EUROTAST WEST AFRICA MEETING

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1 EUROTAST WEST AFRICA MEETING A TRAINING INITIATIVE & SYMPOSIA EXPLORING THE MEMORIES AND LEGACIES OF THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE IN AFRICA 5th - 16th April 2014 Accra, Ghana; Gorée Island and Dakar, Senegal Hosted by the Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; and the Laboratoire d'archéologie, Institut Fondamental d Afrique Noire (IFAN), University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal. Since leaving was never voluntary, return was, and still may be, an intention, however deeply buried - Dionne Brand 0

2 PROGRAMME OVERVIEW Welcome to EUROTAST s fifth formal training initiative for network fellows provided by our network affiliate partners in West Africa. This intensive 10-day itinerary will be focused on the themes of heritage memorialization and slavery s legacies in Africa. The programme will include visits to important heritage sites in Ghana and Senegal, which are not only the subject of continuing archaeological research but also poignant destinations for roots tourism within the African Diaspora. These visits will be complimented by two Symposia including cross-disciplinary perspectives from invited scholars (particularly from West Africa) that will explore the reverberations of this unique trading system across time, culture, geopolitical landscape, language, biological identity and collective memory. A special inspiration day for local educators, planned in each country, will also serve as a critical opportunity for fellows to participate in situated learning experiences, and crosscultural dialogue. GHANA PROGRAMME OVERVIEW Saturday 5th Thursday 10th April 2014 Organised by the Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana Date Activities Venue Notes 05 April EUROTAST & Guest Arrivals 06 April Sites of Memory Visits: Elmina and Cape Coast Castles 07 April Symposium: Memorialization and Heritage: Legacies of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in West Africa 08 April Sites of Memory Visits: Frederiksgave Danish Slave Plantation Elmina and Cape Coast J.H. Nketia Conference Hall, Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana Seseme village Led by Professor Kodzo Gavua Led by Professor Kodzo Gavua and Professor Paul Lane Led by Professor Kodzo Gavua 09 April Educator s Inspiration Day J.H. Nketia Conference Hall, University of Ghana Led by Dr Temi Odumosu and Dr Colleen Morgan 10 April EUROTAST Departures for Senegal 1

3 SENEGAL PROGRAMME OVERVIEW Friday 11th April Wednesday 16th April 2014 Organised by the Laboratoire d'archéologie, Institut Fondamental d Afrique Noire (IFAN), University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal. Date Activities Venue Notes 11 April Site of Memory Visits: Goreé Island and the door of no return. Goreé Island Led by Dr Ibrahima Thiaw 12 April Symposium: Slave Raiding, Trading and Ownership in West Africa and Beyond: Reflections on Origins and Transatlantic Connections Lycée Mariama Bâ, Goreé Island Led by Dr Ibrahima Thiaw and Professor Paul Lane 13 April Educator s Inspiration Day Lycée Mariama Bâ, Goreé Island Led by Dr Temi Odumosu and Dr Colleen Morgan 14 April Open day Dakar 15 April ITN Management Meeting Goreé Island Led by Dr Hannes Schroeder 16 April EUROTAST Departures 2

4 PARTICIPANTS EUROTAST Management Hannes Schroeder Paul Lane Jay Haviser Antonio Salas (Attends Ghana only) EUROTAST Postdocs (outreach) Temi Odumosu Colleen Morgan Media Associate Alex Frank Larsen University of Ghana (Associate partners) Kodzo Gavua Benjamin Kofi Nutor Université Cheikh Anta Diop (Associate partners) Ibrahima Thiaw Aïcha Kamité Mame Coumba Geneviève Dieme (Attends Senegal only) Invited Speakers Ghana Emuobosa Orijemie (Dept. of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Ibadan) Samuel Oluwole Ogundele (Dept. of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Ibadan) EUROTAST PhD Fellows Marcela Sandoval Velasco Hákon Jónsson Jessica Hendy Petr Triska Carlos Francisco da Silva Júnior César A. Fortes Lima Tanja Heinz Erna Johannesdottir Ryan Espersen Sarah Abel Anuradha Jagadeesan Winston F. Phulgence Invited Speakers - Senegal Ibrahima Seck (Academic Director, Whitney Heritage Plantation Museum, Louisiana) Aboubacar Touré (Dépt. d Histoire, Université Général Lansana Conté de Sonfonia-Conakry) Joan-Mary.I. Ogiogwa (Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife) Ken Kelly (Department of Anthropology, University of South Carolina) El Hadj Ibrahima Fall (Université Nelson Mandela, Conakry) Ousmane Gaye (Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar) 3

5 PRACTICAL INFORMATION GHANA: Saturday 5th Thursday 10th April 2014 Training Venue details and contacts J.H. Nketia Conference Hall, Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana Legon, Ghana Local Contacts: Benjamin Kofi Nutor / Professor Kodzo Gavua Accommodation for fellows Denmark House Legon Hill 38, University of Ghana Campus, Legon Tel: Leslie McCathy Accommodation for PI s and Guests Yiri Lodge Institute of African Studies University of Ghana, Legon Tel: Main information /7 Local Contact: Benjamin Kofi Nutor / Professor Kodzo Gavua CURRENCY Ghanaian Cedi Current exchange rates: 1 GBP = 4.4 GHS 1 Euro = 3.6 GHS $1 US Dollar = 2.5 GHS 4

