Introduction. Voir aussi sur ce thème : la revue TDC de référence n 954 et TDC École n 16 «Le commerce maritime»

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1 1 Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Introduction Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade «Le commerce maritime» Du Moyen Âge à aujourd hui, le centre de gravité du commerce maritime s est progressivement déplacé de la Méditerranée à l Atlantique puis à l océan Pacifique. Les routes maritimes, longtemps incertaines, se sont muées en véritables autoroutes, épines dorsales de la mondialisation. Si le commerce maritime a assuré le désenclavement planétaire, la massification des flux crée de nouvelles difficultés liées à la saturation des détroits et des canaux et aux risques écologiques. Voir aussi sur ce thème : la revue TDC de référence n 954 et TDC École n 16 «Le commerce maritime» Cette séquence pédagogique aborde les aspects socioéconomiques du commerce triangulaire, ses implications dans les états du sud et l abolition de la traite en 1808 à travers l interview d un historien américain. SOMMAIRE Objectifs Supports... 2 Scénario pédagogique... 4 Fiches Élèves et Fiches Corrigés... 7 À propos... 19

2 2 Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Objectifs Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Objectifs Supports Culturels Le commerce triangulaire. Les navires négriers. La différence entre le commerce des esclaves entre l Afrique et l Amérique et à l intérieur des États-Unis. Communicatifs Compréhension écrite : document court sur le commerce triangulaire et témoignages d époque. Compréhension orale : document audio (interview d un historien sur la fin du commerce des esclaves). Expression orale en continu : description de carte. description de gravures et dessins. restituer devant la classe des éléments d information repérés dans un document écrit. Langagiers Lexique : le commerce les navires la souffrance et le dégoût les maladies l expression des sentiments. Grammaire : Verbes en -ing -ed. Documents supports Document 1 : Carte animée permettant d introduire le commerce triangulaire : Se rendre à l adresse et saisir les termes «triangular trade». Document 2 : Deuxième carte, plus complexe, permettant de voir les différentes origines et destinations des esclaves, ainsi que les plantations dans lesquelles ils étaient amenés à travailler : Se rendre à l adresse cliquer sur Enter puis sur Geography puis sur Trans-Atlantic Trade.

3 3 Document 3 : Le commerce triangulaire : dates et chiffres, témoignages d époque Se rendre à l adresse : et saisir les termes «slave ships». Document 4 : La fin du commerce triangulaire et de l esclavage aux États-Unis : Saisir «End of slave trade». Descendre ensuite dans la page puis choisir «End of Slave Trade Meant New Normal for America».

4 4 Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Scénario pédagogique Les Objectifs énoncés sont ancrés sur les recommandations du Cadre européens commun de référence pour les langues (CECRL, Conseil de l'europe, 2001) : Culturels / Interculturels : savoir, aptitudes et savoir-faire, savoir-être et savoir apprendre (cf. chapitre V, 1. Compétences générales) Communicatifs : activités de communication langagière et stratégies, capacités traitées (cf. chapitre IV) Langagiers : compétences linguistiques, sociolinguistiques et pragmatiques (cf. chapitre V,2. Compétences spécifiques) Les Documents supports constituent autant de types de «textes» authentiques permettant de travailler les objectifs (cf. chapitre IV). Étape 1 2 étapes pouvant correspondre à 2 séances de cours Objectifs et dispositifs préconisés La première étape porte sur le commerce triangulaire et les conditions de vie à bord des bateaux négriers. Un accès à Internet et un vidéoprojecteur ou un rétroprojecteur sont requis. Activité 1 La séance commence par un travail d anticipation, avec le groupe classe, à l oral. Les élèves ont sous les yeux la carte disponible en Document 1 : (Se rendre à l adresse et saisir les termes «triangular trade».) Ce travail permet d introduire le vocabulaire du commerce et des échanges. Exemples de questions : - Why is the trade called triangular? - It is called triangular because the ships sail on a triangular route between three continents: Europe, Africa and the American colonies. - What is traded? (click on trade goods ) The Europeans ships brought manufactured goods (glass, ammunitions, guns, cloth, pots) to West Africa, where they were used to buy/purchase men. The men, women and children who had been bought (or kidnapped) were then shipped and taken to the New World (the West Indies and British North America). This part of the route was called The Middle Passage. On their way back to Europe, the ships were loaded with raw material (sugar, rice, coffee, cotton, tobacco and rum).

