Preview Chapter 2 inside! Publishing January 2009

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1 Preview Chapter 2 inside! Publishing January ISBN-13: ISBN-10: Hardcover 586 pp

2 2 Voici mes amis Who are the people shown here and what are they doing? Does this remind you of experiences you ve had with people you know? Leçon 1 Leçon 2 Leçon 3 Mes amis et moi Nos loisirs Où est-ce qu on va ce week-end? Venez chez nous! Vive le sport! After completing this chapter, you should be able to: Describe people s appearance and personality Talk about sports and leisure activities Ask for information Give commands and make suggestions Talk about French and American notions of friendship Talk about major sporting events across the Francophone world

3 Leçon 1 Mes amis et moi Preparation: Provide an overview of the lesson by showing the Ch. 2 video segment Les amis. Have students listen and watch, then describe the activities friends are sharing. This video clip may also be shown in conjunction with the Vie et culture section. Presentation: Only feminine forms of variable adjectives are presented here, since in most cases the masculine spoken form can be easily derived from the feminine. This derivation rule will be taught in the Formes et fonctions section of this lesson. To present the vocabulary, use the girls photo and the dialogue, as well as the boxed list of adjectives. Read or play the recorded dialogue, pointing out each person as she is described. Test comprehension by asking Qui est blonde?, etc., or by creating statements that students must identify as true or false. Next, use either/or questions to elicit repetitions: Clara est blonde ou rousse? Finally, have students provide opposites for adjectives: Elle est grande? Non, elle est petite. As follow-up, have students describe magazine photos of interesting-looking women. POINTS DE DÉPART Elles sont comment? Denise et Marie regardent un album de photos. TEXT AUDIO TRACK 00 DENISE : C est toi sur la photo là, avec le chapeau? MARIE : Bien sûr. DENISE : Tu es jolie. Qui sont les autres filles? MARIE : Ce sont mes amies du collège. DENISE : Comment s appelle l autre fille avec un chapeau? MARIE : Ça c est Diane ; elle est maintenant à la fac avec moi. C est ma colocataire. Elle est très intelligente et ambitieuse. Mais elle est amusante aussi ; elle adore les histoires drôles. DENISE : Et la grande fille mince et rousse? MARIE : C est Clara. Elle est très élégante. Elle travaille avec les personnes âgées ; c est une fille gentille et généreuse. DENISE : Et la blonde? MARIE : C est Anne-Laure. Elle est super sportive et sociable ; pas du tout paresseuse, elle. DENISE : Pas comme toi, donc! MARIE : Arrête! LEÇON 1 MES AMIS ET MOI soixante-neuf 69

4 Pour décrire les femmes Note: Adjectives like châtain, derived from nouns, are invariable and never add an e or an s. jeune d un certain âge âgée belle jolie moche grande de taille moyenne petite maigre mince forte grosse blonde rousse châtain brune élégante gentille méchante généreuse égoïste intelligente bête ambitieuse énergique paresseuse sportive pantouflarde sérieuse drôle amusante À vous la parole Implementation: 2-1 This allows students to practice nuancing descriptions by using the negative and the qualifying adverbs taught in Ch. 1, L. 1. Additional Activity: Ask students to describe one of the women in your class so that classmates can guess who it is. For example, É1 Elle est d un certain âge. Elle est blonde, grande et assez mince. É2 C est le professeur? É1 Oui. Be aware that some students are sensitive about physical descriptions. As an alternative, you might bring in magazine photos and have students work in pairs to create a description; post all the photos, then have the class guess which one is being described. 2-1 En d autres termes. Describe each young woman, using other words. Clara n est pas égoïste. Clara est généreuse. 1. Clara n est ni (neither) brune, ni blonde, ni châtain. 2. Clara n est pas petite. 3. Clara n est pas méchante. 4. Diane n est pas très mince. 5. Diane n est pas petite. 6. Diane n est ni blonde, ni rousse, ni châtain. 7. Diane n est pas bête. 8. Anne-Laure n est pas paresseuse. 9. Anne-Laure n est pas grande, mais elle n est pas petite non plus. 10. Anne-Laure n est pas pantouflarde. Implementation: 2-2 Offer a few examples, then have students work in pairs or small groups to prepare a description. Each group gives out its information bit by bit; they receive one point for each statement they make before class members guess correctly. Expansion: 2-3 To follow up, display all pictures in the classroom. As individual students share their description with the class, their classmates will listen to determine which person is being described. 2-2 Une personne connue. Describe a well-known girl or woman, real or imaginary, and have your classmates guess who it is. É1 Elle est très jeune ; elle a environ (about) douze ans. Elle est petite, mince et rousse. Elle n a pas de parents, mais elle a un chien, Sandy. É2 C est Annie, la petite orpheline. 2-3 Voici une amie/mes amies. Bring in a photo of a female friend or friends to describe to a partner. Voici la photo d une de mes amies. Elle s appelle Julie. Elle est grande et blonde. Elle est intelligente et très énergique. Elle aime le tennis. 70 soixante-dix CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