6 SENEGAL: Friday 11th April Wednesday 16th April 2014 * Note: For those fellows and guests who arrive in Dakar (from Accra) late in the evening on the 10 th April 2014, a reservation at the Hotel Sargal has been arranged. Please see below. Training Venue details and contacts Lycée Mariama Bâ, Maison d'education Mariama Rue Malavois, Gorée Island Sénégal Tel: Catherine Sarr (Director) Local Contact: Dr Ibrahima Thiaw / (ext. 242) Accommodation for fellows Mariama Bâ Guest House Maison d'education Mariama Rue Malavois, Gorée Island Sénégal Tel: Catherine Sarr (Director) Local Contact: Dr Ibrahima Thiaw / (ext. 242) Accommodation for PI s and Guests Chevalier de Boufflers Débarcadère de Gorée, Gorée Island Sénégal Tel: Local Contact: Dr Ibrahima Thiaw / (ext. 242) 5

7 Late arrival accommodation in Dakar (10th April 2014) Hotel Sargal Route de l'aeroport, Dakar, Senegal Tel: Main information Travel Instructions Gorée Ferry: Gorée Island can be reached by a regular ferry that leaves from the main port in Dakar. The ferry runs between 6am and 11pm, and the journey time is approximately 20 minutes. CURRENCY West African CFA franc Current exchange rates: 1 GBP = 780 CFA 1 Euro = 655 CFA $1 US Dollar = 476 CFA 6

8 EDUCATORS INPIRATION DAYS 09 April 2014 (Legon, Ghana) 13 April 2014 (Goreé Island, Sénégal) Designed by the EUROTAST postdoctoral fellows for public engagement and organised in collaboration with the Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; and the Laboratoire d'archéologie, Institut Fondamental d Afrique Noire (IFAN), University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal. Teaching Slavery Creatively: Interdisciplinary approaches Led by Dr Temi Odumosu and Dr Colleen Morgan Welcome, overview and introductions Session 1: "In the Land of Memory" This small-group session will explore how storytelling around personal and collective memories can be used as a process for connecting learners across generations and cultures Session 2: Reflections and Memorialisation An audiovisual presentation of reflections on the TAST and its legacies Lunch and Dialogue Session 3: What s in a Name (Led by Fellows Carlos da Silva Jr. and Sarah Abel) This small-group exercise will use primary source records from various archives including the Transatlantic Slave Trade database, to reflect on the importance of naming as a critical form of identification in an African context Session 4: Telling the story of our research This full interactive group session will discuss and explore how simple objects can be used as windows onto the past, and convey multiple stories from interdisciplinary perspectives Session 5: Feedback and reflections 7

9 EUROTAST GHANA SYMPOSIUM Memorialization and Heritage Legacies of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in West Africa Monday 07 April 2014 Hosted by the Department of Archaeology and Heritage Studies, University of Ghana, Legon. Held at the J.H. Nketia Conference Hall, Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana Welcome and Opening Professor Kodzo Gavua, University of Ghana Morning Session: Memory, Oral Histories and Living Traditions (Chaired by Paul Lane, Uppsala University, Sweden) Shrines and Transatlantic Contact Discourse in Ghana: A spotlight on the Dente Ga Shrine at Dzake-Peki, Ghana Benjamin Kofi Nutor and Kodzo Gavua, University of Ghana Mémoires et commémorations de l esclavage: le suicide collectif des femmes de Nder (Waalo, Sénégal) au 19 ième siècle Aïcha Kamité, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal Tea/Coffee break Origin and Uses of Some Ameri-Caribbean Plants in Nigeria Emuobosa Orijemie, University of Ibadan, Nigeria Digital Media, Participatory Culture and Difficult Heritage Colleen Morgan, University of York, UK Cut and Paste: Material memories of slavery and the art of the Black Atlantic Temi Odumosu, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Lunch break (light lunch is provided) Afternoon session: Monuments, Materiality and Heritage (Chaired by Kodzo Gavua, University of Ghana) Nigeria s Atlantic Heritage, Cultural Identity Formation and Global Understanding Samuel Oluwole Ogundele, University of Ibadan, Nigeria Heritage Preservation and Memories of Slavery in the Chiefdom of Beledougou (Southeastern Senegal) Ibrahima Thiaw, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal Tea/Coffee break Remembering and Forgetting: Dimensions of the Memorialisation of the Transatlantic Slavery Trade in the Caribbean Winston Phulgence, University of York, UK 8