5 5 Aller ensuite sur l autre carte disponible en Document 2 : (www.slaveryinamerica.org/, cliquer sur Enter puis sur Geography puis sur Trans-Atlantic Trade.) Exemples de questions : - How long did the slave trade last? It went on for more than two hundred years (two centuries). - Where were the slaves shipped to and what activities were they made to do? There were different directions: South America (both Eastern and western coasts), the West Indies and Southern states of the present USA. They worked on plantations (cotton, tobacco, sugar, rice) or in mines. - What do you think the slaves had to do when they were shipped to Europe? Most of them would work as servants. Activité 2 Les élèves travaillent ensuite en autonomie sur le Document 3 : et saisir les termes «slave ships». Ils remplissent alors leur fiche de travail (Fiche Élève 1A et Fiche Élève 1B). La classe est divisée en deux groupes, A et B. Chaque groupe, qui a une fiche différente (pour la partie compréhension écrite uniquement), doit faire des recherches sur les conditions de vie à bord des bateaux négriers. Les élèves sont ainsi amenés à observer et décrire des documents visuels (dessins et tableau), ainsi qu à lire quelques lignes explicatives. Ensuite ils passent à un travail de compréhension écrite sur des témoignages d époque (esclaves, médecin de bord et capitaine). Il y a en tout six témoignages, et chaque groupe travaille sur trois d entre eux. Si le niveau est plus faible, le professeur pourra réorganiser les fiches de manière à faire trois groupes travaillant sur deux textes seulement. Étape 2 Objectifs et dispositifs préconisés La seconde étape aborde la fin du commerce triangulaire par un travail de compréhension orale. Activité 3 La deuxième séance commence par une mise en commun des informations trouvées lors de la séance précédente (Questions A, B et C). L étude des témoignages conduit à une prise de parole en continu, où chaque groupe présente au reste de la classe les témoignages sur lesquels il a travaillé. Les élèves donnent également le vocabulaire maritime qu ils ont trouvé. Cette correction de la première fiche se fait à l oral et doit permettre aux élèves d exprimer leurs impressions. Étant donné la dureté des documents consultés, il est important que les élèves puissent s exprimer librement avant de poursuivre le travail guidé de la compréhension orale. - How do you think the slaves felt? They must have felt terrified / hopeless / anxious / distressed - What was your reaction when you discovered these documents?

6 6 Pour ces deux questions, encourager les élèves à varier les mots : What is appalling / shocking/ dreadful / upsetting / sickening / disturbing is that Encourager la manipulation des participes présents et passés : it is shocking, I am shocked Les élèves travaillent ensuite en autonomie sur un enregistrement (Document 4 : ) à l aide de la Fiche Élève 2. Pour éviter que les élèves ne soient tenter de lire le script qui se trouve sur la même page, le professeur peut avoir pris soin préalablement de sauvegarder l enregistrement sur un espace, tel qu un ENT avant de le proposer aux élèves. L interview dure en tout onze minutes mais les élèves ne travaillent que sur les cinq premières minutes (un compteur indique le temps écoulé). La diction est claire et la qualité de l enregistrement très bonne : c est pourquoi les questions posées sont des questions ouvertes, qui visent essentiellement à noter les informations données. Le curseur ne permettant pas un retour sur des segments précis, il n y a pas d exercice phonétique proposé. Prolongements possibles 1. Le commerce triangulaire Chronologie du commerce triangulaire Se rendre à l adresse puis cliquer sur The Transatlantic Slave Trade puis sur Timeline. Tableau de Turner représentant un bateau négrier et les corps des esclaves morts jetés à la mer. 2. Les navires négriers, documents complémentaires 3. L esclavage moderne Document audio sur le thème de l esclavage moderne. Choisir «Melissa bell on the Slavery Debate»

7 7 NOM PRENOM CLASSE DATE Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Fiche Élève 1A A. Slave trade 1. Go to Read the introduction (first three paragraphs). a. What did slaves traders do to make profits? b. What was the consequence for the slaves? c. Why didn t the merchants make any effort to improve these conditions? 2. Go to and read the introduction. a. Find a term revealing the merchants' indifference to slaves. b. What choice did the merchants have to make about the slaves' transportation? What were the advantages and drawbacks of each solution? 3. Go puis cliquer sur The Transatlantic Slave Trade puis sur Timeline a. When was the height of the transatlantic slave trade? b. When was slave trade made illegal in Great Britain and in the US? d. What was the name of the ship made famous in 1839? B. Visual documents a. Look at the two drawings on the previous page (http://historyonthenet.com/slave_trade/middle_passage.htm ) How were slaves packed into the ships? Give different possibilities. - What do these drawings remind you of? - Who do you think these drawings were destined to? b. Go to Give the painter s name and the painting s title. Describe what you can see in the foreground. What did the painter want to denounce? C. Readings Read the texts on the two previous pages you have already visited. a. What did slaves suffer from? b. Out of despair, what did some slaves try to do? How? c. What did ship owners do to prevent that? d. What were the women victims of?

