2 Basic French in Manitoba: à vos marques, prêts, partez! a must-have guide for teachers ISBN-13: French language - Study and teaching Manitoba - Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers. The Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers (CASLT)/ L'Association canadienne des professeurs de langues secondes (ACPLS) Auriga Drive Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2E 8B2 This resource is also available on the CASLT/ACPLS website at <www.caslt.org> Copyright 2008, The Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers (CASLT) Every effort has been made to acknowledge original sources and to comply with copyright law. If cases are identified where this has not been done, please notify CASLT. Opinions expressed in this document are not necessarily those of the Board of Directors of CASLT. Any websites referenced in this document are subject to change without notice. Educators are advised to preview and evaluate websites and online resources before recommending them for student use. Use of the masculine in this publication is generic and applies to both men and women.
3 AVANT-PROPOS À vos marques, prêts, partez! À vos marques, prêts, partez! est le résultat d'une collaboration entre les conseillers pédagogiques divisionnaires du Manitoba, la Division du Bureau de l'éducation française et l'association canadienne des professeurs de langues seconde (ACPLS/CASLT) afin d'appuyer les enseignants débutants et expérimentés en Français de base au Manitoba. Le projet a été élaboré pour atteindre les objectifs suivants : - appuyer l'implantation et la planification en Français de base, - faciliter le partage d'information essentielle, - fournir de la recherche récente sur l'apprentissage du français langue seconde, - renforcer l usage de l'approche communicative-expérientielle, - donner des pistes sur l'intégration de la culture dans l'enseignement du Français de base. Ce guide permettra de plus efficacement communiquer avec les enseignants de la province et de mieux appuyer l'enseignement et l'apprentissage en Français de base. Vous y trouverez de l'information au sujet de la méthodologie de l'enseignement, des ressources, des activités culturelles et des occasions de développement professionnel. Nous espérerons que ce guide vous aidera à réfléchir sur les pratiques de l'enseignement, à collaborer avec vos collègues et surtout à enrichir l'expérience en Français de base pour les élèves du Manitoba. Grâce à un partenariat établi avec CASLT, une version électronique de ce guide sera disponible sur le site Web de CASLT. Le cours de Français de base vise à former un élève qui, après plusieurs années d'études : - aura acquis des connaissances de base qui lui permettront de poursuivre l'enrichissement de ses connaissances et de ses habiletés reliées à la langue française; - pourra s'intéresser à devenir bilingue plus tard; - sera sensibilisé à reconnaître et à apprécier les cultures francophones; - valorisera davantage les autres langues, cultures et communautés du Canada et du monde entier. Extrait de la brochure What Do I Want for my Child/Qu'est-ce que je veux pour mon enfant? Reproduit avec la permission du Bureau de l'éducation française, Éducation, Citoyenneté et Jeunesse Manitoba, 2008.
5 FOREWORD À vos marques, prêts, partez! À vos marques, prêts, partez! is the result of a collaboration between the divisional Basic French consultants of Manitoba, the Bureau de l'éducation française Division, and the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers (CASLT) in order to support new and experienced teachers of Basic French in Manitoba. This project was developed to achieve the following goals: - Support the delivery and planning of Basic French, - Facilitate the sharing of important information, - Provide current research about learning a second language, - Reinforce the use of the communicative-experiential approach, - Give some suggestions about integrating culture into the teaching of Basic French. This guide will allow for efficient communication with all Basic French teachers in the province and will better support the teaching and learning of Basic French. In the guide, you will find information regarding teaching methods, resources, cultural activities and opportunities for professional development. We hope that this guide will help you to reflect on teaching practices for Basic French, collaborate with your colleagues, and above all, enrich the Basic French experience for the students of Manitoba. Thanks to a partnership established with CASLT, an electronic version of this guide will be available on the CASLT website. The objective of the Basic French Course is to develop students who after many years of study, will - acquire a good foundation in French from which to pursue fluency - have a better chance of becoming bilingual in future years - have gained insights into and an appreciation of francophone cultures - be better able to appreciate other languages, cultures, and communities throughout Canada and around the world. Excerpt from the brochure What Do I Want for my Child/Qu'est-ce que je veux pour mon enfant? Reproduced with permission of the Bureau de l'éducation française Division, Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth, 2008.
