public en ligne ne saurait être antinomique avec la notion d hébergeur. L activité, par essence hybride, de ce type d opérateurs ne disqualifie pas l application du régime dérogatoire au profit de celle du droit commun. Marc Schuler est associé en charge du département TMT au sein de Nixon Peabody Paris. Membre AmCham France depuis Cour Cass, 14 janvier 2010, Telecom Italia (Tiscali Media) c/ Dargaud Lombard et Lucky Comics 2 dans sa rédaction issue de la loi n du 1 er août Cf. notamment CA Paris, 14 avril 2010, Omar Sy, Fred Testot et autres c/ Dailymotion ; TGI Paris, 14 novembre 2008, Lambert et autres c/ Youtube, Canal+ et Studio Canal 4 Cf. notamment CA Paris, 6 mai 2009, Dailymotion c/ Christian Carion, Nord Ouest Production et UGC Images Commerce in France N 77 Automne

14 Info Technology/New Media Balancing Data-Privacy Rights with the Freedom of Expression and the Freedom to Transact Business by Carol A. Umhoefer Imagine you are a small-business owner, running a furniturerepair shop and employing one person. Early one day a customer, irate about your paint job on his family-heirloom rocking chair, arrives in your shop with the chair and threatens to break it over your head. Later in the day, when your employee shows up for work, you are still fuming and tell her, "If that jerk Mr. Smith ever comes in this store again don t do anything for him but call me immediately. Today that *#&=!! threatened my life!" You have just warned your employee of a problem customer and possibly have avoided future incidents or even violence. Article 4 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This is a question that the French Data Protection Authority (CNIL) and various courts have addressed often implicitly and to which there is no easy answer. Five years later your business is prospering (despite the occasional Mr. Smith) and you have nine employees. One day Mr. Smith's sister, Ms. Smith, comes into the store carrying a table lamp that you've not repaired to her satisfaction and threatening to bring it down on the limits of data- Just where are your head. Instead of telling each employee over the they may collide privacy rights when course of the next week or with the freedom two that, just like her felonious brother Mr. Smith, and the freedom of expression Ms. Smith is a *#&=!! who to transact threatened your life and business?" you want to be called immediately if she enters the store, you note such comments in the customer database on the office computer, which is regularly consulted by all the employees. You have just violated the French Data Protection Law (Loi Informatique et Libertés du 6 janvier 1978) and possibly Article of the French Criminal Code. Just where are the limits of data-privacy rights when they may collide with the freedom of expression and the freedom to transact business? Freedom of expression is protected by Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights; the freedom to transact business is one of the rights recognized as flowing from 14 Commerce in France N 77 Fall 2010

15 Freedom to Transact Business In a 2008 decision levying a fine against an automobile repair shop, the CNIL considered that the shop was required to obtain an authorization from the CNIL before allowing employees to enter comments in a customer database indicating that a specific customer should no longer be serviced. (The CNIL subsequently noted with approval that the shop deleted "excessive" commentaries on customers that would have prevented them from being serviced.) Similarly, in April of this year the CNIL issued a warning against a company that provides tutoring to students. The company's database included comments on tutors, students and their parents that the CNIL considered excessive or even insulting. While observing that it is legitimate to make comments concerning a tutor or student such as "unavailable during May for health reasons" it is not legitimate to make detailed comments ("suffering from stage 3 brain cancer," "has well deserved lung cancer"). The database also included comments such as "tutor had legal problems after exchanging pedophilic photos," and the CNIL considered that "home tutoring does not justify saving and keeping such information that implicates persons on the basis of unverifiable information and reports." The company s need to protect itself from legal action should it propose a potential pedophile as a tutor did not seem to carry any weight. Freedom of Expression In 2006, the Paris Court of First Instance ordered a woman to pay damages to her ex-colleagues and former employer for having posted derogatory comments about Info Technology/New Media them on her blog ("The works council is muzzled and has no power except getting movie tickets and selling chocolate for Christmas." "Band of criminals." "Manipulator and liar."). The court considered the defendant to have violated not only France's 1881 law governing the press, but also the French Data Protection Law, despite the defendant's arguments that she was entitled to freedom of expression. The European Court of Justice, in a 2008 decision, interpreted the 1995 Directive on data protection, which sets forth exceptions to the Directive s requirements where necessary to reconcile fundamental rights of privacy and freedom of expression, in particular for purposes of journalism. The ECJ opined that journalistic activities are those where the only purpose is to provide the public with information, opinions or ideas. Journalism is not limited to media businesses and may be lucrative, according to the ECJ. The national courts must decide whether particular activities are for the sole purpose of providing information, opinions or ideas to the public, and therefore constitute an exception to data-protection requirements. Last October, the Paris court of first instance gave its response. The court ordered a man to pay damages for having referred on his website to Ms. X as the lover of Mr. Y, a well known political figure: "This defender of family values had no scruples and lived a passionate relationship with Ms. X." But whereas the court considered such language as constituting an invasion of Ms. X's privacy, it refused to find a violation of French Data Protection Law. According to the court, whereas the right of privacy (Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights) and the freedom of expression (Article 10) must be balanced, the Data Protection Law cannot constitute a separate limitation to the freedom of expression granted under the Convention. Carol A. Umhoefer, a partner at DLA Piper, is a member of AmCham s Board of Directors. AmCham France Member since Commerce in France N 77 Fall