5 Vie et culture Presentation: If you have not yet shown it, use the Ch. 2 video segment Les amis to lead into this section or to follow up on discussion. Note: For more information, see Raymonde Carroll s chapter on friendship in her book Évidences invisibles : Américains et Français au quotidien (Éditions du Seuil, 1987); translated by Carol Volk as Cultural Misunderstandings: The French- American Experience (The University of Chicago Press, 1990). The quote featured here can be found on page 77. Les amis Concepts of friendship vary from culture to culture. In France, friendships are usually formed slowly, over many years. Once established, they tend to last a lifetime. American visitors and exchange students in France sometimes find it difficult to form friendships with French peers because of the brevity of their stays. French exchange students and visitors to the United States, on the other hand, often report that Americans make friends very quickly and seem to refer to many people as my friend. This contrasts sharply with French usage where the word ami is reserved for those people with whom a strong bond of friendship has been established. In Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience, Raymonde Carroll, a French anthropologist living in the United States, explains the use of the word friend in American English: For an American,... this is merely a verbal shortcut which saves the trouble of explaining the differences between friend and all the other terms available (acquaintance, vague acquaintance, buddy, pal, chum, roommate, housemate, classmate, schoolmate, teammate, playmate, companion, co-worker, colleague, childhood friend, new friend, old friend, very old friend, family friend, close friend, very close friend, best friend, girlfriend, boyfriend, etc.). However, Americans casual use of the word friend leads French observers to conclude that their own concept of friendship is more durable and considerably more nuanced. ET VOUS? 1. What behaviors or features of American society might promote the perception among the French that friendships are formed quickly? 2. Think about the contexts in which you would refer to someone as my friend. Do you agree with Carroll s observation that Americans tend to use the word friend rather loosely? What advantages and disadvantages are there to using friend to refer to a wide range of relationships? 3. Do you agree with the judgment that American friendships are less durable and less nuanced than French friendships? Explain your response. Key: Et vous? Point out the tendency for Americans to use first names immediately on meeting someone, to invite people into their homes very soon after they have met, and even to hug or kiss business associates. Suggest to students that because Americans tend to change jobs and move frequently, often far from family and childhood friends, there is perhaps more of a necessity to form new friendships quickly. Voici quelques amis qui discutent au café. LEÇON 1 MES AMIS ET MOI soixante-et-onze 71

6 Sons et lettres La détente des consonnes finales TEXT AUDIO TRACK 00 As a general rule, final consonant letters are not pronounced in French: Presentation: Present this topic in conjunction with Les adjectifs variables. l enfant elle est nous sommes très jeunes beaucoup However, there are four final consonant letters that are generally pronounced: -c, -r, -f, and -l. To remember them, think of the English word careful. la fac pour neuf Daniel An exception is the letter -r in the infinitive ending -er and in words ending in -er and -ier: écouter danser le dîner le premier janvier The letter n is seldom pronounced at the end of a word. Together with the preceding vowel letters it represents a nasal vowel sound: mon copain le chien l enfant Initial practice: Reinforce with a discrimination drill to ensure that students hear pronounced final consonants: un homme ou une femme? Michel est amusant. Michèle est intelligente. Dominique est sérieuse. Dominique est généreux. Daniel est élégant. Danielle est petite. Renée est ambitieuse. René est paresseux. Andrée est sportive, etc. Additional names that work well in this type of exercise include Pascal/e and Claude. At the end of a word, one or more consonant letters followed by -e always stand for a pronounced consonant. These consonants must be clearly articulated, for they mark important grammatical distinctions such as feminine versus masculine forms of adjectives. The final -e doesn t represent any sound. Danielle est sérieuse intelligente amusante vs. Daniel est sérieux intelligent amusant À vous la parole Implementation: 2-4 First have students go through and underline pronounced final consonants, and draw a line through silent final consonants. 2-4 Prononcer ou ne pas prononcer? In which words should you pronounce the final consonant? avec Robert il aime danser s il vous plaît pour ma sœur neuf cahiers le jour de Noël le Québec le singulier 2-5 Contrastes. Read each pair of sentences aloud and note the contrasts. C est Denise. / C est Denis. Voilà Françoise. / Voilà François. Pascale est amusante. / Pascal est amusant. Michèle est blonde. / Michel est blond. 72 soixante-douze CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

