The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean

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1 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean Assessment and Proposals for Improving the Provision of LogisticsServices Case of the Maghrebian Countries : Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia October 2010 Study funded by European Union throught EuropeAid Co-operation Office (for Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) and CETMO (for Libya and Mauritania)

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3 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean Assessment and Proposals for Improving the Provision of Logistics Case of the Maghrebian Countries Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia October 2010

4 Study financed by European Comission through EuropeAid Co-operation Office (for Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) and by CETMO (for Libya and Mauritania) and developed by CETMO in the frame of Euro-Mediterranean Transport Forum and of GTMO 5+5 activities Avinguda Josep Tarradellas, 10, 7a 4t Barcelona (34) (34) The data contained hereinmay be freely reproduced, provided the source mentioned.

5 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October 2010 Table of Contents Foreword...1 Introduction...3 Overview Description of Logistics Clusters Description of the Logistics Clusters on the Southern Shores: Overview The Logistics Cluster in Algeria (in French) The Logistics Sector in Algeria: Context The Logistics Cluster in Algeria: Players Logistics Services Provision in Algeria: Description 1.3 The Logistics Cluster in Libya The Logistics Sector in Libya: Context The Logistics Cluster in Libya: Players Logistics Services Provision in Libya: Description 1.4 The Logistics Cluster in Mauritania (in French) The Logistics Sector in Mauritania: Context The Logistics Cluster in Mauritania: Players Logistics Services Provision in Mauritania: Description 1.5 The Logistics Cluster in Morocco (in French) The Logistics Sector in Morocco: Context The Logistics Cluster in Morocco: Players Logistics Services Provision in Morocco: Description 1.6 The Logistics Cluster in Tunisia (in French) The Logistics Sector in Tunisia: Context The Logistics Cluster in Tunisia: Players Logistics Services Provision in Tunisia: Description 2. Challenges and Competitiveness of Logistics-Sector Operators Challenges and Competitiveness of Logistics-Sector Operators on the Southern Shores: Overview Algeria (in French) The Logistics Sector in Algeria: Major Challenges Analysis of the Competitiveness of the Logistics Sector in Algeria CETMO i

6 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean 2.3 Libya The Logistics Sector in Libya: Major Challenges Analysis of the Competitiveness of the Logistics Sector in Libya 2.4 Mauritania (in French) The Logistics Sector in Mauritania: Major Challenges Analysis of the Competitiveness of the Logistics Sector in Mauritania 2.5 Morocco (in French) The Logistics Sector in Morocco: Major Challenges Analysis of the Competitiveness of the Logistics Sector in Morocco 2.6 Tunisia (in French) The Logistics Sector in Tunisia: Major Challenges Analysis of the Competitiveness of the Logistics Sector in Tunisia 3. Strategies for Modernizing the Logistics Sector Strategies for Modernizing the Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores: Overview Algeria (in French) Government Strategy for Modernizing the Logistics Sector in Algeria The Perspective of Public and Private Operators in Algeria 3.3 Libya Government Strategy for Modernizing the Logistics Sector in Libya The Perspective of Public and Private Operators in Libya 3.4 Mauritania (in French) Government Strategy for Modernizing the Logistics Sector in Mauritania The Perspective of Public and Private Operators in Mauritania 3.5 Morocco (in French) Government Strategy for Modernizing the Logistics Sector in Morocco The Perspective of Public and Private Operators in Morocco 3.6 Tunisia (in French) Government Strategy for Modernizing the Logistics Sector in Tunisia The Perspective of Public and Private Operators in Tunisia 4. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions and Recommendations for the Southern Shores: Overview Algeria (in French) Conclusions of the Analysis of the Logistics Sector in Algeria Recommendations and Proposed Action for Algeria ii CETMO

