Technical Committee 102 Ground Property Characterisation from In-Situ Tests

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2 Technical Committee 102 Ground Property Characterisation from In-Situ Tests Comité technique 102 Caractérisation des propriétés des terrains par essais in situ

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4 General Report for TC102 In-Situ Testing Rapport général du TC102 Essais in-situ Giacheti H.L. São Paulo State University, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bauru-SP, Brazil (wwwp.feb.unesp.br/giacheti) Cunha R.P. University of Brasília, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Brasília-DF, Brazil (www.geotecnia.unb.br/gpfees) ABSTRACT: An overview of all the technical papers accepted for the in-situ testing session of the 18 th ICSMGE is presented. Forty two papers submitted to this conference were considered as part of this session. The papers were grouped into four major categories: site characterization, technological advances, geotechnical analyses and behavior, and soil and rocks properties. The objective of this report is to present an overview of the theme topics and briefly discuss the major contributions achieved by these papers. RÉSUMÉ : Un aperçu de tous les articles acceptés à la conférence dans la session «Essais in-situ» du 18 e CIMSG est présenté ici. Quarante-deux écrits soumis à cette conférence ont été considérés comme faisant partie de cette session. Les documents ont été regroupés en quatre grandes catégories: la caractérisation du site, les progrès technologiques, les analyses géotechniques, les comportements et enfin les propriétés des sols et des roches. L'objectif de ce rapport est de présenter une vue d'ensemble de tous les sujets et de discuter brièvement des contributions majeures apportées par ces documents. KEYWORDS: In-situ tests, site characterization, technological advances, geotechnical analysis and behavior, soil and rock properties. 1 INTRODUCTION Site characterization is the first step on all geotechnical projects and the objectives generally relate to the definition of the stratigraphic profile and groundwater level, estimation of the geotechnical properties from each soil unit, identification of critical layers, definition of geotechnical design parameters and indication of required, if necessary, additional laboratory tests. The traditional methods for site characterization rely basically on drilling, sampling and laboratory tests. These are usually time consuming and, in some cases, over budget. The modern approach, on the other hand, focuses on the rational use of in-situ penetration tools coupled in some cases with geophysical techniques. Of course, the success of an efficient site characterization program depends on clearly defining the scope or objectives of the enterprise and, in some cases, combined site investigation techniques are adopted as will be demonstrated through the papers of this session. Hence, TC102 sessions of the conference contain papers with distinct investigative approaches and scopes. Some have presented new testing devices; others new characterization or interpretation methods. Some have described real case studies where the site characterization was a major issue, whereas others discussed the interpreted soil and rock properties to be used as input for routine geotechnical analyses. Most of the contributions deal purely with in-situ investigation tools, but many have mixed it with laboratory or numerical investigation techniques. As presented in Figure 1, the majority of the papers are European in essence, which is expected for the 18 th ICSMGE held in this continent. South America Europe North America Asia Africa Australia Figure 1. Paper distribution by continents for this conference session. Figure 2.a shows the distribution of all papers in this session that used any particular in-situ testing technique as a major site investigation tool. Notice that most of the papers used more than one technique. From this, it is possible to realize that CPT and SPT were the more widely-employed tools amongst the published papers. Figure 2.b depicts, from the universe of papers that solely adopted CPT or SPT (or both) as site tool, which interpretation techniques were adopted. It is clearly evident that empirical approaches still form the dominant interpretation group, although in many papers it has been used together with other complementary methods. a) b) Figure 2. a) Percentage of all papers in the session that used the listed in-situ technique among others site investigation tools and b) Percentage of (only) CPT and/or SPT papers in the session that adopted the listed approach to interpret the data, among other techniques. Figure 3 shows the types of geotechnical formations that served as the major soil stratum for the employed investigative techniques. It is clear that the great majority of the presented papers are concerned with sedimentary deposits, whereas few of them focused on less classical materials such as residual (tropical) soils or man-placed tailings and compacted earth fills. Sedimentary Residual/ Tropical Earth Fill/ Tailing Other Figure 3. Percentage of geomaterial types addressed in this section

5 Proceedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013 This report is organized into several major topics and subject areas, as follows: site characterization (4 papers), technological advances (9 papers), geotechnical analyses and behavior (14 papers), and soil and rocks properties (15 papers), leading to a total of 42 papers. The main objective is to present an overview and the advances on the main addressed topics of this Conference Session, hence summarizing and emphasizing the important contributions from the papers. Table 1 presents a summary with the main topics and subtopics addressed for each of the listed papers, together with the adopted investigation tools (in-situ or laboratory), the main soil type, the investigation approach, and a short 1-line summary of the paper s prime objective & contribution. Given such cited divisions, the papers will be reported under each of the defined topics and subtopics, as it follows next. 2. SITE CHARACTERIZATION 3.1. New uses of in-situ technology Kim s et al. paper has an environmental appeal since it deals with the geological CO 2 sequestration as an effective mean of reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide. The problem pointed out in the paper is that forward strategies and technologies of CO 2 sequestration in Korea need to be specified depending on the geological conditions of potential sites (in Korea). The authors reviewed the geological characteristics of CO 2 storage projects around the World and also discuss the suitability for CO 2 sequestration. A systematic and quantitative evaluation method to assess the storage and economic efficiencies of sedimentary basins in Korea using dimensionless values between 0 and 1 was applied (Figure 4). The paper also discusses the potential of using geophysical tests to assess the suitability of field strata for CO 2 -storing, and to monitor CO 2 movement and possible leakages. In this Conference Session, four papers dealt with site characterization; two of them are related to soil classification and the other two are more focused on geotechnical modeling Soil classification The paper written by Serratrice proposes a classification method for natural soils based on piezocone test data. Two aspects are considered to classify the soils with liquefaction potential, the drained and undrained strength via triaxial tests and the soil s density. The method is presented and applied in two examples where CPTU data are available in homogeneous clayey deposits. The paper from Baud & Gambin presents a contribution to enhance the Pressiorama diagram with the extra rheological factor, which was originally introduced by Ménard on his design method. The authors used very good quality self-bored PMT tests (STAF technique) in several soil types, from soft clays to rock to obtain E M /p *LM values. They proposed a reevaluation of the rheological factor and the findings are given by an equation graphically expressed in the Pressiorama Geotechnical modeling The paper from Ivšić et al. discusses the applicability of the RNK-method for spatial engineering & geological and/or geotechnical modeling. This method was tested on many landslides in Croatia and it allows the differentiation of the minimum shear strength zone, or regions of different hydraulic conductivities and varied soil densities. The proposed model was verified by measurements of lateral movements in the landslide area and by results of stability analyses. They concluded that the RNK-method can be used in the study of landslides and slope stability by searching the zone of minimum shear strength. The paper from Steenfelt et al. presents the use of in-situ and laboratory tests for site characterization on an important ongoing infrastructure project in China. A very extensive site investigation campaign was carried out comprising geotechnical boreholes, CPTUs and seismic testing with associated advanced laboratory testing. The paper described the results and the interpretation technique used to provide ground stratification and stiffness variations to be used in design. They concluded that the CPTU was a important tool for a clear geological unit delineation, which also allowed a robust and safe design. 3. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES In this Conference Section, nine papers were selected to be part of the technological advances (main) topic; three of them presented new uses of in-situ testing technologies and six dealt with new types of in-situ testing tools (or apparatuses). Figure 4. Score for suitability for Korean sedimentary basin (Kim et al). The paper from Fenton & Hicks discusses the uncertainty associated with site characterization and it focused specifically on the effect of number of samples on residual uncertainty. The results can be used to quantitatively select the required number of samples needed to achieve a target maximum residual uncertainty level. A statistical approach was used to study this problem and it was concluded that the accuracy improves as the number of samples and the correlation length increases. Somasundaram et al. present the characterization and settlement modeling of deep inert debris fills. Inert fills can be considered as a non-text book type geomaterial since they are difficult to characterize and model by current geotechnical methods, due to their inherent heterogeneity, very large particle sizes, and nested and voided structure. The authors presented an approach to characterize a 54 m deep inert debris fill, to model its settlement behavior under seismic loading and groundwater level rise, and to develop remedial measures to render it suitable for development New in-situ tools Jacquard s et al. paper presents a new probe to overcome the limitation of Menard type pressuremeter tests, i.e., the difficulty of reaching large expansion volumes and pressures. This new device allows for the volume of the hole to be doubled, even under high pressures. The authors described the technological innovations that increased the capabilities (and reliability) of the pressuremeter probe as well as presented comparative tests on different sites to demonstrate the advocated technical advance in this enhanced PMT device. In Rito & Emura paper a new type of sampling method called Koken wire line system is developed (Figure 5) to retrieve high depth undisturbed samples in deep Pleistocene clay and sand layers at the Kansai International Airport area. The authors also developed two different pore pressure measuring devices, and concluded that both the sample quality and the measured values were respectively of high quality and with reasonably good accuracy to be used in the settlement design of the subsoil of this airport, in Japan. 472