7 FORMES ET FONCTIONS 1. Les adjectifs variables You have learned that adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they modify. Invariable adjectives have only one spoken form. The feminine ending -e and the plural ending -s show up only in the written forms. Ma sœur est stressée. Mon frère est discipliné. Mon père est calme. Mes amies sont stressées. Mes amis sont disciplinés. Mes parents sont calmes. Variable adjectives have masculine and feminine forms that differ in pronunciation. Their feminine form ends in a pronounced consonant. To pronounce the masculine, drop the final consonant sound. The written letter -s or -x at the end of plural adjectives is not generally pronounced. SINGULIER f. Anne est amusante et généreuse. m. Cédric est amusant et généreux. PLURIEL f. Mes amies sont amusantes et généreuses. m. Mes copains sont amusants et généreux. The feminine form of variable adjectives always ends in -e. The final -e is dropped in the masculine form; therefore, the final consonant sound, heard in the feminine form, is also dropped. Although some variable adjectives have spelling irregularities, this pronunciation rule still applies. For example, in the feminine form généreuse [ʒenerøz], the final consonant is pronounced, but it is dropped in the masculine form généreux [ʒenerø]. In the written form, the final -e is dropped in the masculine and the final -s is changed to -x. Other regular variable adjectives that show spelling changes include: Note: Point out that the irregularities involve changes rousse S roux grosse S gros gentille S gentil in the final written consonant: -ss x; -ll l, etc. Adjectives whose masculine singular form ends in -x do not change in the masculine plural form. Laurent est roux. Laurent et Matthieu sont roux. Noun phrases in French typically include multiple written indications of number and gender: compare, for example, une amie intelligente with un copain amusant and des profs sympathiques. Because the written indications are not always heard in the spoken forms, it is a good idea to get into the habit of double-checking the number and gender of any nouns and adjectives that you write. Presentation: What we call invariable adjectives have a single spoken form, but some have distinct written masculine and feminine forms as well as distinct plural written forms. This presentation focuses on spoken forms and is reinforced by the Sons et lettres treatment. Exercises in the Student Activities Manual focus on the written forms of invariable and variable adjectives. To present variable adjectives, prepare a series of parallel examples describing le couple idéal, where the two members of the couple have identical personality and physical traits. Arrange the examples in two columns with Elle est... on the top of the first column and Il est... on the top of the second column. Then fill in the columns with examples such as: élégante, élégant ; grande, grand ; ambitieuse, ambitieux ; brune, brun ; intelligente, intelligent ; amusante, amusant ; gentille, gentil ; généreuse, généreux. As you read and display the forms, have students explain the written forms, then see whether they can give the rule for deriving the masculine spoken form from the feminine. Finish by asking students, Est-ce que ce couple est vraiment un couple idéal? Pourquoi? As you have learned, with a mixed group of feminine and masculine nouns, the plural form of the adjective is always the masculine form. Jessica et Laure sont brunes. Kevin et Alexis sont blonds. Max et Sylvie sont roux. Jessica and Laure are brunettes. Kevin and Alexis are blonds. Max and Sylvie are redheads. Note: You may wish to point out that some frequently used adjectives precede the noun. These include belle, grande, jeune, jolie, and petite, all of which were presented in the Points de départ. Prenominal adjectives will be treated in Ch. 3, L. 1 and L. 2. LEÇON 1 MES AMIS ET MOI soixante-treize 73

8 Note: Point out that belle and brune involve vowel changes (i.e., from [ε] to [o] for bellebeau and from [y] to [ε ] for brune-brun) as well as the loss of the final consonant; sportive shows a final consonant change from [v] to [f]. Initial practice: Begin with a discrimination drill, as in the Sons et lettres, so that students hear masculine and feminine forms of adjectives: Michel est amusant. Michèle est intelligente. Pascal est sportif. Pascale est ambitieuse. Claude est blonde. Claude est petit. René est gros. Renée est élégante, etc. Continue with a simple substitution exercise, such as the following: Des jumeaux. Julien and Juliette are twins. Tell how they are alike: Juliette est grande. Et son frère, Julien, est grand aussi. Elle est rousse ; elle est un peu forte ; elle est assez amusante ; elle est très intelligente ; elle est vraiment gentille ; elle est généreuse. Next reverse the direction of derivation by providing the masculine form and having students respond with the feminine. Stress the importance of over-articulating the final consonant, since it contains the signal for the gender: Julien est très élégant. Sa sœur, Juliette, est très élégante aussi. Il est sportif ; il est assez ambitieux ; il est très sérieux ; il est beau. Note the following irregular forms: FÉMININ belle brune sportive À vous la parole MASCULIN beau brun sportif 2-6 Pas mes amis! Your friends are quite different from what your mother thinks; tell how. Tes amies sont paresseuses! Ah non, elles sont énergiques. 1. Tes amis sont méchants! 2. Tes amis sont trop idéalistes! 3. Tes amies sont têtues! 4. Tes amis sont trop conformistes! 5. Tes amis sont trop bêtes! 6. Tes amis sont égoïstes! 7. Tes amies sont trop sérieuses! 8. Tes amis sont tous (all) pessimistes! Expansion: 2-7 You may also bring large photos, such as those found in fine art reproductions, catalogs, or magazines into class. Put students into pairs to work out their description, then bring all the photos to the front of the class. As each pair describes their person, the other students try to guess to which photo the description corresponds. You may wish to introduce expressions such as avoir les cheveux courts/longs/bouclés/ blonds, as appropriate. 2-7 Les amis. Describe the appearance and personality of this group of friends to your partner. Il y a trois femmes qui sont assez jeunes, une femme d un certain âge et un homme soixante-quatorze CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

