Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education

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1 Réseau Ouest et Centre Africain de Recherche en Education Educational Research Network for West And Central Africa Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education A synthesis of educational research reviews from in eleven countries of West and Central Africa E R N W A C A with support from ADEA Pai Obanya Kathryn Touré Preliminary Report October 2003 Bamako, MALI ROCARE / ERNWACA Tel: (223) / , Fax: (223) BP E 1854, Bamako, MALI Bénin Burkina Faso Cameroun Côte d Ivoire Gambia Ghana Guinée Mali Nigeria Niger Sénégal Sierra Leon Togo Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA 9 Oct / Page 1

2 R E S E A R C H E R S The review process mobilized over 80 researchers in 11 countries, including seasoned and junior researchers and new ERNWACA members who received literature review training. Women led 36% of the teams and represented 35% of the total number of researchers. All teams received support from ERNWACA s Regional Coordination and the ERNWACA National Coordinators and national coordinating and scientific committees. BENIN Naim Salami Léa Afouda-Gaba Sulpice Dossou Orobiyi Gansa Toussaint Noudogbessi Léonie Ali Tangni Noël Vignon Patrice Hinnoude Thierry Azonhe Arnauld Gbaguidi Eudes Gbaguidi Serge Dahande Armel Aveke Aline Somakpo Béatrice M po Elvire Dossou-Yovo BURKINA FASO Célestine Palé Traoré Binto Ouedraogo Ernest Ilboudo Calixta Banbara Zakaria Belgo Sansan Kambiré Toudwindé Kindo Sayouba Ouedraogo Alizata Sama Dieudonné Sanou Sayouba Sawadogo Michel Sawadogo Souleymane Soré Sylvain Soubeiga Sidiki Traoré Satta Traoré Etienne Yaro CAMEROON Joseh Tamukong Eugène Kengne Brigitte Matchinda Henry Tatangang Moses Mbangwana George Fonkeng Maxwell Sigala Therese Tchombe Gilbert Tsafak Pierre Fonkoua CÔTE D IVOIRE Raoul François-Xavier Koné Kassi Eba Saouré Kouamé Evelyne Azoh Hélène Nathalie Kouamé Wognina Bamba Amanoua Alain Yao GAMBIA Makarieh A. Njie Jonathan Mogbo Musa Sowe Lamin Ceesay Fatou Bin Njie-Jallow Grace Bangali GHANA Kate Addo-Adeku James A. Opare Dzigbodi Ama Banini MALI Koura Diallo Sitapha Keita Almoudou Touré Cheick O.Fomba NIGER Laouali Malam Moussa Maman Saley Abdelkader Galy Mariama Ibrahim Aly Rakia Rabiou NIGERIA Mary Ladi Ango Chinyere Ohiri-Anicher Olanitemi O. Busari Bade Adegoke SENEGAL Valdiodio Ndiaye Ndiaye Ndoye-Ndiaye Fatim Bâ Fatoumata Binetou Diallo Oumy Ndoye Seck Sékouba Badji TOGO Philippe Amevigbe Yawovi Tchamégnon Hounou Ambroise Rambert Fortuné Amevigbe Colette Assogba Koffi Mel Yikpo Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA 9 Oct / Page 2

3 A B S T R A C T This synthesis document provides an overview of education research from 1992 through 2002 in West and Central Africa, presents the policy implications for the research, and suggests future directions for education research and capacity-building. It was prepared by the Education Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA) in the context of a continent-wide study of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) on the quality of basic education in sub-saharan Africa. The ERNWACA work was designed both to make African education research available to the ADEA process and to update Overlooked and Undervalued (ERNWACA, 1997), which reviewed education research from 1960 through 1991 in seven countries. Because African education research is still notoriously hard to access, the same methodology as that used for the 1997 publication was used. Eleven national ERNWACA teams combed their territories, visiting universities, ministries of education, documentation centres, research institutes and development partners to access research reports. Each team produced a national annotated bibliography, including summaries of the documents retained for review. A regional consultant then used the summaries to prepare this synthesis. The review is representative rather than exhaustive, because the document collection and review work was constrained to a brief six-week period in March and April The review deals with four major themes: 1/ pedagogical renewal and teacher development, 2/ decentralisation and diversification of delivery systems, 3/ implementing of reforms and innovations and finally, 4/ curriculum relevance and use of African languages. Within those broad themes the synthesis covers research on traditional areas such as girls education, community participation in education, and non-formal education and newer areas in which less research has been generated to date, such as the use of information and communication technologies in teaching and learning and the impact of and response to HIV/AIDS by the education sector. Policy implications for the research reviewed include increasing attention to early childhood education; rebuilding teacher morale and developing lifelong learning opportunities for teachers that encourage creativity; accompanying quality improvement programs with deprivation-reduction measures, especially in rural areas where learner achievement is significantly lower than in urban areas; actively recruiting more women teachers, un gendering curriculum materials and creating girlfriendly learning and legal environments; moving from rhetoric to practical realities when it comes to African languages; bringing a sector-wide and multi-sector approach to reforms and innovations, learning from successes and failures; and understanding the cultural dimensions of education. The potential of new research approaches is also discussed, including action research especially when working to improve the quality of teaching and formative research and evaluation when implementing reforms and generalizing innovations. The synthesis concludes with concrete suggestions on how to build individual and institutional capacity so as to strengthen regional education research. In a second phase of this collaborative work between ERNWACA and ADEA, the partners hope to, in association with ERNWACA s sister network, ERNESA, bring the most pertinent documents consulted in the review process out of desk drawers, dusty shelves and personal hard drives, making them available in electronic format via Internet, thus responding in part to the outcry from participating researchers about the accessibility of African education research. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 3