7 REMERCIEMENTS Nous remercions les personnes suivantes de leur contribution au document, de la qualité de leur travail et de leur professionnalisme. Comité Judy BILENKI Sandra DRZYSTEK John ERSKINE Philippe LE DORZE Linda ROMEO Greg SAMETZ Arla STRAUSS Division scolaire de St. James-Assiniboia Bureau de l'éducation française Division scolaire de Winnipeg Division scolaire Pembina Trails Division scolaire de St. James-Assiniboia/ Bureau de l éducation française Division scolaire de Seven Oaks Bureau de l'éducation française Rédactrice Carol HARVEY Conseillère indépendante Collaborateurs Robert CAMPBELL Helen LOEB Marie-Josée MORNEAU Division scolaire River East Transcona Division scolaire River East Transcona Division scolaire Sunrise Nous tenons aussi à remercier : CASLT - partenariat Maude PLOURDE - Bureau de l'éducation française - Révision Céline PONSIN - Bureau de l'éducation française - Mise en page et illustrations Huguette TRUDEL - Bureau de l'éducation française - Révision
9 TABLE DES MATIÈRES INTRODUCTION Section 1 RAISONS ET RECHERCHE - REASONS AND RESEARCH Understanding Reasons and Research 3 French Language Facts 3 Benefits of Second Language Learning 4 10 Reasons to Learn French 5 Online, Print and Media Resources Related to Reasons and Research 7 Activities for Students 10 Teachers Corner 12 Section 2 OÙ COMMENCER? - WHERE TO BEGIN? Introducing Your Support Team! 15 Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth Basic French Website 16 What Do I Need to Get Started? 17 Direction des ressources éducatives françaises (DREF) 20 Professional Development 21 Bourses pour les enseignants 22 Feuille de réflexion 23 School Self-Assessment Tool 25 Section 3 LA DÉMARCHE PÉDAGOGIQUE - METHODOLOGY The Multidimensional Approach 29 A Closer Look at the Multidimensional Approach 30 How Will I Teach That? 31 La démarche pédagogique en Français de base 32 The Diverse Needs of our Students 34 Reading and Basic French 35 La littératie en Français de base 36 Assessment and Evaluation 37 Assessment Ressources for French Classes 38
11 TABLE DES MATIÈRES - suite Section 4 L ANNÉE SCOLAIRE - THE BIG PICTURE C'est le mois d'août 41 The Itinerant Teacher 43 Coup d œil sur l année 44 Créer la zone française 48 Une activité pour la première semaine 55 Communication Tools for Students 59 Section 5 LE COIN DES JEUX - FUN AND GAMES Pourquoi les jeux? 67 Dix jeux pour pratiquer les nombres 68 Dix jeux pour pratiquer le vocabulaire 70 Dix jeux pour communiquer 72 Les jeux : feuilles reproductibles 74 Section 6 UNE LANGUE VIVANTE - CULTURE AND BASIC FRENCH The Importance of Culture 87 Comment faire vivre la culture dans la salle de classe au quotidien? 89 La lecture et la culture 93 La musique dans la salle de classe 94 Quelques ressources en musique 97 La cuisine 98 Découvrir la culture franco-manitobaine 99 Les invités spéciaux 102 Les sorties scolaires 103 Language Bursaries and Exchanges 107 Putting language learning into perspective Reference List 109
13 INTRODUCTION Très chers enseignants, Félicitations! Vous enseignez le Français de base. Quelle tâche formidable! En enseignant le Français de base, vous aurez l'occasion d'enrichir la vie de vos élèves en leur permettant d'apprendre la langue française et de découvrir les cultures francophones. Rappelons-nous que les langues façonnent notre manière de penser et de percevoir le monde. Connaître plus d'une langue élargit notre vision du monde. Que vous soyez débutant ou enseignant bien expérimenté, ce document vous fournira de l'information utile et des ressources pratiques pour vous appuyer dans l'enseignement du Français de base. Veuillez prendre note que les symboles ci-dessous vous aideront à distinguer les différents types de ressources proposées. Dear Teachers, Congratulations! You are teaching Basic French. What a terrific assignment! You will have the opportunity to enrich your students' lives as they learn French and experience Francophone cultures in your classroom. Remember that languages shape the way we think and the way we perceive the world. Knowing languages broadens our world view. Whether you are a beginner Basic French teacher, or an experienced second language teacher, this handbook will provide you with practical information and useful resources to support you in your teaching of Basic French. Please note that the symbols below will help you identify the different types of suggested resources. Le professeur pratique Ressources Balados Recherche sur Internet À vos marques, prêts, partez!