9 2-8 Le monde idéal. Ideally, what are the following people and pets like? Describe them to your partner. le chien idéal É1 Pour moi, le chien idéal est petit, gentil et intelligent. É2 Pour moi aussi, le chien idéal est gentil et intelligent, mais il est grand. 1. le père idéal 2. la mère idéale 3. l enfant idéal 4. le/la colocataire idéal/e 5. le professeur idéal 6. l étudiant idéal 7. l ami/e idéal/e 8. le chat idéal Expansion: 2-8 To follow up, have each pair report back to the class and see how many people in the class have similar descriptions. 2. Les adverbes interrogatifs To ask a question requesting specific information, it is necessary to use an interrogative word or expression. Usually, the interrogative word or expression appears at the beginning of the question and is followed by est-ce que/qu : Où est-ce que tes amis travaillent? Quand est-ce qu elle arrive? Pourquoi est-ce que tu aimes tes amis? Parce qu ils sont très amusants. Pourquoi est-ce que tu téléphones? Pour inviter mes amis à dîner. Where do your friends work? When does she arrive? Some of the words or expressions frequently used to ask questions are: comment how Comment est-ce que tu t appelles? où where Où est-ce qu il travaille? quand when Quand est-ce que tu arrives? pourquoi why Pourquoi est-ce que tu ne travailles pas? combien de how many Combien d étudiants est-ce qu il y a? The question pourquoi? can be answered in two ways: Why do you like your friends? Because they re lots of fun. Why are you calling? To invite my friends to dinner. Presentation: Review formation of yes/no questions and the use of si, taught in Ch. 1, L. 3, before teaching this material; use exercises from those earlier sections. Present the new expressions using multiple-choice questions: Quand est-ce que nous avons notre cours de français? le matin? l après-midi? le soir? Où est-ce que nous avons notre cours de français? au café? à la maison? à la fac? Combien d étudiants est-ce qu il y a dans notre classe? quinze? vingt? vingt-deux? Comment est-ce que le prof de français s appelle? M. X? Mme Y? Mlle Z? Note: Remind students that they have learned to form some information questions using simply a question word without rising intonation: Comment tu t appelles? Il a quel âge?, but that these are very informal ways of asking a question. Presentation: To show the two possible answers for pourquoi, display a humorous exchange such as: Pourquoi est-ce que vous parlez anglais? Parce que nous sommes américains ; Pour frustrer le prof. Note: Questions using quel will be treated in Ch. 8, L. 1; qui, que, and quoi will be treated in Ch. 8, L. 2. When used to ask how many, combien is linked to the noun by de/d : Combien de frères est-ce que tu as? Combien d enfants est-ce qu ils ont? How many brothers do you have? How many children do they have? LEÇON 1 MES AMIS ET MOI soixante-quinze 75

10 Note: At this level, questions with inversion are presented largely for receptive control. Students should be able to recognize these questions and to be able to produce them in limited fixed expressions such as Quel âge avez-vous? Comment allez-vous? Students should be encouraged to form their questions with intonation or est-ce que and instructors should also make an effort to produce these types of questions in their spoken and written interactions with students. Note: The verb aller is presented in L. 3 of this chapter. Another question construction, called inversion, is used in writing, in formal conversation, and in a few fixed expressions. In questions with a pronoun subject using inversion, the subject follows the verb and is connected to it with a hyphen. Notice that when the verb form ends in a vowel, the letter -t- is inserted before the pronoun and linked to it with a hyphen. Comment vas-tu? Comment allez-vous? Quel âge a-t-il? How are you? How are you? How old is he? Inversion is also more generally used with the verbs aller and être when the subject is a noun: Comment vont tes parents? Où est ta sœur? How are your parents? Where s your sister? À vous la parole Implementation: 2-9 To make the exercise more realistic, read each of the instructor s statements out loud, replacing the underlined material with static-like noise. For further practice, repeat this exercise and have students provide the complete questions. 2-9 Pardon? You can t quite hear all that your instructor says, so use a question word or expression to ask for the missing information. J ai cinq cahiers. Combien? 1. Nous travaillons dans la salle de classe. 2. Il y a un examen mardi. 3. Il y a trois étudiants français. 4. Yannick est absent parce qu il est malade. 5. Elle s appelle Chloé. 6. Elle a deux sœurs. 7. Nous ouvrons le livre pour réviser un exercice. Implementation: 2-10 Demonstrate an exaggerated pronunciation of Ah bon?, and make sure students understand what it means. Challenge them to be expressive as they complete the exercise À propos de Thomas. Your friend is telling you about her new boyfriend Thomas, and you want more details. Thomas a deux colocataires. Ah bon? Comment est-ce qu ils s appellent? OU Ah bon? Est-ce qu ils sont aussi étudiants? 1. Il est assez jeune. 2. Il n habite pas dans la résidence (dorm). 3. Il est d une famille nombreuse. 4. Il travaille le week-end. 5. Il arrive bientôt. 6. Il n est pas en forme. 7. Il n aime pas le sport. 8. Il a des chiens. 76 soixante-seize CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