4 A C R O N Y M S ADEA AED EFA IDRC / CRDI ENS ERNESA FAWE FCUBE FEMSA GES ICT MEBA NGO PTA ERNWACA / ROCARE PRODEC ROCARE SARA UBE UNICEF USAID Association for the Development of Education in Africa Academy for Educational Development Education for All International Development Research Center École normale supérieure Education Research Network for East and Southern Africa Forum for African Women Educators Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (Ghana) Education in Mathematics and Sciences for Women in Africa Ghana Education Service Information and Communication Technologies Ministry of Basic Education Non-governmental organization Parent-teacher association Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa Réseau Ouest et Centre Africain de Recherche en Éducation Programme Décennal de l Education (Mali) See ERNWACA Support for Analysis and Research in Africa, Washington, DC Universal Basic Education (Nigeria) United Nations Children s Fund United States Agency for International Development Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 4

5 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Chapter 1 Introduction and Background Overall Context 1.2 Quantitatively Speaking 1.3 Getting into Quality Chapter 2 Pedagogical Renewal and Teacher Development Education Developments 2.2 Research Activities and Emerging Trends The pre-school experience Teacher development Teaching and learning Education technology Gender issues Action research Chapter 3 Decentralisation and Diversification of Delivery Systems Education Developments 3.2 Research Activities and Emerging Trends Community involvement Non-formal education Evaluation of structures and processes Chapter 4 Implementing Reforms and Innovations in Basic Education Education Developments 4.2 Research Activities and Emerging Trends Education of girls and equity issues Specific innovations Formative research and evaluation Chapter 5 Curricula Relevance and Use of African Languages Education Developments 5.2 Research Activities and Emerging Trends Bilingual education policies and practices First language foundation and mastery of other competencies HIV/AIDS threat and response Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations Challenges of the Synthesis Exercise 6.2 Policy and Research Implications of the Findings 6.3 Fertilizing Nascent Educational Research Resources Bibliography ERNWACA Transnational Studies Bénin Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 5

6 Burkina Faso Cameroon / Cameroun Côte d Ivoire Gambia Ghana Mali Niger Nigeria Sénégal Togo Figures Figure 1.2a : Coverage of the Four Research Themes Figure 1.2b: Figure 6.3a Figure 6.3b Country Level Coverage of Research Themes Education Research Capacity Tripod Research through Impact back to Research Cycle, via capacity building Tables Table 1.2a : Table 1.2b : Table 3.1 : Coverage of the Four Research Themes from Four Analytical Perspectives: Initiative, Inspiration, Methodology, Research outlet Dates of Documents Reviewed Extracts from Burkina Faso s Law on the Decentralisation of the Management of Education Table : Girls Representation in Science-based Programmes (adapted from FEMSA- Mali, 1999) Table 6.1 : Comparative Analysis of Types of Research Documents Reviewed: vs Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 6

