COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

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1 EU NETWORK OF INDEPENDENT EXPERTS ON FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS RÉSEAU UE D EXPERTS INDÉPENDANTS EN MATIÈRE DE DROITS FONDAMENTAUX COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION June 2006

2 2 COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

3 Le Réseau UE d experts indépendants en matière de droits fondamentaux a été mis sur pied par la Commission européenne (DG Justice, liberté et sécurité), à la demande du Parlement européen. Depuis 2002, il assure le suivi de la situation des droits fondamentaux dans les Etats membres et dans l Union, sur la base de la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l Union européenne. Chaque Etat membre fait l objet d un rapport établi par un expert sous sa propre responsabilité, selon un canevas commun qui facilite la comparaison des données recueillies sur les différents Etats membres. Les activités des institutions de l Union européenne font l objet d un rapport distinct, établi par le coordinateur. Sur la base de l ensemble de ces (26) rapports, les membres du Réseau identifient les principales conclusions et recommandations qui se dégagent de l année écoulée. Ces conclusions et recommandation sont réunies dans un Rapport de synthèse, qui est remis aux institutions européennes. Le contenu du rapport n engage en aucune manière l institution qui en est le commanditaire. Le Réseau UE d Experts indépendants en matière de droits fondamentaux se compose de Florence Benoît-Rohmer (France), Martin Buzinger (Rép. slovaque), Achilleas Demetriades (Chypre), Olivier De Schutter (Belgique), Maja Eriksson (Suède), Teresa Freixes (Espagne), Gabor Halmai (Hongrie), Wolfgang Heyde (Allemagne), Morten Kjaerum (suppléant Birgitte Kofod-Olsen) (Danemark), Henri Labayle (France), Rick Lawson (Pays-Bas), Lauri Malksoo (Estonie), Arne Mavcic (Slovénie), Vital Moreira (Portugal), Jeremy McBride (Royaume-Uni), François Moyse (Luxembourg), Bruno Nascimbene (Italie), Manfred Nowak (Autriche), Marek Antoni Nowicki (Pologne), Donncha O Connell (Irlande), Ilvija Puce (Lettonie), Ian Refalo (Malte), Martin Scheinin (suppléant Tuomas Ojanen) (Finlande), Linos Alexandre Sicilianos (Grèce), Pavel Sturma (Rép. Tchèque), Edita Ziobiene (Lituanie). Le Réseau est coordonné par Olivier De Schutter, assisté par Valérie Van Goethem. Les documents du Réseau peuvent être consultés via : The EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights has been set up by the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security), upon request of the European Parliament. Since 2002, it monitors the situation of fundamental rights in the Member States and in the Union, on the basis of the Charter of Fundamental Rights. A Report is prepared on each Member State, by a Member of the Network, under his/her own responsibility. The activities of the institutions of the European Union are evaluated in a separated report, prepared for the Network by the coordinator. On the basis of these (26) Reports, the members of the Network prepare a Synthesis Report, which identifies the main areas of concern and makes certain recommendations. The conclusions and recommendations are submitted to the institutions of the Union. The content of the Report is not binding on the institutions. The EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights is composed of Florence Benoît- Rohmer (France), Martin Buzinger (Slovak Republic), Achilleas Demetriades (Cyprus), Olivier De Schutter (Belgium), Maja Eriksson (Sweden), Teresa Freixes (Spain), Gabor Halmai (Hungary), Wolfgang Heyde (Germany), Morten Kjaerum (substitute Birgitte Kofod-Olsen) (Denmark), Henri Labayle (France), Rick Lawson (the Netherlands), Lauri Malksoo (Estonia), Arne Mavcic (Slovenia), Vital Moreira (Portugal), Jeremy McBride (United Kingdom), François Moyse (Luxembourg), Bruno Nascimbene (Italy), Manfred Nowak (Austria), Marek Antoni Nowicki (Poland), Donncha O Connell (Ireland), Ilvija Puce (Latvia), Ian Refalo (Malta), Martin Scheinin (substitute Tuomas Ojanen) (Finland), Linos Alexandre Sicilianos (Greece), Pavel Sturma (Czech Republic), and Edita Ziobiene (Lithuania). The Network is coordinated by Olivier De Schutter, with the assistance of Valérie Van Goethem. The documents of the Network may be consulted on : 3

4 4 COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS THE COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE UNION : AN INTRODUCTION THE COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE UNION : LIST OF AUTHORS ARTICLE 1. HUMAN DIGNITY I. SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTEXT OF THE HUMAN DIGNITY GUARANTEE International Law Council of Europe Case Law of the European Court of Justice II. ARTICLE 1 AS THE FUNDAMENTAL VALUE III. DEFINITION AND AREA OF PROTECTION OF HUMAN DIGNITY Jurisprudence of the German Federal Constitutional Court Area of protection in the Charter IV. ARTICLE 1 AS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT V. OUTLOOK ARTICLE 2. RIGHT TO LIFE I. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RIGHT TO LIFE IN THE CHARTER AND OTHER HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS II. RELATIONSHIP TO THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS III. PROHIBITION OF ARBITRARY DEPRIVATION OF LIFE BY STATE ORGANS IV. POSITIVE OBLIGATIONS TO PROTECT THE RIGHT TO LIFE AGAINST PRIVATE INTERFERENCE Protection by criminal law Abortion Euthanasia Positive obligations to fulfil the right to life Death penalty ARTICLE 3. RIGHT TO THE INTEGRITY OF THE PERSON I. THE SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTEXT OF THE RIGHT TO PERSONAL INTEGRITY II. LIMITS TO CERTAIN PRACTICES IN THE FIELDS OF MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Principles of the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine Principle of the free and informed consent of the person concerned Prohibition of eugenic practices Prohibition of financial gain Prohibition of the reproductive cloning of human beings ARTICLE 4. PROHIBITION OF TORTURE AND INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR PUNISHMENT I. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROHIBITION OF TORTURE IN THE CHARTER AND OTHER HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS Introduction International humanitarian law Non-derogability Horizontal effect The protection from the risk of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment in the context of removal from the national territory Obligation to investigate Securing evidence II. DESCRIPTION OF REQUIREMENTS Torture Inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment III. IDENTIFICATION OF MAIN PROBLEMATIC AREAS Interrogation techniques Solitary confinement