10 Discussant: Professor Ben Kankpeyeng, University of Ghana Reception and Dinner (speakers and invited guests only) PAPER ABSTRACTS Benjamin Kofi Nutor and Kodzo Gavua, University of Ghana Shrines and Transatlantic Contact Discourse in Ghana: A spotlight on the Dente Ga Shrine at Dzake- Peki, Ghana Research on the trans-atlantic contact in Ghana has largely centred on European trading posts on the coast, as well as slave plantation sites. Some regional studies of slavery have been carried out in northern Ghana from archaeological and historical perspectives and settlements associated with the slave trade in the west-central region have also been investigated. However, the focus of much studies, and events memorializing transatlantic contact in Ghana ignored ancient shrines of the African Indigenous Religion. Based on archaeological and ethno-historical research carried out at the 18 th -19 th century shrine of Dente Ga at Dzake-Peki in the Volta Region of Ghana, the authors wish to state that apart from inland networks of slave markets, rivers, camps, warehouses and slave plantation sites that fed coastal European forts and castles, some shrines provided medical, spiritual and other therapeutic services to slaves and slave merchants and served as havens for people fleeing from slave raiders. Such shrines should be considered as major agents of transatlantic contact in Ghana and West Africa that require detailed study and documentation in order to broaden the database of memorabilia pertaining to the slave trade. Aïcha Kamité, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal Mémoires et commémorations de l esclavage: le suicide collectif des femmes de Nder (Waalo, Sénégal) au 19 ième siècle En mars ou en novembre de 1819 ou 1820, plusieurs dizaines de femmes du village de Nder, ancienne capitale du royaume du Waalo, se suicidèrent collectivement pour échapper à la captivité et à l esclavage par leurs voisins du Nord, les maures Trarza. Cette journée mémorable est commémorée dans les traditions du Waalo, où le jour de mardi où toutes les femmes de Nder pour ne pas être réduites en esclaves s immolèrent par le feu. Cet événement tragique a fait du village de Nder un puissant lieu de mémoire en souvenir de la traite des esclaves entre le sud Sahara et la vallée du Fleuve Sénégal. Aujourd hui les mouvements féministes sénégalais commémorent annuellement le 9

11 suicide collectif des femmes de Nder et vont même jusqu à faire coïncider celui-ci avec la journée internationale des femmes. En revisitant l histoire de Nder par des fouilles archivistiques, archéologiques et de la tradition orale, cette étude essaie de clarifier cet épisode important du passé du Waalo et du Sénégal. Des recherches archéologiques préliminaires sur le terrain ont montré que le village s est longtemps déplacé pour se relocaliser sur les berges du Lac de Gueir. L ancien site est constitué de plusieurs buttes et une riche culture matérielle qui montrent une large ouverture sur le commerce Atlantique. Un examen critique des différentes sources d information disponibles permet-il de faire la lumière sur comment l histoire de la tragédie de Nder est née et s est amplifiée? Existent-ils dans le paysage archéologique de l ancien village de Nder des preuves empiriques susceptibles d illuminer cette page de l histoire de l esclavage dans le Nord de la Sénégambie. Emuobosa Orijemie, University of Ibadan, Nigeria Origin and uses of some Ameri-Caribbean plants in Nigeria In human history, the transatlantic slave trade has been described as the largest forced diaspora. It involved the transfer of slaves (human goods) from the African continent, mainly from West and Central Africa, into the Americas. During the period of the transatlantic trade (14-19th centuries) rich knowledge of African ethnomedicine was carried with the slaves into their new homes. There are evidences that this transferred knowledge provided alternative health care to the slaves and sometimes, slave owners. Several works have focused on the successes of the transferred African slave medical knowledge and its influence on the American environment and indigenous medical health care systems. However, the fact that American botanicals equally found their way into Africa via Europeans (mainly Portuguese) and returnee former slaves is often overlooked. Consequently, little attention is focused on American botanical transfers into Africa and their influence on aspects of the culinary and ethnomedicinal culture of Africans. In an attempt to better understand this phenomenon, particularly among the Yoruba people of Nigeria, ethnobotanical, and palynological studies of two cores in Ahanve and Otolu, near Lagos were carried out. These coastal towns have historical transatlantic connections. The results are as follows: firstly, the palynological studies reveal the occurrence of pollen of American plants (Cocus nucifera, Mangifera indica, Anarcardium occidentale, Zea mays and cf. Azadiractha indica) during the historic phase of human occupation of the study areas. Secondly, ethnobotanical studies indicate that the people use indigenous species as well as some American plants (Argemone mexicana, Carica papaya, Citrus aurantifolia, Jatropha cursus, Nicotiana tabacum, Persea americana, Solanum americanus and Theobroma cacao) in the treatment of infant-related diseases such as chicken pox, convulsion, diarrhoea, jaundice, malaria, measles and poliomylitis. Thirdly, it was noted that a popular staple among the people, Lafu, is derived from manioc (Manihot ulitissima), another American exotic after some processing. The incorporation of these exotics into the dietary and ethnomedicinal practices of the Yoruba is linked with the people s ability to (a) employ domestication skills to selected species for specific ecological conditions, (b) ingeniously replicate and improve knowledge of the ethnobotanical values of these plants gathered from America and (c) apply this indigenised knowledge for specific human healthcare and culinary needs. Hence, the transatlantic trade should not only be viewed from the context of what was exported but attention should also be focused on imported American plants and their relevance in ethnobotanical practices of the Yoruba. This new dimension highlights the abilities of the people to be very selective in accepting and incorporating plants perceived and known to be of value into their material culture and discarding those of less importance. 10