7 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.1 Overall Context This is a synthesis of educational research review studies conducted in eleven Western and Central African countries in the first half of the year The review was commissioned by ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa) and was carried out by national offices of ERNWACA (Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa), under the overall coordination of its regional secretariat, based in Bamako, Mali. While there is understanding within ERNWACA of the need for a holistic approach to education from the pre-school experience through higher and continuing education, this work focussed on basic education, today s number one priority area of educational development in Africa, with a special emphasis on quality issues. Because quality in education has been such an elusive concept, every effort was made to delineate specific boundaries for it in the guidelines to the project. These guidelines specified that the research review searchlight should target the following four themes: Pedagogical renewal and teacher development; Decentralisation and diversification of delivery systems; Implementation of reforms and innovations; Curricula relevance and use of African languages in basic education. ERNWACA offices in eleven West and Central African countries submitted analytical reviews and annotated bibliographies, in keeping with the guidelines. They also provided analytical insights into recent developments in education, in keeping with the Education for All (EFA) momentum, in their various countries. The countries are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon Côte d Ivoire, Ghana, the Gambia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. All countries (with he exception of The Gambia) attempted to classify their submissions according to the four themes suggested in the guidelines. Nine of the ten other countries (with the exception of Côte d Ivoire) covered all four themes. Côte d Ivoire did not cover the decentralisation theme, a new area where research is being conducted at the national level but is not yet complete. The Review was intended as a follow-up to an earlier work by ERNWACA, published in 1997, under the title Overlooked and Undervalued. This was also a review of research studies in the region, and it covered the period up to The present review covered the period , a decade marked by intensive political and social transformations in the region. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 7

8 Most of the countries have been subjected to the vagaries of the wind of democracy and structural adjustment. Some of the countries (Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone) witnessed varying degrees of political turbulence and so could not take part in the study. All the countries were in the pursuit of Jomtien 1 and are signatories to the Dakar Declaration and the new EFA goals of April At the time the review was undertaken, all the countries were involved in developing their EFA national action plans. A number of countries (e.g. Burkina Faso and Mali) had in fact launched their ten-year ( decennial ) plans for the development of basic education. Ghana and Nigeria were implementing universal basic education programmes, while the Republic of Benin has been pursuing its EQF (École de Qualité Fondamentale). Reforms are still going on in all the countries, in search of innovative strategies for tackling the numerous problems facing basic education: society ownership, funding, infrastructure, teachers and other educational personnel, quality, relevance, efficiency, and capacity gaps in various forms and categories. The review was expected to explore the extent to which research (i.e. systematic inquiry and analysis) is being generated in the region, as a potential resource for addressing the multiple and complex issues related to quality education. While the exercise focused on basic education, ERNWACA researchers, responding to the network s new vision of a holistic approach to education, did review certain documents about pre-school education, secondary education, and higher education, in relation to basic education. The development of basic education requires knowledge of what precedes it and an understanding that basic education is not an end, but rather the foundation for successful secondary and continuing studies lifelong learning opportunities that should be available for all Africans. 1 The World Conference on Education for All was held in 1990 in Jomtien (Thailand), where 155 governments were represented. The result was the World Declaration on Education for All, which compromises 10 articles. Every person shall benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their learning needs (Article 1); universal access to basic education for all children, youth and adults shall be ensured (Article 3), focusing on learning acquisition (Article 4); basic education should be understood in a broad scope in which learning begins at birth and there is a variety of delivery systems for diverse needs (Article 5). 2 The World Forum on Education in April 2000 in Dakar (Senegal) agreed on six Education for All (EFA) goals. The Dakar Framework for Action declared that all children of primary-school age would have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality by 2015 (goal 2) and all gender disparities in primary and secondary education would be eliminated by 2005 (goal 6). Early childhood care and education and learning opportunities for youth and adults would be greatly increased, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children (goal 1), levels of adult illiteracy would be halved (goal 4), and all aspects of education quality would be improved (goal 6). Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 8

9 1.2 Quantitatively Speaking Figure 1.2a shows the relative strengths of each of the four themes in the body of literature reviewed. FIG. 1.2a : Coverage of the Four Research Themes Relevance / African languages 22% Reforms / Innovations 25% Pedagogy / Teacher Development 33% Decentralization / Diversification 20% Theme 1 on pedagogical renewal and teacher development was the most popular, representing 35% of the total literature reviewed, followed by literature on Theme 2: reforms and innovations (25%), Theme 3: curricula relevance and use of African languages (22%) and finally by Theme 4, the theme on which the least was available: decentralization and diversification of delivery systems (20% of the literature). These numbers could be an indication of more intensive development and research activities in the areas covered by Theme 1. FIG. 1.2b : Country Level Coverage of Research Themes 100% 80% % 40% % % Benin Burkina Faso Cameroun Cote d'ivoire Gambia Ghana Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Togo THEME 1: Pedagogy / Teacher training THEME 2: Decentralization / Diversification THEME 3: Reforms / Innovations THEME 4: Relevance / African languages Figure 1.2b shows that coverage of the four research themes is not strictly even among the participating countries. Theme 1 on pedagogy and teacher development is still dominant in two countries (Côte d Ivoire and Niger), while the other three themes dispute the second position in most of the countries. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 9