6 3. Prison conditions Vulnerable prisoners Physical or corporal punishment Medical or psychiatric treatment Physical or mental violence to children Impunity ARTICLE 5. PROHIBITION OF SLAVERY AND FORCED LABOUR I. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROHIBITION OF TORTURE IN THE CHARTER AND OTHER HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS II. SLAVERY OR SERVITUDE III. FORCED OR COMPULSORY LABOUR IV. TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS Trafficking in human beings Trafficking in human beings and illegal immigration ARTICLE 6. RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY I. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PERSONAL LIBERTY AND SECURITY IN CONTEXT II. CASES OF PERMISSIBLE ARREST AND DETENTION Exhaustive list of cases of lawful arrest and detention Imprisonment after conviction by a court Non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or for the purpose of securing a legal obligation Detention on remand Detention of minors Detention for the purposes of health and social control Special detention of aliens III. PROCEDURAL GUARANTEES IN CASES OF DEPRIVATION OF PERSONAL LIBERTY Right to be informed of the reasons for one s arrest Guarantees in case of detention on remand Right to habeas corpus proceedings ARTICLE 7. RESPECT FOR PRIVATE AND FAMILY LIFE I. THE SCOPE OF PROTECTION OF ARTICLE 7 - GENERAL REMARKS II. RESPECT FOR PRIVATE LIFE Personal integrity, confidential data and public files Introduction Problematic areas Personal integrity / autonomy and bodily integrity Sexual privacy and sexual preferences Personal identity and gender re-assignment Personal identity and choice of name (surname) Respect for the home Respect for one s communication Respect for written correspondence Other means of communication III. FAMILY LIFE Definition of the notion family Affiliation Separation from parents Immigration ARTICLE 8. PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA I. THE SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTEXT OF RIGHT OF ACCESS TO DOCUMENT II. FUNDAMENTAL DATA PROTECTION PRINCIPLES III. THE SCOPE OF PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA IV. LEGISLATION FOR GIVING EFFECT TO THE PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA ARTICLE 9. THE RIGHT TO MARRY AND THE RIGHT TO FOUND A FAMILY I. THE SCOPE OF THE RIGHT TO MARRY General observations

7 2. Conditions for the exercise of the right to marry Minimum age for marriage The condition of free and full consent to marry Same-sex couples II. THE RIGHT TO FOUND A FAMILY Cohabitation and other de facto family unions Procreation Adoption Protection of family unity or family reunification ARTICLE 10. FREEDOM OF THOUGHT, CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION I. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF ARTICLE 10 OF THE CHARTER Contents and relation to other international instruments Relation to other fundamental rights The importance of the freedom of thought, conscience and religion The principle of neutrality and impartiality Positive obligations II. THE FORUM INTERNUM III. THE FORUM EXTERNUM Manifestations of religion or belief Proselytising Restrictions on the freedom to manifest one's religion or belief Requirements for any restriction on the freedom to manifest one's religion or belief Religious intolerance and fundamentalism IV. THE COLLECTIVE DIMENSION The principle of autonomy The principle of neutrality Religious minorities Sects and cults Registration of religious entities V. THE RIGHT TO CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION ARTICLE 11. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND INFORMATION I. CORRESPONDING PROVISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS Categories of expression Limitations on freedom of expression II. THE CASE-LAW OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE AND COMMUNITY LEGISLATION III. REQUIREMENTS OF THE PARTICULAR PROVISIONS ARTICLE 12. FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY AND OF ASSOCIATION I. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF ARTICLE 12 OF THE CHARTER Contents and relation to other international instruments Relation to other fundamental rights The importance of the freedom of assembly and of association Positive obligations The exercise of the rights protected by State officials II. THE FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY III. THE FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION Scope ratione materiae : the nature of the associations protected Private associations v. public-law institutions Scope ratione temporis : the creation and dissolution of associations The position of political parties The right not to join an association ARTICLE 13. LIBERTE DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES I. CONTEXTE JURIDIQUE INTERNATIONAL ET SOURCES D INSPIRATION: LIBERTE D EXPRESSION ET ETHIQUE EN MATIERE DE RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE Liberté d expression Le Pacte international relatif aux droits civils et politiques (art. 19 2) La Convention de sauvegarde des droits de l homme et de libertés fondamentales (art. 9 et 10)