11 2-11 Au service des rencontres. Ariane has called a dating service. As you listen in on her end of the phone conversation, imagine the questions she is being asked. Je m appelle Ariane Patoine. Comment vous appelez-vous, mademoiselle? 1. J habite à Ottawa. 2. Non, je n ai pas de colocataire. 3. Oui, j ai un chien et deux chats. 4. Oui, je travaille. 5. Je travaille dans un bureau. 6. Je travaille le week-end. 7. Parce que je suis étudiante. 8. J ai des cours (classes) le lundi, le mardi, le mercredi et le vendredi. Expansion: 2-11 This is good preparation for playing Jeopardy!, where students earn points by providing the question that elicits the information given. Key: ) Où est-ce que vous habitez? 2) Combien de colocataires est-ce que vous avez? Est-ce que vous avez des colocataires? 3) Est-ce que vous avez des animaux familiers? 4) Est-ce que vous travaillez? 5) Où est-ce que vous travaillez? 6) Quand est-ce que vous travaillez? 7) Pourquoi estce que vous travaillez le weekend? 8) Quand est-ce que vous avez des cours? 2-12 Questions indiscrètes? Interview one of your classmates, asking him/her questions about the following subjects. Report back to the class what you learned about your partner. Expansion: 2-12 You might offer to let students ask you any questions they wish, or bring in a visitor to be interviewed. la famille Est-ce que tu as des frères ou des sœurs? Où est-ce qu ils habitent?... la musique Est-ce que tu aimes la musique? Quand est-ce que tu aimes écouter de la musique?... (you report back) Voici Ian. Il a un frère. Il habite à Baltimore. Ian n aime pas la musique, mais la famille 2. les animaux 3. les amis 4. la musique 5. le sport Work with a partner to see how many questions you can ask this family. For example: Est-ce que vous êtes français? Où est-ce que vous habitez? Comment s appellent, etc. LEÇON 1 MES AMIS ET MOI soixante-dix-sept 77

12 Lisons Use illustrations to predict content. To anticipate and better understand an author s descriptions in a text, make preliminary assumptions by studying the illustrations. Preparation: 2-13 If your students are not familiar with Les Misérables, there are many online resources for both the show and the novel. To prepare for the reading (and the Après avoir lu), you could have students look for the synopsis and some details about the main characters on the Web. See the Chez nous Companion Website for links. You may also wish to show a short excerpt from one of the many films made of Les Misérables. In particular, before completing Avant de lire, you might show the scene where Valjean arrives at the Bishop s house; ask students to describe the characters they see Les Misérables A. Avant de lire. You are about to read an excerpt from the opening paragraphs of the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo, a well-known nineteenth-century French novelist, playwright, and poet. Les Misérables has been translated into many languages and has been a major musical for many years. Three characters are introduced in the beginning of the novel, the Bishop of Digne and the two women in his household. Look at the illustrations of these three characters made by Georges Jeanniot for the first edition of Les Misérables. Then make lists of adjectives you know in French that could be used to describe each person. Using the illustrations to make preliminary assumptions about these characters can help you follow the author s descriptions, even if you cannot understand every word. Implementation: Avant de lire Students can work alone or in pairs. When everyone has come up with adjectives, lists could be compared in groups or though a whole-class discussion. Check to see whether some students are familiar with the story and know how these characters fit into the plot. L évêque Mme Magloire, Mlle Baptistine, Jean Valjean et l évèque 78 soixante-dix-huit CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

13 B. En lisant. As you read the descriptions of the Bishop, Mlle Baptistine, and Mme Magloire, focus on getting a general sense of the passage. You will note that the author incorporates a number of adjectives into his description of the two women and gives an indication of each person s age. Then look for the answers to the following specific questions: 1. How old is the Bishop, M. Myriel? 2. Knowing that moins means less, indicate how old his sister is. 3. What is the name of the Bishop s sister? 4. What is the name of their household servant? 5. Give two adjectives in English to describe each woman. En 1815, M. Charles-Francois-Bienvenu Myriel était 1 évêque de Digne. C était un vieillard 2 d environ soixante-quinze ans M. Myriel était arrivé 3 à Digne accompagné d une vieille fille 4, Mlle Baptistine, qui était sa sœur et qui avait 5 dix ans de moins que lui. Ils avaient 6 pour tout domestique une servante appelée Mme Magloire. Mlle Baptistine était une personne longue, pâle, mince, douce 7. Elle n avait jamais 8 été jolie Mme Magloire était une petite vieille, blanche, grasse, replète 9, affairée, toujours haletante, à cause de son activité d abord, ensuite à cause d un asthme. 1 past tense of the verb être 2 une personne âgée 3 had arrived 4 une femme d un certain âge qui est célibataire 5 past tense of the verb avoir, sg. 6 past tense of the verb avoir, pl. 7 gentle 8 never 9 grosse C. En regardant de plus près. Take a closer look at the following features of the text. 1. There are two words in the text that are synonyms and mean household worker. What are they? 2. Mlle Baptistine is described with the adjective longue. Can you provide a synonym in French for this word? What point do you think the author is trying to make with the choice of this particular adjective? 3. Look at the adjective affairée. This is an adjective used to describe a very busy person. Do you know any other adjectives in French that could be used to indicate the same idea? 4. Mme Magloire is described as haletante. The rest of the sentence explains why she is described in this way. Given this context, and the illustration of Mme Magloire, what do you think the adjective haletante means? 5 10 Key: En lisant 1) 75 2) 65 3) Mlle Baptistine 4) Mme Magloire 5) Mlle Baptistine: tall, thin, pale, gentle; Mme Magloire: large, fat, busy, old, whitehaired. Key: En regardant de plus près 1) domestique, servante 2) grande, the author is probably stressing how tall and thin she is 3) occupé/e, maybe stressé/e 4) à cause de son activité d abord heavy people who are busy get out of breath easily; ensuite à cause d un asthme people with asthma sometimes have difficulty breathing. Expansion: Help students to see how the two female characters differ in looks and manner. You could have them make a list of adjectives for each in French and identify the opposites. Expansion: The central characters in Les Misérables, who are not introduced in these opening lines, include Jean Valjean, l Inspecteur Javert, Fantine, Marius, and Cosette. You might ask whether any students have read the novel or seen a movie version or the musical and have them tell about it. Alternatively, students can look for information on the Web. As a follow-up assignment, ask students to work with a partner to prepare a two- or threesentence description of one of the main characters mentioned above. Have them start by making a list of adjectives in French that fit the character. They should also indicate the person s age. Students may also describe the relationships between their character and other characters listed. After writing, groups may take turns sharing their description with the class; see if others can guess whom they have described. D. Après avoir lu. How successful are the author s brief descriptions in painting a portrait of each of the three characters? Look back at the lists of adjectives you drew up in preparation for reading. How closely do your predictions coincide with what you read? Is there anything you would change in the drawings, based on the descriptions in the text? LEÇON 1 MES AMIS ET MOI soixante-dix-neuf 79