10 Table 1.2a shows the coverage of the four themes by ten of the eleven countries (excluding The Gambia) that submitted reviews classified in the manner suggested in the guidelines. Table 1.2a : Coverage of the Four Research Themes from Four Analytical Perspectives ANALYTCAL PERSPECTIVE 1. INITIATIVE 1.1 Individual 1.2 Institutional THEME THEME 2 THEME 3 THEME 4 TOTAL % % 55% 2. INSPIRATION 2.1 Internal 2.2 External 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Fieldwork 3.2 Reflections & Analysis 4. RESEARCH OUTLET 4.1 Official reports 4.2 Theses & Dissertations 4.3 Journals/Books % 80% 65% 35% 50% 31% 19% TOTAL % The Table looks at the research reviewed from four analytical perspectives, as follows: Initiative: was the source of the research initiative institutional or individual? Inspiration: where did the inspiration for the research come from, internal or external sources? Methodology: did the research project involve any form of fieldwork, or was it limited to analysis and reflections? Outlet: were the research findings communicated as official (government or institutional) reports including conference proceedings, part of academic/professional course dissertations, or published in academic journals or books. While the Table shows the general trends, there are notable variations among the countries. The following features of the Table deserve some comments, as they are of particular relevance to the research capacity gap that the research reviews have brought to the fore. First, there is a fairly good mix of individual and institutional research, with the latter having a slight advantage (45% / 55%). Second, there is a strong preponderance (80%) of external inspired research, i.e. initiated and/or commissioned by external agencies, usually in the form of situational analysis for the launching of projects or in the form of evaluation of on-going or completed projects. Third, research in the form of fieldwork has a good edge over research in the form of analysis/reflections (65% / 35%). Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 10

11 Fourth, official reports from government and institutions and proceedings of conferences and workshops are the predominant sources of the research information reviewed (50%), as against academic dissertations (31%), and journals and books (19%). Table 1.2b shows that the majority of the documents reviewed dated from 1997 on. Table 1.2b : Dates of Documents Reviewed Dates of documents reviewed Percentage of total /3 80% % 1.3 Getting into Quality A huge amount of information lies behind bar figures, thus the quantitative dimensions of this synthesis should be regarded as simply introductory to the more qualitative analysis that follows. The next four chapters will discuss the research reviewed in the order in which the themes are listed in the guidelines. Chapter two will discuss pedagogical reforms/teacher development, chapter three decentralisation and diversification, chapter four the implementation of reforms and innovations, chapter five relevance of education and use of African languages. The last chapter (chapter six) will attempt to draw appropriate lessons from the entire exercise, for policymakers and for researchers. Each chapter will begin with an overview of current educational debates and developments in the sub-region in relation to the particular theme being discussed. This will be followed by an attempt to relate reported research activities to the debates and developments and to identify emerging trends. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 11

12 2. PEDAGOGICAL RENEWAL AND TEACHER DEVELOPMENT 2.1 Education Developments In nearly all the countries participating in the literature review on the quality of education, there has been an increasing emphasis on in-service and decentralised on-the-job training of teachers. This, in response to changing demands being made of teachers as facilitators of learning and of child development. In some countries (e.g. Benin), new teachers have not been recruited for years, for economic/financial reasons. In such cases, re-educating serving teachers has become the most viable option. This option has also had its impact in three main directions: the strengthening of teacher continuing education institutions, increased localisation of in-service training bringing the activity closer to the schools (e.g. GAP: Groupe d Animation Pédagogique in Burkina Faso; CAFOP: Centre d Animation et de Formation Pédagogique in Côte d Ivoire; and CAP: Centre d Animation Pédagogique in Mali), and intensified training of trainers, mainly inspectors and pedagogical advisers. In conjunction with these developments, there is an increased realisation of the importance of distance learning in the professional improvement of teachers. There are also debates on the practical utility of initial teacher training, more particularly on issues related to the length of training. There has also been an influx of new methodologies into the school system, promoted largely through new teaching-learning guidelines and localised in-service training programmes. The new methodologies go by different names, such as active methods, audiovisual methods, pedagogy by objectives (outcome-based learning), etc. Also clearly discernible from the reviews is a greater realisation of the importance of early childhood care and education, as an integral part of basic education and as a foundation for school-based learning. There is however no evidence of increasing government involvement in the provision of this level of education. 2.2 Research Activities and Emerging Trends The research activities reviewed tend to mirror the prevailing trends in the development of basic education services in areas related to the subject of Theme One: Pedagogical Renewal and Teacher Development. They tended to focus on the following issues. 1. The pre-school experience 2. Teacher development 3. Teaching and learning 4. Education technology Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 12