8 2. Ethique en matière de recherche scientifique et médicale II. DROIT ET POLITIQUE DE L UNION EUROPEENNE Les débats relatifs à l adoption de l article 13 de la Charte des droits fondamentaux de l Union Droit et politique de l Union en matière artistique et culturelle Droit et politique de l Union en matière de recherche : les programmes-cadres de recherche III. CONCLUSION ARTICLE 14. RIGHT TO EDUCATION I. SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTEXT OF THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION The right to education under international law The right to education under EU primary legislation II. CONTENT OF ARTICLE 14 OF THE CHARTER The right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training Non-discriminatory access Scope of the right of access to education Possibility of free compulsory education Freedom to found educational establishments in accordance with national law Respect of parents convictions in accordance with national law ARTICLE 15. LIBERTE PROFESSIONNELLE ET DROIT DE TRAVAILLER I. INTRODUCTION II. LE DROIT DE TRAVAILLER ET LE TRAVAIL LIBREMENT ENTREPRIS III. LES LIBERTES DE CIRCULER, DE S'ETABLIR ET DE PRESTER DES SERVICES Les droits communautaire primaire et de l'union européenne Le droit communautaire secondaire La jurisprudence IV. EGALITE DE TRAITEMENT DES RESSORTISSANTS D'ETATS TIERS ARTICLE 16. LIBERTE D ENTREPRISE I. INTRODUCTION II. LA PLACE DE LA LIBERTE D'ENTREPRISE DANS LE DROIT COMMUNAUTAIRE III. JURISPRUDENCE ARTICLE 17. RIGHT TO PROPERTY I. SUMMARY OF THE CORRESPONDING PROVISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS II. CASE-LAW OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE III. DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE RIGHT TO PROPERTY Paragraph 1 of Article Paragraph 2 of Article ARTICLE 18. DROIT D ASILE I. INTRODUCTION II. LA MISE EN ŒUVRE DU DROIT D'ASILE ARTICLE 19. PROTECTION EN CAS D ELOIGNEMENT, D EXPULSION ET D EXTRADITION I. INTRODUCTION II. L'INTERDICTION DES EXPULSIONS COLLECTIVES III. LA PROTECTION CONTRE LES RISQUES LIES A L'ELOIGNEMENT ARTICLE 20. ÉGALITE EN DROIT I. INTRODUCTION II. DISPOSITIONS CORRESPONDANTES DANS LES INSTRUMENTS UNIVERSELS ET EUROPEENS III. DROIT COMMUNAUTAIRE ET JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR DE JUSTICE DES COMMUNAUTES EUROPEENNES IV. CONTENU ET LIMITES DU PRINCIPE ARTICLE 21. NON-DISCRIMINATION I. INTRODUCTION

9 II. DISPOSITIONS CORRESPONDANTES DANS LES INSTRUMENTS INTERNATIONAUX ET EUROPEENS Instruments internationaux Conseil de l Europe III. ÉNONCE DU PRINCIPE ET CHAMP D APPLICATION DE L ARTICLE 21 DE LA CHARTE Les clauses de non-discrimination Champ d application de l article 21, paragraphe 1 de la Charte IV. CONTENU ET LIMITES DU PRINCIPE La double exigence du principe de non-discrimination Les limites découlant de l article 21, paragraphe 2 de la Charte Les mesures positives ne constituent pas des discriminations ARTICLE 22. DIVERSITE CULTURELLE, RELIGIEUSE ET LINGUISTIQUE I. CONTENU DE L'ARTICLE 22 DE LA CHARTE II. LA CONVENTION EUROPEENNE DES DROITS DE L'HOMME III. LE DROIT COMMUNAUTAIRE ARTICLE 23. EGALITE ENTRE HOMMES ET FEMMES I. INTRODUCTION II. CHAMP D APPLICATION GENERAL DU PRINCIPE DE L EGALITE ENTRE HOMMES ET FEMMES Introduction Le gender mainstreaming ou l égalité transversale en droit international et européen L interdiction des discriminations indirectes L apport du Traité d Amsterdam en matière d égalité entre les sexes III. CHAMPS D APPLICATIONS SPECIFIQUES DU PRINCIPE DE L EGALITE ENTRE HOMMES ET FEMMES Le principe d égalité pour les travailleurs salariés et indépendants Le principe d égalité en matière d emploi et de travail en droit international et européen L interdiction du harcèlement et du harcèlement sexuel au travail Le principe d égalité en matière de rémunération IV. AUTRES CHAMPS D APPLICATION DU PRINCIPE D EGALITE ENTRE HOMMES ET FEMMES Le principe d égalité de traitement en matière sociale Représentation des femmes dans les organes de décision L égalité dans l éducation, la formation et la science L égalité dans les fonds structuraux La protection de la grossesse et de la maternité La conciliation entre la vie familiale et la vie professionnelle Le travail à temps partiel L égalité de droits et responsabilités dans le mariage V. LA CHARGE DE LA PREUVE DANS LES CAS DE DISCRIMINATION FONDEE SUR LE SEXE VI. LE MAINTIEN OU L'ADOPTION DE MESURES PREVOYANT DES AVANTAGES SPECIFIQUES EN FAVEUR DU SEXE SOUS-REPRESENTE (PARAGRAPHE 2 DE L ARTICLE 23 DE LA CHARTE) VII. CONCLUSION ARTICLE 24. THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD I. THE RIGHTS-BASED, COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH A NEW ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHILDREN II. WHO IS A CHILD? III. RESPECT FOR THE VIEWS OF THE CHILD THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATION (ART. 24(1)) IV. THE CHILD-FOCUSED PERSPECTIVE THE PRINCIPLE OF THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD (ART. 24(2)) 211 V. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHILDREN AND PARENTS (ARTICLE 24(3)) VI. MULTIFORM MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION FOR JOINT ACTION ARTICLE 25. DROITS DES PERSONNES AGEES I. INTRODUCTION II. CHAMP D APPLICATION DE L ARTICLE 25 DE LA CHARTE L accès à l emploi, le droit à l éducation et à la formation Le droit de bénéficier de ressources suffisantes Le droit de demeurer le plus longtemps possible dans un environnement habituel L accès aux services et aux soins de santé Accès et participation aux services Accès aux soins de santé

