Editors B.C.Y. Freezailah, H. Mohd Basri, M. I. Shaharuddin, C. C. Chandrasekharan, S. E. Wilson and I. Tomaselli VOLUME 1. Jointly sponsored by

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1 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL FORESTS PRIVATE SECTOR EXPERIENCES Case Studies Presentation Editors B.C.Y. Freezailah, H. Mohd Basri, M. I. Shaharuddin, C. C. Chandrasekharan, S. E. Wilson and I. Tomaselli VOLUME 1 Jointly sponsored by Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia & International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO)

2 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL FORESTS PRIVATE SECTOR EXPERIENCES Case Studies Presentation

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4 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL FORESTS PRIVATE SECTOR EXPERIENCES Case Studies Presentation Proceedings of the International Conference Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia April 2004 VOLUME I Editors B. C. Y. Freezailah, H. Mohd Basri, M. I. Shaharuddin, C. C. Chandrasekharan, S. E. Wilson and I. Tomaselli Jointly organised and sponsored by Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia & International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO)

5 Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia September 2004 All enquiries regarding this book should be forwarded to: Director General of Forestry Forestry Department Headquarters Peninsular Malaysia Jalan Sultan Salahuddin Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Tel : Fax : Website : Perpustakaan Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data International Conference (2004: Kuala Lumpur) Sustainable management of tropical forest: private sector Experiences : proceedings of the International Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 2004; jointly organized and sponsored by Forest Department Peninsular Malaysia & International Tropical Timber Organization. ISBN (v.i) I. Sustainable Forestry Congresses. 2.Forest management-- Congresses. 3. Forest and Forestry Congresses. I. Malaysia. Jabatan Perhutanan. II. International Tropical Timber Organization. III. Title No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, whether mechanical or electronic including photocopying and recording without the written consent of Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia

6 CONTENTS CONTENTS V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xiv KEYNOTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL FORESTS. PRIVATE SECTOR EXPERIENCE: CONGO BASIN EXAMPLE By Dr. H. L. Stoll SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL FORESTS. PRIVATE SECTOR EXPERIENCE: CONGO BASIN EXAMPLE By Dr. H. L. Stoll and Sr. J-J. Landrot 1.0 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THE AFRICAN RESOURCE AS A WHOLE AREAS UNDER MANAGEMENT FOREST MANAGEMENT: AN ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL REVOLUTION ECO-CERTIFICATION ANOTHER INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT REQUIREMENT: GOVERNANCE AND LEGALITY CONCLUSION LA ORDENACIÓN SOSTENIBLE DE LOS BOSQUES TROPICALES. EXPERIENCIAS DEL SECTOR PRIVADO: EL EJEMPLO DE LA CUENCA DEL CONGO Por el Dr. H. L. Stoll y el Sr. J-J Landrot 1.0 DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE LOS RECURSOS AFRICANOS EN GENERAL LAS SUPERFICIES MANEJADAS LA ORDENACIÓN FORESTAL: UNA REVOLUCIÓN ECONÓMICA Y CULTURAL LA ECO-CERTIFICACIÓN OTRA CRECIENTE EXIGENCIA: LA GOBERNANZA Y LA LEGALIDAD CONCLUSIÓN LA ORDENACIÓN SOSTENIBLE DE LOS BOSQUES TROPICALES. EXPERIENCIAS DEL SECTOR PRIVADO: EL EJEMPLO DE LA CUENCA DEL CONGO Por el Dr. H. L. Stoll y el Sr. J-J Landrot 1.0 DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE LOS RECURSOS AFRICANOS EN GENERAL LAS SUPERFICIES MANEJADAS LA ORDENACIÓN FORESTAL: UNA REVOLUCIÓN ECONÓMICA Y CULTURAL LA ECO-CERTIFICACIÓN OTRA CRECIENTE EXIGENCIA: LA GOBERNANZA Y LA LEGALIDAD CONCLUSIÓN v