13 5. Action research 6. Gender issues The pre-school experience UNICEF seems to have taken the lead here in showing, through research evidence to support the view, that basic education is concerned with meeting the totality of the survival and learning needs of the individual. This is done in its study in Benin, linking educational readiness to an enabling environment that includes adequate health and nutrition. The education readiness hypothesis is then taken up in a number of studies exploring the relationship between pre-schooling and the cognitive and affective dimensions of performance at the primary level, as illustrated by a number of studies from Cameroon, Côte d Ivoire and Niger. The Côte d Iviore studies show that pre-schooling does not significantly improve the chances of adaptation to school life. They also show that children who have been through pre-school institutions have only a slight head start in reading over those who have not been through preschool institutions. One of the studies even claims that children who have not been to nursery schools even have an edge over the otherwise privileged children in numeracy skills. A study from Niger, on the other hand, found that pre-schooling facilitates all forms of learning, as well as psychological adaptation to the primary school. Nchungong Chwefung in a 1996 study in Cameroon found that school conditions particularly the extent to which teachers are trained in early childhood education methods do make a difference. Onuchukwu and Ifeanacho (2001) studied education in nursery schools to assess relevance to the development of the Nigerian child. They found that there is no unified and defined curriculum for nursery education; 32% to 80% of the books used (depending on the school) were of Western origin; poems, nursery rhymes and plays were completely American or European; English was the predominant language followed by French while no Nigerian language was used; and in some schools there was prolonged electronic bombardment via CNN on television, computers, and computer games. It was recommended that government develop a curriculum for nursery education based on the philosophy and objectives of Nigerian education Teacher development The following issues dominate available studies on teacher development: Learning needs and conditions of serving teachers: A reasonably well designed study from Togo (Adjoké and Biyou, 2001) found that primary school teachers in the Kara region in the north of the country had a lot of handicaps, even though they were strongly motivated reasonably well qualified, and experienced. Their handicaps were that: 58% of the them had no initial teacher training and no on-the-job training; 71% were temporary and auxiliary teachers with poor working conditions; 91% needed to upgrade their mastery of basic school subjects (language and mathematics). Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 13

14 Reports from Ghana and Côte d Ivoire, among others, support the view that teacher development has to be carried along with measures in other areas: reducing class sizes, improving the availability and quality of materials, etc. Ghana s FCUBE (Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education) programme was subjected to beneficiary assessment at the end of the first half of its implementation period. According to Daaku (2002): The study reviewed assessments of pupils performance comprising continuous assessment, performance-monitoring tests, school performance appraisal meetings, criterion referenced tests, basic certificate examinations, etc. Constraints identified include inadequate accommodation for teachers, overloaded curriculum, lack of instructional materials, etc. Teachers manufactured scores for pupils. The assessment process is cumbersome and time-consuming. There is ineffective monitoring. It was suggested that teachers be encouraged to give a reasonable number of exercises to pupils regularly, to record marks as soon as the exercises are graded, and use the raw scores for effective monitoring. Both teachers and principals thus need continuous assessment training. Teacher training and influence on performance: Research evidence (from Côte d Ivoire in particular Atedji et. al., 1995, for example) shows that teachers with the BEPC tend to be more effective teachers than those with the baccalaureate, which is a higher qualification. The work of Alota (2000) in Cameroon corroborates this finding. Reports from some countries show that non-qualified teachers (e.g. who have gone through CAFOP to obtain the minimum academic qualification of the baccalaureate) have turned out to be the evils of the system. This is because higher academic qualifications have not significantly improved their teaching competence. Appropriateness of pre-service training programmes in general: Most of the studies stressed the existence of numerous lacunae in existing teacher education programmes. Some of the researchers have cried out against policy instability, especially the frequent changes in the length of pre-service training, as borne out by historical research evidence from a number of francophone countries. Evaluation of specific programmes and structures for the training of trainers: Most of the studies in this category (e.g. Dagbisso et al. in Côte d Ivoire) were concerned with the institutional capacity of in-service training institutions. A peer review of Gambia College s School of Education (N jie et al., ERNWACA, 2002) recommended improved quality assurance systems within the institution so to maintain quality programs while significantly increasing student enrolment to meet education reform objectives to expand the national education system Teaching and learning Research on teaching and learning address two main issues: The effectiveness of new methodologies : One group of studies on this subject deals with observations of classroom interactions. The general finding (as illustrated by the work of Ouedraogo, 2000 in Burkina Faso) is that classroom activities are characterised by rigidity. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 14