7 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October Libya Conclusions of the Analysis of the Logistics Sector in Libya Recommendations and Proposed Action for Libya 4.2 Mauritania (in French) Conclusions of the Analysis of the Logistics Sector in Mauritania Recommendations and Proposed Action for Mauritania 4.3 Morocco (in French) Conclusions of the Analysis of the Logistics Sector in Morocco Recommendations and Proposed Action for Morocco 4.4 Tunisia (in French) Conclusions of the Analysis of the Logistics Sector in Tunisia Recommendations and Proposed Action for Tunisia 5. The Cluster Approach to Help Modernize Companies and the Logistics Sector Annexes Country Monographs Algeria Libya Mauritania Morocco Tunisia CETMO iii

8 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean iv CETMO

9 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October 2010 Foreword This report produced by CETMO 1 follows up on the work of the EuroMed Transport Forum and the Group of Transport Ministers of the Western Mediterranean (GTMO 5+5) in accordance with the guidelines of the Regional Transport Action Plan (RTAP) for the Mediterranean region and the conclusions of the last meeting of the GTMO 5+5, respectively. The RTAP contains the priority transport activities for that have been approved by the Mediterranean partners. It is an attempt to intensify cooperation with and within the Mediterranean region in terms of transport. According to the RTAP chapter on the development of integrated multimodal services and, more specifically, Action 17, improving the professionalism of the freight transport industry and promoting the development of logistic platforms to improve interoperability are key elements to help improve the transport system in the Mediterranean. However, at its latest conference in Rome in May 2009, the GTMO 5+5 decided that pursuing cooperation with EuroMed Transport Forum projects and initiatives was also a priority. The conference also reached a decision to promote transport logistics development in the Maghreb region, support private operators in the sector and make progress towards bringing the Maghreb transport companies up to standard. This report combines these two cooperation models and generally aims to contribute to the improvement of logistics and transport services on the southern shores of the Western Mediterranean. As the amount of air freight services is not yet significant enough, these services have been temporarily excluded from this report. Several studies (by the World Bank, the European Investment Bank, the EuroMed Forum Transport, etc.) have already been done on this region on the topics of infrastructure and infrastructure funding, and operational problems encountered by logistics chains involved in international trade. However, the efficient use of transport infrastructure and the improvement of logistics chains ultimately depend on the standard of the companies in the sector, i.e. public and private operators. For this reason, the study approached the sector from the viewpoint of provision. It was therefore a question of determining the current situation regarding services and the companies providing them. The report also analyses government plans for helping to modernize operators, as well as companies' opinions on the most crucial problems to be addressed. The study emphasizes the need for more information on the logistics sector and companies and their environment, especially logistics clusters, since their relations and level of modernization determine the competitiveness of the sector as a whole. The conclusions and working recommendations stress, in the first place, the need for each country to carry through the plans currently under way and to integrate operators' most basic proposals, particularly those coming from the private sector, which is the more dynamic. 1 The Centre Transport Study for the Western Mediterranean is the Technical Secretariat of GTMO 5+5. CETMO 1

10 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean In parallel, some general recommendations are presented. These essentially aim at avoiding fundamental pitfalls in relations between government departments and operators, or between the different operators themselves. To improve these relations, the study recommends using the cluster methodology employed widely in Europe, which is also relevant to the modernization of the logistics sector. In the end, it is a matter of basing strategies for modernizing the sector on a close interrelation between the parties involved, to capitalize on existing vitality while overcoming the trend for individualism. Lastly, the CETMO would like to offer its sincere thanks to the professionals interviewed and the support and information provided by the government departments involved in the sector in the different countries. This report was compiled thanks to them, though they are not responsible for its content in any way. In conclusion, this report was made possible thanks to EC funding through the EuropeAid cooperation office (for Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) in line with the work of the EuroMed Transport Forum, and thanks to the funds provided by CETMO (for Libya and Mauritania). 2 CETMO