7 SESSION 1 AFRICA Chairman: M. Esano EXPERIENCE DE LA CONGOLAISE INDUSTRIELLE DES BOIS (CIB) EN MATIERE DE GESTION DURABLE DES FORETS Y. Dubois and D. Paget SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN CONTEXTE LA GESTION FORESTIÈRE PERMET UN BÉNÉFICE POUR TOUTE LA POPULATION PAR LE RESPECT D UNE FISCALITÉ FORESTIÈRE ÉQUILIBRÉE LA GESTION FORESTIÈRE RESPONSABLE DE LA CIB EXIGE L ÉLABORATION DE PLANS D AMÉNAGEMENT DE CHACUNE DE SES CONCESSIONS PAR CES PLANS, LA CIB S ENGAGE À EXPLOITER LA FORÊT «DURABLEMENT» POUR METTRE EN ŒUVRE CETTE NOUVELLE POLITIQUE, LA CIB S ASSOCIE À DES PARTENAIRES, TOUTES LES «PARTIES PRENANTES» LA CIB ÉLABORE DES PLANS D AMÉNAGEMENT POUR SES CONCESSIONS EN VISANT LA CONSERVATION DE L ENVIRONNEMENT ET LE DÉVELOPPEMENT SOCIAL ET ÉCONOMIQUE DU PAYS PRESENTATION DE LA CIB INVENTAIRE D AMENAGEMENT OU INVENTAIRE STATISTIQUE DES RESSOURCES FORESTIERES DES UNITES FORESTIERES D AMENAGEMENT (UFA) ATTRIBUEES ALACIB MÉTHODE D INVENTAIRE D AMÉNAGEMENT FORESTIER EXPERIENCE DE LA CONGOLAISE INDUSTRIELLE DE BOIS EN MATIERE DE GESTION ET PROTECTION DE LA FAUNE MESURES D EXPLOITATION FORESTIERE A IMPACT REDUIT (EFIR) MISES EN ŒUVRE A LA CIB ACTIONS PROGRAMMÉES EN LES ACTIONS SOCIALES ET ECONOMIQUES DU PLAN D AMENAGEMENT DE LA CIB LES ENGAGEMENTS DE LA CIB CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHIE THE MANAGEMENT OF PLANTATION FORESTS: THE CASE OF OFFICE DE DEVELOPPEMENT ET D EXPLOITATION DES FORETS (ODEF) A-A. Ayih SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN INTRODUCTION PROFIL DE LA COMPAGNIE LES AMENAGEMENTS FORESTIERS FACTEURS FAVORISANT L AMENAGEMENT FORESTIER DURABLE FACTEURS DEFAVORABLES A L AMENAGEMENT FORESTIER DURABLE CONCLUSION vi

8 A FOREST CONCESSION MANAGED ON A SUSTAINABLE BASIS BY AN INDUSTRIAL COMPANY: THE CASE OF ROUGIER GABON IN HAUT-ABANGA N. Bayol SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION DE L ENTREPRISE ET DE LA CFAD: LES ELEMENTS CLE LES POINTS FORTS DE LA GESTION DURABLE DE LA CFAD DU HAUT-ABANGA («CORE STRENGTHS VIS-À-VIS SFM) UN PLAN D AMÉNAGEMENT COMPLET BASÉ SUR UNE SOLIDE ANALYSE DE L ENVIRONNEMENT SUR LA CFAD RESTRICTIONS D EXPLOITATION ABATTAGE DÉBARDAGE ET DÉBUSCAGE LIMITATION DES PERTES DE BOIS LIMITATION DES POLLUTIONS CHIMIQUES ROUTES MESURES DE SUIVI CONTRÔLE DE L EXPLOITATION DES ACTIONS NOUVELLES DE CONSERVATION DES MILIEUX ET DE LA FAUNE UNE MEILLEURE PRISE EN COMPTE DES BESOINS SOCIAUX UN SOUCI CONSTANT DE SE METTRE EN CONFORMITÉ AVEC LES STANDARDS INTERNATIONAUX ET NOTAMMENT CEUX DE L OAB/OIBT LES ENSEIGNEMENTS TIRÉS DE L EXPÉRIENCE ROUGIER GABON SUR LA CFAD DU HAUT-ABANGA REFERENCES SAMARTEX TIMBER & PLYWOOD LTD. GHANA S FIRST COMPANY GOING FOR CERTIFICATION.91 A. Brede SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN INTRODUCTION COMPANY BACKGOUND TIMBER HARVESTING AND PROCESSING FOREST MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL ISSUES CONSTRAINTS, CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK SUMMARY BY SESSION CHAIRMAN, M. ESANO SOMMAIRE DU PRÉSIDENT DE LA SÉANCE PAR M. ESANO RESUMEN DEL PRESIDENTE DE LA SESIÓN POR M. ESANO vii