6 Technical Committee 102 / Comité technique 102 Proceedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013 SC=Soil Classification, GM=Geote chnical Modeling, NU=New Uses of In-Situ Technology, NI=New In-Situ Tools,, DI=Design Improvement, FC=Field Conditions/Site Performance, NT=New Theoretical Advances, PE=Parameter Evaluation. SPT=Standard Pen. Test, BPT=Bec ker Pen. Test,, SWS=Swedish Weight Sounding, CPT=Cone Pen. Test, DMT=Dilatometer Pen. Test, DCP=Dynamic Cone Probing, LS=Large Scale Density, FV=Field Vane Test, SS=Stress Strain Sensors, LT=Load Test, CBR=California Bearing Ratio, P=Permeability, ST=Shaking Table, E=Eletroresistivity, G=Geophysics, NS=Lab Test adopted but Non Specified, GS=Gypseous Soil, FA=Fly Ash. Soil and Rock Properties Geotechnical Analysis and Behavior Technological Advances S Serratrice X X X X X Classification of soil sensibility via CPT tests C Baud & Gambin X X X X X X X Enhancement of soil type interpretation via PMT tests G Ivsic et al. X X X X X X X X Model for landslide analysis via site correlations M Steenfelt et al. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Site characterization for tunnel design Kim et al. X X E X X Storage of CO2 emissions in sedimentary basins N Fenton & Hicks X X Technique for optimum soil sampling U Somasundaram et al. X X LS X X X X X Site techniques to characterize and analyze debris fills Jacquard et al. X X X X X X X X Details of a new high volume PMT probe Rito & Emura X X X X X X X Details of a new high depth sampler and piezometer N Kayser et al. X X NS X X X X X Scour evaluation for piers via new in-situ probe I Giacheti et al. X X X X X X X Development of seismic SPT for residual soils Frost & Martinez X X X X X X X CPTu upgrade with a new multi sensor device Monnet X X P X X X X X X Development of a new enhanced PMT probe Yasufuku et al. X X X X X X X X X Rational use of in-situ and lab. tests for foundations D Cao et al. X SS X NS X X X X X X Field instrumentation and results of a pile curtain wall I Hokmabadi et al. ST X X X Dynamic soil-structure analyses for piles Amoroso et al. X X X X X X X X X X X Potential use of SDMT in a real case investigation Haza-Rozier et al. SS X X Improvement of the behavior of a soil foundation Svinkin SS X X X Issues on ground vibration by pile driving Matesic et al. X X X LT NS X X X X X Field tests to monitor the foundation of oil tanks Jeon & Mimura X X X X X Soil foundation deformation of an offshore airport F Chou et al. X X Field survey of affected region after Morakot typhoon C Lin et al. X X X X X Soil erosion via multiscale sediment monitoring tool Al-Saoudi et al. X NS GS X Geotechnical properties of gypseous soils via lab. test Shulyatiev et al. LT X NS X X X Parameters from field load tests on barrette type piles Chen et al. X X X Study of cuttability index for tunnel excavation Bellato et al. X X X X X Assessment of cutter soil mixing samples in the lab. Baud et al. X X X X Shear modulus degradation assessment via PMT tests Benz et al. X X X X X X X X New interpretation approach for Panda penetrometer Nishimura et al. X NS X X X Earth fill investigation using probability analyses N Poulsen et al. X X X X X Influence of CPT penetration rate in silty soils T Galaa et al. X X X X X X X X X Hyd. conductivity determination of glacial deposits Phoon & Ching X X FV X X X X X X In-situ parameters via reliability-based approach Motaghedi et al. X X X X X X X X CPTu strength values via capacity-based equation Tumay et al. X X X X X X X Organic content assessment for sedimentary soils Mulabdic X X X X X X X X X X Characterization of a compacted dam via in-situ tests Zabielska-Adamska X X FA X X Assessment of a compacted soil via CBR tests P Chapuis X X X X X X X X Scale effects in the permeability of sandy aquifers E Mlynarek et al. X X X X X X X X Deformation moduli from jointed CPT & DMT tests Liu et al. X X X X X X X Practice and correlations of CPTu tests in China Espinace et al. X X NS X X X X Control of tailing dams with the Panda penetrometer Hanza & Shahien X X X X X X X Correlations on drained compressibility parameters Site Characterization Subtopics Author / Paper SPT / BPT / SWS CPT DMT PMT Panda/DCP Geophysics Borehole Sampling Permeability New Device Other Type Index Oedometer Uniaxial / Triaxial Simple / Direct Ring Shear Proctor / CBR Other Type Sand / Gravel Silt / Clay Residual / Tropical Earth Fill / Tailing Rock / Saprolite Other Type Empirical Analytical Numerical Instrumentation Calibration Chamber Field Data Probabilistic Statistical Experimental Objective or Major Contribution Table 1. Summary of the general characteristics from each of the papers for Technical Section TC 102 (In-Situ Testing). Main Main Investigation Tool Topic Studied Soil Type Investigation Approach In Situ Laboratory 473

7 Proceedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013 Attachment Digital Housing Attachment Digital Boards (1.66) (1.59) u a4 f a4 Mandrel Friction Sleeve Piezo Sensor Replaceable Attachment Friction Sleeve (1.40) (1.33) u a3 f a3 Mandrel Friction Sleeve Piezo Sensor Attachment Sleeve Mandrel Figure 5. The Koken wire line sampling system (Rito & Emura). The paper from Kayser et al describes an approach to assess soil scour potential through the use of the In-Situ Erosion Evaluation Probe (ISEEP), which is advanced by water jetting. Soil erosion parameters were assessed for silty sand in terms of a critical stream power (critical shear stress and detachment rate coefficient). Scour depths around a circular bridge pier were also computed using ISEEP data, and compared with an empirical approach available in literature. Giacheti et al briefly describes a test which associates the up-hole technique to the SPT, the seismic SPT (Figure 6). This hybrid test allows the determination of the maximum shear modulus (G 0 ) together with the N value in a unique test. The paper also presents and discusses cross-hole, down-hole, SCPT and SPT test data for a Brazilian tropical sandy soil to emphasize the advantage of using the interrelationship between the small strain stiffness (Go) and the ultimate strength (N value) to identify and characterize different soil behaviors. Manual SPT Equipment H1 H2 H3 Hi i Trigger & Anvil 3 Li Case with geophones 2 L3 1 L2 L1 DAQ System Figure 6. S-SPT test and a seismic refracted path (Giacheti et al). Frost & Martinez enhances the well-established cone penetration test with an extra multi-sleeve penetration attachment (Figure 7). The new CPT probe incorporates a series of friction sleeves with varying surface textures and a torsional load sensing capabilities along with a series of pore pressure sensors, in addition to the standard smooth friction sleeve and pore pressure sensor located behind the tip. They advocate that the multiple measurements made with this device allow it to provide a new insight into the characterization of soil types, besides of establishing relations between stratigraphic variations and in-situ shear strength with the texture height of the sleeves. The authors really consider that the multi-sleeve technology CPT offers significant benefits over other devices to measure the mechanical response of soils. (1.14) (1.07) (0.88) (0.81) (0.67) u Mandrel a2 Friction f a2 Sleeve Mandrel u a1 Friction f a1 Sleeve u a0 Mandrel Digital Housing Digital Board Dual Axis Inclinometer f s Friction Sleeve u 2 Pore Pressure q c Tip Load Piezo Sensor Piezo Sensor Piezo Sensor Attachment Individual Piezo Sensor Attachment Individual Load Cell Figure 7. The multi-piezo-sleeve friction penetrometer along with a standard CPT probe (Frost & Martinez). Monet presents a new in-situ testing device called the Geomechameter, i.e. an evolution of the pressuremeter. This new device uses the forces generated by water flow around the probe. The hydraulic flow allows the control of the level of vertical stress at the test depth. The influence of this stress is hence taken into account in the test interpretation. The new probe can also evaluate the soil permeability and sensibility to erosion. It was validated by direct comparison with mechanical properties from triaxial tests and permeability values from Lefranc type injection tests. 4. GEOTECHNICAL ANALYSIS AND BEHAVIOR Fourteen papers in this Conference Session were grouped in the topic of geotechnical analysis and behavior; four of them dealt with design improvement and the other ten addressed field conditions and/or site performance Design improvement The paper from Yasufuku et al. emphasizes the importance of integrating the geotechnical investigations with pile foundation design. Figure 8 shows the policy and concept of geotechnical investigation & design for the studied case, i.e. the construction of the connecting bridge for New-Kitakyushu airport. A rational method for evaluating the pile bearing capacity was presented which reflected the soil characteristic values and the geological environmental history. They concluded that field and laboratory investigations with a reasonable geotechnical consideration sharply decreased the total cost of the bridge in the studied case. The paper from Cao et al. studied the performance of a deep excavation in downtown Toronto. They presented field measurements of soldier pile walls installed into clayey soils and shaly rock. The authors assessed the method of deducing wall bending moments from inclinometer measurements, among other aspects. The paper provides recommendations for such walls when designed in similar geotechnical conditions. The paper from Hokmabadi et al. studies the seismic response of superstructures on soft soils. Shaking table tests and three dimensional numerical simulations using FLAC3D were carried out to investigate the influence of the soil-pile-structure interaction on the seismic response of a 15-storey moment resisting building, supported by end-bearing pile foundations. The authors observed a good agreement between the numerical predictions and the experimental data confirming the reliability of the numerical approach. 474