11 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October 2010 Introduction Given the general approach defined by the EuroMed Transport Forum by virtue of the RTAP and by the Group of Transport Ministers of the Western Mediterranean (GTMO 5+5), i.e. to help improve transport and logistics services in the five Maghreb countries, and given the point of view adopted, which focuses on improving operators based on a cluster approach, this study has two complementary objectives: To understand the viewpoint of public and private operators in the transport and logistics sector on the situation affecting the provision of services and the most important and most urgent measures and solutions for modernizing logistics companies and subsectors; to obtain information on the current state of government plans aimed at modernizing the sector. In-depth on-site interviews were used to attain this first objective. To use the available information obtained in the field, or from other sources, to conduct our own strategic study of the competitiveness of the logistics sector and the future challenges it will face; to propose coherent initiatives using the cluster approach, which requires cooperation between the players involved. The study, along with the initiatives it suggests, was developed on a dual scale: for each of the countries analysed, and for the southern shores of the Mediterranean as a whole. The content of the report is divided into five parts (see diagram below): Chapter 1 Player Profile Description of Services What is the sector composition? What are the operating conditions for businesses? Chapter 2 Major Challenges Competitive analysis What factors are holding back modernization? Does the current situation of the cluster foster profitability and the modernization of operators? Chapter 3 Modernizing Strategies Solutions put forward by the government and by public and private operators. Chapter 4 SWOT Analysis Conclusions To what extent does the future scenario affect businesses? Recommendations and proposals. Chapter 5 The Cluster Approach How can a cluster approach help modernize logistics sector operators? The first part concerns the description of logistics clusters in each of the countries studied. It is interested not only in operators, but in all those involved in the sector. Since services are a derived demand depending on the social and economic structure of each country, its politics and its situation within the global economy, the study starts with an overview of the wider context of the logistics sector. It then offers a preliminary, schematic definition of the cluster map which, since it relates to a given country, only includes the principal players involved. The map is completed by a description of the characteristics and standard of the service provision. CETMO 3

12 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean On the basis of the information presented in the first part, the second part analyses the main challenges facing the sector and evaluates the competitive position of the public and private operators in the logistics cluster. This analysis is based on the model developed by Michael Porter known as the five forces framework. This chapter takes opinions gathered during interviews into account along with our own criteria. The third part contains updated information on government plans designed to modernize the logistics sector. It includes the views of public and private operators on the subject, since they are the ones who know the situation of the different sectors best, as well the opinions of other professionals. This information comes from interviews conducted in each country. The fourth part contains the strategic analysis carried out after ascertaining the cluster situation, the state of the strengths and weaknesses affecting the competitive potential of logistics-sector companies, and planned or current action in each country. To close this chapter, a series of measures is recommended aimed essentially at setting up processes for cooperation between logistics and transport operators who may be competitors from a commercial viewpoint, but have a common interest in raising the profitability and efficiency of their business. Improving provision in this way is a truly effective means of responding to client demand. The fifth part presents examples of fostering cooperation between companies thanks to the dynamics of logistics clusters. This cooperation works alongside government initiatives for modernization and enables businesses to use their own field of action for improving their management and market position. At the start of each of the first four chapters, a summary is given relating to the southern shores of the Mediterranean to emphasize the similarities and differences between the different Maghreb countries. Also annexed to the report is a detailed explanation of the methodology used and a monograph on each country that pools information from studies and publications. There is also a list of companies and organizations interviewed, the main bibliographical sources, the meanings of the acronyms used and the definitions of certain terms. 4 CETMO