9 SESSION 2 ASIA-PACIFIC Chairman: R. B. McCarthy CASE STUDY ON SAMLING PLYWOOD (BRAMAS) SDN. BHD., MALAYSIA S. K. Chan SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN BACKGROUND INFORMATION TIMBER LICENSE REGULATIONS FOREST TYPES AND THE SITE FACTORS DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT SYSTEM OF FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING LOGGING OPERATIONS POST-HARVEST INSPECTION AND CLOSURE OF LOGGING BLOCKS SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS IN LOGGED-OVER AREAS FOREST FIRE MANAGEMENT WOOD UTILISATION ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRIBUTIONS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES FOR OBTAINING CERTIFICATION GOVERNMENT CAPABILITY TO ENFORCE SFM CONSTRAINTS SUCCESS CRITERIA TECHNOLOGICAL REFINEMENTS AND LOCAL COMMUNITY SUPPORT ARE CRUCIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF PT. SARI BUMI KUSUMA N. Suparna SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN INTRODUCTION THE CONCESSION THE FOREST RESOURCES FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT (HRD) INSTITUTIONAL ASPECT SOCIAL ASPECT ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT R & D ACTIVITIES CERTIFICATION CONCLUSION LITERATURE viii

10 SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT AGAINST ALL ODDS: THE CASE OF PACIFIC TIMBER EXPORT CORPORATION F. A. Lu SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN BACKGROUND COMPANY PROFILE AND STRUCTURE DETAILS OF THE CONCESSION AREA TLA FOREST RESOURCE BASE PATECO S FOREST MANAGEMENT HISTORY MANAGEMENT PLANNING ANNUAL LOGGING PLAN & PRE-LOGGING REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL ALLOWABLE CUT VS. PERMISSIBLE CUT POST HARVEST OPERATION FOREST PROTECTION CONTROL OF FOREST PEST AND DISEASES ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION PATECO S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRIBUTION COMMUNITY SERVICES CAPACITY OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES TO ENFORCE SFM FUTURE PLANS SUCCESS CRITERIA CONCLUSION REFERENCES TIMBER PRODUCTION PROMOTES REGIONAL AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN REMOTE REGIONS OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA: THE CASE OF VANIMO FOREST PRODUCTS PTY. LTD P. Tiong SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN BACKGROUND COMPANY OBJECTIVES FOREST AND LOCALITY FACTORS FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND PROCESS BENEFITS GENERATED STAFFING AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE SUPPORT TO SOCIAL/RURAL DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT LAND-USE DEVELOPMENT SCHOLARSHIPS AND HIGHER EDUCATION SOCIAL AMENITIES AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION FUTURE PROGRAMMES SUCCESS CRITERIA AND CONSTRAINTS CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ix