8 Technical Committee 102 / Comité technique 102 Proceedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013 Design of foundation (Reassessment) Assessments based on Geotechnical considerations (Collaboration) Investigation Implementation of site investigation Select of possible models Decision of sort and number of field & lab. tests design Modeling of ground Careful selection of soil parameters Determination of adequate model Reconsideration of safety factors et al. Implementation of rational and Economical design in total (Feedback) Verification by site investigations Full scale load tests Field observations Figure 8. Collaboration of geotechnical investigations with design (Yasufuku et al). Amoroso s et al. paper presents a case history emphasizing the use of the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) as a powerful site investigation tool on the restoration design of an historical building which was damaged by the 2009 L Aquila earthquake. The investigation of the foundation also included boreholes and laboratory cyclic simple shear tests. The paper presented the interpretation of SDMT for determination of soil profiling, shear wave velocity, constrained modulus and horizontal stress index, which when, combined with lab data, allowed a better understanding of the building s response during the earthquake Field condition and/or site performance Haza-Rozier et al. study the behavior of a soil foundation improved by rigid columns to support wind turbines. This foundation was fixed on a rigid slab, lying on a granular layer, improved by 84 rigid columns. The authors monitored the structure behavior during excavation, machine construction, and over a period of time for the working service of the wind turbine. They observed that the working platform induced an important confinement of the columns heads with subsequent small levels of displacement. Svinkin s paper discusses the controversial and contradictory evaluations of ground vibrations from pile driving theories. He pointed out that pile driving is a powerful and wide-spread source of construction vibrations which may detrimentally affect adjacent or remote structures. The paper thus presented several issues in the assessment of ground vibrations generated by pile driving. The paper from Matešić et al. presents a case history with the use of hydro test results for designing steel tanks on improved ground with 660 stone columns. The authors described the conducted hydro tests as part of a technical monitoring assessment from all elements of the tank structure. The paper presents and discusses all experimental data and states that they could be wisely used to improve the tank design. Jeon and Mimura present elasto-viscoplastic FEM analyses to assess the long-term deformation of a reclaimed island over a Pleistocene foundation from the adjacent construction of an offshore (twin) airport. It is a numerical modeling paper where simulation was compared to instrumentation results. The authors introduced the concept of mass permeability to model the excess pore water pressure dissipation and concluded that it functioned well to assess the long-term deformation of the foundation, including the interactive construction behavior. Chou s et al. paper discusses survey results of damaged areas after a flood disaster caused by the 2009 Morakot Typhoon in Taiwan. A comprehensive site survey was conducted after the flood disaster and ten failure mechanisms were identified depending on the different geological environments. The paper presented the site survey observations, analyzed the causes and mechanisms of failures, and drafted strategies and suggestions for the restoration projects. The paper from Lin et al. uses a multi-scale sediment monitoring device to assess the remediation effectiveness on a watershed reservoir after sedimentation processes were originated by the same typhoon cited on Chou et al. It is stated that it caused unprecedented landslide and sediment-related disasters in mountain areas of the Tsengwen reservoir watershed, drastically reducing its storage capacity. Hence, the paper describes the method and how to systematically study and analyze soil erosion and landslide areas with the aid of sediment accumulation trapping dams and aforementioned device. Al-Saudi et al. is another paper that deals with a non-text book type geomaterial: gypseous soils, another problematic soil given its intrinsic characteristics. According to the authors, it covers about 20 to 30 % of total Iraq area. An important characteristic of this soil is the collapsibility, a sudden and large volumetric strain when exposed to water. Proposals for soil treatment are presented, focusing on the control of settlement by reducing or even preventing humidity changes within the soil foundation. Shulyatiev s et al. paper presents a case study related to the construction of the Okhta-center high-rise tower in St. Petersburg. Static load tests on real scale barrette pile types were carried out to adjust the design soil parameters. The paper also presents a comparison between the derived bearing capacity values and those from Russian and foreign building codes. The authors concluded that pile tests are an effective way to calibrate design parameters for usage in real case designs. The paper from Chen et al. presents a generalized (dimensional analysis type) solution to be used into underground geological-mechanical interaction excavation problems. The model groups the geological characteristics into three categories: brittle (rock-like), ductile (soil-like), and brittle-ductile (gravel-like), with respect to thrust and force cuttings. Two case histories are presented to validate the approach to assess the efficiency of a tunnel cutting machine. Bellato s et al. paper presents a case study to discuss the quality control of Cutter Soil Mixing (CSM), i.e., a relatively new deep mixing method suitable for various types of ground improvement. The materials and the testing program were described in the paper. The obtained results under an innovative experimental apparatus underline the influence of the physical, and chemical, characteristics of the natural soil on the strength gain of the stabilized materials. 5. SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTIES In this Conference Session, fifteen papers were selected to be part of this main topic where seven of them presented new theoretical advances as a major subtopic and eight dealt with the evaluation of geotechnical parameters New theoretical advances The paper from Baud et al. discusses stress-strain hyperbolic curves obtained with a self-boring Ménard PMT test. The authors determined E-moduli values by assimilating the pressure-volume plot of a Ménard PMT to a 2 nd degree hyperbolic arc. The self-boring Ménard PMT tests were carried out using a self-bored steel slotted tube implemented either by the STAF technique, or by the ROTOSTAF method. The authors derived the hyperbolic best fit of the plotted readings to obtain an original equation of the radial borehole expansion, ε = f(g 0, p o, p LM, P L ). After that, they derived the tangent modulus G t for each reading and the corresponding G t /G 0 ratio as a 475

9 Proceedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013 function of ε, and similarly the secant modulus G s. The authors affirmed that their variation can be well compared with those given by the usual hyperbolic model, except for cases with very small initial strains. They concluded that the results are similar to those obtained by laboratory tests and geophysical surveys. Benz s et al. paper presents the recent developments achieved on the Panda 3 dynamic penetrometer to improve its use for site characterization. This new improvement is schematically represented in Figure 9 including a typical test result. According to the authors the load-settlement p -s p curve can be derived from the measurement and decoupling of sonic waves created by each impact of the penetrometer, which allows the determination of the strength and deformation parameters. The paper presented calibration chamber test data for two different soils to validate the given results. It was observed a good repeatability and sensibility to the soil conditions. The authors compared the results with those obtained by triaxial and oedometer tests and also found a good agreement for sands. This new test is now currently used in the field to improve the derivation of geotechnical soil parameters via site derived loadsettlement Panda curves. Figure 9. Schematic representation of Panda 3 dynamic penetrometer with a typical test result (Benz et al). The paper from Nishimura et al. presents the use of the Swedish Weight Sounding (SWS) test with the objective of making a diagnosis of man made earth-fills, hence increasing their lifetime especially because their shear strength is generally required for investigations with this scope. The study is justified by the existence of several earth-fill dams for farm ponds in Japan, with some of them under final life stages. Although the strength can also be predicted by the SPT N- values, the authors used the SWS test as a simple method for obtaining the spatial distribution of the N-values in short interval exams. The paper also presented an indicator simulation (geostatistical) method to interpolate the spatial distribution of derived N-values. The results are used to determine degraded regions within existing embankments. The shear strength parameter was derived through the empirical correlation with the N-values, and the reliability analysis of the embankments was conducted considering the variability of the internal friction angle of the material. The paper from Poulsen et al. shows how a change in cone penetration rate affects all cone penetration measurements in a silty soil. The authors emphasized the fact that for the standard rate of penetration (20 mm/s) it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay, while it is drained in sands. Data from 15 field cone penetration tests with varying penetration rates were conducted at a sandy silt test site. Figure 10 depicts the pore pressure and cone resistance at depths ranging from 4.5 to 11.4 m for CPTs conducted with variable penetration rates (60 and 0.5 mm/s can be observed). The CPT conducted with a penetration rate of 0.5 mm/s corresponds to fully drained penetration conditions, since the measured pore pressure is close to u 0. On the other hand, the CPT conducted with a penetration rate of 60 mm/s corresponds to undrained or partially drained conditions. The authors did not observe any correlation between sleeve friction and cone penetration rates. They concluded that a correlation between the penetration rate, the cone resistance, and the derived excess pore pressure, do exist. They have also suggested an approach to determine when the penetration is partially drained or not, and how to convert it into a fully drained or undrained condition, hence changing derived geotechnical parameters. Figure 10. a) Comparison of the pore pressure and b) cone resistance carried out with penetration rates of 60 and 0.5 mm/s, with 3 CPTs test for each rate (Poulsen et al.). Galaa et al. present a paper describing a methodology for establishing more representative design values for the hydraulic conductivity (K) of glacial deposits, particularly when performing large scale subsurface investigations for tunnels. They justify their study given the known glacial deposit heterogeneities and the difficulties to determine proper design values for K. The authors affirm that conventional pumping tests can not provide reliable design parameters due to their small zone of influence, and inherent variable nature of glacial deposits. Hence, the paper describes a subsurface investigation which involved 400 boreholes, 88 slug tests and 16 pumping tests. The authors established a correlation between K from the field tests (K field ) and K calculated by the Kozeny-Carman formula (K KC ). They observed that the Kozeny-Carmen formula with the incorporation of a site specific correlation factor predicted K values ranging between 1/3 to 3 times the K field values. The calculated and measured K values were used to form a statistical analysis of this parameter, and to provide a more reliable design number for dewatering problems. Phoon & Ching present a paper using a statistical approach for a better interpretation of the geotechnical data when considering soil variability. The paper presented the concept of a virtual site with the purpose of emulating site investigation efforts as realistically as possible. The authors affirmed that in the present time, it is still not possible to emulate every aspect of a real site deposit. So, the scope was to reproduce the information content arising from a typical mix of laboratory and field tests conducted at a site with the aim of estimating undrained shear strengths (s u ) for clays and friction angles (') for sands. However, the development of a virtual site does not replace the site investigation need, but it quantifies the uncertainty in the derived s u and design values by incorporating into the analyses the effect of either higher quality or larger numbers of testing results. Motaghedi et al. present a new analytical method to predict cohesion (c) and friction angle () using q c, u and f s from the piezocone test, considering the bearing capacity mechanism of failure at the cone tip and a direct shear failure along the penetrometer sleeve. The authors state that one of the advantages of this method is the improvement of the accuracy in the case of (eventually) using erroneous data related to all three outputs from the CPTu test. The paper presented laboratory test results, together with two sets of nonlinear equations derived by the proposed approach and existing correlations for both c and parameters. The authors state that the obtained by current techniques is relatively higher than real measured values. However, when adopting the advocated method, the comparisons indicate a good consistency with lower scatter. 476