10 5.3. Protection de la vie privée des personnes âgées vivant en institutions Lutte contre la maltraitance des personnes âgées III. CONCLUSION ARTICLE 26. INTEGRATION DES PERSONNES HANDICAPEES I. INTRODUCTION I. CHAMP D APPLICATION DE L ARTICLE 26 DE LA CHARTE L interdiction de toute forme de discrimination sur la base du handicap Le principe Les aménagements raisonnables Droit à l éducation Accès à l emploi et intégration professionnelle II. CONCLUSION ARTICLE 27. DROIT A L INFORMATION ET A LA CONSULTATION DES TRAVAILLEURS AU SEIN DE L ENTREPRISE I. ANALYSE DE L ARTICLE 27 DE LA CHARTE II. APPORT DU DROIT INTERNATIONAL III. LEGISLATION COMMUNAUTAIRE Cadre général Exercice du droit à l information et à la consultation dans des domaines particuliers Contrat de travail Licenciements collectifs Transferts d entreprises Protection des travailleurs en cas d insolvabilité de l entreprise Exercice du droit à l information et à la consultation au niveau communautaire ARTICLE 28. RIGHT OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND ACTION I. INTRODUCTION II. THE MEANING OF THE RIGHT PROTECTED III. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND NATIONAL LAWS IV. THE LIMITATIONS TO THE RIGHT PROTECTED V. THE LINKAGE TO NON-DISCRIMINATION ARTICLE 29. DROIT D ACCES AUX SERVICES DE PLACEMENT I. INTRODUCTION II. LA CONSECRATION AU RANG DE DROIT FONDAMENTAL AU SEIN DE L UNION EUROPEENNE III. LES SOURCES D INSPIRATION : CONVENTIONS DE L OIT ET CHARTE SOCIALE EUROPEENNE Les Conventions de l OIT La Charte sociale européenne (révisée) IV. LES EXIGENCES CONTENUES A L ARTICLE 29 DE LA CHARTE DES DROITS FONDAMENTAUX DE L UNION 248 ARTICLE 30. PROTECTION EN CAS DE LICENCIEMENT INJUSTIFIE I. INTRODUCTION II. CONTEXTE JURIDIQUE INTERNATIONAL ET SOURCES D INSPIRATION Les Conventions de l OIT La Convention (n 158) sur le licenciement de La Convention (n 173) sur la protection des créances des travailleurs en cas d insolvabilité de leur employeur de La Charte sociale européenne (1961) La Charte sociale européenne révisée (1996) L article 24 : droit à la protection en cas de licenciement Les articles 25 et 29 : droit à l information et à la consultation dans les procédures de licenciements collectifs et droit des travailleurs à la protection de leurs créances en cas d insolvabilité de leur employeur III. LA CONSECRATION AU RANG DE DROIT FONDAMENTAL AU SEIN DE L UNION Introduction La protection contre les licenciements collectifs L information et la consultation du travailleur préalablement à la décision de licenciement

11 4. Protection contre le licenciement en application des principes d égalité de traitement et de nondiscrimination dans l emploi Protection contre toute forme de discrimination Protection de la maternité et conciliation de la vie privée et de la vie professionnelle Protection contre le harcèlement sexuel Protection contre les mesures de rétorsion IV. L APPORT DE LA JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPEENNE DES DROITS DE L HOMME Les motifs de licenciement La réalité du motif de licenciement Les motifs de licenciement non admis Le recours en cas de licenciement injustifié Applicabilité de l article 6 : la question particulière de la fonction publique Le respect du délai raisonnable V. CONCLUSION : LES EXIGENCES CONTENUES A L ARTICLE 30 DE LA CHARTE DES DROITS FONDAMENTAUX ARTICLE 31. CONDITIONS DE TRAVAIL JUSTES ET EQUITABLES I. INTRODUCTION II. LE CONTEXTE JURIDIQUE INTERNATIONAL ET LES SOURCES D INSPIRATION Les textes onusiens Les Conventions de l Organisation internationale du travail La Charte sociale européenne et la Charte sociale européenne révisée Article 3 de la Charte sociale européenne révisée : Droit à la sécurité et à l hygiène dans le travail Article 26 de la Charte sociale européenne révisée : Droit à la dignité au travail : protection contre le harcèlement sexuel et le harcèlement moral Article 2 de la Charte sociale européenne révisée : Droit à des conditions de travail équitables 271 III. LA CONSECRATION AU RANG DE DROIT FONDAMENTAL AU SEIN DE L UNION EUROPEENNE Evolution de la politique européenne Les réglementations communautaires Protection de la santé et de sécurité au travail Protection de la dignité au travail Temps de travail IV. CONCLUSION : LES EXIGENCES CONTENUES A L ARTICLE 31 DE LA CHARTE DES DROITS FONDAMENTAUX DE L UNION ARTICLE 32. PROHIBITION OF CHILD LABOUR AND PROTECTION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AT WORK I. THE PROHIBITION OF CHILD LABOUR AND THE PROTECTION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AT WORK IN INTERNATIONAL LAW II. APPLICATION RATIONE PERSONAE OF ARTICLE 32 OF THE CHARTER Definition of a child for the purpose of the prohibition of employment of children The requirement of a minimum age for the purpose of prohibition of normal employment Applicability of the threshold of 18 years for harmful and exploitative work The concept of young people III. APPLICATION RATIONE MATERIAE Child labour / child work / employment of children Exceptions to the prohibition of work by children Conflict of rights The scope of limited derogations The best interest principle as a tool of interpretation IV. PROTECTION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AT WORK Working conditions appropriate to their age Limitation of working hours, rest and annual vacations Safeguarding the full benefit of compulsory education Vocational training Prohibition of night work Regular medical control for persons under Exceptions provided by Directive 94/33/EC Protection against economic exploitation