8 8 D. Historical accounts Go back to and read the different accounts (1 to 6). 1. Account 1 a. Author s name and status. b. When did they give up hope completely? c. What had they planned to do? Why? d. Who are the different traitors in this account? What were their reasons? e. Pick out words related to: Adjectives Nouns Disgust Fear Suffering 2. Account 2 a. Author s name and status. b. Nautical vocabulary. Find the English for: ancre : à bord : équipage : pont : guindeau : c. 1.What did the crew check? Why? d. Find an allusion to African beliefs. e. 2 Why was he unable to eat? What was the consequence of his refusal? Pick out words expressing the man s feelings (adjectives and nouns): f. 3 Comment on the use of savage here. g. In the whole account, what senses are alluded to? h. Find one phrase summing up the situation. 3. Account 3 a. Author s name and status. b. Whose point of view does he report? c. Death rate on some slave ships: Cause: d. What motivated the captain to change the slaves conditions? e. Sum up what happened. f. What made the situation pathetic? g. Comment on the captain s reaction.

9 9 NOM PRENOM CLASSE DATE Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Fiche Élève 1B A. Slave trade 1. Go to Read the introduction (first three paragraphs). a. What did slaves traders do to make profits? b. What was the consequence for the slaves? c. Why didn t the merchants make any effort to improve these conditions? 2. Go to and read the introduction. a. Find a term revealing the merchants' indifference to slaves. b. What choice did the merchants have to make about the slaves' transportation? What were the advantages and drawbacks of each solution? 3. Go to puis cliquer sur The Transatlantic Slave Trade puis sur Timeline and have a quick look at the chronology. a. When was the height of the transatlantic slave trade? b. When was slave trade made illegal in Great Britain and in the US? d. What was the name of the ship made famous in 1839? B. Visual documents a. Look at the two drawings on the previous page (http://historyonthenet.com/slave_trade/middle_passage.htm ) How were slaves packed into the ships? Give different possibilities. - What do these drawings remind you of? - Who do you think these drawings were destined to? b. Go to Give the painter s name and the painting s title. Describe what you can see in the foreground. What did the painter want to denounce?

10 10 C. Readings Read the texts on the two previous pages you have already visited. a. What did slaves suffer from? b. Out of despair, what did some slaves try to do? How? c. What did ship owners do to prevent that? d. What were the women victims of? D. Historical accounts Go back to and read the different accounts (1 to 6). 1. Account 4 a. Author s name and status. b. A punishment is mentioned. What did it consist of? Who received this kind of punishment? What was its aim? c. What were the captain s reasons for refusing to do the same? 2. Account 5 a. Narrator s job: b. There was no respite for the slaves. Why? c. Were the sailors indifferent? Justify. d. Nautical vocabulary. Find the English for: une bâche : la bôme : 3. Account 6 a. Author s name and job. b. Imagine what spoonways can correspond to? c. Pick out words suggesting the man s compassion. d. How is the lack of humanity suggested?

11 11 NOM PRENOM CLASSE DATE Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Fiche Corrigé 1 Questions communes aux fiches A et B A. Slave trade 1 st Part a. They would carry as many slaves as was physically possible. b. They had very little room to move and half of them died because of the appalling conditions. c. Even if half of them died/whatever the losses, they still made tremendous profits. It was not worthwhile for them. 2 nd Part a. cargo b. They had to choose between tight pack (the ship was crammed with people) and loose pack (there was more room for each person).the tight pack allowed them to carry more slaves, but the death rate was higher. When they chose a loose pack, they could carry fewer slaves, but the death rate was lower. 3 rd Part a. It really expanded in the 17th C. b in Great Britain, 1808 in the US. c. The Amistad. Several ships were found transporting slaves illegally. The captains were tried as pirates. This proves that it was often difficult to stop the trade completely and enforce the law. B. Visual documents a. Look at the two drawings on the previous page a. They had to keep lying or sitting. They had no room to move. Those who kept lying were either side by side or head to foot. What do these drawings remind you of? Slaves were packed like sardines in a tin. Who do you think these drawings were destined to? They must have been destined to slave ship owners (slavers), to give them advice on how to pack as many slaves as possible. b. It is a painting by Turner, entitled Slave Ship. In the foreground, we can see bodies in the sea (hands and legs) as well as fish eating up the corpses. What did the painter want to denounce? He wanted to denounce the lack of humanity onboard slave ships.