17 Section 1 RAISONS ET RECHERCHE REASONS AND RESEARCH UNDERSTANDING REASONS AND RESEARCH It is important for educators to understand the benefits of language learning and to be able to communicate these benefits effectively. More than ever, parents are recognizing that knowing a second language is an important skill in today's world. As educators, it is our role to help them consider the many advantages that learning languages provides. This section contains information that can be shared with colleagues, the community, parents and students. You will find French language facts, benefits of language learning, and useful websites that have activities, posters, and print materials to purchase. It is also important for students to know why they are learning French and the benefits and opportunities available to them. For this reason, a few activities for students have been included in this section as well as in section 4 The Big Picture. You may wish to use the information from this section in the following contexts: a school open house, a parent advisory council meeting, a presentation to students, a class project, information for student agendas, newsletters (school or classroom) and parent/teacher conferences. If I was going to give my child [children] something that would last them all their life, something that would enhance their ability to travel and enhance their employment capacity, enhance their ability to appreciate other cultures and make bridges of understanding, I don't think there's a better gift I could give my child [children] than a capacity in a second language. Stuart Wachowicz Edmonton Public Schools FRENCH LANGUAGE FACTS French is spoken by more than 200 million people in more than 55 countries in the world. French is spoken on each continent of the world. French is an official language of: - The United Nations - The International Olympics Committee - The European Union. French is one of the two official languages of Canada; it is spoken and understood by nearly 9.5 million people in our country. More than one out of every five Canadians has French as his mother tongue, and almost one in three Canadians speaks French. French is spoken by more than 105,000 people in Manitoba. There are presently 18,193 students enrolled in the French Immersion Program in Manitoba. In Manitoba, there are approximately 1200 Basic French teachers and 73,203 students enrolled in Basic French. RAISONS ET RECHERCHE - REASONS AND RESEARCH 3
18 BENEFITS OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING The Impact of Second Language Education study shows the benefits of learning a second language are much broader than simply the ability to speak in another language. It reports on research that affirms the importance of second language education on intellectual potential, scholastic achievement, first language skills, citizenship and the economy. The research conclusions in each area are as follows: INTELLECTUAL POTENTIAL Students fluent in two languages score higher in both verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Students studying a second language are superior in divergent thinking tasks and in memory ability and attention span. SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT Second language students have higher test scores in reading, language and mathematics. Each additional year of second language training created a greater positive differential compared to students not receiving a second language. EFFECT ON FIRST LANGUAGE Second language education significantly strengthens first language skills in areas of reading, English vocabulary, grammar and communication skills. The earlier the start, the greater the positive effect on the first language. CITIZENSHIP Students studying a second language have superior cross-cultural skills and adapt better to varying cultural contexts. Students studying a second language display greater cultural sensitivity. ECONOMIC POTENTIAL There is an urgent requirement for qualified speakers of languages other than English in areas of science, technology, medicine and global commerce. Reproduced with permission from Alberta Education, "Benefits of Second Language Learning", Learning Languages in Alberta, <www.education.alberta.ca/teachers/resources/learnlang/benefits.aspx> (Accessed April 4, 2008). For further reading related to the benefits of second language learning, visit the following website: <www.education.alberta.ca/teachers/resources/learnlang/benefits.aspx> 4 À VOS MARQUES, PRÊTS, PARTEZ!