14 Leçon 2 Nos loisirs POINTS DE DÉPART Nos activités TEXT AUDIO TRACK 00 Presentation: Students have already seen the verb faire in expressions such as Qu est-ce qu il fait? and Deux et deux, ça fait quatre. Limit use here to the singular forms, fais/fait, the complete paradigm for faire is treated in the Formes et fonctions for this lesson. Moi, je fais du sport ; je joue au foot avec des amis. On a un match tous les samedis. Mes copains font de la musique. Ils jouent dans un groupe. Ils donnent un concert samedi soir. Mamadou joue de la guitare et Valentin joue du piano. François et Léa organisent une fête. François fait les courses et Léa fait la cuisine. Ma copine Amélie ne fait pas grand-chose ; elle reste à la résidence et elle regarde un film. Ses amies Vanessa et Anne-Laure jouent aux échecs. Presentation: Present this vocabulary by showing and describing the leisure activities (IRCD/TR, Ch. 2). Test comprehension by showing the unlabeled images (IRCD/TR, Ch. 2) and having students point to or mime the activity named. Use either/or questions to elicit Nathalie est super sportive ; elle fait de la natation. Elle fait du vélo aussi. Benjamin fait du bricolage et son amie Élodie fait du jardinage. repetitions of key vocabulary: Il fait des courses ou il fait la cuisine? Have students repeat the new vocabulary, including the expressions in the boxed list. Then use visuals or miming (by the teacher or students) to get the class to recall the new vocabulary and identify activities. Use a quick substitution drill to review the forms of -er verbs like jouer : Je joue au foot ; nous. Nous jouons au foot, etc. 80 quatre-vingts CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

15 Des loisirs On fait... du sport de la natation, du vélo, du jogging On fait... de la musique On fait... des courses, la cuisine, du bricolage, du jardinage On joue... au football, au basket-ball, au tennis, au golf, au football américain, au rugby, au volley-ball, au hockey On joue... du piano, de la guitare, de l harmonica, du saxophone, de la batterie, de la musique classique, du jazz, du rock On joue... aux cartes, aux échecs, au Scrabble, au loto, aux jeux de société Some French verbs require a preposition. For example, the verb jouer is followed by the preposition à or the preposition de, plus the definite article. To remember that jouer is followed by à for sports and games, and by de for musical instruments, memorize a couple of sentences that are personally meaningful. For example, you might come up with: Je joue au foot and Mon frère joue de la guitare. À vous la parole 2-14 On joue? Based on the drawings, what is everyone doing this afternoon? On joue au tennis Note: The words basketball and volleyball are written without a hyphen, reflecting the orthographic reform of Students may also see these words spelled with a hyphen. The forms le football, le basketball, and le volleyball are often abbreviated to le foot, le basket, and le volley. This is frequent in spoken French, particularly among students. Note that in Canada, le football is referred to as le soccer, le football américain as le football, and le basketball as le ballonpanier. Implementation: 2-14 Show the visual cues for this exercise (IRCD/TR, Ch. 2) Chacun à son goût. Based on the descriptions, figure out with a partner what these friends probably do in their spare time. É1 Margaux est très réservée. É2 Elle ne fait pas grand-chose ; elle reste à la maison et regarde un film. 1. Charlotte est très sociable. 2. Loïc est super sportif. 3. Delphine est une bonne musicienne. 4. Florian adore le cinéma. 5. Laurent est fanatique de jazz. 6. Céline aime préparer le dîner. 7. Alex préfère les jeux de société. 8. Rachid est très actif. 9. Anaïs est bricoleuse. LEÇON 2 NOS LOISIRS quatre-vingt-un 81