12 4. Protection against any work likely to harm their safety, health or physical, mental, moral or social development or to interfere with their education V. ARTICLE 32 AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS OF THE EU VI. CONCLUSIONS ARTICLE 33. VIE FAMILIALE ET VIE PROFESSIONNELLE I. INTRODUCTION II. LA PROTECTION DE LA FAMILLE III. LA CONCILIATION DE LA VIE FAMILIALE ET DE LA VIE PROFESSIONNELLE Introduction La protection de la grossesse et la maternité La protection contre tout licenciement pour un motif lié à la maternité Le droit au congé de maternité Le droit à un congé parental suite à la naissance ou l'adoption d'un enfant L'aménagement du temps du travail L'organisation de services spécifiques de garde d enfants ARTICLE 34. SECURITE SOCIALE ET AIDE SOCIALE I. INTRODUCTION II. LES SOURCES TEXTUELLES Le droit d'accès aux prestations sociales Le droit aux prestations sociales des travailleurs La lutte contre l'exclusion sociale III. LES SOURCES JURISPRUDENTIELLES La jurisprudence de la Cour de justice des Communautés européennes La jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l homme IV. LE CONTENU DES DROITS ARTICLE 35. PROTECTION DE LA SANTE I. INTRODUCTION II. UNE DEFINITION INTERNATIONALE DE LA SANTE? Instruments internationaux L Organisation mondiale de la santé L Organisation des Nations-Unies Sources européennes III. LA SITUATION DE DROIT, CONSECUTIVE A L ADOPTION DE L ARTICLE 35 SUR LA PROTECTION DE LA SANTE La santé, une politique de l Union La santé, droit fondamental? ARTICLE 36. ACCES AUX SERVICES D INTERET ECONOMIQUE GENERAL I. INTRODUCTION II. LEGISLATION COMMUNAUTAIRE ET JURISPRUDENCE COMMUNAUTAIRE ARTICLE 37. PROTECTION DE L ENVIRONNEMENT I. INTRODUCTION II. LA JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPEENNE DES DROITS DE L'HOMME III. LA LEGISLATION COMMUNAUTAIRE ARTICLE 38. PROTECTION DES CONSOMMATEURS I. ANALYSE DE L ARTICLE 38 DE LA CHARTE II. LA JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPEENNE DES DROITS DE L'HOMME III. LA LEGISLATION COMMUNAUTAIRE ARTICLE 39. DROIT DE VOTE ET D'ELIGIBILITE AUX ELECTIONS AU PARLEMENT EUROPEEN I. INSTRUMENTS INTERNATIONAUX II. DROIT COMMUNAUTAIRE Introduction Droit dérivé

13 ARTICLE 40. DROIT DE VOTE ET D'ELIGIBILITE AUX ELECTIONS MUNICIPALES ARTICLE 41. DROIT A UNE BONNE ADMINISTRATION I. INTRODUCTION II. LES CARACTERES DU DROIT A UNE BONNE ADMINISTRATION III. LE CONTENU DU DROIT A UNE BONNE ADMINISTRATION IV. LE DROIT A REPARATION V. LE DROIT A LA DIVERSITE LINGUISTIQUE ARTICLE 42. RIGHT OF ACCESS TO DOCUMENTS I. THE SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTEXT OF RIGHT OF ACCESS TO DOCUMENT II. THE RISE OF RIGHT OF ACCESS TO DOCUMENTS III. LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR GIVING EFFECT TO THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO DOCUMENTS IV. SCOPE OF RIGHT OF ACCESS TO DOCUMENTS V. EXCEPTIONS TO RIGHT OF ACCESS TO DOCUMENTS ARTICLE 43. OMBUDSMAN I. LEGAL BASIS OF THE WORK OF THE OMBUDSMAN II. THE RIGHT TO COMPLAIN TO THE OMBUDSMAN III. GROUNDS FOR INQUIRIES AND ADMISSIBILITY CRITERIA IV. CONCEPT OF MALADMINISTRATION ARTICLE 44. RIGHT TO PETITION I. LEGAL BASIS FOR PETITION THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT II. ADMISSIBILITY CRITERIA III. EXAMINATION OF PETITIONS IV. A TOOL FOR DEMOCRATIC CONTROL ARTICLE 45. LIBERTE DE CIRCULATION ET DE SEJOUR I. INTRODUCTION II. LE DROIT DES CITOYENS DE L'UNION DE CIRCULER ET DE SEJOURNER LIBREMENT III. LA LIBERTE DE CIRCULATION ET DE SEJOUR DES RESSORTISSANTS D'ETATS TIERS EN SITUATION REGULIERE ARTICLE 46. PROTECTION DIPLOMATIQUE ET CONSULAIRE ARTICLE 47. RIGHT TO AN EFFECTIVE REMEDY AND TO A FAIR TRIAL I. RIGHT TO AN EFFECTIVE REMEDY The scope of Article 47 of the Charter The principle of effectiveness Right to access to court The General Framework Proceedings for annulment The preliminary reference procedure The right to an effective remedy Proceedings that may amount to abuse of dominant position II. RIGHT TO A FAIR HEARING IN ALL PROCEEDINGS OF CRIMINAL, CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE NATURE The effect on the institutions of the Community Due Process Rights Proceedings before the Community Courts Burden of Proof Proceedings under Article 95 (4) and (6) EC III. RIGHT OF ACCESS TO LEGAL ADVICE ARTICLE 48. PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE AND RIGHT OF DEFENCE I. SUMMARY OF THE CORRESPONDING PROVISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS Introduction International instruments Council of Europe Presumption of innocence