10 Technical Committee 102 / Comité technique 102 Proceedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris Parameter evaluation The paper from Tumay et al. discusses the challenge for the effective identification of organic content in the soil based on traditional CPT and CPTU methodologies. It is very important to overcome this interpretation limitation since the cone is a popular and handy tool for subsurface investigations and soil characterization. The paper presents a comprehensive CPT/CPTU-based organic content identification method using a probabilistic soil classification system. The paper describes the probabilistic method, which employs a non-traditional modeling approach that takes the uncertainty of the correlation between soil composition and soil behavior into account. The authors affirmed that the use of the compositional soil classification (U) and in-situ behavior (V) indexes for organic profiling improves the capability of determining organic material at any given depth. A detailed description of the proposed methodology and the discussion of its effective application are included in the paper. Mulabdic s paper presents the use of penetration testing devices, including the CPT and SDMT, for site characterization of a compacted earth dam. This is a case study of a small earth dam for which the remediation work was necessary given construction errors and the possible damage to the earth structure during the filling stage of the reservoir. The site investigation campaign consisted of drilling boreholes and carrying out in-situ tests (4 CPTs and 3 SDMTs) along the crest of the dam, complemented with laboratory tests. The paper focused on assessing the potential of these in-situ tests in describing physical and mechanical properties of the compacted (man-made) clay strata, since the traditional interpretation methods were developed for natural soils. The authors concluded that both CPT and SDMT clearly detected the inhomogeneous clay conditions. They also showed remarkable repeatability and proved to be valuable tools in characterizing the embankment quality, both in terms of non homogeneity and of physical and mechanical properties. Zabielska-Adamska & Sulewska present the use of both static (classic) and dynamic CBR methods to establish relationships between the bearing ratio and degree of compaction of fly ash. The objective was the use of the compaction degree, and also the California Bearing Ratio, as an indicator of the soil bearing capacity in compacted material. The dynamic CBR test is described in the paper, where fly ash samples were compacted by the standard and modified Proctor methods without soaking to replicate field conditions during earth structure construction. Test results indicate that both the dynamic CBR as well as the classic CBR are closely connected with the characteristics of compaction, and can therefore be used to assess the compaction of fly ash and cohesive soils. The authors suggested that the dynamic CBR test should be widely used as an alternative way to the classical method of quality control to assess the subgrade capacity of the soil. The paper from Chapuis discusses scale effects in the permeability of sandy aquifers. The author s initial hypothesis is that the large-scale tests are more likely to meet preferential flow paths, so yielding larger K values than small-scale tests, which may be viewed as some sort of scale effect. In the paper, the small scale was simulated via lab soil samples, the middle scale from field permeability tests, and the large scale with site pumping tests. The paper presents and discusses some few real case studies, observing that for all of them the K distributions provided consistent images of the aquifers. It was finally concluded that scale effect was not of importance for the test interpretation in such phreatic deposits. Mlynarek s et al. paper discusses the interrelationship between deformation moduli from CPTU and SDMT tests in overconsolidated soils. The authors point out that glaciations in Poland overconsolidated its deep soil layers. So, it is imperative to take it into account in calculations of differential settlements of structures. The paper presents deformation characteristics estimated from CPTU and SDMT tests in clays, and focuses on a method to identify soil preconsolidation and to establish relationships between deformation moduli derived from CPTU and SDMT tools. The authors concluded that the simultaneous use of CPTU and SDMT provides a continuous picture of the changes in stiffness of heterogeneous subsoil. They emphasized the need for establishing specific calibration functions for each soil type, which may be a useful tool in the construction of a model for the subsoil s rigidity based on G 0 or M 0 values. Liu s et al. paper reports the practice and development of the piezocone test in the geotechnical engineering field of China. In this paper, the history and current development status of CPT and CPTu in China practice were systematically presented. The most used (standard) cone has the 10 cm 2 tip area, but both 15 and 20 cm 2 CPT probes are frequently used in China. The relationship between international standardized CPTu and China s CPT is based on a large data bank of testing results related to a great number of soils. The paper presents a comparison review of the soil characterization methods in China, including the determination of stress history, deformation, consolidation and permeability characteristics. The paper from Espinace et al. presents their 10 years of experience on the use of Panda penetrometer to assess the stability of Chilean s tailings dams. The authors report around 40 cases of mechanical instability from tailing dams in Chile, which were mainly due to liquefaction, slipping of banks, or settlement. The paper presents the main results that have allowed the proposition of a new methodology to control and diagnose tailing dams. It is based on in-situ determination of the geomechanical parameters (internal friction angle and density index) using the Panda penetrometer in order to characterize the constituent materials and their variability. The authors also pointed out that this methodology allows taking into account the variability concept for stability and liquefaction risk studies when using a probabilistic approach. Hamza & Shahien s paper studies the compressibility parameters of Egyptian cohesive soils via piezocone tests. The major objective was to provide additional data on drained compressibility parameters, focusing on the constrained modulus (M o ) and on the overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for cohesive soils from geotechnical investigations at seven major sites of the Nile delta river deposit in Egypt. Enhanced propositions to estimate the OCR and M o for the studied clays are presented, allowing settlement analyses to be done with the proposed equations. The authors believe that the presented data and correlations are a valuable contribution, since it improves the current state of the art in estimating the compressibility parameters of sedimentary soils with the CPTU test. 6. FINAL REMARKS Site characterization using in-situ testing techniques has considerably changed in the last two decades along with the rapid transformation and advances of the technology, either by the development of newer and economical electronic devices operated by laptop computers or by new mathematical and software approaches based on multi-variable, statistical or probabilistic calculations. Besides of such remarkable accomplishments, the traditional old fashion (past century.) laboratory and site investigation methods are still widely in use, sometimes as the preferential or unique available method. It was clear from aforementioned review that, on the 21 st century, the proper site investigation, material characterization and soil behavior prediction for the geotechnical design cannot solely rely in one isolated test technique, or on simple local unadjusted correlations that are probably not universally valid. Higher sensorial levels of testing tools and combined investigation procedures are surely now available that can be 477

11 Proceedings of the 18 th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013 applied on a more regular basis, especially for large or important jobs. Improved interpretation methods or background geotechnical theories, advanced computer software codes, and more prominent hardware equipment, should further be explored in research as well as in practical in-situ testing settings. This is a challenge for the overall community as a whole, from practitioners to academicians, manufacturers, and designers. Nevertheless it can not be accomplished without a strong change in mentality from the geotechnical field itself, moving from a priced-based design to perhaps a more expensive and sound quality-based criteria. The papers presented in this Conference Session show how in-situ testing technology has developed, matured, and used to tackle several geotechnical problems of difficult order, for instance from the uncertainty in site characterization and understanding of different geomaterials, to the challenging task of retrieving high quality soil samples in a difficult environment. Sometimes, in standard project cases, only traditional tests were required and used for the site characterization. However, in more complex or ambivalent conditions, the usage of today s available technological advances was surely an asset for the design. Although not directly mentioned throughout this review, the human factor, i.e., the good education based on solid concepts of the geotechnical area together with the access to a free flow of technical information and knowledge, will be the key factor for the transformation of our field, and the future society, as we all envisage with rational use of resources and technology, selfsustained projects, quality based design and environmentally safe site procedures. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the hard work of some of the Ph.D. candidates from the Geotechnical Graduation Program of the University of Brasília during the early stages of paper compilation and description. Therefore they are indebted to the work of the engineers Osvaldo Neto, Edgar Rincon and Raydel Lorenzo. Additionally, this report would not be possible without the use of the language skills from engineer Adrien Treguer, native in French, who is a student from Clermont-Ferrand University and fortunately happens to be at the moment in an undergrad exchange program with the University of Brasilia. 8. REFERENCES Al-Saoudi N.K.S.; Al-Khafaji A.N., Al-Saoudi N.K.S. Challenging problems of gypseous soils in Iraq. Amoroso S.; Totani F., Totani G. Site characterization by seismic dilatometer (SDMT): the Justice Court of Chieti. Baud J.P., Gambin M. Détermination du coefficient rhéologique de Ménard dans le diagramme Pressiorama. Baud J.P.; Gambin M., Schlosser F. Courbes hyperboliques contrainte déformation au pressiomètre Ménard autoforé. Bellato D.; Simonini P.; Grisolia M.; Leder E., Marzano I.P. Quality control of Cutter Soil Mixing (CSM) technology A case study. Benz M. A.; Escobar E.; Gourvès R.; Haddani Y.; Breul P., Bacconnet C. Mesures dynamiques lors du battage pénétromètrique Détermination de la courbe charge enfoncement dynamique en pointe. Cao L.F.; Peaker S.M., Ahmad S. Performance of a deep excavation in downtown Toronto. Chapuis R.P. Permeability scale effects in sandy aquifers: a few case studies. Chen L.; Chen Y.C.; Chen W.C., Liu H.W. A study of cuttability Indices for tunnel penetration. Chou J. C.; Huang C. R., Shou K. J. Survey results of damaged areas in flood disaster of Typhoon Morakot and suggestions for restoration projects. Espinace R. A.; Villavicencio G. A.; Palma J.; Breul P.; Bacconnet C.; Benz M.A.N, Gourvès R. Stability of Chilean s tailings dams with the Panda penetrometer. Experiences of the last 10 years. Fenton G.A.; Hicks M.A. Site sampling: assessing residual uncertainty. Frost J. D., Martinez A. Multi-sleeve axial-torsional-piezo friction penetration system for subsurface characterization. Galaa A.; Manzari M., Hamilton B. Hydraulic properties of glacial deposits based on large scale site investigation. Giacheti H. L.; Pedrini R. A. A., Rocha B. P. The seismic SPT test in a tropical soil and the G 0 /N ratio. Hamza M., Shahien M. Compressibility parameters of cohesive soils From piezocone. Haza-Rozier E.; Vinceslas G.; Le Kouby A., Crochemore O. Comportement de la structure de sol amélioré par inclusions rigides, supportant une éolienne. Hokmabadi A.S.; Fatahi B., Samali B. Seismic response of superstructure on soft soil considering soil-pile-structure interaction. Ivšić T.; Ortolan Ž., Kavur B. Applicability of the RNK-method for geotechnical 3D-modelling in soft rocks. Jacquard C.; Rispal M.; Puech A.; Geisler J.; Durand F.; Cour F.; Burlon S., Reiffsteck P. Une nouvelle sonde permettant de mesurer sans extrapoler la pression limite pressiométrique des sols. Jeon B.G., Mimura M. Long-term Deformation of the reclaimed pleistocene foundation of the offshore twin airport. Kayser M., Gabr M. Assessment of scour potential using in-situ jetting device. Kim A. R.; Cho G.C.; Kwon T. H., Chang I. H. Practical reviews on CO 2 sequestration in Korean sedimentary basins and geophysical responses of CO 2 -injected sediments. Lin B.S.; Ho H.C.; Hsiao C.Y.; Keck J.; Chen C.Y.; Chi S.Y.; Chien Y.D., Tsai M.F. Using multi-scale sediment monitoring techniques to evaluate remediation effectiveness of the Tsengwen Reservoir watershed after sediment disasters induced by Typhoon Morakot. Matešić L.; Mihaljević I.; Grget G., Kvasnička P. The use of hydro test results for design of steel tanks on stone column improved ground - a case history. Młynarek Zb.; Gogolik S., Sanglerat G. Interrelationship between deformation moduli from CPTU and SDMT tests for overconsolidated clays. Monnet J. Le Géomécamètre, un nouvel essai in-situ adapté à la mesure des caractéristiques hydro-mécaniques du sol. Motaghedi H.; Eslami A., Shakeran M. Analytical approach for determining soil shear strength parameters from CPT & CPTu data. Mulabdic M. Use of penetration testing for determination of soil properties in earth dam. Nishimura S.; Shuku T., Suzuki M. Diagnosis of earth-fills and reliability-based design. Phoon K.K., Ching J. Construction of virtual sites for reliability-based design. Poulsen R.; Nielsen B. N., Ibsen L. B. Correlation between cone penetration rate and measured cone penetration parameters in silty soils. Rito F., Emura T. Sampling method and pore water pressure measurement in the great depth (-400m). Serratrice J.F. Une méthode de classification de la sensibilité des sols au moyen du piézocône. Shulyatiev O.; Dzagov A.; Bokov I., Shuliatev S. Correction of soil design parameters for the calculation of the foundation based on the results of barrettes static load test. Somasundaram S.; Khilnani K.; Shenthan T., Irvine J. Characterization and modeling settlement of deep inert debris fills. Songyu. L; Guojun. C; Anand J. P., Yanjun D. Practice and development of the piezocone penetration test (CPTu) in geotechnical engineering of China. Steenfelt J.S.; Yding S.; Rosborg A; Hansen J.G., Yu R. Site characterization of the HZM immersed tunnel. Svinkin M.R. Controversial and contradictory evaluations in analysis of ground vibrations from pile driving. Tümay M. T.; Hatipkarasulu Y.; Marx E. R., Cotton B. CPT/PCPTbased organic material profiling. Yasufuku N.; Ochiai H., Maeda Y. Geotechnical challenge for total cost reduction related to construction of connecting bridge with pile foundations. Zabielska-Adamska K., Sulewska M.J. CBR as a method of embankment compaction assessment. 478