16 Vie et culture Implementation: All information is adapted from the 2007 edition of Francoscopie by Gérard Mermet and the most recent statistical data provided by INSEE on its Web site. Point out that musculation is related to the English word muscles and refers to strength training, and note that gym = gymnastique in French may refer to gymnastics but also refers to any type of physical exercise or stretching. Les loisirs des Français The French devote more than one-third of their waking hours to leisure activities, about seven hours per day on average. They now enjoy the shortest workweek of any European country, 35 hours, and have five weeks of paid vacation each year. Typically, a little less than 20 percent of the total household budget is used for leisure activities. The chart below indicates the percentage of French people who participated in various leisure-time activities at least once in the course of a year. Examine it with a partner: How many activities can you identify? How do these activities compare with your own leisure activities and those of people you know? How do you think a chart drawn up for North Americans would differ from this one? 100% 90% 98% Une année de loisirs 80% 70% 70% % des Français 60% 50% 61% 52% 40% 38% 30% 20% 10% 0% Loisirs regarder la télé faire du bricolage lire un livre faire du jardinage 22% 13% 9% 9% 5% faire du vélo faire des promenades faire de la gym faire de la musculation jouer d'un instrument de musique faire de la danse chanter dans une chorale 3% 2-16 Et toi? With the person sitting beside you, take turns telling three things you typically do on the weekend. Use only words and expressions that you know. Then share with your classmates what you have learned about your partner. É1 Le week-end, je travaille un peu, je joue au basket et je fais la cuisine. Et toi? É2 Je ne fais pas grand-chose ; je reste à la maison et je prépare mes cours. 82 quatre-vingt-deux CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

17 2-17 Un sondage. Poll your classmates to find out what percentage participate in each of the activities included in the chart in the Vie et culture. Designate one student in your group to ask the questions, and another to keep track of responses on the board. Compare your percentages with those presented for the French. What are your conclusions? 1. Posez des questions. Qui fait du bricolage? (raise your hand if you do) Qui joue d un instrument de musique? (raise your hand if you do) 2. Comptez les réponses. 3. Annoncez les résultats. Trois étudiants font du bricolage ; c est 30 pour cent. (if your group has 10 members). Un étudiant joue du piano ; c est 10 pour cent. Implementation: 2-17 Divide students into groups to make the data collection easier and allow more students the opportunity to participate. You may wish to postpone this activity until you have presented the conjugated forms of the verb faire in Formes et fonctions 2 of this lesson to allow students to report back sentences such as Cinq étudiants font du vélo. Expansion: 2-17 Discuss whether class results resemble those of the French poll. Why might they differ? Are there any activities not included in the French poll that would probably figure prominently in a poll of American leisure activities? Sons et lettres L enchaînement et la liaison TEXT AUDIO TRACK 00 In French, consonants that occur within a rhythmic group tend to be linked to the following syllable. This is called enchaînement. Because of this feature of French pronunciation, most syllables end in a vowel sound: il a /i la/ sept amis /sε ta mi/ Élise arrive /e li za riv/ Presentation: As you present this topic, review the notion of rhythmic groups. Note: The word enchainement is spelled without a circumflex accent according to the Ortographic reform of 1990 As you have learned, some final consonants are almost always pronounced; these include final -c, -r, -f, -l, and all consonants followed by the written letter -e: Loïc ma sœur sportif Cyril arrête seize il aime Other final consonants are pronounced only when the following word begins with a vowel. These are called liaison consonants, and the process that links the liaison consonant to the beginning of the next syllable is called liaison. Liaison consonants are usually found in grammatical endings and words such as pronouns, articles, possessive adjectives, prepositions, and numbers. You have seen the following liaison consonants: -s, -x, -z (pronounced /z/): vous avez, les enfants, nos amis, aux échecs, très aimable, six ans, chez eux -t: c est un chapeau, elles sont énergiques -n: on a, un oncle, mon ami When you pronounce a liaison consonant, articulate it as part of the next word: deux oncles /dø zɔ ~ kl/ on a /ɔ ~ na/ not */døz ~ ɔ kl/ not */ɔ ~ n a/ il est ici /i le ti si/ not */il et i si/ Note: Point out that liaison is never made with the final -t of the word et. Note: The asterisk in the examples is a linguistic convention used to show that this form is not part of a native speaker s repertoire. LEÇON 2 NOS LOISIRS quatre-vingt-trois 83

18 À vous la parole 2-18 Contrastes : sans et avec enchaînement. Pronounce each pair of phrases. Be sure to link the final consonant of the first word to the following word when it begins with a vowel. une copine une amie pour Bertrand pour Albert Luc parle Luc écoute neuf livres neuf ordinateurs quel cousin quel oncle elle fait ça elle aime ça 2-19 Liaisons. Pronounce the liaison consonants in the following phrases. Be sure to link the consonant with the following word. nous allons on a ils arrivent elles sont au bureau son petit ami ton amie vous écoutez un an elles habitent en ville elles vont à la maison il a vingt ans son enfant Presentation: To present this topic inductively, use examples with jouer à, jouer de, and faire. For example: J aime le tennis. Je joue au tennis. Ma mère adore la natation. Elle fait de la natation le lundi et le mercredi. Mon père aime bien le golf. Il joue au golf le week-end. Ma sœur adore la musique, surtout la guitare. Elle joue de la guitare dans un groupe. Using sentences with the definite article in the presentation allows students to discover that à and de form contractions with the definite articles le, la, and les. After providing numerous examples, both orally and in written form, ask students whether they can explain the rules, and display a simple graphic with the contractions as illustrated here. Presentation: Point out that French and English differ with regard to the types of objects used with verbs: téléphoner à (+ indirect object) vs. écouter (+ direct object). You might also want to contrast parler à and parler de. FORMES ET FONCTIONS 1. Les prépositions à et de The preposition à generally indicates location or destination and has several English equivalents. Elle habite à Paris. Il est à la maison. Elle va à une fête. Nous jouons au tennis le lundi. Ils jouent aux cartes le samedi soir. She lives in Paris. He s at the house. She s going to a party. As you ve seen, the preposition à is also used in the expression jouer à, to play (sports or games). We play tennis on Mondays. They play cards on Saturday evenings. With other verbs, à introduces the indirect object, usually a person who receives the action. parler Cédric parle à la petite fille. Cédric s speaking to the little girl. téléphoner Nous téléphonons à nos We re phoning our friends. amis. donner Elle donne la photo à son ami. She gives her boyfriend the photo. 84 quatre-vingt-quatre CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