13 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October 2010 Overview This report was carried out by the CETMO and commissioned by the Group 5+5 of Transport Ministers of the Western Mediterranean (GTMO 5+5). Its general purpose is to contribute to the improvement of logistics and transport services on the southern shores of the Western Mediterranean. The viewpoint chosen consists of considering that improving logistics chains and services does not just depend on improving infrastructure, changing regulations and liberalizing the economy, but requires modernizing public and private operators and supporting the modernization process. For this reason, not only the operators themselves, but also their environment (which is known as the logistics cluster) need to be taken into account, for real improvement requires interrelation and balance between all parties involved. In summary, the main considerations, conclusions and recommendations in this study are presented below, following the order of the table of contents of this report. 1. Description of the Logistics Clusters From the viewpoint of the economic and regulatory context which underpins and conditions the transport and logistics sector, the following factors are of note: In the case of Morocco and Tunisia, there are explicit economic policies for tightening relations with the European Union and creating nearshoring zones to attract as much business as possible. Algeria, for its part, is placing its hopes on the significant resources it has available, as well as a framework for internal development. In Libya, the government has adopted the model of using oil to generate growth, diversify the economy and lower unemployment. Mauritania, for its part, relies on its four basic economic sectors: three of them traditional (mining, agriculture and fishing) and one more recent (oil). All the countries are involved in a process of industrial development, with more diversity in Morocco and Tunisia and more focus on the energy sector in Algeria. Numerous investment programmes and projects are under way in the three central Maghreb countries. They aim to improve linear infrastructure (roads and railways) in order to develop a network of logistics hubs to concentrate traffic, improve transport organization and intermodality, and serve as a basis for logistics provisions meeting modern standards. In Libya, an ambitious development programme of road and port infrastructure and the creation of hitherto non-existent rail infrastructure is under way. In Mauritania, infrastructure is also an important policy objective of the government, which is anxious to reinforce links with the other Maghreb countries and create a convergence point between the north of the continent and Sub-Saharan Africa. Proportionally, the foreign general-cargo sector is larger in the Moroccan and Tunisian economies. The increased requirements of this type of chain in terms of services put pressure on improving the logistics sector. In the case of Algeria and Libya, there is a major imbalance in favour of energy-product exports. In Mauritania, iron, copper, gold, oil and fish represent more than 97% of total exports. The practically total predominance of traditional, local trade and the weak development of modern commercial distribution is common to all five countries studied. Wholesalers control imports and logistics of consumer goods. CETMO 5

14 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean There is a noticeable, widespread effort to liberalize and improve the regulatory context of the transport sector, and to define the professions in logistics. However, procedures remain complex, particularly in Algeria. In addition, a number of Ministers have input in the sector. Operators would like to see better coordination, with the Ministry of Transport taking control. Stronger control of the enforcement of standards is another requirement common to all the Maghreb countries. In terms of the players involved in the logistics sector, particularly public and private operators, the most typical characteristics of the current situation are the following: The road transport sector is highly fragmented in all the countries and, more importantly, there is no critical mass of structured companies. In Morocco and Algeria, there are two public operators, although they no longer have much market power. The process of liberalization has not been accompanied by stricter controls on professionalism or by strategies encouraging the creation of structured companies. In the case of the central Maghreb, rail transport is the monopoly of national companies and there are no private intermodal operators. In Libya, there are no rail services yet and in Mauritania, the railway is used as an exclusive means of transport for the State mining industry. Maritime transport is largely dominated by international shipping companies present throughout the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia and Algeria, the national shipping lines (Compagnie Tunisienne de Navigation, CTN and Compagnie Nationale Algérienne de Navigation, CNAN) still retain a significant share of the market. This is also the case in Libya, where the national shipping line transports 80% of the country's oil. The port sector is gaining importance in the area of handling, thanks to the presence of several major international players working alongside national companies and/or the port authorities, which still carry out this type of activity. There are still only a few national logistics operators, as we understand them in Europe. Few foreign companies are present. Lastly, in terms of the situation regarding services, the most obvious common characteristics are the following: The market share for road transport operated by self-employed individuals with their own vehicle is still very high (greater than 40%) in all the central Maghreb countries. In Morocco and Algeria, unofficial transport, which does not meet regulations, is very widespread. Specializations such as refrigerated transport, the transport of hazardous goods and freight consolidation have been developed very little and answer only to very loose quality requirements. European operators control international freight. In the case of Libya and Mauritania, road transport operated by self-employed individuals with their own vehicle is less extensive and barely reaches 20%, although in Mauritania there is a crisis in the public transport market following liberalization. Rail traffic is mainly oriented toward the bulk-freight market. Although national rail companies strive to win market share in the area of container and other freight transport and to come across as a real alternative, these sectors are dominated by road transport. In the maritime sector, bulk-freight shipping predominates and containers are not used widely enough. In the three central Maghreb countries, Ro-Ro traffic is significant and benefits from the involvement of the national shipping companies. In the port sector, with the exception of Tanger-Med and Misurata (two deep-water ports), the ports of the region are generally linked 6 CETMO