12 Colleen Morgan, University of York, UK Digital media, participatory culture and difficult heritage Digital media is increasingly used to interpret and present cultural heritage, particularly online. As digital media mature and rapidly change, new ways to interpret and present cultural heritage are invented, become dated, then fall out of use in quick succession. Alongside this cycle of digital renewal is the growing certainty that public outreach and attention to stakeholders are integral for archaeological research to remain relevant in the twenty-first century (Schadla-Hall 2006). The responsibility of scholars and funding institutions to disseminate their findings in a form that is comprehensible to non-specialist audiences is acknowledged in the metrics for funding decisions and the viability of archaeological projects. Digital photographs, videos, 3D reconstructions and virtual worlds are part of the dissemination toolkit, yet there is relatively little attention to the fields of Visual Studies and New Media Studies (an holistic approach to digital media incorporating several fields) where digital media are at the center of intense scrutiny and theory-building. In particular, the growing field of Participatory Culture can provide valuable insights for the co-creation of heritage. Participatory cultures, characterized by relatively low barriers to public artistic expression and civic engagement, strong support for creating and sharing one's creations with others, and frameworks for formal and informal mentorship have recently undergone massive growth, aided in part by mobile and ubiquitous technology (Giaccardi 2012; Jenkins 2006). A rigorous engagement with theory and a methodology informed by participatory culture provides a solid foundation for public outreach strategy. Yet this is not a universal solution; when conducting research within dark or difficult heritage, understanding the potential for harm and unforeseen consequences is of paramount importance. Dark, or difficult heritage has been characterized as heritage that hurts (Uzzell and Ballantyne 1998) and recognized in places where deaths, disasters, and atrocities have occurred and have been subsequently memorialized. The EUROTAST project directly queries one of the most tragic chapters in modern history, the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. As such, the dissemination of the results of this research must be conducted reflexively and engage the African diaspora in meaningful and empowering ways. In this paper I present my initial research into the intersections of digital media, participatory culture, and difficult heritage. Temi Odumosu, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Cut and Paste: Material memories of slavery and the art of the Black Atlantic In 1993 cultural theorist Paul Gilroy introduced the term Black Atlantic to describe the complex web of transnational identities, experiences and cultural expressions of African descendants in the diaspora that are direct legacies of the transatlantic slave trade. For Gilroy, Black people s negotiation of slavery s unique and systemic terrors made them the first truly modern people. But how did these individuals survive? What happened to the spirit and culture of people that were forcibly cut from African community ties (origins) and relocated into new and bio-socially hybrid worlds? What was the long-term impact of a radically transformed modern consciousness that was denied the essential bonds and continuities of family and language, and which fought to negotiate multiple concepts of being and belonging? Certainly the cultural fragments available to Africans in captivity were used to build new material forms and modes of kinship, merging remembered traditions with necessary innovation. This paper seeks to explore how mechanisms of appropriation and renewal, critical to the lives of people in the African Diaspora, are also used by contemporary visual artists throughout the Black Atlantic. Exploring in particular their use of collage and mixed media as art making practices with ideological 11

13 resonances, the discussion will show how their work both negotiates and attempts to resolve themes of dislocation (out of place-ness), waste, and ephemerality. Samuel Oluwole Ogundele, University of Ibadan, Nigeria Nigeria s Atlantic Heritage, Cultural Identity Formation and Global Understanding The Atlantic slavery and slave trade remain the most impacting socio-economic, political and demographic experience in human history. Their debilitating effects are a devil to wrestle with by postcolonial Nigeria decades after this inglorious commerce was abolished. Thus, for example, the age-old communalism and fellow-feeling that occupy a conspicuous space in the Nigerian/African vocabularies of popular discourse disappeared. There is a disconnect between the past and the present cultural behaviours of Nigerians, leading to the retardation of the hitherto orderly economic, social and political development of the territory. Nigeria s indigenous knowledge systems and their underlying systemic regularities were substantially crippled and consigned to obscurity. The Atlantic slave commerce reflects the fact that humanity s texture is woven with threads of material and spiritual corruption. Europe, also due partly to egoism created the monster of a universe where the human spirit was imprisoned, tortured and/or ruled by mindless hedonism and self-indulgence. Between 1650 and 1900, over 10.2 million Africans, able-bodied men and women upon whom their local economies depended were forcefully carted away as slaves to the Americas and the Caribbeans. Over 45 different ethnicities were involved. They include the Yoruba and Igbo of Nigeria, the Chamba of Cameroon and the Akan of Ghana. These entanglements have become an important facet of Nigerian/African patrimony. However, the age-old orthodoxy completely embedded in condemnation arising from intense emotion needs to be reappraised as we chart the pathways of modern education and development. The holocaust symbolises the enduring lessons of human character, aspiration, doggedness and resistance that were the hallmarks of Africans before the devastating blow. New cultural identities have been formed both within and outside the shores of Nigeria. For example, much of the Brazilian contemporary culture has its firm roots in Africa particularly Nigeria. This is with regard to agriculture, gastronomy and medicine. In other words, several material signatures of Nigerian slaves have been successfully etched on the cultural landscape of Brazil, Cuba and Puerto-Rico among other parts of the New World. The universe is about cultural and to a limited degree, biological flows and interconnections. Modern scholarship as if wisdom matters must capture this reality so as to move forward as a nation (Nigeria) within the broad context of global relevance. A new Africa has to come to grips with this possibility. Ibrahima Thiaw, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal Heritage Preservation and Memories of Slavery in the Chiefdom of Beledougou (Southeastern Senegal). Over the past decades, several heritage preservation projects have permitted us to collect valuable data on the legacies and memories of slavery in the chiefdom of Beledougou. According to oral traditions, this small polity in southeastern Senegal was founded by Malinke speakers of the Cissokho lineage, a group of warriors probably of slave origin from Tomara in present day Mali. Their mission was to free Beledougou from the tyrannical rule of another slave of Fulani origin. Archaeological sites 12