12 Challenging Problems of Gypseous Soils in Iraq Des problèmes difficiles des sols gypseux en Irak Al- Saoudi N.K.S. University of Technology-Baghdad-Iraq Al- Khafaji A.N., Al- Mosawi M.J. University of Baghdad Baghdad- Iraq ABSTRACT: Gypseous soils are classified as one of the problematic soils due to their complex and unpredictable behaviour. They exist in many parts of the world, concentrated mainly in arid and semi-arid regions. In Iraq gypseous soils cover about 20 to 30 % of its total area concentrated primarily on the west desert and extended to the southern parts and directed towards south west. Gypsum soils experience sudden collapse upon exposure to water, losses of serviceability of many structures were observed in different parts of Iraq. Extensive research was made in Iraq to investigate and understand the behavior of Gypsum soils and to set safety limits for the collapse and suggest practical precautions during construction. The enormous amount of data collected from different research sources revealed wide spectrum of information covering the overall performance of Gypsum soils under different environmental and climate conditions The present paper focuses on the main geotechnical properties of gypseous soils and their effect on the collapsible mode of failure, some practical solutions are also proposed that provide safety precautions RÉSUMÉ : Les sols gypseux sont classés comme des sols problématiques à cause de leurs comportements complexes et imprévisibles. Ils existent dans plusieurs régions du monde, principalement dans des régions aride et semi-aride. En Irak, les sols gypseux couvrent entre 20 et 30 % du pays et sont principalement concentrés dans le dessert de l ouest et s étendent vers les régions du sud et orientées vers le sud-ouest. Les sols gypseux s effondrent soudainement lorsqu ils sont soumis à l eau et beaucoup de structures inutilisables ont été observées dans différentes zones en Irak. Des recherches approfondies ont été menées en Irak pour étudier et comprendre le comportement des sols gypseux afin de déterminer les limites avant l effondrement et de suggérer des précautions concrètes lors de la construction. L énorme quantité de données recueillies auprès de différentes sources a révélé un large spectre d informations couvrant l ensemble des performances des sols gypseux sous différentes conditions environnementales et climatiques. Le présent document se concentre sur les principales propriétés géotechniques des sols gypseux et sur leurs effets sur les écroulements de structure, enfin quelques solutions pratiques sont aussi développées pour proposer des mesures de sécurité. KEYWORDS: Gypsum,collapsibility, Gypseous Soils, Problematic Soils 1. INTRODUCTION Gypseous soils are one of the most complex materials that challange the geotechnical engineers. Structures or dams founded on gypseous soil may experience unpredictible deformations that ultimatley may cause catostrophic failure. In iraq it has been reported that several structures have experienced different patterns of cracks and uneven deformations generated primearly from the exposion of the supporting gypseous soils to water. It is a well known fact that gypseous soils demonstrate high bearing capacity and very low compressibility when they are in the dry state. On the contrary a sudden collapsibile behaviour was reported when the gypseous soils are exposed to water.the collapsibility of gypseous soils results from the direct contact of water. The dissolution of different types of salts contained inside the mass of gypseous soil will generate new pores inside the soil skeleton and loosen the cementing bonds between the particles. This process creates a meta stable structure that facilitates the sliding of particles into a more dense state. The rate of dissolution of gypsum depends primarily on environmental changes in moisture content generating from fluctuation of ground water table and /or surface water, climate changes typically temperature, permeability and state of flow conditions in addition to the type and content of gypsum. During the last three decads many attempts were made in Iraq through intensive research programs set in many institution to investigate and underestand the behaviour of gypseous soils under various enviromental and loading conditions. The first objective of these research programs was to determine the physical proerties of the gypseous soils and to check whether staandard tests can be used and if not what modifications are required. Following that several attempts were made to determine the geotechnical properties such as compressibility, collapsibility and shear strength parameters under various flow and environmental conditions and loading conditions. The tests were performed using triaxial and Rowe cells allowing soaking and leaching of the soil samples. Plate load tests were also performed under different soaking periods to moniter the generated deformation with time. Numerical techniques were also used to simulate the disolution process of gypsum under soaking and leaching conditions. The abundant amount of data obtained from the lengthy research programs revealed in many cases contradicting results due to the complexity of the gypseous soils. So no regid conclusions are yet been drawn. The paper sheds the light on the distribution of gypsum in Iraq. A summary of main physical and geotechnical properties with emphises on the collapsibility is presented and a some remidied are proposed. 479

13 2. DISTRIBUTION OF GYPSEOUS SOILS IN IRAQ Gypseous soils exist mainly in arid and semi arid regions, concentrates in contenents like africa,central and souther asia. Iraq is among the contries of south asia where gypsum covers about 12 % of its total area. (FAO 1990), although more recent study (Ismail 1994) reported that gypseous soils cover 31.7 % of the total area of iraq.the first map demonstrating the distribution of gypsum in iraq was presented by (Buringh 1960) indicating five zones as shown in figure 1. The primary gypsum is located in the extreme north area between tigres and euphraties rivers. The second zone where primary gypsum mixed with limstone located below and parrallel to the euphraties river extending from the west desert to the south. The secondary gypsum is identified in two areas, one in the north below the first zone and one in the south west. The fourth zone is gypsiferous alluvium extens from the north in a narrow band and gradually widened towards the south. The fifth zone representing the non gypsiferous soil, mainly limestone is identified in two ares one in the north east and the other in the west desert. This indicates how serious the challanges are for geotechnical engineers when dealing with such unpredictible material. Slightly over gypsum bedrock Moderately to highly gypseous soils over gypsum and anhydrate rock Gypsum desert Highly gypsiferous soils on Pleistocene ter- Non to slightly gypseous soil Moderately to highly gypsiferous associated with lime Figure 2 Distribution of gypsum in Iraq (Al Barazanji 1973) Figure 1 first map of distribution of gypsum in iraq A more refined map exhibiting the distribution of gypsum in iraq was presented by (Al-Barrazanji 1973). He investigated thoroughyl the type and gypsum content in different parts of iraqand proposed the map shown in figure 2.Six zones are distiguished according to their origin and gypsum content.zone one of slightly gypseous over gypsum bedrock denoted by narrow parallel lines taking the shape of a triangle in the upper north of Iraq. The second zone is of moderately to highly gypseous soils over gypsum and anhydrate rock denoted by wider parallel lines, located in the north part between the Tigress and Euphrates rivers. Zone three is gypsum desert denoted by a mesh of small squares, located between zones one and two in the north. Zone four contains highly gypsiferous soils on Pleistocene terraces covering two narrow strips on the left and right of Tigress River denoted by moderately dense dots. The fifth zone is non to slightly gypseous soils denoted by parallel hashes, extends from the upper mid third of Iraq up to the Kuwaiti borders in the south. The sixth zone is moderately to highly gypsiferous soil associated with lime denoted but heavily condensed dots, covering the west jazeria. The two maps comply each other in most of their subdivisions with slight divergence in others, although different terminologies have been used. Based on figure two, if the soil in zone four is considered as non gypseous soil that does not possess any hazardous impact then most likely 50 to 60 % of the totalarea of Iraq is covered with active gupsum. 3. PROPERTIES OF GYPSEOUS SOILS The Physical, chemical and geotecnical properties of gypseous soils collected from different parts of Iraq are summarized and discussed below Physical properties The physical properties of natural gypseous soils varies considerably with the amount and type of gypsum soil in addition to the texture and constituents of the soil Specific gravity (Schultz and Cleaves 1955) reported that the specific gravity of gypsum ranges between 2.31 to 2.33, increased to 2.95 for anhydrite type. Thus any increase in gypsum content of specific gravity less than 2.33 will lead to a decrease in specific gravity of thr soil. (Saleam 1988,Nashat 1990 and Al- Mufty 1997) reached to the same finding unless the gypsum of the unhydrated type Maximum dry unit weight The results of maximum dry unit weight showed contradicting relationship with gypsum content.(khattab 1988 and AlDulaimy 1989) found that the dry unit weight increases with increasing gypsum content up to a certain limit followed by a gradual drop. On the other hand (Subhi 1987 and others) reported a decrease in 480