15 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October 2010 to European ports by feeder lines. They need investment to improve operations and, more particularly, to create ocean transit ports like Djen-Djen in Algeria and Enfidha in Tunisia. Industrial and commercial companies carry out their logistics operations in-house. Companies with enough capacity to act as 3PL providers are rare and few European companies are established in the Maghreb. Logistics hubs are too scarce and the logisticsoperator sector needs regulating. 2. Challenges and Competitiveness of Logistics-Sector Operators To improve the logistics services sector, the countries in the region need to meet a number of challenges, which implies overcoming the structural market weaknesses discussed in paragraph 1 of this report. The fact is that all of these countries show very high logistics costs (around 20% of GDP), along with strong pricing competition in certain markets. This contradiction is due to companies carrying out most transport and logistics operations in-house without subcontracting to outside operators, as well as sub-standard, highly inefficient services and administrative procedures which exacerbate such problems, though they do not cause them. The competitiveness of the logistics sector was analysed using Michael Porter's framework known as the five forces model in order to try to evaluate where pressure is being exerted, with a number of common characteristics being noted: Clients are not generally very demanding as regards the improvement of services, on the one hand because public-sector demand still plays a major role and, on the other hand, because there are economic sectors which have been developed little, or levels of lowincome end-consumers. In countries with little export diversity like Algeria, Libya and Mauritania, foreign trade does not exert much pressure on improving services either. Suppliers' contribution to competitiveness is more positive, in particular in the domain of infrastructure, but suffers from two major shortfalls: the lack of logistics activities zones and very inadequate specific vocational training, in the opinion of nearly all the people interviewed. The barriers stopping new operators entering the markets are less and less numerous, in particular in Morocco and Tunisia, both of which have implemented changes in their legislation to bring them considerably closer to the European model. Processes of liberalization have not, however, been accompanied by government strategies aimed at helping private companies, while the number of small operators, which can often only survive by infringing regulations or setting rates below actual costs, has increased, with the pernicious effects this implies for structured companies. As for pressure coming from other competing regions to force the competitiveness of the transport and logistics sector, the prime candidates are countries in Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, notably Turkey and Egypt (along with Libya). Such pressure is relative, however, given the difficulty of controlling domestic traffic, in particular in Algeria and Libya. Lastly, the weight of internal rivalry is not enough to increase competitiveness within the sector. On the one hand, independently of their level of efficiency, public operators gain access to public-sector contracts more easily. On the other hand, the lack of controls allows a good number of small companies to maintain their margins without having to increase their productivity or modernize. CETMO 7

16 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean 3. Strategies for Modernizing the Logistics Sector A. Government Initiatives The governments of the five countries are hard at work implementing strategies for modernizing the logistics sector. However, the creation and execution of such strategies, the range of which varies according to each country, is experiencing delays. The goal of the strategy for modernizing the sector in Morocco is to lower logistics costs, accelerate economic growth and reduce the environmental impact. From a practical point of view, its structure has three levels: Improving infrastructure, notably of logistic zones, to create critical mass and optimize flow. Modernizing operators to improve services. Developing a national plan for vocational training. Alongside this new strategy, the government is continuing the process of liberalization and improving regulations. The set of measures is presented in the form of a performance contract involving not only the Ministry of Equipment and Transport (MET), but also other ministries and the Moroccan Business Federation. The performance contract will be carried out by means of implementation contracts involving sectoral and horizontal measures. The future Moroccan Agency for Logistics Development will take on the management of the performance contract. In Tunisia, the government wishes to develop multimodal transport and logistics in order to increase the country's foreign trade. It has set the goal of improving logistics so that logistics costs decrease from 20% to 15% of GDP. A vast study leading to a series of measures was carried out by the World Bank in collaboration with the Ministry of Transport. The latter has already got down to work on the corresponding action plan, which is divided into two parts: an assessment of the logistics situation in the country and a set of measures. The main specific objectives of the government plan stemming from the assessment are as follows: To optimize logistics costs: one of the basic measures envisaged is to develop logistics zones near ports as well as inland. To double the rail-freight share by raising it from the current 3% to 6% by To double the CTN's share of maritime transport by raising it from 9% to 18%. To promote the outsourcing of logistics operations and to make third-party transport more common. To modernize professions related to logistics: forwarding agents, shipping agents, customs agents, etc. The action plan put forward by the Ministry of Transport aims to develop services and infrastructure. It contains 78 strategic and operational measures. Even if the majority imply 8 CETMO