14 associated with this elite of slave origin are distinct in the historical landscape of the region and are characterized by stones enclosures locally referred to as tata. Today, the Cissokho continue to hold power in most of the villages of Beledougou while in other parts of the region they are regarded either as former slaves or blacksmith descendant of Soumaoro Kante. In Beledougou however, the Cissokho denie their slave origins and have developed a social organization that blurs the traditional Malinke one. In most of their villages, griots were not allowed and, it is the Cissokho elites themselves who beat the drum during local ceremonies and festivities. This paper uses archaeological evidence and oral data to disentangle the complex strategy put in place by the Cissokho elite to strengthen their rule and redefine their identity. Winston Phulgence, University of York, UK Remembering and Forgetting: Dimensions of the Memorialisation of the Transatlantic Slavery Trade in the Caribbean In the last fifty years the memorialisation of the transatlantic slave trade has increased across the Atlantic. In the Anglophone Caribbean, the last few decades has seen a rapid increase in the number of monuments to the transatlantic slave and its legacies. Many of these monuments were commissioned and sponsored by the state in the respective countries. All of these monuments were commissioned in the post-independence period in countries where the issue of slavery was largely absent from the national historical narrative. While these monuments seek to memorialise the trade and slavery they are also important tools in the process of creating national identities for these new nation states in the post-independence era. In societies, which are plural in composition, memorialisation projects remain contentious. This paper argues that in these new nation states with plural societies the memorialisation of the transatlantic slave trade and its legacies is as much about forgetting as it is about remembering. 13

15 EUROTAST SENEGAL SYMPOSIUM Slave Raiding, Trading and Ownership in West Africa and Beyond Reflections on Origins and Transatlantic Connections Saturday 12 April 2014 Hosted by Laboratoire d'archéologie, L Institut Fondamental d Afrique Noire, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (IFAN-UCAD), Dakar. Held at the Lycée Mariama Bâ, Goreé Island Welcome and Opening Dr Ibrahima Thiaw, Université Cheikh Anta Diop Morning Session: Transatlantic Connections: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives (Chaired by Paul Lane, Uppsala University, Sweden) Du Jolibaa au Mississippi, le long voyage des gens du Komo Ibrahima Seck, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Sénégal & Academic Director, Whitney Heritage Plantation Museum, Louisiana, USA Le commerce transatlantique et la traite négrière sur les côtes de Guinée: cas du Moria Aboubacar Touré, Université Général Lansana Conté de Sonfonia-Conakry, Guinée Tea/Coffee break Sungbo s Eredo: A symbol of Ijebu-Yoruba Pre-Atlantic and Atlantic Heritage Joan-Mary I. Ogiogwa, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria The Caribbean as a Mirror to Africa Jay B. Haviser, Leiden University, The Netherlands & SIMARC, Sint Maarten The strands that bind: DNA and the search for African ancestry Hannes Schroeder, University of Copenhagen, Denmark & Leiden University, The Netherlands Lunch break (light lunch is provided) Afternoon session: Slavery in West Africa Definitions, Models and Characteristics (Chaired by Dr Ibrahima Thiaw, Université Cheikh Anta Diop) Archaeology and the illegal slave trade of the 19 th century on the Guinea coast/ L Archéologie et la traite négrière illégale du 19è siècle sur la côte de la Guinée Ken Kelly, University of South Carolina, USA Perspectives pluridisciplinaires dans l exploration de la Traite Négrière Clandestine en Guinée: Une recherche anthropo-archéologique au Rio Pongo El Hadj Ibrahima Fall, Université Nelson Mandela, Conakry, Guinée Tea/Coffee break 14