11 PRODUCERS CO-OPERATIVES ENSURE BETTER MANAGEMENT OF AND ENHANCED INCOME FROM, NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS AND EMPOWER THE COMMUNITY: THE CASE OF MADHYA PRADASH STATE MINOR FOREST PRODUCE (TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT) CO-OPERATIVE FEDERATION LTD R. Prasad SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN INTRODUCTION SPATIAL SCOPE OF THE CASE ECONOMIC INDICATORS LOCALITY FACTORS FOREST RESOURCES FORESTS IN VILLAGES STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FORESTRY IN MADHYA PRADESH JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES NEGLECT OF NWFPS NATIONALISATION OF TENDU LEAVES COLLECTION MADHYA PRADESH INITIATIVES MP-MFP (TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT) CO-OPERATIVE FEDERATION LTD CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT REFERENCES CLONAL PULPWOOD TREE FARMS CHANGE THE RURAL LANDSCAPE IN ANDHRA PRADESH: A CASE STUDY ON OUTGROWER FARMS OF CLONAL TREES OF ITC LTD S. N. Rao SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND SITUATION OF FORESTRY IN ANDHRA PRADESH FOREST-BASED INDUSTRIES PROMOTION OF OUTGROWER TREE FARMS OUTREACH TO THE FARMERS IMPROVED SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES GROWTH AND YIELDS CUTTING CYCLE AND YIELD HARVESTING AND COPPICING PULPWOOD PROCUREMENT ARRANGEMENTS PRICE PAID FOR PULPWOOD COST-BENEFIT COMPARISONS BENEFITS OF CLONAL EUCALYPTUS TREE FARMS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT EXTENSION ACTIVITIES PLANS FOR THE FUTURE SUCCESS CRITERIA AND CONSTRAINTS x

12 19.0 CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SUMMARY BY SESSION CHAIRMAN, R. B. MCCARTHY SOMMAIRE DU PRÉSIDENT DE LA SÉANCE PAR R. B. McCARTHY RESUMEN DEL PRESIDENTE DE LA SESIÓN POR R. B. MCCARTHY SESSION 3 LATIN AMERICA-CARIBBEAN Chairman: F. Pastore IMPACTS OF SFM ADOPTION AT THE FOREST AND THE MILL: THE CASE OF LA CHONTA P. Antelo and M. Tuoto SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN GENERAL INFORMATION SFM ADOPTION WOOD PROCESSING MARKET ISSUES FINANCIAL IMPACTS GENERAL ASSESSMENT ON STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES SFM AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS: THE CASE OF GUAVIRÁ J. Baldasso and M. Tuoto SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN GENERAL INFORMATION SFM ACTIVITIES INDUSTRIAL EVOLUTION MARKET ISSUES SFM IN ORSA FLORESTAL: THE CASE OF ORSA FLORESTAL R. S. Waack, R. F. Tocci, A. L. Pironel and E. L. Reckziegel SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN THE JARI VALLEY REGION JARI PROJECT ORSA FLORESTAL THE SFM PLAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY GENERAL ASSESSMENT ON STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES xi

13 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PARTNERSHIPS IN ORDER TO FACILITATE SFM IMPLEMENTATION: THE CASE OF CIKEL M. Tuoto SUMMARY RESUME RESUMEN GENERAL INFORMATION SFM DEVELOPMENT IN CIKEL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SFM PLAN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE REGION CIKEL COMMITMENT TO THE COMMUNITY CONSIDERING THE INTERNATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF SFM SUMMARY BY SESSION CHAIRMAN, F. PASTORE SOMMAIRE DU PRÉSIDENT DE LA SÉANCE PAR F. PASTORE RESUMEN DEL PRESIDENTE DE LA SESIÓN POR F. PASTORE SESSION IV PANEL DISCUSSION Chairman: Dato Dr. B. C. Y. Freezailah CONCLUDING REMARKS BY SESSION CHAIRMAN DATO DR. B. C. Y. FREEZAILAH ALLOCUTION DE CLÔTURE DU PRÉSIDENT DE LA SÉANCE, DATO DR. B. C. Y. FREEZAILAH COMENTARIOS FINALES DEL PRESIDENTE DE LA SESIÓN, DATO DR. B. C. Y. FREEZAILAH POST-CONFERENCE MANAGEMENT OF THE MATANG MANGROVES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Dato' M. Azahar and K.L. Lim SUMMARY BACKGROUND INFORMATION RESERVATION, MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT HISTORY RESOURCE BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS SILVICULTURE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SUCCESS CRITERIA AND CONSTRAINTS REFERENCES xii