17 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October 2010 an initiative on the part of government departments, all require a framework for cooperation with the private sector. One of these measures is the creation of the National Logistics Council chaired by the Prime Minister. Over and above its consulting function, the council will be in charge of overseeing and promoting the implementation of the plan. The Minister of Transport will be involved as secretary to the Council. In Algeria, following agreements with the European Union, a programme made up of 15 projects involving the Ministry of Transport and receiving European funding is under way. One such project is the development of the new National Transport Plan, which updates the preceding version. The programme also includes other initiatives such as a logistics activities zones in Oran, an analysis of costs and charges, and different regulatory factors. A Project Support Unit (PSU) has been created for follow-up and monitoring. A follow-up committee made up of Ministry representatives and PSU experts has been assigned to each study and project. A study on the blueprint for logistics hubs, also currently under way, was also launched in the context of the National Urban and Regional Planning Programme (Schéma National d'aménagement du Territoire, SNAT). In the case of Libya and Mauritania, the situation is the following: In Libya, the government's main strategic focus is the development and modernization of all transport modes. Over the next three years, it will invest 5.81 billion to create or improve three major northsouth road corridors and three more going from east to west. In the rail sector, projects are under way to provide a first network of over 3,100 km of track with two branch lines: one along the coast and the other travelling inland. In the port sector, there is a government investment plan ( ) with the goals of increasing berth length, storage capacity and draught. The government is also planning to build three logistics zones in the east, the centre and the west of the country. Apart from infrastructure, the government is looking at improving regulation and incorporating ICTs into the port sector. To date, there is no programme for the modernization of transport companies, nor are there any mechanisms for relations between government departments and operators apart from individual contacts. In Mauritania, there is no programme for modernizing the transport and logistics sector. The Ministry of Equipment and Transport (MET) needs to increase its responsibilities but is swamped by urgent, everyday business, which has precedence over strategy and planning. The MET's current scope of work includes: Attempting to increase regulation and controls on road transport. The government has defined a road-safety strategy and created a new inter-ministerial structure for its application. A regulating body for road transport has thus been created to coordinate different sectors. For reasons of funding, the programme of measures to support the liberalization of road transport has yet to be applied. CETMO 9

18 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean In the port sector, there is a project for enlarging the port of Nouakchott, with the construction of a container terminal under consideration; enlargement of the mineral terminal at the port of Nouadhibou will be carried out soon. As far as taxation is concerned, the objective is to implement a system of taxes in the transport sector to enable funding of infrastructure and other costs incurred. B. The Perspective of Public and Private Operators Having lost their monopoly, the majority of the public companies in the five countries are developing and implementing strategies in order to retain or improve their current market position. The rail sector is, however, the exception to the rule, because in the three central Maghreb countries, it faces very strong competition from private road transport companies. The public operators' strategies have two other characteristics in common: first, they are extending their services to offer through transport, a reorientation which may even imply a first step toward the provision of logistics services; second, they are potentially concluding alliances with foreign, private operators to extend their network of services and acquire the necessary know-how. In the case of private operators, the people interviewed mainly emphasized those factors they thought most crucial to make the transport and logistics sector operate properly and spoke of their expectations of the government. They essentially emphasized the following requirements: Monitoring access to employment in transport and logistics; making sure that conditions relating to professional qualifications or requirements for financial resources are respected; reducing bureaucracy and increasing on-site monitoring. Facilitating the renewal of vehicle fleets involved in road transport to improve quality and safety and reduce the number of accidents, which present a serious social problem in all of the countries analysed. Allowing private companies access to public contracts under the same conditions as pubic companies. Helping private companies buy management systems and ICT systems. Avoiding measures to raise standards that result in the direct establishment of European companies to occupy the new logistics zones. Access to the new logistics zones is a prime concern. Improving port operations and lowering the cost of maritime transport to become more competitive in international transport. Improving communication between governments and the private sector; grouping together within the private sector to form associations and develop a partnership mentality instead of being overly individualistic. 4. Conclusions and Recommendations To complete the study of the current competitive situation in the logistics sector, a SWOT analysis was carried out emphasizing favourable factors to be strengthened and threats to be dealt with. They are summarized in the table below: 10 CETMO