16 L évolution des modèles de consommation en Sénégambie pendant la traite atlantique: perspective historique Mame Coumba Geneviève Dieme, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Sénégal La guerre des compagnies européennes à Saint-Louis du Sénégal: analyse des systèmes de défense ( ) Ousmane Gaye, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Sénégal Discussant: Ken Kelly, University of South Carolina, USA Reception and Dinner (speakers and invited guests only) PAPER ABSTRACTS Ibrahima Seck, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Sénégal & Academic Director, Whitney Heritage Plantation Museum, Louisiana, USA Du Jolibaa au Mississippi, le long voyage des gens du Komo Nous appelons «gens du Komo», les membres de la grande famille des Mande dont le domaine s étend le long du Jolibaa (Niger), depuis le lac Debo au nord jusqu à la source du Tinkiso. Bambara et Manding portent les mêmes patronymes (Coulibaly, Diarra, Traoré, Doumbia, Keïta, Koné, Konaté, etc.) et parlent aussi des langues mutuellement intelligibles. Le Komo est leur plus grande société initiatique par laquelle les adolescents entrent dans l âge adulte. Bambara et Senufo parlent aussi des langues apparentées, partagent un certain nombre de patronymes et ont en commun le culte du Komo. Les Bambara ont fondé le royaume de Segu, qui s affirma après la chute de l empire Songhaï à la fin du 17 e siècle. Des dissidents bambara furent à l origine du royaume du Kaarta, plus à l est, à proximité du comptoir français de Galam par où transitèrent des milliers d esclaves réputés être des Bambara. Ces derniers étaient acheminés à Saint-Louis du Sénégal d où ils étaient exportés, directement ou via l île de Gorée, vers les colonies françaises d Amérique. Les gens du Mande, surtout des Bambara et des Manding, avaient une visibilité remarquable parmi la population servile de Louisiane, surtout au moment où cette colonie était, avec la Concession du Sénégal, sous le contrôle de la Compagnie des Indes occidentales. Toutefois, tous les captifs n ont pas traversé l Atlantique. Ils ont été ajoutés à la population servile de Saint-Louis et sont devenus des «captifs de case» attachés pour la plupart au service des Signares, épouses ou dames de compagnie des traitants et administratifs européens. Ce papier cherche à mettre en lumière la contribution du groupe Mande, les Bambara et les Manding en particulier, à la mise en place, loin de leurs terres d origine et sur les deux façades de l Atlantique, d une culture hybride dans un contexte de servitude. Notre champ d étude sera particulièrement 15

17 focalisé sur les villes de Saint-Louis du Sénégal, où la société secrète du Komo a survécu jusqu'à une période relativement récente, et à La Nouvelle Orléans, en Louisiane, ou la fameuse tradition des Black Indians s est maintenue sous une forme désacralisée. De nos jours, ces derniers constituent encore un des aspects les plus pittoresques de la communauté noire de la Nouvelle Orléans. Le jour du Mardi gras, ils organisent des parades, musique et danse à l'appui. Les principaux membres, avec à leur tête le Big Chief, revêtent de somptueux costumes cousus de plumes et de perles dont la couleur varie du blanc éclatant à l écarlate. Notre propos est de voir dans quelle mesure ces porteurs de masques peuvent être rattachés aux sociétés secrètes des peuples Mande (Komo et Kankurang). Il s agit aussi d identifier, autant que possible, les modalités de mise en place et les facteurs de survie, sur les rives du fleuve Sénégal et celles du Mississippi, de cet élément de culture venu du Jolibaa. Aboubacar Touré, Université Général Lansana Conté de Sonfonia-Conakry, Guinée Le commerce transatlantique et la traite négrière sur les côtes de Guinée: cas du Moria La Sierra Leone en tant qu îlot de prospérité, avait pris une importance évidente en devenant la destination rêvée de toute l élite économique du terroir. Des hommes d affaires de la Côte, du Fuuta- Djallon, de la Haute Guinée et de la Foret s y donnaient rendez-vous pour vendre et acheter tout ce qui pouvait l être: produits agricoles, ivoire, or et surtout esclaves aussi bien que les marchandises venant de l Afrique du Nord et de l Europe. C est aussi la période de la traite négrière désormais clandestine ou les négriers européens et américains disposaient encore d importantes cargaisons d esclaves quasiment impossibles a écouler sur les marchés d outre atlantique. Hélas, il y avait aussi des négriers locaux qui, a la suite de leurs émules du Nord, essaient de faire fortune dans ce scandaleux commerce. Les difficultés d écoulement de ces cargaisons s expliquaient par la surveillance stricte et musclée exercée par la marine anglaise sur le commerce d esclaves. Rappelons que les Anglais avaient mis fin a ce commerce des 1826 alors que les Français ne franchiront ce seuil que Paradoxalement, il n était mis fin a la detention d esclaves. C est alors que de hameaux de cultures naissent en divers points de la côte guinéenne devenue subitement une terre de prédilection pour l exploitation de cette main d oeuvre servile. C était le cas dans le Moria. Joan-Mary.I. Ogiogwa, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Sungbo s Eredo: A symbol of Ijebu-Yoruba Pre-Atlantic and Atlantic Heritage The advent and transformations of social complexity within sub-saharan West Africa have become a topical issue and discourse in recent years with the emergence of new data which contradict the Big bang theory of Wilks with its central theme claiming that the forest environment of Southern Ghana and indeed, sub-saharan Africa was not conducive to human settlement and in particular complex societies. According to this old theory, the transformation of the forest into farmland followed only after the advent of the Atlantic trade starting from the late 15 th century (Goody 1971, Wilks 1993). But recent and on-going research in the West African forest belt, from Sierra-Leone through Ghana to Nigeria, have produced new data which suggest a process of urbanisation that might have had its beginning from around the first millennium CE. The new data confirm that there were sedentary/agrarian societies that were well adapted to the forest environment and all of them predated the Atlantic trade (Chouin 2009). These new data have prompted the need to re-visit and probably rewrite the history of Africa particularly that of sub-saharan West Africa and to attempt to review and 16