15 The conclusions of a study from Côte d Ivoire (Coulibaly, 2000) explains the rigidity as occasioned by: Insufficient and poor training, leading to poor mastery of appropriate teaching techniques; Poor supervision; Large and unmanageable classes; Low teacher morale. The second group of research is in the form of experiments. They all report significantly higher performance by students taught via a variety of active methods eclectic methods, play methods, integrated learning strategies, use of multiple classroom resources (e.g. Ashu, Cameroon, 1992,). Factors affecting learner performance in specific subject areas. In this case the emphasis was still on teaching techniques, and very little on learner and environmental factors affecting learning. The natural sciences also seem to be the major area of concentration. In nearly all the reported cases (e. g. Njumo in 1999 and Zeufack in 1990 both in Cameroon), the use of concrete materials and active participation by learners do enhance student learning Education technology Use of audio-visual materials. Dagbisso et al. in Côte d Ivoire (1999) found that teacher trainers lack the capacity to select and use appropriate audio-visual materials. Another study from Côte d Ivoire (Anet, 1999) and one from Burkina Faso found that audio-visual materials used in teaching in primary schools increase acquisition of notions and, according to Yameogo (1998, Burkina Faso) encourage children to develop a critical attitude toward media. The studies recommend reducing costs of such materials for schools as well as training teachers and teacher trainers from all disciplines in the use of audiovisual materials, for example in how to develop questionnaires to help students analyse TV and radio programs. New information and communication technologies. Several studies (Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo) insisted that teachers should also be trained in the use of computers, Internet, CD ROMS and other new media as well as (Kengne, 2000 in Cameroon) in the use of educational software to develop didactical materials. It was also recommended that teachers, particularly science teachers, also receive training in maintenance and repair of equipment. They should not just be taught the computer, but how to use it in teaching. These recommendations stemmed from general reviews of education reforms and teacher training programs and from literature reviews aimed to inform government policies in the area of new information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. The only study based on classroom experimentation came from Nigeria and found that computer-assisted instruction enhanced learners cognitive achievement in social studies among secondary school learners (Ajelabi, 2000 in Nigeria). Distance learning. Demand for teachers has outpaced supply and untrained contractors are in West and Central African classrooms. Several countries are experimenting the use of open and distance learning in teacher training to help provide relief. In Senegal, the Ecole Normale Supérieure is running several such programs, for example via the Centre d application, d étude et de ressources en apprentissage à distance (since 1998). While several studies Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 15

16 suggested the value of distance learning, none researched it specifically. There were no evaluations of new programs and their potential for contributing to initial and continuing education for teachers. This could be due either to the paucity of such work at this stage or to the fact that reviewing researchers, not finding the documents in the main documentation centres visited, did not make a particular effort to seek them out from pertinent institutions Gender issues Gender composition of the teaching force at the primary level: Research from Burkina Faso shows an increasing feminisation of the teaching corps both in urban and rural areas, with a tendency towards having more and more women in the lower professional cadres. Reports from Niger, on the other hand, show very low representation of women in the teaching force. This finding is explained by the low enrolment of girls in primary schools and the constraints imposed on women by marriage. Studies from both Gambia and Mali strongly recommend the active recruitment of more women teachers and even suggested that this would increase student enrolments. A FAWE study (Sangaré et al., 1999) found that there are very few female candidates for the entrance exam to teacher training institutes in Mali. Also, while women teachers in rural areas were revered as models, women teachers in urban areas were perceived as less effective due to multiple domestic and social responsibilities (baptisms, marriages, funerals) and often have difficulty with their directors regarding schedules, class attribution, involvement in examinations, participation in training workshops, and transfers. The authors recommended incentives for women teachers. Gender bias in teaching and learning materials: More fundamental issues on gender bias in basic education are raised in the conclusions of a study from Ghana (CRRD, not dated) after an analysis of language, mathematics and science textbooks: Numerous instances of systematic gendering were found throughout the texts Males were typically found in occupations demanding more skills, knowledge and diplomacy. Males, as opposed to females, were portrayed as doing more challenging jobs while females were more often portrayed as dancing and singing or cooking and tending a child. Males are put at the forefront of all major events. Systematically the texts imprint gender bias and gender stereotyping of occupations, leisure activities, domestic labour and attributes on the minds of pupils Action research Action research, used in a smattering of the studies reviewed, seems to be an approach that can facilitate work with teachers for improved quality of teaching. Teachers become active in innovating and solving their own problems and, when implemented on large scales (i.e. PPSE program in Guinea not reviewed in this exercise) research action can encourage systemic change. Training reports and handbooks from 1998 in Burkina Faso, not research per se, rather documents about action research projects (Briba Toe; MEBA) describe how teachers received support from pedagogical advisors and resource teachers to develop and experiment, via observation and descriptive report writing, tools for group reading. The action research exercise led to wider use of these group reading techniques in primary schools in Ouagadougou. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 16