14 OPENING & CLOSING ADDRESS OPENING ADDRESS BY DR. MANOEL SOBRAL FILHO WELCOMING ADDRESS BY Y. BHG. DATO' HAJI ABDUL RASHID BIN MAT AMIN OPENING ADDRESS BY Y.B. DATO SRI HJ. ADENAN HJ. SATEM CLOSING REMARKS BY Y. BHG. DATO HAJI ABDUL RASHID BIN MAT AMIN CONFERENCE PROGRAMME CONFERENCE PROGRAMME CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS PARTICIPANTS xiii

15 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The International Conference on Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests Private Sector Experiences, held between April 2004, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, serves to report on findings of the ITTO Project PD48/99 Rev.1 (F, M) entitled Sharing of Information and Experiences on Private Sector Success Stories in Sustainable Forest Management. The Project is unique to the Organisation in the sense that it is the first major project that deals with the private sector s application of the sustainable forest management principle. ITTO in its essence have set its core business, so to speak, to formulate good management practices for the forests of the tropics around the thrust of SFM. It is thus in this perspective that the outputs of this Project is anticipated with some eagerness since it provides the first opportunity for us to see how the private sector forest managers adopt and translate the sustainability concept in their management practices. In its endeavour the project team, led by Y. Bhg. Dato Dr. B. C. Y. Freezailah, the founding and former Executive Director of ITTO, has covered a very wide ground in terms of both space and subject matter that revolves around SFM. The three major tropical regions of Asia-Pacific, Africa and Latin America-Caribbean were judiciously surveyed for good practitioners of forest management among private sector companies. It is hoped that their experiences, and in particular the lessons learnt, in pursuing SFM as the core of their forest management, will serve as the guiding models for those aspiring to venture in the same direction. The conference proceedings, published in two volumes, tell a pan-tropical story of the struggles experienced by 15 forest managers to achieve SFM. Collectively, they cover a range of forest enterprises that practically span the very wide tapestry of forestry endeavours. Although the socioeconomic and physical backdrops may be varied there are many common grounds for them to convey a pan-tropical message, if not a regional one. I am confident that the discerning forest manager can pick out the lessons learnt, from this intentionally selected wide management landscape that can benefit their individual needs. Like all major enterprise, the making of this Project, with its culmination in the proceedings, is a gotong royong effort which is a traditional Malay expression meaning team effort in which most of the village is involved. I gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the ITTO and the Government of Malaysia, through the Department of Forestry Peninsular Malaysia, for conceiving and funding the Project. I would also like to congratulate the fine effort of the project team with Y. Bhg. Dato Dr. B. C. Y. Freezailah as the Project Coordinator, Mr. Mohd Basri bin Hamzah the Assistant Coordinator and Dr. C. C. Chandrasekharan, Mr. S. E. Wilson and Dr. I. Tomaselli as Regional Consultants. The Project was smoothly managed by the home Secretariat in Kuala Lumpur commendably headed by Y. Bhg. Dato Shaharuddin bin Mohamad Ismail, the Deputy Director General, and his able staff which include Mr. Thai See Kiam, Mr. Razani bin Ujang, Mr. Chin Yue Man, Tuan Hj Kamaruzaman bin Ali Budin and Mr. Yap Yee Hwai. The Perak State Forest Department smoothly organised the Post-Conference Tour under the able leadership of the State Director of Forestry, Y.Bhg. Dato Azahar bin Muda and his staff which include Mr. Nik Mohd. Shah bin Nik Mustafa, Mr. Amir bin Idris, Tn. Hj. Zainal bin Jain and Mr. Lim Kee Leng. I would like to thank Dr. C. C.Chandrasekharan for drafting the project technical report which is printed separately from the conference proceedings. In this fine piece of writing, he has successfully highlighted the major lessons learnt by the forest managers and also commendably updated our knowledge on the nature and practice of SFM in the tropics. This publication should thus be of use to all students of sustainable tropical forest management. My sincere appreciation is especially extended to the conference paper presenters for their magnanimity in sharing their rich experiences to benefit forest management in the tropics. They are Mr. S.K. Chan, Mr. N. Suparna, Mr. F. A. Lu, Mr. P. Tiong, Dr. R. Prasad, Mr. S. N. Rao, Y. Bhg. Dato M. Azahar and Mr. K. L. Lim from the Asia-Pacific region, Mr. P.Y. Dubois, Mr A-A. Ayih, Mr. N. Bayol, Mr. A. Brede from Africa and Mr. P. Antelo, Mr. J. Baldasso, Mr. R. S. Waack, Mr. R. F. Tocci, Mr. A. L. Pironel, Mr. E. L. Reckziegel and Mr. Tuoto from Latin America-Caribbean region. And also to the session chairmen, Mr. M. Esano, Mr. R. McCarthy and Mr. F. Pastore and the Conference Panellists, Y. Bhg. Dato Dr. B. C. Y. Freezailah, Mr. N. Bayol, Mr. Yati Bun, H. E. Mr. N. Nakahira, Mr. Njoto and Dr. I. Tomaselli. Through their gotong royong in ideas and deliberations they have collectively identified for us a clearer direction ahead. I believe and I hope that this report will make a difference to forest management in the tropics. Yours sincerely, Director General Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia xiv