16 Communiqué OpenSkies : le haut de gamme discount Lancée en juin 2008 cette compagnie aérienne a relevé le pari de lancer des vols exclusivement classe affaires à tarif extrêmement compétitif. Pari à priori réussi au vu des résultats et de l ouverture en mai dernier d une nouvelle ligne. Rencontre avec Jean Charles PERINO, Directeur Commercial d OpenSkies qui nous expose les avantages de voyager mieux et moins cher. Propos recueillis par Christelle Ben Romdhane Présentez-nous la compagnie : OpenSkies est l unique compagnie aérienne française 100 % classe affaires à tarif très attractif. Nous desservons New-York (Newark) et Washington (Dulles), et ce au départ d Orly, l aéroport le plus proche de Paris. Filiale de British Airways à 100%, notre compagnie dispose de 4 avions et compte 200 salariés. Nous sommes une entreprise à taille humaine, tout en bénéficiant de notre appartenance à l un des leaders mondiaux du transport aérien, British Airways. Nous assurons 2 vols quotidiens entre Paris et New-York et 5 vols hebdomadaires entre Paris et Washington. Nos tarifs débutent à partir de 1090 euros pour un Aller/retour Paris-New York et de 1200 euros pour un Aller/Retour Paris-Washington. Nous offrons ainsi le meilleur rapport qualité prix du marché pour un vol en Classe Affaires sur ces destinations. Concrètement qu apportez-vous de plus à vos passagers? OpenSkies a choisi de desservir New York et Washington au départ d Orly, l aéroport le plus proche et le plus pratique en matière d accès depuis Paris. OpenSkies propose une cabine 100% classe affaires avec un double niveau de confort : la cabine Biz Bed composée de fauteuils lits parfaitement horizontaux (180 ) et la cabine Biz Seat composée de larges sièges inclinables à 140 avec espacement de 1,30m entre chaque rangée. Les deux cabines offrent un service un déjeuner ou dîner servis à l assiette. Le chef Jean Pierre Xiradakis du restaurant La Tupina s est joint à nous pour développer des menus spécifiques servis à nos passagers. Pour le lancement de la ligne Paris-Washington nous avons eu la joie que le chef français Michel Richard (qui possède plusieurs restaurants à Washington DC dont le fameux «Citronnelle») compose des menus hors du commun que nos clients ont appréciés. Enfin, en tant que filiale de British Airways, nos clients bénéficient des avantages du programme de fidélisation Executive Club. Quels sont les services originaux que vous proposez? La classe affaires au meilleur prix est un concept innovant, parce qu il permet de concilier les deux exigences majeures des voyageurs : confort et économie. Ce concept offre donc de nombreux avantages à nos passagers. Tout d abord, la cabine avec seulement 84 sièges a été conçue pour créer un environnement privatif et humain donnant ainsi l agréable sensation de voler à bord d un grand jet privé. De plus, le nombre restreint de passager à bord facilitent les procédures d enregistrement et de débarquement. Enfin, le professionnalisme et la disponibilité de nos équipages sont les qualités les plus appréciées par nos passagers. Autrement dit, la quasi-totalité de nos passagers sont séduits par le concept de la classe affaires abordable ce qui est notre plus grande satisfaction. Comment avez-vous traversé la crise et quels sont vos résultats? Actuellement nous avons 25% de part de marché sur le segment premium entre Paris et New York. Grâce à notre concept de classe affaires au meilleur prix, la crise nous a permis de continuer à nous développer. Les entreprises comme les particuliers ont cherché à bénéficier du meilleur rapport qualité/prix tout en voyageant confortablement : cela correspond au code ADN d OpenSkies! Nos meilleurs ambassadeurs sont nos passagers car le bouche à oreille est notre meilleur outil de communication : plus de 96% d entre eux recommanderaient OpenSkies à leur entourage. 16 Commerce in France N 77 Fall 2010