19 10 REASONS TO LEARN FRENCH UN 1 In many European countries, a second language is introduced in elementary school and a third language in middle school. Job applicants who are proficient in at least two languages will be at a distinct advantage in the global marketplace. When you know French, you can communicate in transactions occurring daily in French on every continent. DEUX 2 In many scientific fields at the graduate level, many Canadian institutions require reading knowledge of French or German in order for scholars to be able to conduct research. France continues to be a leader and innovator in science and technology. Civil engineering (the "Chunnel" between England and France, the TGV - the world's fastest train, the Viaduct of Millau - the world's highest bridge), aeronautics (the Airbus 350 and the Ariane Rocket - a Franco-European initiative), medical technologies (the isolation of the HIV virus), and telecommuncations (fiber optics, the smart card) are just a few areas in which the French are leaders. Knowing French can open the doors to graduate school and to important research. TROIS 3 French is the first or second language in more than 55 countries and is spoken by 250 million people around the world, on every continent. Because French is a foreign language of choice for so many people in the world, knowing French will also increase your chances of communicating in a non-english speaking country. You can use French to develop international friendships as well as to communicate via the Internet. QUATRE 4 Knowledge of a second language is essential in over 60 occupations. Canada is officially bilingual and requires labelling in English and French on all products. More than 2,400 French companies have subsidiaries in the U.S., and France is one of the largest recipients of Canadian Foreign investments. France is also a world leader in the development of modern telecommunications, a market with explosive growth potential. The European Union, the second largest trading block in the world, recognizes French as an official language. Job opportunities abound with airlines, import-export companies, and other international businesses. French is also useful if you are thinking of working at the United Nations (where French is the second most widely used language, after English) or for the Canadian Government. Here in Canada, when you know French, you could become a French teacher, an interpreter, a translator and so much more. CINQ 5 Some 40 to 50% of English vocabulary comes from French. The study of French will also enhance your grammar skills. As you develop greater skills in French, you also sharpen your skills in English. RAISONS ET RECHERCHE - REASONS AND RESEARCH 5
20 10 REASONS TO LEARN FRENCH (continued) SIX 6 French is always an official language used to announce events, winners, and medals at the Olympic Games, including the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Canada. In Canada, you can also follow hockey and baseball games in French. Automobile races (Le Mans and Monte Carlo), horse racing (Longchamps), tennis tournaments (French Open), and the Tour de France (long-distance bicycle race) engage fans around the globe. When you know French, the international world of sports is open to you. SEPT 7 France is the most visited tourist destination in the world. Paris has been named by Fortune Magazine as one of the top ten "global cities". When you speak French, you can be an educated tourist, ask for directions, get your own hotel room or tell a French friend about your own country. HUIT 8 Learning French will also increase your problem-solving skills and improve your memory, self-discipline, and self-esteem. Because progress is very easy to measure, you can quickly take pride in your new abilities. Learning French can help you aquire a number of important skills. NEUF 9 As you quickly realize when you look at the foreign film section of your local video store, France is one of the most prolific producers of international films. The Cannes International Film Festival annually attracts the attention of the world when the best films, directors and actors are named. When you understand French, you don't need to rely on subtitles to enjoy a French film. DIX 10 People around the world are familiar with Les Misérables, The Three Musketeers, 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, The Little Prince, and The Stranger. In fact, France has won more Nobel Prizes for literature than any other country. The French are also admired for their great philosophers, such as Descartes and Pascal, Rousseau, Voltaire, Camus and Sartre. When you read French, you can enjoy these works and authors in the original. Copyright by the American Association of Teachers of French. All rights reserved. And then there's reason 11: Why learn French? Because you can! 6 À VOS MARQUES, PRÊTS, PARTEZ!