14 Technical Committee 102 / Comité technique 102 dry unit weight with increasing gypsum content. Further more,(al Heeti 1990) showed an increase in dry unit weight with increasing gypsum content. This descrepency may be due to the type of gypsum ( hydriate or anhydriate), type of soil and range of gypsum content considered in the investigation Soil constiuents and texture The samples of gypseous soils collected from different parts of Iraq showed that gypsum exists primearly in Sandy soil and silty sand and less in silty clay or clayey silt. The presence of appreciable amount of gypsum creats problems in determining the constituents of the soil. During sedementation test disolution of gypsum will occur causing the flucculation of silt and clay particles.pretreatment with water was suggested by (Al-Khashab 1981 and Mohammed 1993). EDTA was suggested by ( AL- Khuzaie 1985 and others). Most of the treated agents used cause distruction of bonds and most likely revealed an unreliable amount of constituents Chemical properties Chemical compsition of gypsum Pure chemical proportions of gypsum as reported by (Nashat 1990) are 20.9 % combined with water 46.6 % sulphur trioxide SO % calcium oxid CaO (Majeed 2000) observed that the alkalinity increases with increasing gypsum content. On the other hand the electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity and exchangeble sodium percentage decrease with increasing gypsum content Solubility of gypsum The most effective parameter in the general behaviour of gypsous soils is the solubility. Gypsum is classified as a moderate soluable salt. The solubility of the hydrated type in pure water is 2g/l ( Hesse 1971). Some higher values, 2.41g/l and 2.6g/l, were reported for Iraqi gypseous soils ( Sirwan etal 1989, Seleam etal 1988) Rate of dissolution of gypsum The rate of dissolution of gypsum is responsible for the development of cavities and sinkholes. It is very complex to be evaluated as it is affected by many environmental conditions such as temperature,source of water,time, concentration of sodium chlorid and calicum sulphate etc Geotechnical properties The geotechnical prperties of gypseous soils cover, compressibility, collapsibility, permeability and shear strength parameters ( c and Ø) Compressibility More than ten researchers have investigated the influence of gypsum on the copressibility characterstics.(al-khashab 1981 and many others) reported a decrease in the copression index with increasing gypsum content. It is hard to judje about the contradicting results as many parameters such as the placement conditions, degree of disturbance, and testing methodology. Similar contradicting results were reported for the recompression index. Most of the researchers demonstrated an increase in the secondary compression index with increasing gypsum content. This phenomenon is attributed to the contieous dissoltion process of gypsum with timeas reprted by (Saleam 1988 and Nashat 1990). The same researchers and many others showed that the coefficient of consolidation remains unchanged with increasing gypsum content Collapsibility Gypseous soils are distinguished by their collapsible behaviour upon wetting. The term collapse potential is used to classify the hazarduse state of collapsibility. ( Jennings and Knight 1957) proposed a double oedometer collapse test to predict the collapsibility of the foundation soil. Two identical samples are tested, one at natural water content and the other after submergeing in water for one day.the collapse potential C.P. is defined as C.P. = e / 1+ e o (1) Where e is the difference in void raio of the two samples at a specific stress e o is the natural void ratio The severity according to the collapse potential is shown in table 1. Table 1. Collapse identification ( Jennings and Knight 1975) Severity No problem Moderate Trouble Severe Very Severe C.P. % > 20 (Saleem 1988, Nashat 1990 and many others), found that the collapse potential under a constant stress of 200kN/m 2 increases with increasing gypsum content. The gypsum content of the tested samples ranged between 20-80% revealed a moderate type of 4 % maximum collapse potential Moduluse of deformation Al Khafaji etal 2009 investigated the deformability of gypseous soils through plate load tests performed on natural and soaked soils. The tests were performed on two sites GP-GM soil and SM soil and socking period extended to 7-11 days under 300 mm head of water. All types of stiffness moduli were calculated, the initial tangent moduluse, the permissible secant modulus at half the yeild, the yeild secant modulus at the yeild and the yeild tangent modulus after the yeild. The outcomes revealed that soaking decresed the stiffness moduli in the range of 2 to 5 folds for GP-GM soil and from 2 to 3.5 for SM soil. The field tests highlights on the hazardius degree of constructing structures on gypsious soils without awarness of the expected generated settlements that may result from the contamination of water Hydraulic conductivity Hydraulic conductivity or coefficient of permeability of gypseous soils is very hard to predict. Standard constant head test on sandy gypseous soils does not reveal reliable results as the gypsum disolves during flow creating more free space for the soil particles to reorient themselves to a closer state of packing, causing a suddent fluctuation of rate of flow during test This phenomenon is very difficult to evaluate as the dissolution process is influenced by many factores like type and amout of gypsum, hydralic gradient, initial placement of soil sample. Attempts were made to perform leaching permeability tests under different stress levels using Rowe cell (Al-Kaisi 1997 and many others). (Al- Qaissi 2001 and many others) using triaxial permeability leaching apparatus cited that the variation in hydraulic gradient combined with diffusion of gypson encountered serious difficulties in predicted reliable values of the coefficient of permeability. 481

15 4. PROPOSED REMEDIES FOR GYPSEOUS SOILS The invenitable geotechnical problems associated with the abandance of gypseous soils in Iraq create real challanging issues. Based on that proposals were made for treatment of soils focussing on controlling the settlement and reducing the coefficient of permeability or preventing any contact of water between the foundation soil and any source of water. All the proposed treatments are based on elemt tests and not verified by field applications 4.1. Chemical treatment The treatment materials proposed are basically cement, lime and petroleuum products Treatment with cement (Khattab1986) reported that sulphate resisting cement improved the unconfined compression strength of granular gypsified soil, but a substaintial amount of reduction in strength and stiffness upon immersion in water Treatment with lime Al-Obaidy 1992 and Al-Zory 1993 showed that mixing 5-7 % lime with gypsous soil of 43 % gypsum content exhibited an increase in strength and high resistance to leaching. It is reported that the soil became practically impermeabile after 28 days curing Treatment with petroleum products Various types of petroleum products such as kerosene, automobile oil,fuel oil and bitumenous materials such as S-125 and R- 250 were proposed as improvement agents for gypseous soils. (Saleam 1988) found that treating soil of gypsum content between % with kerosene caused a decrease in compressibility and permeability by delaying the removal of gypsum.(al- Aqaby 2001) observed a reduction in cohesion of soil of gypsum content between % upon immersion in water or kerosene. The angle of internal friction was reduced by 6 degrees upon soaking in kerosene. (Al-Kaisi 1997) found that 4 % automobile oil caused a reduction in the coefficient of permeability by not less than ten folds. (Al Hassany 2001)perfromed consolidation tests on two samples of gypsum content 26 % and 51% treated with fuel oil. The fuel oil tends to to fill the pores of soil and prevent water perculation and hence reduce the permeability. The presence of fuel oil also reduced the copmressibility and collapsibility. Bitumenous materials S-125 and R-250,emulsified asphalt, Cut-Back MC-30 were used by (Al-Morshedy 2001 and many others). Gypseous soils treated with one of the above materials showed reduction in coefficient of permability as well as compressibility and collapsibility Physical treatment (Al-Khafaji 1997) developed simple and quick equations for estimating the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight to control field compaction of soils with gupsum content ranging between %. 5. CONCLUSIONS Inspite of the abandant data collected concerning the the geotechnical properties of gypsefeous soils and the attempts to investigate and understand the behaviour of gypseous soils under different stresses and environmental conditions.the challanges still exist due to the scarceyt and complexity of such natural material. No real firm solution or a general improvement technique can be proposed. It is advised that geotechnical engineers must investigate each case seperatly depending on the type of structure, characteristics of site, environmental conditions coupled with the engineering judgement of the consultant. 6. REFERENCES FAO Management of gypsiferous soils. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations Rome. Internet http//fao.org/docrep/to323e/ro323e03.htm Ismail H.N The use of gypseous soils. Symposium on Gypsiferous soils and their effect on structures. NCCL Baghdad. Iraq Buringh P Soils and soil conditions in Iraq. Ministry of Agriculture. Baghdad. Iraq Al-Barazanji A.F Gypsiferous soils in Iraq. PhD. Dissertation. Ghent University. Belgium. Shultz J.R. and Cleaves A.B. Geology in engineering.john Wiley and sons. New York Saleam S.N Geotechnical characteristics of gypseois sandy soil including the effect of contamination with some oil products. MSc. Theisis. University of Technology. Baghdad.Iraq. Nashat I.H Engineering characteristics of some gypseous soils in Iraq. PhD. Thesis. University of Baghdad. Iraq Al- Mufty A.A Effect of gypsum dissolution on the mechanical behaviour of gypseous soils. PhD. Thesis. University of Baghdad. Iraq Khattab S.A Effect of gypsum on strength of cement treated granular soil and untreated soil. MSc. Thesis. university of Mosul. Iraq Al-Dilaimy F.H Effect of gypsum content on strength and deformation of remolded clayey soil. MSc.Thesis University of Salahddin. Iraq Subhi H.M The properties of salt contaminated soils and their influence on the performance of rocks in Iraq. PhD. Thesis Queen Mart College. University of London Al-Heeti The engineering properties of compacted gypsified soil. MSc. Thesis. University of Baghdad. Iraq Al- Khashab M.N Investigation of foundation soil behaviour of Qadisiah site Mosul. MSc. Thesis. University of Mosul. Mohammed R.K Effect of wetting and drying of engineering characteristics of gypseous soils. MSc. Thesis University of technology. Baghdad. Iraq. Al-Khuzaie H.M.A.1985 The effect of leaching on the engineering properties of Al-Jezirah soil.. MSc. Thesis. university of Mosul. Iraq Majeed A.H Data base for gypseous soils. PhD. Thesis University of Baghdad. Iraq. HesseP.R A textbook of soil chemical analysis. Chemical publishing co..inc.new York pp520 Jennings J.E. and Knight K The additional settlement of foundationsandy subsoil on wetting. Proceeding 4th Int. Conf. Soil mechanics and foundation engineering. vol.1. pp Al- Khafaji A.N, Al-Mosawi M.J., Khorshid N.S. and Al-Obaid B.M Proceeding of the 17th ICSMGE Alexandia.Eygept pp Al- Khafaji A.N. Densification of gypseous soil by compaction. Symposium on ground improvement geosystems. London Al-Morshedy A.D The use of cutback MC-30 for controlling the collapsibility of gypseous soils.msc.thesis. University of Technology. Baghdad.Iraq. 482