17 Commerce in France N 77 Fall

18 Info Technology/New Media Social Media What Does the Future hold? by Mike Hardaker Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn The last eighteen months have seen a group of Web-based businesses collectively known as social media explode into the mainstream consciousness. Although some social-media businesses have been around for a while (and, arguably, the core elements of social media are as old as society itself) it s important to remember that the phenomenon really is that recent. Many people are still unclear as to what the present holds in the social-media landscape, never mind the future. With only a little over-simplification we can say that social media is about two things: sharing and dialog. The balance between the two shifts subtly among the various platforms, but it s pretty much the case that the heart of social media involves people sharing stuff to instigate discussion. That stuff can be pretty much anything: mundane personal experiences, breaking news stories, photographs, comments on current events, music playlists, even what other people have already shared via social media. It may be shared with a narrow circle of acquaintances (Facebook Friends or LinkedIn Connections, for instance) or the whole online world. Every week there are more and more ways for people to share their stuff, not just via the 600-lb gorilla that is Facebook (although it s certainly engaged in some serious land-grab activity), but also via a myriad of other platforms from pure-play social-media websites to businesses of all types that are integrating social-media functionality into their websites in one way or another. Sharing Increasingly, the websites are sharing what s already been shared. Post an image to a dedicated picture-sharing website or write a new blog entry and this may automatically update your status on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and so on. And therein lies a problem that I expect to see addressed in the next stage of social media s evolution: the sharing may be integrated into and across multiple sites, but the dialog isn t. A photograph posted on Flickr (or a classified advertisement on AngloINFO Paris) that is then shared on Facebook and Twitter can generate responses in three different places, requiring the sharer to engage in three separate and often mutually exclusive discussions. That s not only tricky and time consuming to manage, but it s a waste of the potential network effects of integrating the three. Over the next twelve months I expect to see many attempts to bring tighter integration into this area and I expect at least one to succeed. That success may come from a major industry player (Google and Facebook being the top two contenders), or it may come from a collaborative approach among businesses. It may be proprietary or created with an open standard. The details are less important than the fact that this is a need, and as ever more, ever easier ways of sharing stuff make the whole thing increasingly fragmented a growing need that must be addressed. Dialog As for dialog, I think a dominant trend over the next year will be many more businesses being far more creative and successful in their use of social media. The heart of social media involves people sharing stuff to instigate discussion." Unfortunately, this is an area where many businesses have little experience (and thus, often, little aptitude). Most successful businesses are great at one-way broadcast communication whether through print, radio and TV, outdoor advertising, brochures, corporate websites, etc. They are not, however, used to a world in which that broadcasting of information triggers a direct and public response. So they post press releases on Facebook pages and into Twitter feeds, corporate videos onto YouTube and so on, patting themselves on the backs for how well they are using social media. But then the comments come in. These aren t letters sent to head offices that can be given boilerplate responses. They are very public and not always complimentary points being made right there beside the corporate message, potentially undermining it completely. For many businesses, this is quite terrifying. For others, it is an opportunity for gaining the upper hand. They understand that constructive public dialog can enhance their brands. Smart businesses embrace social media, plan for it and most importantly budget for it. Engaging repeatedly with small numbers of people (even single individuals) takes time and resources in other words, money. However, when that engagement is public it actually reaches a much wider circle, and means, therefore, money well spent. And interaction needn t be timid it can be a bold part of the strategy (and budget) from the start. Look at how Old Spice has used dialog via (timely) YouTube video responses in its recent pitch-perfect campaign (youtube.com/user/oldspice), or at how Comparethemarket.com s cheeky meerkat chats on Twitter (twitter.com/ aleksandr_orlov). The future will be driven increasingly by public dialog. New tools will make that ever easier, and smart businesses will exploit them to substantial competitive advantage. Mike Hardaker is Founder/CTO of AngloINFO, the world s largest and most popular online resource for English speakers living abroad. AmCham France Member since Commerce in France N 77 Fall 2010