18 reinterpret earlier data in order to establish the existence before the commencement of the Atlantic trade. Therefore, it has become necessary to understand the processes that led people to settle and transform the forested environment of the West African zone (from Sierra Leone to Nigeria) during the last 3000 years as well as the original political systems, settlement patterns and foodways that existed and sustained them (Chouin 2012). Ogundiran (2005) and Chouin (2012) agree that this trade (Atlantic) which is of trans-continental proportions did actually play crucial role in the structures and trajectories of the several complex societies that developed in West Africa after the eighth century A.D. They have also agreed that the origins or beginnings of the complex societies predated the Atlantic experience. This was confirmed by my research work on Sungbo s Eredo and it is a work that is still on-going. Eredo among the Ijebu-Yoruba means earthworks, embankments, ditches or troughs. Sungbo s Eredo will therefore literally mean Sungbo s earthwork. Sungbo s earthwork is a system of walls and ditches that surround the whole of Ijebuland. The earthwork is a gargantuan artifact that covers about 160km passing through Epe, Odogbolu and back to Ijebu-Ode (Darling, 1999). The edifice called Sungbo s Eredo suggests a sophisticated political community, which constructed a defensive structure rooted in advanced political hegemony among other things. This has become an enviable cultural identity for the Ijebu sub-group up to now. Internal/domestic trade needs to be given a larger space than hitherto in the scheme of things. It is worrisome that the place of domestic trade in the evolution of the socio-spatial complexities in the West Africa generally has been under-researched for so long. The emergence of new data from Sungbo s Eredo with particular reference to earthworks suggests that the above socio-political order blossomed before the Atlantic trade. Radio-carbon dates obtained from excavated sections of the earthworks and field observations shatter the old thesis. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the impact of the Sungbo s Eredo on the political system vis-à-vis the demographic strength and the implication of this for the development of archaeo-tourism in the region and Nigeria as a whole. Hannes Schroeder, University of Copenhagen, Denmark & Leiden University, The Netherlands The strands that bind: DNA and the search for African ancestry Between the 16th and 19th centuries, over 12 million Africans were kidnapped in Africa and transported to the Americas as a result of the transatlantic slave trade. We know that the captives were taken from various parts of mainly West and West Central Africa but their precise origins generally remain unknown. As a result, the majority of present-day African Americans, as opposed to those descended from European immigrants, cannot trace their family roots to anywhere more specific in Africa. In this paper, I trace the history of ancestry testing from its humble beginnings through to the genome era and discuss the potential (and limitations) of DNA analyses in trying to determine ancestry. To illustrate my point, I use the example of an ancient DNA study where we analysed the remains of three captive Africans who died on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin in the late 17th century. Using genome-wide data, we are able to trace their ancestral origins to different populations in Africa, including Bantu and non-bantu speakers. The study illustrates the potential of genome-wide analyses for studying ancestry and paves the way for similar studies in archaeology. 17