16 KEYNOTE ADDRESS

17 Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests Private Sector Experiences 3 SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL FORESTS. PRIVATE SECTOR EXPERIENCE: CONGO BASIN EXAMPLE by Dr. H. L. Stoll Past President and Sr. J-J. Landrot President It is an honour for Dr. Stoll and myself to have been invited by ITTO to deliver a keynote address at this ITTO seminar in Kuala Lumpur. The privilege of age is also the privilege of experience, since Dr. Stoll, over half a century ago, and myself, some 42 years ago, not only discovered the Tropics, where we developed companies, but especially fell in love with them. Therefore, with the benefit of this long experience, we would wish to analyse with you the extraordinary cultural and technological revolutions which have taken place in the Tropics, and particularly in Africa, over the last ten years. As you know, the private forest sector is often severely criticised: - The Western media claim that its role is that of a destructor of forests. - As for us foresters, our role is to advance development. But this must be carried out with due respect for the village populations and regard for nature. 1.0 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The notion of sustainable development goes through successive stages which, over the centuries, have matched the evolution of both the environmental sensitivity and the globalisation of economic, social and environmental problems. a. An old concept in Europe In France, for example, the first concept of handing over the resource seems to date back to edicts issued by Philippe VI of Valois, i.e. in the mid-14th century. b. The Brundtland Report, 1987 Sustainable development is a form of development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. c. Rio 1992 The Rio Conference amplified the concept: Forest resources and land should be managed sustainably to meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of present and future generations. d. Johannesburg 2002 That Conference (RIO + 10) completed the environmental concept by highliting the concept well known to all field operators, that: There can be no environmental protection without poverty eradication. Although the notion of sustainable development seems now well established in the countries of the North, and even well accepted universally, it is applied at variable speeds, whether because of cultural differences or, quite simply, for reasons of economic development. Indeed, in many tropical countries, forests make an essential contribution to the economy, by way of individual or collective financial revenues as well representing areas available for other uses. Investment in sustainable methods is heavy; in addition, the second felling cycle is uncertain and a long way off; other uses