19 Info Technology/New Media The Impact of New Media on Our Outlook and Behavior by Ahmad Hassan I was so disappointed a few years ago when travelling to the U.S.: I had made a detour to the posh Short Hills Mall to browse through my favorite book shop, only to discover that it had become an Apple Store! I promised myself that I would not buy another IPod (for at least 6 months), convinced that we are bringing up the next generation to live in their heads and communicate with each other via keyboards. Obviously an over-reaction, because the flip side is that our ability to access the Web anywhere anytime has proven to be immensely beneficial, helping us evolve towards an always on society where facts and figures flow across borders. We have almost immediate access to up-to-date information about global economic and business changes, as well as about each other via the multitude of online social networks. The boundaries are blurring Although we are indeed getting better at managing our identities on the web, lines are blurring: professional/personal, work/ play, business/social. It is now acceptable to have a LinkedIn-profile picture in business attire and a Facebook one in a swimsuit! (A closer look shows us that maybe not all our LinkedIn contacts are professional and not all our Facebook friends are our own good buddies.) I confess to using my work BlackBerry for making personal calls and, on occasion, to logging onto my Facebook page from work but I also use my home computer to work on weekends, socialize with business contacts on my own time and sometimes, just sometimes, cross the fine line between my personal and professional online time! There are, in my opinion, three main webbased phenomena that are changing our outlook and behavior: - Peer-group influence is now more persuasive than ever. - Instant gratification drives business as well as personal behavior. - Others perceptions of our online identities can have professional as well as a personal impact. Peer-Group Influence: With the Web 2.0 phenomenon, we now trust fellow users a lot more than so-called experts! We are more inclined to follow other readers ratings and comments on Amazon than bother with what the professional critics say. Companies are slowly realizing that they can no longer control what consumers say about them it is now about influence, not control. Instant gratification: Even in an environment where we compare prices and seek to reduce costs, the I want it now phenomenon is demonstrating that there are consumers out there willing to pay a reasonable premium for instant access to articles, music, film, books and up-to-date information. It is no longer good enough for them to order a book (even if online) then have to wait hours for delivery! We have seen this with downloadable music, then films, and we are in the process of seeing it with books. Very quickly, we move from being early adopters to mainstream users hence, the multitude of tablets and e-readers popping up around us every day. Online Identities: Stories abound about companies firing employees who made disparaging Facebook comments about their employers; these comments were posted from home not during office hours or using company equipment. Potential employers now Google candidates, and whatever they No matter how we may hope to ignore or downplay it, the reality is that we are no longer invisible and we are no longer anonymous." find on the net is information to be used in the hiring, promotion and retention or not of employees. We can only wonder about the future impact of the teenage generation s cyber-bullying or inappropriate on-line language and demeanor maybe when they are being considered for a promotion, or running for public office. And we can only question whether our more traditional off-line social norms will ever make their way onto the web. With new technology from smartphones, tablets and netbooks to e-readers, laptops and desktops we are online for more hours and from more locations. We are also leaving our digital fingerprints and DNA every time we blog, comment, download, or purchase online. No matter how we may hope to ignore or downplay it, the reality is that we are no longer invisible and we are no longer anonymous. Ahmad Hassan is Managing Director, Technology Sector at Russell Reynolds Associates. AmCham France Member since Commerce in France N 77 Fall

eid Trends in french egovernment Liberty Alliance Workshop April, 20th 2007 French Ministry of Finance, DGME

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