14 3. Right of defence II. EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE Presumption of innocence Right of Defence III. DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PROVISION / PROBLEMATIC AREAS Presumption of innocence Right of defence ARTICLE 49. PRINCIPLES OF LEGALITY AND PROPORTIONALITY OF CRIMINAL OFFENCES AND PENALTIES I. SUMMARY OF THE CORRESPONDING PROVISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS International instruments Council of Europe II. EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE III. DESCRIPTION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PROVISION / PROBLEMATIC AREAS ARTICLE 50. RIGHT NOT TO BE TRIED OR PUNISHED TWICE IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS FOR THE SAME CRIMINAL OFFENCE I. INTRODUCTION II. SUMMARY OF THE CORRESPONDING PROVISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS Introduction The ECHR and the scope of Article The notions of criminal proceedings and offence The notion of final acquittal or conviction III. INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS ON CO-OPERATION OF STATES IV. THE EU ACQUIS ARTICLE 51. CHAMP D APPLICATION I. L INVOCABILITE DE LA CHARTE DES DROITS FONDAMENTAUX : L ARTICLE II. LA NEUTRALITE DE LA CHARTE PAR RAPPORT A LA REPARTITION DES COMPETENCES ENTRE L UNION ET SES ETATS MEMBRES : L ARTICLE ARTICLE 52. PORTEE DES DROITS GARANTIS I. LA VERSION ORIGINELLE DE L ARTICLE 52 DE LA CHARTE Les restrictions admissibles aux dispositions de la Charte (article 52 1) Les dispositions de la Charte correspondant à des dispositions figurant dans les traités européens (article 52 2) Les dispositions de la Charte correspondant à des dispositions de la Convention européenne des droits de l homme ou de ses protocoles additionnels (article 52 3) II. LES ADJONCTIONS A L ARTICLE 52 DE LA CHARTE OPEREES DANS LE CADRE DE LA NEGOCIATION DU TRAITE ETABLISSANT UNE CONSTITUTION POUR L EUROPE Les dispositions de la Charte qui sont inspirées par les traditions constitutionnelles communes aux Etats membres (article 52 4) La distinction entre droits et principes (article 52 5) La prise en compte des législations et pratiques nationales (article 52 6) ARTICLE 53. NIVEAU DE PROTECTION I. LE PRINCIPE II. LA PROTECTION PLUS FAVORABLE DE L INDIVIDU DANS LE DROIT DE L UNION III. LA PROTECTION PLUS FAVORABLE DE L INDIVIDU DANS LES DROITS DES ETATS MEMBRES ET DANS LES INSTRUMENTS INTERNATIONAUX DE PROTECTION DES DROITS DE L HOMME AUXQUELS UN OU PLUSIEURS ETATS MEMBRES SONT PARTIES ARTICLE 54. INTERDICTION DE L ABUS DE DROIT I. INTRODUCTION II. JURISPRUDENCE

15 THE COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE UNION : AN INTRODUCTION The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights was prepared between December 1999 and October 2000 within a body which decided to call itself Convention composed of representatives of the governments of the European Union Member States, members of national parliaments, the European Parliament, and the European Commission, and with observers from the European Court of Justice and from the Council of Europe. It was agreed upon by consensus within that body. It was then solemnly proclaimed on 7 December 2000 at the European Council meeting held in Nice, and published in the C section of the Official Journal. 1 Although the Charter of Fundamental Rights has no formal legal status within Union law, it has had a profound influence on the institutions since it was adopted. Even before its proclamation, the European Commission stated in a Communication of October 2000 that it would treat the Charter as if it were binding. 2 Only a few months later, on 13 March 2001, the Commission decided that any proposal for legislation and any draft instrument to be adopted by it would, as part of the normal decision-making procedures, first be scrutinised for compatibility with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and that legislative proposals and draft instruments having a specific link to fundamental rights would incorporate a recital as a formal statement of compatibility. 3 In April 2005, the Commission adopted a Communication by which it seeks to further improve the compliance of its legislative proposals with the requirements of the Charter. 4 This more recent Communication defines the division of tasks between the lead department, the legal service of the Commission, the Directorate General Justice, Freedom and Security (DG JLS) and DG external relations (RELEX), in the verification of such compliance. Moreover, on 15 June 2005, the Commission adopted a new set of guidelines for the preparation of the impact assessments it appends to its legislative proposals. While retaining the classical division between economic, social and environmental impacts, 5 the revised guidelines now pay a much greater attention to the potential impact of different policy options on the rights, freedoms and principles listed in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. 6 All these developments illustrate the cultural shift which the adoption of the Charter of Fundamental Rights has produced, even before it is formally afforded constitutional status. The European Parliament, too, has taken the Charter of Fundamental Rights into account in its practices. It has done so when acting as co-legislator with the Council in the fields governed by codecision ; in the exercise of its right to seek the annulment of Community acts ; and finally, in exercising its political role in monitoring the institutions and the EU Member States, whom it seeks to make accountable for human rights violations. Rule 34 of the Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament stipulate that During the examination of a legislative proposal, Parliament shall pay particular attention to respect for fundamental rights and in particular that the legislative act is in conformity with the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights (...). Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Nice 7 on 1 February 2003 moreover, the European Parliament has been recognized the competence to seek the annulment of Community acts, whether or not adopted in violation of its prerogatives. It may thus contribute to the preservation of legality in the Community legal order, and, in particular, to ensuring that all Community acts respect the requirements of fundamental rights. This 1 OJ C 364 of , p Communication on the Legal Nature of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the Union, COM(2000) 644 final, of SEC(2001) 380/3. 4 Communication from the Commission, Compliance with the Charter of Fundamental Rights in Commission legislative proposals. Methodology for systematic and rigorous monitoring, COM(2005) 172 final of Communication on Impact Assessment, COM(2002)276 final, of SEC(2005)791, OJ C 180 of