16 Site characterization by seismic dilatometer (SDMT): the Justice Court of Chieti Caractérisation du site par dilatomètre sismique (SDMT): la Cour de justice de Chieti Amoroso S., Totani F., Totani G. University of L Aquila, Italy ABSTRACT: A detailed investigation of several seismic dilatometer (SDMT) tests was performed in 2011 on Chieti hill to restore the Justice Court, an historical building damaged by the April 6, 2009 L Aquila earthquake. Moreover, boreholes were carried out to investigate foundation base level and cyclic simple shear tests with double sample were realized to analyze the seismic site res- ponse. The paper illustrates the potential of the seismic dilatometer to efficaciously approach a geotechnical problem by the inter- pretation of SDMT parameters, as the shear wave velocity V S, the constrained modulus M and the horizontal stress index Kd. Fi- nally, the paper combines SDMT results with laboratory data to analyze the site response of the Justice Court. RÉSUMÉ : Une étude détaillée de plusieurs sismiques dilatomètre (SDMT) tests a été réalisée en 2011 sur la colline de Chieti pour restaurer la Cour de justice, un bâtiment historique endommagé par le tremblement de terre qui a eu lieu le Avril à L'Aquila. En outre, des sondages ont été effectués pour étudier le niveau de base de fondation et cycliques essais de cisaillement simple avec échantillonnage double ont été réalisées pour analyser la réponse sismique du site. Cet article montre efficacement le potentiel de la dilatomètre sismique à l'approche d'un problème géotechnique par l'interprétation des paramètres SDMTs, comme la vitesse de l'onde de cisaillement V S, le module M et l'indice de contrainte horizontale Kd. Enfin, le document combine les résultats SDMT aux données de laboratoire pour analyser la réponse du site de la Cour de justice. KEYWORDS: seismic dilatometer, horizontal stress index, shear wave velocity, site response analysis, local site effetcs. 1 INTRODUCTION The April 6, 2009 L Aquila (Italy) earthquake (M W = 6.3) caused heavy damages not only in the city of L Aquila basin but also in few cities, as Chieti, approximately 100 km far from the epicenter. In this respect, a detailed investigation of several seismic dilatometer (SDMT) tests (Marchetti et al., 2008) in virgin soils and inside boreholes backfilled with sand (Totani et al. 2009), foundation boreholes and cyclic laboratory tests were performed in 2011 on Chieti hill to restore the Justice Court, an historical building damaged by the above mentioned earthquake. The geotechnical campaign allowed to characterize the subsoil, to investigate foundation base level and to analyze the seismic site response of this construction. In particular, the paper illustrates the potential of the seismic dilatometer to efficaciously approach a geotechnical problem by the interpretation of SDMT parameters, as the shear wave velocity V S, the constrained modulus M and the horizontal stress index Kd, even combinig SDMT results with laboratory data for the evaluation of the local site effects (e.g. topography, soil conditions) with mododimensional (1D) and bidimensional (2D) seismic site response analyses. 2 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION ON CHIETI HILL A detailed investigation of eleven SDMT tests, six in virgin soil, each m in depth, and five inside boreholes backfilled with sand, each m in depth, were performed in 2011 on Chieti hill to restore the Justice Court, an historical building damaged by the April 6, 2009 L Aquila earthquake. Moreover, boreholes were carried out to investigate foundation base level and cyclic simple shear tests with double sample were realized to analyze the seismic site response. The historical centre was built on sandy and arenaria deposits (45 m in depth), while moving towards the bottom of the slope the colluvial cover start to emerge over the OC silty clay, as shown in Figure 1 together with the shear wave velocity V S profiles. Figure 2 emphasizes the main reason of the damage due to the seismic action on the construction. As shown by the inspection, the structure appears to be considerably fissured in its Southern part, while in the Northern area it seems to be intact (Figure 2a). This aspect can be justified referring to the four SDMTs performed along the perimeter of the building (Figure 2b). SDMT1 and SDMT4, as well as SDMT3 and SDMT2 profiles, can be coupled. In fact, in the Northern part of the Justice Court the constrained modulus M reaches on average values over 100 MPa and the horizontal stress index Kd indicates OC soils. Instead, in the Southern area, until about 8.00 m in depth, M assumes very low values (under 50 MPa) and Kd is about equal to 2 and thus Kd individuates NC layers (TC16, 2001). In both the cases V S appears less sensible to the stress history and the stiffness of the deposits compared to M and Kd. In addition, the boreholes on the foundations illustrate that in the Southern part 483

17 the base level is at about 4.90 m in depth. Then, before intercepting sandy and arenaria deposits, it was found a landfill layer from 4.90 to 8.00 m. In terms of stiffness it means that in the Northern portion of the structure the foundations stand on soil with higher mechanical properties compared the soil in the Southern part. A possible solution to restore the historical build- ing is to improve the stiffness of the soils placed in the Southern portion, without acting on masonry foundations. This achievement could be realized for example, using, from 4.90 to 8.00 m in depth, special injections at low pressure, able to penetrate and mix with the existing soil structure. Figure 1. Geotechnical cross section with V S profiles. Figure 2. (a) Justice Court: site investigation by Seismic Dilatometer; (b) SDMT results: M, Kd and V S 3 SITE RESPONSE ANALYSIS Numerical analyses of seismic site response were carried out using the computer codes EERA (Bardet et al. 2000), a monodimensional linear equivalent model, and QUAD4M (Hudson et al. 1994), a bidimensional linear equivalent model. that considers a cross section of 3.5 km of width, with 5860 elements and 5844 joints. The evaluation of the local site effects (e.g. topography, soil conditions) plays an important role in the non-uniform amplification response obtained at different sites (Paolucci 2002). In order to compare the 1D and 2D analyses, the 1D elastic response spectrum were multiplied by the topographic amplification factor, assumed equal to 1.2 (CEN 2003). Both the analyses were performed on the top of Chieti hill, in correspondence of Southern portion of the Justice Court. Moreover, a 1D compari- profiles. son was carried out between the Northern portion (absence of filling material) and the Southern portion (presence of filling material) to evaluate the site effects due to the different mechanical behaviour of the upper 8 meters. 3.1 Input ground motions For the numerical analyses two natural accelerograms, applied on the bedrock, were selected as input ground motions. Both the accelerograms were chosen from the software REXEL (Smerzini et al. 2012) and the Italian Accelerometric Archive ITACA (Working Group ITACA 2010). The first accelerogram UM_EW is the strong motion recorded at the Assisi station (Italy) during the September 26, 1997 Umbria-Marche (UM) earthquake (Mw = 6, on outcrop, normal fault, site-source distance 20 km), scaled, according to CEN (2003), to a peak ground acceleration of 0.164g, for a return period TR = 475 years and a soil type, for the site of Chieti. The 484

18 Technical Committee 102 / Comité technique 102 second accelerogram VN_NS is the strong motion recorded at an average value interpolated from the experimental relationthe Cascia station (Italy) during the September 19, 1979 Val ship Crespellani et al. (1989) and SDMT profiles. Nerina (VN) earthquake (Mw = 5.8, on outcrop, normal fault, The site campaign of the Justice Court had provided only a cy- site-source distance 9 km), scaled to the same peak ground clic simple shear tests with double sample in OC silty clay. In acceleration of UM earthquake. this respect, the following reference laboratory curves were as- sumed to evaluate the non-linear and dissipative soil behaviour: 3.2 Geotechnical model Anh Dan et al. (2001) for filling material, Marcellini et al. (1995) for sand and sandstone, MS AQ Working Group (2010) The geotechnical model of Chieti hill, used in the numerical for silty clay colluvial cover. The bedrock has G/G analyses, is illustrated in Figure 1 and 3 and Table 1, by includ- 0 - γ and D γ ing the soil and dynamics parameters (unit weight γ, Poisson linear behaviour. coefficient ν, shear wave velocity V S, stiffness decay curves G/G 0 and damping D curves). 3.3 Results 1D numerical analyses of seismic site response were carried out 1 18 by considering the Northern portion and the Southern portion. 16 1,2 - Fillin g material The spectral accelerations (Figure 4) highlight the different me ,5 - San d, San dstone 14 chanical behaviour of the upper 8 meters: the Southern portion 6 - OC Silty clay 12 shows pronounced amplifications for a period of s, that 7 - OC Silty clay Silty clay co lluvial cover 10 is the fundamental period of the filling material, while the spec- 1, 2 - Fillingmaterial 8 tral accelerations of Northern portion appear lower ,5 - San d, San dstone 6 2D numerical analyses of seismic site response were performed 6 - OC Silty clay 7 - OC Silty clay by considering in the Southern portion two point, A and B, 20 2 m far from each other, shown in Figure 3. The peak ground ac- celerations (Figure 5) doesn t appear influenced by spatial posi tion and input ground motion, even thought the analyses con- Shear Strain (%) sider only two time histories. In addition, the spectral Figure 3. Stiffness decay curves G/G 0 and damping D curves of accelerations emphasize the site effect due to the topography: Chieti hill for numerical analyses. point A, closer than point B to the hillside, shows higher ampli- fications for a period of s, compared to the ones of point Table 1. Geotechnical model of Chieti hill for numerical analyses. B. The comparison of the average results from 1D and 2D numeri- Layer Material γ ν V S cal analyses in the Southern portion of the Justice Court (Figure 6) illustrates that the 1D peak ground accelerations are higher 3) (kn/m (m/s) than the ones evaluated from 2D analyses, probably due to the 1 Filling material higher sensitivity of 1D model to stratigraphic effects. In addi- 2 Filling material tion, 2D method shows local site effects mainly due to topography for a period of s, that is the fundamental period of 3 Silty clay colluvial cover the Justice Court. Normalized sher mo dulus G/G0 Damping Ratio D (%) 4 Sand, sandstone Sand, sandstone UM_EW Southern portion 1D VN_NS Southern portion 1D UM_EW Northern portion 1D 6 OC silty clay OC silty clay Bedrock Bedrock Spectral accel eration Sa (g) VN_NS Northern portion 1D Average Southern portion 1D Average Northern portion 1D On the top of the hill, in correspondence of the Justice Court, the subsoil was modelled by considering in the upper 8 m filling material in the Southern portion of the Justice Court and sand and sandstone in the Northern portion, sand and sandstone between 8 m and 42 m of depth, OC silty clay between 42 m and 342 m of depth and the bedrock beyond 342 m of depth, while on the hillside the model reflects the silty clay colluvial cover in the upper 15 m up to the OC silty clay layer. In the upper 50 meters the V S profile was defined as an average of SDMT profiles, while in the lower OC silty clay V S was estimated by using Period T (s) Figure 4. Spectral accelerations form 1D analyses. 485