21 ONLINE,PRINT AND MEDIA RESOURCES RELATED TO REASONS AND RESEARCH What does research show about the benefits of language learning? <www.discoverlanguages.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=4524> This website provides a comprehensive summary of studies which highlight the benefits of learning a language. Advantages for Life: Learning Another Language (Alberta Education) Video: <www.ucalgary.ca/lrc/advantageforlife.htm> The Language Research Centre was commissioned by Alberta Education to produce a video on the benefits of learning a second language. To view the video, click on the appropriate icon. Now we re talking! Tool Kit for Teachers, Schools and School Authorities <www.education.alberta.ca/teachers/resources/learnlang/educators/toolkit.aspx> Alberta Education has developed a tool kit to promote language courses. You may be able to use the ideas, information and tools in this kit to help promote learning French as a second language. Canadian Parents for French has developed promotional materials to assist you in your discussions with students and parents about the benefits of learning French I'm Learning French! (bilingual) - Outlines the many benefits of a French-language education. A smart choice! Stay in French! (bilingual) - Outlines the numerous benefits of continuing a French-language education. Build on a smart choice! I'm Teaching in French Because... (bilingual) - Outlines the many benefits of choosing a career teaching French as a second language. You're in demand! Download at: <www.cpf.ca/english/resources/brochures.htm> French is a Life Skill: A Summary of Research, Theories, and Practices This is an easy to read document published by Nelson Education Ltd ISBN-13: that summarizes the current trend in the field of second language teaching and learning. Topics include: - Second-language acquisition methodologies and theories - Current theories and approaches to teaching French - Trends and practices in second-language teaching and learning - Assessment and evaluation practices - Methods for creating the optimal learning environment RAISONS ET RECHERCHE - REASONS AND RESEARCH 7
22 FRENCH FOR LIFE French for Life (FFL) was created to encourage and support French Second Language (FSL) education in Manitoba, through a website, promotional material and an in-school presentation. The website has current information for parents, students, teachers and trustees/administrators. There is also a promotional package designed to help promote and support FSL. It includes a DVD with a promotional presentation in French and English, a CD-Rom with lesson plans and worksheets that accompany the presentation, brochures and a booklet for parents and teachers. Call FFL for copies at, <www.frenchforlife.ca> THE CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHERS (CASLT) The Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers is a non-profit organization which promotes the advancement of second language learning and teaching throughout Canada by creating opportunities for professional development, by encouraging research, and by facilitating the sharing of information and the exchange of ideas among second language educators. <www.caslt.org> CANADIAN PARENTS FOR FRENCH Canadian Parents for French (CPF) is a national network of volunteers which values French as an integral part of Canada and which is dedicated to the promotion and creation of French second language learning opportunities for young Canadians. This website contains resources for parents, students and teachers. CPF Manitoba <www.cpf.ca> <www.cpfmb.com> AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF TEACHERS OF FRENCH The American Association of Teachers of French (AATF) website provides information such as, promotional materials, teaching ideas, videos to download, useful websites, and professional development opportunities. <www.frenchteachers.org> 8 À VOS MARQUES, PRÊTS, PARTEZ!
23 THE FRENCH LANGUAGE INITIATIVE You can use this site to: - learn more about the benefits of studying the French language and culture; - download promotional material. <www.theworldspeaksfrench.org> BENEFITS OF BEING BILINGUAL This website contains a variety of research articles about the benefits of second language acquisition. Examples include: Second Language Learning: Everyone Can Benefit, Language Study and the Brain. <www.cal.org/earlylang/benefits/benefits_of_being_bilingual.html> FRENCH LANGUAGE French.about.com contains a wealth of resources for French language teachers - Everything you ever wanted to know about French. Ex. Mot du jour is posted each day. <www.french.about.com> LANGCANADA On this website, you will find an abundance of educational resources, educational materials, training organizations and information that enhances French language teaching and learning in Canada! <www.langcanada.ca> LE PLAISIR D'APPRENDRE Ce site pédagogique est destiné aux professeurs de français langue étrangère. Il contient des fiches pédagogiques et des suggestions d'activités pour intégrer les médias et multimédias en classe de langue, musique, clips, reportages et plus. <www.leplaisirdapprendre.com> Download posters, print ads and banner ads from this website for use in your classroom! <www.theworldspeaksfrench.org/promo.html> RAISONS ET RECHERCHE - REASONS AND RESEARCH 9