12 12 C. Readings a. They became seasick or developed diarrhoea. They also suffered from smallpox and dysentery. Many got wounded for lack of movement. b. Some men even decided to commit suicide (by jumping overboard or starving themselves to death). c. Those who refused to eat were whipped and force fed. And ship owners put nets around the ship to prevent slaves from jumping overboard. d. They were often raped by the crew. D. Group A Account 1 a. Ottobah Cugoano, a slave b. They gave up hope when they could not sea their Native land any more. c. When they realised that there was no coming back, they decided to put fire to the ship: death was preferable to enslavement. d. They were betrayed twice: - first by black people who sold them to get money ( black merchants ) - and then by a woman who told a sailor about their plot to burn down the ship. e. Pick out words related to : Adjectives Nouns Disgust dirty, filthy, blood, base, barbarous horror Fear dreadful dread, woe Suffering cruel cries, tears Account 2 a. Olaudah Equiano, a slave b. ancre : anchor à bord : onboard équipage : crew pont : deck guindeau : windlass c. 1. They checked if he was healthy enough to be shipped away. If he was not, it would be a waste of money to let him onboard. d. World of bad spirits e. 2. He could not eat because of the stench and noise. When he turned down food, the men flogged him. Pick out words expressing the man s feelings (adjectives and nouns): loathsomeness, low, grief f. 3. Savage is a term often used by slave owners to speak of African people. Here, it is used to describe the white men s behaviour. g. SMELL (stench, sickness) HEARING (crying, groans) TASTE (eat) SIGHT (eyes) TOUCH (heat) h. A scene of horror (almost inconceivable)

13 13 Account 3 a. Zamba Zembola, a slave b. A captain s c. 50% Cause: ill air, confinement, scanty or unwholesome provision, disease d. He thought that he would earn more money if the death rate went down/decreased. e. When a squall struck the ship, the slaves were thrown to the side and some were crushed to death. f. It was all the more pathetic as they could not move back to their initial position because of their chains and fetters. g. He was vexed because of the loss of men. He thought his efforts to improve the slaves conditions were useless. He wished he had taken more slaves onboard to be able to sell more. He is not at all concerned about the men s tragic fate. Group B Account 4 a. Thomas Phillips, a slave-ship captain b. It consisted of cutting off the legs or arms of the slaves Who received this kind of punishment? The most wilful, rebellious ones (willful, American spelling) What was its aim? Its aim was to terrify the rest, to prevent them from doing the same c. He thought it was too cruel and barbarous. He feared God s anger Account 5 a. a sailor b. If it was hot, they got very thirsty ( almost dying for want of water ), but when it started raining, their situation got even worse (the water was probably pouring in) c. According to the narrator, the sailors tried to protect the slaves by making a tarpawling/ tarpaulin over the booms to stop the water and let the air in. d. Find the English for Une bâche : tarpawling/tarpaulin la bôme : boom Account 6 a. Thomas Trotter, a physician/ doctor b. They must be lying like spoons on a table, that is to say head to foot (cf. drawing) c. miserably, laborious, anxious d. They are compared to expiring animals.

14 14 NOM PRENOM CLASSE DATE Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Fiche Élève 2 Document 4 : and click on listen now. Don t read the script. You will hear some advertisement and then a brief introduction of the programme. Work on the interview only, from 00:23 to 05: First listening Listen to the whole programme once and answer the following questions. a. Name and date of the programme. b. Who is the guest? c. On what occasion was he invited? d. What is the subject of the interview? e. What important distinction is made? f. List the different countries and states mentioned: - Countries: - American states: 2. Second listening Pick out a few typical expressions used at the beginning of an interview. A/ First question a. What is the question about? b. How long did the slave trade last? c. What were the two main destinations for slaves? d. How many slaves went to the present US? e. What are the different periods mentioned? f. What do they correspond to? g. The system was thriving. Guess the meaning of the word: successful unsuccessful B/ Second question a. Write down the question. b. What was stopped? c. Was the law always respected? d. Slave trade had been banned before. Why? e. Three states are mentioned. - Which ones? - Where are they? - What did they do?