16 role of the European Parliament is now growing in importance, as illustrated for instance by its actions in annulment of the Directive 2003/86/EC of 22 September 2003 on the right to family reunification, 8 of the decisions of the Commission and of the Council to allow for the transmission of Passenger Names Records (PNRs) data to the United States Borders Authorities, 9 or of Directive 2005/85/EC of 1 December 2005 on minimum standards on procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing refugee status. 10 In the first of these cases, the Court of Justice delivered a judgment on 27 June 2006 where, for the first time 11 and although it dismisses the action brought against the Family Reunification Directive, it acknowledges explicitly that the Charter of Fundamental Rights may be invoked before the Court, insofar as it restates the acquis of fundamental rights recognized in the legal order of the Union. 12 It states in paragraph 38: The Charter was solemnly proclaimed by the Parliament, the Council and the Commission in Nice on 7 December While the Charter is not a legally binding instrument, the Community legislature did, however, acknowledge its importance by stating, in the second recital in the preamble to the Directive, that the Directive observes the principles recognised not only by Article 8 of the ECHR but also in the Charter. Furthermore, the principal aim of the Charter, as is apparent from its preamble, is to reaffirm rights as they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and international obligations common to the Member States, the Treaty on European Union, the Community Treaties, the [ECHR], the Social Charters adopted by the Community and by the Council of Europe and the case-law of the Court and of the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the European Parliament, through its Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, has been adopting reports on the situation of fundamental rights in the Union since 1999 based, since 2000, on the template provided by the Charter of Fundamental Rights ; although it has abandoned this practice since 2003, it still regularly adopts reports on thematic issues under which the situation of fundamental rights in the different Member States is examined, and for which the Charter of Fundamental Rights constitutes an important reference. In the resolution it adopted in July 2001 on the situation of fundamental rights in the European Union in 2000, 13 the European Parliament requested, and obtained from the Commission, that a network of legal experts be set up to ensure a more systematic and professional monitoring of fundamental rights in the Member States. This led, in September 2002, to the establishment of the EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights. This group of experts essentially took over from the rapporteur annually appointed within the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs of the European Parliament the task of preparing an annual report on the situation of fundamental in the Union, and reports regularly back to that Committee. 14 Its mandate was further clarified, in the context of Article 7 EU, by the communication which the Commission presented to the Council and the 8 OJ L 251 of , p. 12. The European Parliament has sought the partial annulment of the Family Reunification Directive in Case C-540/03, which led to the judgment of 27 June Cases C-317/04, Parliament v. Council (annulment of Decision 2004/496 of the Council, of 17 May 2004, OJ L 183 of ), and C-318/04, Parliament v. Commission (annulment of Decision 2004/535 of the Commission, of 14 May 2004, OJ L 232 of ). These cases were joined and resulted in a judgment delivered on 30 May 2006 by the European Court of Justice, which annulled both decisions because it considered that the legal basis of Article 95 EC was not adequate. 10 Case C-133/ Of course, individual members of the Court have previously referred to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, which they presented as the most authoritative restatement of the fundamental rights recognized the status of general principles of law within the meaning of Article 6(2) EU. The first to do so were AG Tizzano, in his opinion of 8 February 2001 in Case C- 173/99, Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematographic and Theatre Union (BECTU), paras ; and AG Alber in his opinion of 1 February 2001 in Case C-340/99, TNT Trac SpA, para The invocation of the Charter in the context of an action for annulment of a legislative instrument whose Preamble explicitly referred to the Charter could also be seen as an application of the rule patere legem quam ipse fecisti. See, eg, for an application of this rule before the Community judicature, Case T-105/95, WWF UK v. Commission [1997] ECR II-313 (judgment of 5 March 1997), paras /2231(INI). 14 The documents of the EU Network of independent experts on fundamental rights are available at : 16

17 European Parliament on Article 7 EU, Respect for and promotion of the values on which the Union is based. 15 The network consists of one expert per Member State and is chaired by a coordinator. Its objective is to ensure a high degree of expertise in relation to each of the Member States and the European Union as a whole. Each year the network produces a report on how fundamental rights are safeguarded in practice. It may also give opinions on specific questions upon the request of the European Commission. * * * This group of independent experts took the initiative of preparing a Commentary of the Charter of Fundamental Rights. The main purpose of this commentary is to provide practical guidance to the Union institutions, as well as to the national authorities when they implement Union law, in order to facilitate compliance with the requirements of the Charter. The commentary therefore is not a doctrinal enterprise. Only in exceptional cases are works by legal scholars cited in the commentary : such references have been avoided as much as possible, and the emphasis has been, instead, on the case-law of international jurisdictions and human rights experts bodies, as well as on the existing international human rights instruments. Moreover, this commentary does not represent the view of the Network as a whole. Since it has been established in 2002, the Network has been faced with a number of issues of interpretation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights : the views it has adopted are reflected in its opinions and thematic comments, as well as in the conclusions and recommendations it adopts annually in the synthesis report it presents to the institutions. The approach here has been different. Each commentary has been prepared either by an individual member of the Network or by a collaborator working under his or her supervision. 16 Although each commentary has been circulating in draft form among the other members before being finalized by the member of the Network to whom the provision was allocated, the final responsibility with the content lies with the individual member who authors the commentary. At the same time, these commentaries have been prepared following certain guidelines, which seek to reflect the approach taken towards the Charter by the Network of independent experts since The interpretation of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights is based on the explanations provided by the Presidium of the Convention entrusted with the elaboration of the Charter of Fundamental Rights, 17 where justified as updated under the responsibility of the Presidium of the European Convention 18, which the Network has always relied upon as a primary tool of interpretation intended to clarify the provisions of the Charter. 19 Moreover, in accordance with Article 52(3) of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, the Network reads the provisions of the Charter which correspond to rights guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as having the same meaning and the same scope of those rights, as interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights ; in certain cases, the provisions of the Charter however are recognized a broader scope, as confirmed by the second sentence of Article 52(3) of the Charter. The Network also takes into account the fact that other provisions of the Charter are based on the rights guaranteed in instruments adopted in the field of human rights in the framework of the United Nations, the International Labour Organisation or the Council of Europe. Where this is the case, these provisions of the Charter are 15 COM (2003) 606 final, of Two of the authors, Ms Ineta Ziemele and Mr Dean Spielmann, who were members of the Network of independent experts on fundamental rights when the work on this Commentary was initially launched, have since become judges at the European Court of Human Rights and have thus ceased to be members of the network. 17 CHARTE 4473/00, CONVENT 49, 11 October 2000 (revised French version : CHARTE 4473/1/00 CONVENT 49 REV 1 of 19 October 2000). 18 Declaration n 12 of the Declarations concerning Provisions of the Constitution, OJ C 310 of , p On the status of these explanations, which the Intergovernmental Conference of sought to reinforce when it prepared the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe part II of which would have contained the Charter of Fundamental Rights, see the commentary to Article 52 of the Charter. 17