18 4 Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests Private Sector Experiences of forested areas are much more lucrative, whether for fast rotating crops (food crops like cassava, rice, corn, bananas, etc.) or for agro-industrial plantations such as bananas, coffee, cocoa, palm trees, rubber trees, or for grazing as in the Amazon Basin, etc. It is recognized that agricultural slash-and-burn and the firewood collection account for 80 to 90% of deforestation. Whereas the forest road infrastructure is often blamed for being the vector of deforestation, it is nevertheless essential for the development of tropical countries. ATIBT has elaborated on the positive and negative roles of such infrastructures in a handbook published jointly with FAO and which is available on request. Therefore, the demographic pressure, which is a significant factor in deforestation, and the number of inhabitants below the poverty line (US$1 per day) can legitimately raise some fear of a gloomy future for the large forests of the planet. For example, 80 million Indonesians are below this threshold and if each head of family (1 per 10 inhabitants) currently clears a 100 m x 100 m patch of forest to grow food crops, the resulting deforestation amounts to 8 million hectares per annum. The same applies in South America and in Africa. 2.0 THE AFRICAN RESOURCE AS A WHOLE 2.1 Differences in forest areas and population density The primary moist forests cover some 250 million hectares. Obviously, with the passage of years and in the wake of economic development, and especially due to demographic pressures, great differences have emerged in the status of these forests. A classification can be worked out; although no doubt cynical, it nevertheless reflects the political, economic and botanical realities which will lead us towards the chances or not to establish forest management conducive to sustainable forest promotion. a. Land of civil wars or land for investments Unfortunately to date, it can be said that five out of the fourteen countries members of ATO (African Timber Organization) are in a state of civil war: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte.d Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa) and Angola. It can even be said that Guinea Conakry, the Central African Republic and the Congo (Brazzaville) are politically weak, a situation which is not likely to attract serious investors. We will return later to the determining factor linking stability and confidence supporting earnest investors. Earnestness is in itself the prerequisite of ethical management methods, sustainable forestry methods, and for establishing added value plants. In addition to the catastrophic human aspects, such civil wars generally lead to heavy losses of fauna and flora. (For example, in North Congo, Liberia, the DRC, millions of refugees have invaded the forests, hunting and clearing to survive). b. Forests or Agriculture? Countries with strong demographic pressures where agricultural slash-and-burn competes with sustainable forest management: In this category, Nigeria is the country most affected, but it should be recalled that, after the Second World War, Côte d Ivoire and Ghana were subjected not only to the pressure of European forest investors seeking materials essential to the rebuilding of Europe, but also, as a consequence of economic prosperity, to a soaring population growth (internal and immigrant), involving a loss of 50 to 80% of the primary forest cover to agriculture. The Congo Basin is still a sparsely populated and relatively intact forested area covering 150 to 204 million hectares, according to the chosen definition of what constitutes a forest, and it will serve to illustrate what has been done in the way of sustainable development and perhaps also of what should have been done in the other countries of West Africa 50 years ago.