15 15 C/ Third question a. What does the journalist want to understand? b. What newspaper does she mention? c. How does the historian explain this fact? d. What does he compare this situation to? e. How did slavery evolve in the first half of the 19th C? Why? f. What industry is mentioned? g. What important moment in the American history does he allude to? D/ Fourth question a. How many questions does the journalist ask? Which one does the historian answer first? b. Listen to the woman s question. Give an equivalent for How can you explain that...?. c. What explains the growth of the population? d. What was the situation like in other colonies? e. Pick out the names of two tropical diseases: - - f. How do you call someone living in the South? g. Which state supported the abolition of slave trade? Why? h. What succeeded the transatlantic slave trade? Explain what it means: i. Quote two crimes slave trade could be associated with: - - j. What made the situation paradoxical for some people? k. Whose example is given? What distinction did they make?

16 16 Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Fiche Corrigé 2 Document 4 : and click on listen now. Don t read the script. You will hear some advertisement and then a brief introduction of the programme. Work on the interview only, from 00:23 to 05: First listening Listen to the whole programme once and answer the following questions. a. Name and date of the programme. Tell Me More, January 10, 2008 b. Who is the guest? Eric Foner, a history professor at Columbia University (New-York) c. On what occasion was he invited? He was invited to celebrate the bicentenary of the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade. d. What is the subject of the interview? It deals with the slave trade. e. What important distinction is made? He insists on the distinction between the abolition of the slave trade and the abolition of slavery, which took place later on. f. List the different countries and states mentioned: - Countries: Brazil, Great Britain, the West-Indies - American states: Louisiana, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi 2. Second listening Pick out a few typical expressions used at the beginning of an interview. We re joined by / welcome / I m happy to talk to you A/ First question a. What is the question about? It deals with the historical context and the importance of slave trade in America. b. How long did the slave trade last? Four centuries c. What were the two main destinations for slaves? The West Indies and Brazil d. How many slaves went to the present US? Several hundreds thousands e. What are the different periods mentioned? The colonial period (before the Independence) and the early19th century f. What do they correspond to? They correspond to the period preceding the abolition of the slave trade. g. The system was thriving. Guess the meaning of the word: X successful unsuccessful

17 17 B/ Second question a. Write down the question. Did the ban have an immediate effect? b. What was stopped? The importation from Africa. c. Was the law always respected? No, there was some smuggling. The ban was not totally enforced. d. Slave trade had been banned before. Why? During the run-up to the American revolution, all importations from Britain were banned, including slaves. e. Three states are mentioned. - Which ones? South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana - Where are they? They are all in the South. - What did they do? They allowed the importation of stales. C/ Third question a. What does the journalist want to understand? She wants to understand why we don t acknowledge that date of Few people know it. b. What newspaper does she mention? She mentions The New York Times. c. How does the historian explain this fact? The abolition of the trade had no effect on the abolition of slavery. d. What does he compare this situation to? He compares it to the situation in the British colonies, where slavery was abolished in the 1830 s. e. How did slavery evolve in the first half of the 19th C? Why? It grew significantly because the population reproduced itself by natural increase. f. What industry is mentioned? He mentions the cotton kingdom in the South. g. What important moment in the American history does he allude to? The Civil War D/ Fourth question a. How many questions does the journalist ask? Which one does the historian answer first? There are two different questions, but the historian answers the second one first. b. Listen to the woman s question. Give an equivalent for How can you explain that...?. Why do you think it is that c. What explains the growth of the population? The death rate was lower, both for white and black people. d. What was the situation like in other colonies? The death rate was higher because of the tropical climate. e. Pick out the names of two tropical diseases: - malaria - yellow fever f. How do you call someone living in the South? A Southerner g. Which state supported the abolition of slave trade? Why? Virginia h. What succeeded the transatlantic slave trade? The internal slave trade

18 18 Explain what it means: it is a trade inside the country, selling slaves to other states, within the United States. i. Quote two crimes slave trade could be associated with: - a violation of human rights - a crime against humanity j. What made the situation paradoxical for some people? They supported the abolition, and yet they were slave owners. k. Whose example is given? What distinction did they make? Thomas Jefferson was one of these slave-owners. He was the president of the US. They made a distinction between the right of property (which was considered as fine, even if it concerned slaves) and the right to seize people and ship them across the ocean (which was considered as illegitimate, shocking).

19 19 Anglais Disciplines associées : histoire géographie éducation civique Lycée B1 B2 À propos Dossier pédagogique La fin du commerce des esclaves The End of Slave Trade Conception : Marie-Line Périllat-Mercerot, Claude Renucci (CNDP) Réalisation : Pôle Langues étrangères FLES, direction de l'édition (CNDP) Intégration technique : François Thibaud Intégration éditoriale : Sylvain Bretaudeau Secrétariat de rédaction : Anne Vanaret Auteur : Catherine Archambeaud-Vinçon, académie de Versailles

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