19 Spectral acceleration Sa (g) Spectral acceleration Sa (g) UM_EW Southe rn portion 2D point A VN_NS Southern portion 2D point A UM_EW Southe rn portion 2D point B VN_NS Southern portion 2D point B Average Southe rn portion 2D point A Average Southe rn portion 2D point B Period T (s) Figure 5. Spectral accelerations from 2D analyses. Average Southern portion 1D Average Southern portion 2D point A Average Southern portion 2D point B Period T (s) Figure 6. Comparison between 1D and 2D spectral accelerations. 4 CONCLUSION Bardet J.P., Ichii K., Linn and C.H EERA A Computer Program for Equivalent-linear Earthquake site Response Analyses of Layered Soil Deposits. University of Southern California. CEN, EuropeanCommittee for Standardisation (2003) Eurocode 8: design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures, Part 1.1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings, pren Crespellani T., Ghinelli A. and Vannucchi G An evaluation of the dynamic shear modulus of a cohesive deposit near Florence, I- taly. Proc. XII ICSMFE, Rio de Janeiro. Hudson, M., Idriss, I.M., and Beikae, M QUAD4M: A Computer Program to Evaluate the Seismic Response of Soil Structures using Finite Element Procedures and Incorporating a Compliant Base. Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Dep. of Civil & Env. Engng, University of California, Davis. Marcellini A., Bard P.Y., Vinale F., Bousquet J.C., Chetrit D., Deschamps A., Marcellini A., Iannaccone G., Romeo R.W., Silvestri F., Bard P.Y., Improta L., Meneroud J.P., Mouroux P., Mancuso C., Rippa F., Simonelli A.L., Soddu P., Tento A. and Vinale F The Benevento Seismic Risk Project. I- Seismotectonic and Geotechnical Background. Proc. 5th International Conference on Seismic Zonation, Nice, France 1: Marchetti S., Monaco P., Totani G. and Marchetti D In Situ Tests by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT). In J.E. Laier, D.K. Crapps & M.H. Hussein (eds), From Research to Practice in Geotechnical Engineering, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 180: ASCE. MS AQ Working Group Microzonazione sismica per la ricostruzione dell area aquilana. Regione Abruzzo Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, L Aquila, 3 vol. & Cd-rom (in Italian). Paolucci R. (2002). Amplification of earthquake ground motion by steep topographic irregularities. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 31: Smerzini C., Galasso C., Iervolino I. and Paolucci R Engineering ground motion selection based on displacement-spectrum compatibility. Proc. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, September 24-28, TC The DMT in Soil Investigations. A Report by the ISSMGE Committee TC16. May 2001, 41 pp. Reprint in R.A. Failmezger & J.B. Anderson (eds), Flat Dilatometer Testing, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Washington D.C.: Totani G., Monaco P., Marchetti S. and Marchetti D Vs measurements by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) in non-penetrable soils. In M. Hamza et al. (eds), Proc. 17th Int. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, 2: , IOS Press. Working Group ITACA Data Base of the Italian strong motion records: The paper illustrates the potential of the seismic dilatometer to efficaciously approach a geotechnical problem by means of the results analyses. While V S appears less sensible to both the stress history and the deposits stiffness, M gives precious information on soil stiffness, while Kd provides for important details about the deposits overconsolidation. Combining SDMT results with laboratory data it has been possible to evaluate the the local site effects by means of 1D and 2D seismic site response analyses of the Justice Court. These numerical analyses indicates that in complex stratigraphic and topographic conditions, it appear appropriate to combine 1D and 2D methods. 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was founded by Provincia di Chieti and Studio Prof. Marchetti s.r.l. 6 REFERENCES Anh Dan,L.Q., Koseki,J. and Tatsuoka,F Viscous deformation in triaxial compression of a dense well-graded gravel and its model simulation. In Tatsuoka et al. (eds) Advanced Laboratory Stress- Strain Testing of Geomaterials, Balkema, pp

20 Détermination du coefficient rhéologique de Ménard dans le diagramme Pressiorama. Obtaining the Ménard Rheological Factor in a Pressiorama Diagram. Baud J.-P. Eurogéo, France Gambin M. Apagéo, France RÉSUMÉ: Louis Ménard a défini le coefficient rhéologique à l aide du rapport adimensionnel des deux caractéristiques classiques de l essai pressiométrique E M /p* LM. La connaissance de ce rapport est un élément essentiel de la validité des calculs de déformation du sol au contact de toutes sortes de fondations. Sa valeur dépend simultanément de la qualité de réalisation du forage pressiométrique, et de la proportion entre cohésion et frottement dans la résistance du sol soumis à l essai, c est-à-dire de sa nature. Dans le but de compléter par un axe des valeurs de le diagramme Pressiorama désormais présent dans certaines normes d application de l Eurocode 7, nous nous sommes étalonnés sur des essais pressiométriques autoforés par la technique STAF dans des sols divers allant de sols très mous à des rochers très massifs. En effet ces essais, de très bonne qualité, permettent d obtenir des valeurs E M /p* LM allant de 4 pour les sols purement granulaires à plus de 100 pour les sols cohérents très consolidés et les roches. Les auteurs proposent ici, à partir de ces données, une expression, à la fois chiffrée et graphique, de la valeur du coefficient rhéologique, basée sur 3 paramètres E M, p LM et p 0 - ce dernier estimé ou, mieux, mesuré et donc variable selon la profondeur de l essai dans le sol. ABSTRACT: In the early years of the development of his direct method of design based on PMT results, Louis Ménard introduced a rheological factor based on the ratio E M /p* LM for each test. The knowledge of this factor is necessary to estimate settlement and horizontal displacement of all sorts of foundations. Its value is a function of both the quality of the borehole and the ratio between soil friction and cohesion, i.e. its nature. In order to complete the Pressiorama diagram with a values axis, the authors used a calibration mostly based on so-called self-bored PMT tests performed with the STAF technique, in various soil types from soft clay to rock. These very good quality tests permit obtaining E M /p* LM values from 4 in granular soils to 100 in highly consolidated soils and rock. From these data, the authors propose an evaluation of this rheological factor only based on the values of 3 parameters, namely, E M, p* LM and the earth pressure at rest p 0, either estimated, or, much better, measured during the early part of the test. Results are given under the shape of an equation and graphically on the Pressiorama diagram. MOTS CLÉS : Pressiomètre, autoforage, classification des sols, coefficient rhéologique. KEYWORDS: Ménard pressuremeter, self-boring, soil classification, rheological factor. 1 INTRODUCTION Le rapport adimensionnel E M /p* LM des deux caractéristiques classiques de l essai pressiométrique Ménard est un facteur complexe et puissant, qui dépend simultanément de la qualité de réalisation du forage pressiométrique, et de la proportion entre cohésion et frottement dans le comportement du sol soumis à l essai, c est-à-dire de sa nature. Son utilisation par Ménard pour définir le coefficient rhéologique est un élément essentiel de la validité des calculs de déformation du sol par les méthodes pressiométriques. Au cours des années récentes, en raison de l accroissement des essais pressiométriques produits par des opérateurs manquant de formation et de maîtrise des techniques de forage les mieux adaptées à chaque type de sol, techniques spécifiques à cet essai mais remarque valable aussi pour tous les essais géotechniques, de nombreux utilisateurs ont décelé une distorsion entre les prévisions de tassement par la méthode pressiométrique et les déformations réellement observées sur les ouvrage construits. La quasi-totalité des pratiques de forage entraînant le remaniement des parois de forage pressiométrique allant toujours dans le sens d une diminution parfois dramatique des modules mesurés, les prévisions de tassement qui en ont été déduites deviennent notoirement pessimistes, ceci alors même que la méthode de calcul, confirmée par les normes et règlementations nationales et européennes, a montré depuis longtemps sa fiabilité lorsqu elle est appliquée à des données de terrain acquises dans des conditions de qualité normale. (Baguelin et al. 1978). Avec l émergence de codes de calcul aux éléments finis, de nombreux ingénieurs ont pensé qu il était possible, voire nécessaire, de délaisser la célèbre règle souvent nommée T-0 (Ménard & Rousseau, 1962) pour le calcul du tassement à partir d un profil de modules pressiométriques, au profit d une modélisation numérique complexe tenant compte de la géométrie de l interface sol-structure, et de traiter le problème de la déformation en appliquant à ce modèle des lois de comportement basées sur l élasticité linéaire, à l aide d une «corrélation» entre le module pressiométrique et un module d Young. Cette approche nous semble vouée à l échec, comme chaque fois que l ingénieur croit pouvoir fait fi de la méthode expérimentale et la remplacer par des calculs que l on prend pour rigoureux à raison de leur complexité (Briaud & Gibbens 1994, Gambin 2003, Gambin 2010). 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