17 The Ecoles-Témoins (model school) program in Côte d Ivoire in the mid to late 1990s (see Toure; MENFB) was conceived with a good dose of parent involvement, enriched teachinglearning materials, continuous assessment, improved school climate, and teacher support through close supervision. Part of the strategy was to train teachers in action research. It was found that their participation in collaborative projects defined and developed at the school level contributed to: Improved students performance on examinations; Enhanced pedagogical skills of teachers; Greater self-confidence and trust among teachers; Increased parent involvement in school affairs; Funding has however remained a problem. The evaluation reports recommended exchange among teachers, continuing education for them, reorganization of school/class schedules to improve pedagogy, and action research training for other actors including parents. According to Tettey-Enyo et al. (1996 in Ghana), action research has been firmly established in many departments at University College of Education Winneba for pre- and in-service teacher education. Follow-up studies should be conducted on these and similar programs to assess longer term impact on improved quality of teaching and the role of action research in that process. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 17

18 3. DECENTRALISATION AND DIVERSIFICATION OF DELIVERY SYSTEMS 3.1 Education Developments Most African countries recognize that the basic learning needs of children, adolescents, youth and adults cannot be fully met by formal schooling alone. The concept of alternative education delivery systems has therefore been encouraged, especially since Jomtien in The idea that government cannot go it alone in matters of provision of education has also gained ground in the past decade. Governments all over Africa have accordingly attempted to strengthen and expand partnerships in favour of education, particularly on basic education. An essential aspect of partnerships has been an increasing attempt to involve a variety of stakeholders in the provision and management of education. The major stakeholders in most places have been parents associations and local communities. The countries participating in the research review that is the subject of this synthesis provide some evidence of governments trying to ensure that, in educational matters, power really lies with the people, as in the case of Burkina (see Table 3.1). Table 3.1 : Education Extracts from Burkina Faso s 1998 Law on the Decentralisation of the Management of ART PROVINCE Prise en charge de l enseignement préscolaire dans les zones non-érigées en commune: à ce titre, elle acquiert, construit, et gère des établissements préscolaires. Prise en charge de l enseignement primaire dans les zones non érigées en commune: à ce titre, elle acquiert, construit et gère des écoles primaires. Construction et gestion des établissements secondaires autre que nationaux. Prise en charge avec l appui de l Etat du développement de la formation professionnelle et de l alphabétisation. Participation a l établissement de la tranche provinciale de la carte scolaire nationale. ART COMMUNE Prise en charge du développement de l enseignement préscolaire dans la commune: à ce titre, elle acquiert, construit et gère des établissements préscolaires. Prise en charge de l enseignement primaire dans la commune: à ce titre, elle acquiert, construit et gère des écoles primaires. Contribution au développement de l enseignement secondaire: à ce titre elle construit et gère des établissements secondaires. Prise en charge avec l appui de l Etat du développement de la formation professionnelle et de l alphabétisation. Participation à l établissement de la tranche communale de la care scolaire. Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 18