24 ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS WHY STUDY FRENCH? The activities below and on the next two pages are great ways to get your students thinking about reasons to study a second language. 1 Step One: Individually, have the students brainstorm the top ten reasons someone (or themselves personally) would learn a second language. If they cannot come up with 10, get as many as possible close to that number. 2 Step Two: Have the students pair up and share their top ten reasons with another person in the class. Together they agree on a top 10 list for the two of them. This can involve some great discussion... 3 Step Three: Have the pair of students find another pair and redo the process, creating a final top ten for the four students. It is at this point that they share their reasons with the class. 4 Step Four: During the class sharing time, the teacher notes the most common reasons to develop a class "top ten". The results can then be printed in a school newsletter to parents or displayed as posters around the school. It sometimes is more valuable when you can say that the students themselves generated the reasons. Reproduced with permission of Helen Loeb. All rights reserved. WHY STUDY FOREIGN LANGUAGES? Here are fifteen things studying a new language might do for you. 1 - broadens your experiences; expands your view of the world 2 - encourages critical reflection on the relation of language and culture, language and thought; fosters an understanding of the interrelation of language and human nature 3 - develops your intellect; teaches you how to learn 4 - teaches and encourages respect for other peoples 5 - contributes to cultural awareness and literacy, such as knowledge of original texts 6 - builds practical skills (for travel or commerce or as a tool for other disciplines) 7 - improves the knowledge of your own language through comparison and contrast with the foreign language 8 - exposes you to modes of thought outside of your native language 9 - a sense of relevant past, both cultural and linguistic 10 - balances content and skill (rather than content versus skill) 11 - expands opportunities for meaningful leisure activity (travel, reading, viewing foreign language films) 12 - contributes to achievemnet of national goals, such as economic development or national security 13 - contributes to the creation of your personality 14 - enables the transfer of training (such as learning a second foreign language) 15 - preserves (or fosters) a country s image as a cultured nation Adapted from Alan C. Frantz, "Seventeen Values of Foreign Language Study" (ADFL Bulletin, vol. 28, No. 1, Fall 1996). Reproduced with permission of Alan C. Frantz. 10 À VOS MARQUES, PRÊTS, PARTEZ!
25 ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS (continued) CASLT has published a kit to celebrate the year of languages in 2008 called Celebrating the Year of Languages! Célébrons l Année des langues! This kit includes four full colour multilingual posters/teaching tools and a teacher guide with activity ideas that feature the benefits of language learning. You may purchase a kit online at <www.caslt.org>. TO LEARN A LANGUAGE* Is to open your eyes on a new and fascinating world Is to hear the music of a river which flows with a varying rhythm It is to savour a variety of cultural traits and be nourished by them It is to scent the fresh fragrance of an unknown flower To learn a language Is to reach out your hand to touch new textures It is to travel on charming and fascinating pathways It is to warm your heart with captivating new knowledge To learn a language Is to accept willingly an unfamiliar climate It is to understand the worth of another human being and to share it To learn a language Is to find yourself enriched Shirley Kawahara English Version by Douglas Petherbridge "TO LEARN A LANGUAGE/ APPRENDRE UNE LANGUE" The English and French version of the poem provides an excellent point de départ for teachers to ask their students to think about the reasons for studying languages. In the multicultural classroom of today, this type of reflective brainstorming exercise can assist students in understanding their own journey related to second (and often additional) language learning. Teachers are encouraged to begin this type of discussion early in the school year and to share their own personal stories about their own language learning as part of the classroom discussion. An appropriate follow-up exercise would be to make students aware of the excellent series of bilingual posters produced by the CPF and referenced on page 7 entitled I'm Learning French/J'apprends en francais and I'm Staying in French/Je continue en francais. Simply hang the series of colourful and visually appealing posters in several locations around your classrom and begin the classroom reflection by asking students to stand by the poster that has the most meaning for them Example - J'apprends en français parce que je suis canadien! Guide students in sharing the reasons for their choice with their classmates. Similarly, only a few of the posters could be used at one time and the exercise could be repeated in a week or so by adding the rest of the posters in the series. The exercise works well because the posters are bilingual. Students may also be encouraged to create their own posters, perhaps toward the end of the semester or school year. APPRENDRE UNE LANGUE* C'est ouvrir les yeux sur un nouveau monde fascinant C'est entendre la musique d'une rivière qui coule d'un rythme varié C'est savourer divers aspects culturels et s'en nourrir C'est sentir la fragrance fraîche d'une fleur inconnue Apprendre une langue C'est tendre la main pour toucher des textures attachantes C'est voyager sur des chemins charmants et curieux C'est se réchauffer le coeur d'une connaissance captivante Apprendre une langue C'est mieux tolérer un climat inhabituel C'est comprendre la richesse d'un autre et la partager Apprendre une langue C'est se retrouver enrichi Shirley Kawahara * Source: <www.sulysse.com/leslangues.html> RAISONS ET RECHERCHE - REASONS AND RESEARCH 11
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