19 Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests Private Sector Experiences The Congo Basin as an experimental field Under the definition of the Congo Basin, 7 countries North and South of the equator are watered by the affluents of one of the largest rivers of Africa: the Congo. From North to South, they are: the Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville), Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa) and Angola. The forest of these countries covers approximately 204 million hectares, approximately 80% of which are moist forests rich in economic forestry potential, or approximately 150 million hectares. This vast tropical forest area (second only to that of the Amazon Basin) has three fundamental characteristics) a. The forest population The forest population is sparse (generally less than 10 inhabitants per square kilometre) and there are hundreds of thousands of hectares in Gabon which accommodate less than 1 inhabitant per square kilometre. Within the whole of the Congo Basin, Bantous and Pygmies share the name of village people. Whereas Pygmies were itinerant until the end of the 20th century, they are now gradually becoming settled. African States are only now beginning to recognize rights to the Pygmy people who generally live of hunting or fishing and sometimes of agricultural and forestry services to companies. The complexity of the current task is to adapt the traditional rights enjoyed by a small number of inhabitants to a way of life and modern technical means. This is true for agriculture but, as you may expect, also for hunting where powerful rifles have replaced the nets, bows and arrows. The States sovereign property over the revenues from the forest is also beginning to be shared and the rights of the indigenous people held a significant place on the agenda of the last World Forest Congress held in Quebec in b. A wealth of biodiversity Out of those 150 million hectares, approximately 50 million are allocated by the States to forest production and between 15 and 20 million to protected areas where the objective is to maintain an integral primary biodiversity. These figures are often quoted with the reservation approximately because definitions are sometimes fuzzy, official statistics confused and above all enforcement of government decisions is unsystematic. Biodiversity there is extremely important, because 70 to 80% of the animal species live in tropical areas. For example, some 400 species of mammals (including 4 of the 6 species of the world s large monkeys), 400 species of reptiles and more than 1300 species of birds are to be found In the Congo Basin alone. Likewise, the Congo Basin contains more than 10,000 species of plants, more than 3000 of which are endemic. c. Difficulty of access Access is relatively difficult, especially in the countries forming the High Congo Basin whose rapids at the height Brazzaville/Kinshasa do not allow a possible outlet towards the sea. The same applies to Gabon where the mountainous landscape has made it very difficult to penetrate the second zone located behind the coastal forests. These difficulties of access have slowed down the development of these remote forests because of increased logistics and costs. But from a strictly forestry point of view, it can also be said that such difficulties have allowed them to escape the great conquests of the post-colonial development and to have now the chance of being suitable for forest management. 3.0 AREAS UNDER MANAGEMENT Although forest laws now require that a preliminary management plan must be established prior to any

20 6 Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests Private Sector Experiences forestry activity taking place in granted concessions, the reality is quite different for political, economic and technical reasons. We will return to that later in the study. a. Areas in the process of being managed To date, the process of management has been initiated over 20 million hectares, in other words inventories are in progress. b. Areas already under management 2.5 million hectares have already been covered by a management plan approved by the administrations of the owner States and are under what is commonly called sustainable production. c. Certified areas under management 1.6 million hectares are already certified by the Dutch KEURHOUT system and the products of those forests can be marketed under the label of that system. As you know, certification often creates great confusio n in the minds not only of the consumer but also of the decision-makers in African administrations. Certification is also the subject of controversy with some NGOs. We will return more specifically to that problem at the end of the talk. Several authors will also reconsider this aspect of certification systems. But it is the responsibility of all of us to work towards mutual recognition because, in the Tropics, the important thing is not to know if such or such a system is better than another, the important thing is to encourage, incite or even coerce all operators into managing forests in such a way as to promote regeneration for future generations. 4.0 FOREST MANAGEMENT: AN ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL REVOLUTION One of the major changes in forest harvesting is the result of a shift from a mining behaviour to actually planning resource management. The first stage of management lies in understanding the forest. Even if it appears presumptuous, even utopian, to speak of maintening biodiversity in a concession under management, all the efforts of a tropical concession-holder tend towards that objective. The great biodiversity wealth of primary forests, the very recent understanding of that wealth (and even its current discovery) render the activites carried out very complex and very expensive, and many tropical countries and their concession-holders stress that these heavy costs are hard to bear in the international competition. However, the process has been initiated in the Congo Basin by all the large companies, in particular those belonging to the European Foundation for the Preservation of the African forest resources. The various stages are as follows: 4.1 Understanding the forest Contrary to the majority of other forests of the world, the African forests are owned by the States and the onus is on the concession-holder to draw up the management plan, the approval of the finilised plan being the sole responsibility of the State. The stages of this understanding are: 1. definition and delimitation of the concession with the Administration; 2. based on existing documents such as national maps, map-making of satellite images, aereal photographs and even topographic data gathered from field surveys carried out by inventory teams and GIS;

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