19 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean October 2010 Favourable Factors Reinforce open economic policy and expand liberalization. Capitalize on progress in Mediterranean cooperation, the increasingly important role played by the Mediterranean basin in global logistics and the potential of African logistics. Emphasize the importance of logistics in economic development. Capitalize on the vitality of the private sector. Strengthen processes for outsourcing logistics. Foster cooperation between state transport operators and private operators. Threats Delays in the integration of the Maghreb. Lack of pressure to improve countries' internal logistics. Danger of putting hopes on internal development alone. Uneven treatment of logistics sector problems across government departments. Weak private-sector involvement in improving planning and carrying out plans for modernizing the logistics sector. Lack of organization of logistics-sector companies into professional associations and lack of cooperation between private operators. Few plans for modernizing and delays in their implementation. The overview of the conclusions makes it possible to single out the following factors: Modernization. The modernization of the logistics sector environment (regulations, taxation, hubs, etc.) currently under way is necessary but not sufficient, given that: The key factors for successful modernization are the internal modernization of companies, the structure of the sector and the supervision and follow-up of this structure. Market pressures are not sufficient to modernize the logistics sector: government departments need to get the process started. Relations between government departments and operators need strengthening, as do those between the different operators themselves. Training. Training in transport and logistics is an absolute priority in the Maghreb as a whole and provides an opportunity for a programme common to the whole of the Maghrebian region of the GTMO 5+5, which should lead to more in-depth knowledge of the region and an alignment of viewpoints between the two shores of the Mediterranean. The people interviewed said that vocational training should be offered to the private sector but also to government departments; it should include management as well as technical factors and be essentially practical (not only academic); it should be based on examples more or less directly related to the level of AMU countries. In this respect, Southern European countries may provide a reference. Liberalization. The liberalization of the logistics sector should be continued, but it should be accompanied by strategies for modernizing national companies. CETMO 11

20 October 2010 The Logistics Sector on the Southern Shores of the Western Mediterranean Liberalization which has no strategies and is hampered by administrative obstacles will lead to a predominance of foreign operators in the logistics sector (vicious circle). Conversely, liberalization which has strategies for modernizing and structuring logistics clusters will encourage national companies (virtuous circle). A set of recommendations for the region as a whole is listed below (specific recommendations for each country are presented in paragraphs 4.2.2, 4.3.2, 4.4.2, and of this rapport). A. Improving Relations Between Government Departments and Between the Government and the Private Sector Relations between Government Departments As a general rule, besides different government levels, a number of Ministries are involved in the transport and logistics sector. This study s main recommendations, in particular at ministerial level, are the following: Place the Ministry of Transport in charge of defining strategies related to logistics, since it is the government authority most familiar with the problems facing the sector. This request came up very frequently in the interviews. Promote sub-contracting transport and logistics operations by organizing campaigns in this direction and capitalizing on the government's ability to sub-contract. This type of action will lead to market growth and increase customer pressure for improvements, which will be particularly beneficial to internal logistics in these countries. Relations between Government Departments and the Private Sector The improvement of relations is a key factor for the correct operation of action plans and their implementation. The main recommendations are the following: Consult operators in the sector and ensure they are involved in strategic planning as well as follow-up and monitoring of action programmes. On the operational level, create bodies for public-private cooperation on topics such as developing regulations aimed at the transport and logistics sector, controlling their 12 CETMO

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