19 À combines with the definite articles le and les to form contractions. There is no contraction with la or l. à + le S au Il joue au golf. He plays golf. à + les S aux Ils jouent aux échecs avec They play chess with friends. des amis. à + la S à la Je reste à la maison vendredi soir. I m staying home on Friday evening. à + l S à l Je parle à l oncle de Simon. I m talking to Simon s uncle. The preposition de/d indicates where someone or something comes from. Mon copain Justin est de Montréal. Elle arrive de France demain. My boyfriend Justin is from Montreal. She arrives from France tomorrow. As you ve seen, de is also used in the expression jouer de, to play (music or a musical instrument). Son ami joue du piano dans un groupe. Lui, il joue de l harmonica. Her friend plays piano in a group. He plays the harmonica. De/d also is used to indicate possession or other close relationships. C est le frère du professeur. Voilà le livre de Kelly. It s the teacher s brother. There s Kelly s book. De combines with the definite articles le and les to form contractions. There is no contraction with la or l. de + le S du Mon amie fait du jogging. My girlfriend goes jogging. de + les S des On parle des projets pour le week-end. We re talking about plans for the weekend. de + la S de la Moi, je joue de la guitare. I play the guitar. de + l S de l Il joue de l accordéon. He plays the accordion. À vous la parole 2-20 Ça cause. Tell what today s subjects of conversation are for Camille and her friends. la copine de Bruno Elles parlent de la copine de Bruno. 1. le professeur de français 2. le match de basket le week-end dernier (last) 3. les problèmes du campus 4. la nouvelle (new) colocataire de Camille 5. l oncle d Antoine 6. les devoirs d anglais 7. le dernier film des frères Coen Initial practice: Begin practice with simple substitution drills: Il joue au foot ; loto. Il joue au loto ; échecs ; basket ; cartes ; tennis ; jeux de société, etc.; Je joue du piano ; guitare. Je joue de la guitare ; batterie ; harmonica ; saxophone ; musique classique ; jazz, etc. LEÇON 2 NOS LOISIRS quatre-vingt-cinq 85

20 Variation: 2-21 Have students suggest other famous athletes, chefs, and musicians. Key: 1) Il joue de la guitare/il chante. 2) Il fait du vélo. 3) Elle joue au foot. 4) Elle fait la cuisine. 5) Elle joue au tennis. 6) Elle joue du piano/elle chante. 7) Il joue du saxophone. 8) Il joue au golf Des célébrités. What do these famous people do? Kobe Bryant Il joue au basket-ball. 1. John Mayer 2. Lance Armstrong 3. Mia Hamm 4. Rachael Ray 5. Serena Williams 6. Alicia Keys 7. Kenny G. 8. Tiger Woods Implementation: 2-22 Use as a mixing activity; impose a time limit, then have students ask questions to get missing information: Qui joue de l harmonica? Ask follow-up questions: Tu joues dans un groupe?, etc Trouvez une personne qui... Circulate in the classroom to find someone who does each of the things listed. When your instructor calls time, compare notes to see who came closest to completing the list. joue de l harmonica É1 Tu joues de l harmonica? É2 Non. (You ask another person.) OU Oui. (You write down this person s name.) 1. fait du vélo 2. fait de la natation 3. reste à la maison le dimanche soir 4. joue au golf le week-end 5. joue du piano 6. téléphone à ses parents le week-end 7. parle au professeur en français 8. joue du saxophone 9. joue souvent (often) aux cartes 10. fait du jardinage Presentation: Present the verb inductively through a short narrative: Le week-end, je fais des courses et je fais du jardinage. Mon mari fait du bricolage ; les enfants font du sport, etc. Et vous, vous faites du sport? Ask students to summarize the forms, and display the verb chart, re-modeling pronunciation. Remind students of where they have seen this verb before: in arithmetic problems and the question Qu est-ce qu il fait?, as well as in the lexical items taught in the Points de départ. 2. Le verbe faire The verb faire (to make, to do) is used in a wide variety of expressions. Here are the forms of this irregular verb. SINGULIER FAIRE to make, to do PLURIEL je fais nous faisons tu fais vous faites il elle on M fait ils elles f font 86 quatre-vingt-six CHAPITRE 2 VOICI MES AMIS

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