18 interpreted by taking into account those instruments and the interpretation given to them in the international legal order. As already emphasized in the introduction to the first synthesis report presented by the Network, 20 the interpretation of the Charter in accordance with the existing acquis of international and European human rights law presents a number of advantages : it contributes to legal certainty, by facilitating an understanding of the requirements of the Charter based on the instruments in which the drafters of the Charter sought their inspiration ; it limits the risks of conflicting obligations being imposed on the EU Member States, respectively under Union law and under the international human rights treaties they are parties to ; and it ensures that, in the perhaps not so distant future when the Union itself will seek to accede to these instruments, in the framework of the United Nations, the International Labour Organisation or the Council of Europe, European legislation will generally be compliant with those instruments, thus facilitating such accession as any conflicts, in principle, will already have been identified and dealt with on the basis of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. The work on this Commentary was launched in The commentaries have been completed in the course of Although most commentaries have been updated since, this has not been systematically the case. But the international law of human rights is a living being, and so should be the Charter. The reader should keep this in mind when consulting the indications provided under each article of the Charter. Finally, while this has been a truly collective enterprise within the Network, this Commentary would never have been completed without the commitment and competence of Ms Valérie Van Goethem, who has been assisting the Network since We are most grateful to her for her superb input into this enterprise, which as all tasks of this dimension are was frought with many difficulties. Olivier De Schutter Coordinator, EU Network of Independent Experts on Fundamental Rights 20 Report on the situation of fundamental rights in the European Union and its Member States in 2002 (March 2003), para. IV of the Introduction. 18

19 THE COMMENTARY OF THE CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS OF THE UNION : LIST OF AUTHORS CHAPTER I. DIGNITY Article 1 Human Dignity by Wolfgang Heyde (Germany) Article 2 Right to life by Manfred Nowak (Austria) Article 3 Right to the integrity of the person by Manfred Nowak (Austria) Article 4 Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment by Morten Kjaerum (Denmark) Article 5 Prohibition of slavery and forced labour by Morten Kjaerum (Denmark) CHAPTER II. FREEDOMS Article 6 Right to liberty and security by Manfred Nowak (Austria) Article 7 Respect for private and family life by Maja Eriksson (Sweden) Article 8 Protection of personal data by Tuomas Ojanen, substitute of Martin Scheinin (Finland) Article 9 The right to marry and the right to found a family by Maja Eriksson (Sweden) Article 10 Freedom of thought, conscience and religion by Rick Lawson (Netherlands) Article 11 Freedom of expression and information by Gabor Halmai (Hungary) Article 12 Freedom of assembly and association by Rick Lawson (Netherlands) Article 13 Freedom of the arts and sciences by Valérie Verbruggen, under the supervision of Olivier De Schutter (Belgium, coordinator of the Network) Article 14 Right to education by Viktoria Wagner, under the supervision of Manfred Nowak (Austria) Article 15 Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work by Dean Spielmann (Luxembourg, former expert) Article 16 Freedom to conduct a business by Dean Spielmann (Luxembourg, former expert) Article 17 Right to property by Pavel Sturma (Czech Republic) Article 18 Right to asylum by Henri Labayle (France) Article 19 Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition by Henri Labayle (France) 19

20 CHAPTER III. EQUALITY Article 20 Equality before the law by Linos-Alexandre Sicilianos (Greece) Article 21 Non-discrimination by Linos-Alexandre Sicilianos (Greece) Article 22 Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity by Florence Benoît-Rohmer (France) Article 23 Equality between men and women by Teresa Freixes (Spain) Article 24 The rights of the child by Maja Eriksson (Sweden) Article 25 The rights of the elderly by Valérie Van Goethem, under the supervision of Olivier De Schutter (Belgium, coordinator of the Network) Article 26 Integration of persons with disabilities by Valérie Van Goethem, under the supervision of Olivier De Schutter (Belgium, coordinator of the Network) CHAPTER IV. SOLIDARITY Article 27 Workers' right to information and consultation within the undertaking by Célia Belhomme, under the supervision of Olivier De Schutter (Belgium, coordinator of the Network) Article 28 Right of collective bargaining and action by Ian Refalo (Malta) Article 29 Right of access to placement services by Valérie Verbruggen, under the supervision of Olivier De Schutter (Belgium, coordinator of the Network) Article 30 Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal by Valérie Verbruggen, under the supervision of Olivier De Schutter (Belgium, coordinator of the Network) Article 31 Fair and just working conditions by Valérie Verbruggen, under the supervision of Olivier De Schutter (Belgium, coordinator of the Network) Article 32 Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work by Iris Golden, under the supervision of Manfred Nowak (Austria) Article 33 Family and professional life by Teresa Freixes (Spain) Article 34 Social security and social assistance by Henri Labayle (France) Article 35 Health care by François Moyse (Luxembourg) Article 36 Access to services of general economic interest by Florence Benoît-Rohmer (France) Article 37 Environmental protection by Florence Benoît-Rohmer (France) Article 38 Consumer protection by Florence Benoît-Rohmer (France) 20

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