19 3.2 Research Activities and Emerging Trends Submissions from the countries that participated in this review show that on-going research activities related to decentralisation and diversification of education delivery systems hinge around the following areas of concern: 1. Community involvement; 2. Non-formal education; 3. Evaluation of structures and processes of decentralisation Community involvement Available studies on this topic focus mainly on the extent to which parents and communities are involved in school support and in the running of les écoles communautaires and how this involvement impacts access to and quality of education Most of the studies were conducted in Mali, where external agencies and NGOs have been particularly active in promoting the community school concept and increased community involvement in school management. Studies were also conducted in Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Togo. Findings on the level of community involvement show that it is in the form of a gradient, the determining factors being (a) level of ongoing social mobilisation, (b) material wealth in the community, and (c) management capacity in the school and the community. A first group of findings (e.g. Cossou for ERNWACA, Benin, 2001) asserts that écoles communautaires, ones created and run by the community, do yet truly exist, because parents are little involved and sometimes merely pay unemployed graduates to occupy public school classrooms left void of teachers. Other studies found that community involvement is significantly more intensive in rural areas (e.g. Ilboudo and Kabore for ERNWACA, Burkina Faso, 2001; and ROCARE- Mali, 1997). Some research reported significantly higher performance in language and math by pupils in community schools. One study reported higher performance by pupils in conventional public schools, in Grade 1, with a reverse situation after Grade 2. The authors suggested the shift was due to the fact that community schools were established in areas with no culture of schooling; by the end of Grade 2, thanks in part to the ability of teachers to mobilise and create confidence among parents, pupils had apparently overcome certain cultural handicaps, i.e. not having a sibling who had been schooled. While community participation does not automatically translate to greater student performance, it clearly seems to increase access to basic education and reduce repetition rates (ROCARE-Mali, 1997 and 2001). That conclusion is corroborated by a number of other research findings, i.e. in Ghana (Baku and Agyeman, 1997), which found that parents are in fact involved and that this has exerted a positive influence on access, retention, and success in learning. In a context of increasing decentralization of school management, roles and responsibilities change and need to be discussed and redefined. Dialogue seems to be key at the community level, between central and regional authorities, between NGOs and government. The two ERNWACA transnational studies on community participation (2001 and 2002) recommend school involvement in community development projects and further research on schoolcommunity collaboration. Several studies strongly recommend legal frameworks to structure Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 19

20 and support the development of partnerships for positive participation of NGOs and PTAs in education (e.g. Tounkara, ERNWACA-Mali, 2001; N'jie, ERNWACA-Gambia, 2002). The Gambia study found that PTAs were most involved with infrastructural development and maintenance projects, and suggested that parents, with adequate training and funding, could be more involved in quality issues such as monitoring teacher effectiveness and incorporating local content. Findings on the impact of the community schools are interesting in that no clear-cut conclusions can be drawn from them. More questions have been raised than answers, and this simply means that more research is needed Non-formal education Three major trends run through the research reviewed under this heading, as shown in the following illustrative examples. Koranic schools: These schools are found all over Islamised countries and societies, and they are the first and only avenues for education for a substantial population. Yet, as research evidence shows, civil society capacity for managing them (when they are absorbed into the mainstream basic education system) is low, while NGOs do not appear to be sufficiently interested in them (Malam Moussa, Niger, 2001). The Malam Moussa study suggested: «le développement d une nouvelle offre qui intègre les points forts de l école formelle actuelle, de l école coranique et des programmes d alphabétisation et de formation des adultes.» Other studies recommended the same (e.g. GRENF, Niger, 2001; Njie, 1999) suggested the same. Functional Literacy Programmes: Evaluation of their benefits, beyond mere acquisition of literacy and numeracy skills, were carried out in Ghana. One of the studies (Agye-Bein, 2001) reported that 87% of beneficiaries mainly women agreed that they experienced improved earnings as a result of the functional skills acquired along with literacy. A similar study in a different region of the country (Hodzi, 1999) came to the conclusion that: FL (Functional Literacy) has made some positive impact on the women, their families and the cluster of communities. Thus, it was observed that FL is an effective tool for empowering deprived, disadvantaged illiterate rural women. Their economic capabilities had been enhanced, and they had consequently embarked on saving in a bank. Knowledge on family planning methods had also improved, although water and sanitation were still a problem. Traditional apprenticeship systems: Conclusions from a series of participant observations in Benin (Akpaka and Gaba, 1992) show the positive and negative sides of the informal apprenticeship system prevalent in West and Central Africa. The system is known for being closely intertwined with life within the immediate community. The relationship between teachers and learners exists at three levels trainer/trainee, father/child, entrepreneur/worker. At the same time, the level of theoretical knowledge is poor; there are no teaching support materials, while the conditions of work are usually difficult. In short, absorbing the informal apprenticeship system into mainstream basic education would require remedying the Emerging Trends in Research on the Quality of Education / ERNWACA Oct / Page 20

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