19 Jay B. Haviser, Leiden University, The Netherlands & SIMARC, Sint Maarten The Caribbean as a Mirror to Africa This presentation will review historical and archaeological contexts for the complex views of cultural formation among peoples within the African Diaspora of the Caribbean region and their origin populations of West Africa. Just as a mirror clearly reflects a source image, it also distorts the image being seen, reversing it, and with varied angles often creating an entirely new perspective from the original source. This is the basic premise for a critical evaluation of Caribbean and West African cultural developments through history, where similarities are ever present yet the results are frequently far divergent. By utilizing both historical records and archaeological investigations, a summary of aspects for these divergences are discussed, examining both the actual cultural formation processes and the variable methodological approaches used for evaluation. Ken Kelly, University of South Carolina, USA Archaeology and the illegal slave trade of the 19 th c on the Guinea coast/ L Archéologie et la traite négrière illégale du 19è siècle sur la côte de la Guinée Beginning in the early 19 th century, European nations began to prohibit participation in the trans- Atlantic slave trade, yet the demand for captive Africans remained high in the slave societies of the New World. As a consequence of the efforts of the British Anti-Slave Trade patrols to interdict the trade, commerce shifted from the traditional slaving ports of the Gold and Slave Coasts, to less centralized societies such as those along the tidal rivers of present-day Guinea. Here, taking advantage of a long-standing cultural tradition, the landlord-stranger relationship, European and American traders inserted themselves into existing elite lineages to secure access to trading locations. These trading factories, located along the tidal rivers of Guinea, particularly the Rio Nunez and Pongo, were ideally located at the terminus of trade paths leading to the Futa Jallon, where a series of conflicts were generating captives. The riverside trading lodges were hidden upriver, and out of sight of the Anti-slave Trade patrols passing along the coast. Rivers such as the Rio Pongo experienced a florescence of clandestine and legitimate trade with as many as several dozen trading lodges working to satisfy the continuing demand for captives. This presentation discusses pioneering archaeological work in the Bangalan Basin of the Rio Pongo to locate, identify, and excavate at some of the key 19 th century trading establishments. Through this archaeological work we are able to document the scale and intensity of the commerce, and explore the impacts of this interaction on the societies of the coastal rivers. Au début du 19è siècle les nations européennes intervenaient pour interdire la traite négrière transatlantique. Dans les sociétés esclavagistes du nouveau monde, il existait encore une forte demande pour les captifs africains. Suite aux efforts des patrouilles britanniques anti-traite, ce commerce se déplaça des ports de traite traditionnels sur la Côte d Or et la Côte des Esclaves, vers des sociétés moins centralisées, par exemple les villages le long des rivières à marées de la Guinée actuelle. Dans ces endroits, les marchands ont pu bénéficier d une tradition culturelle de longue date, dite la relation patron-étranger. Les marchands européens et américains se sont insérés au sein de lignées d élites existantes lesquelles assuraient leur accès aux réseaux commerciaux. Les comptoirs bénéficiaient d emplacements idéals, le long des rivières à marée en Guinée, surtout sur les Rio Pongo et Nunez, au terminus des chemins de traite menant du Fouta Djallon, où une série de conflits continuaient à fournir des captifs. Les comptoirs étaient cachés en amont de la côte, invisibles aux 18

20 patrouilles anti-traite passant près de la côte. Les rivières comme le Rio Pongo ont connu, à cette époque, une croissance de traite clandestine et légitime, avec plusieurs dizaines de comptoirs essayant de combler la demande continue pour des travailleurs asservis. Cette présentation décrit le travail archéologique novateur entrepris dans le Bassin de Bangalan du Rio Pongo, pour trouver, identifier et fouiller à des endroits clefs dans quelques comptoirs du 19è siècle. Ce travail archéologique nous permet de documenter l échelle et l intensité du commerce et d étudier les impacts de cette interaction sur les groupes sociaux des rivières côtières. El Hadj Ibrahima Fall, Université Nelson Mandela, Conakry Perspectives pluridisciplinaires dans l exploration de la Traite Négrière Clandestine en Guinée: Une recherche anthropo- archéologique au Rio Pongo Au début du 19 ème siècle, une série extraordinaire de facteurs vont se combiner et positionner brusquement le Rio Pongo, surtout dans sa partie supérieure, dans une posture stratégique rarement égalée dans l histoire de la traite négrière sur le littoral atlantique ouest africain. Ces facteurs historiques, anthropologiques, politiques et géographiques, peuvent être à juste titre considérés comme la clé de voûte d un système économique et social essentiellement axé sur la <<Traite Négrière illégale ou tardive>> qui a caractérisé cette portion supérieure du Rio Pongo Guinéen dans la 1 ère moitié du 19 ème siècle. Mais paradoxalement, de façon générale, et dans presque toute l historiographie de la traite négrière transatlantique en Afrique de l Ouest, pour des raisons diverses très peu d intérêt a été jusque-là accordé à cette région des Rios guinéens et particulièrement à cette période précise, jugée marginale du trafic d êtres humains. Pour remédier à cette situation, et sous l impulsion d un travail universitaire issu d une mission de prospection scientifique dans cette région en juillet 2011, le projet culturel et patrimonial pilote, dénommé Mémoire de Farinya a été créé. L objectif est de mener des actions sur la durée, visant non seulement à reconstituer l Histoire de la localité relative à la traite négrière dite tardive, mais aussi à restaurer les éléments de ce patrimoine en vue de favoriser le développement des infrastructures sociales et des activités culturelles et touristiques. Cette présentation décrit le contexte de ce projet, ses objectifs et les résultats les plus récents. Mame Coumba Geneviève Dieme, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Sénégal L évolution des modèles de consommation en Sénégambie pendant la traite atlantique: perspective historique. A l échelle de l histoire africaine, les traites esclavagistes, trans-saharienne, atlantique ou océanindienne, couvrent des périodes relativement récentes. Des sociétés millénaires, avec un mode de fonctionnement et des habitudes acquises au fil des siècles et bien intégrées dans le quotidien des populations, y ont rythmé la vie en accord avec l environnement. Cependant la côte occidentale africaine, qui a abrité dès la période moderne la rencontre entre Européens et Africains, a vu toute cette relative stabilité, construite sur la durée, bouleversée par le choc qui a résulté de cette rencontre. L institution d un commerce d un genre particulier, qui transforme l humain en marchandise, pousse à se l approprier et à l échanger contre des commodités ou à le vendre au plus offrant, a provoqué des bouleversements sans précédent. Perceptibles ou non, certains d entre eux, ont laissé de profondes marques dans les sociétés impliquées dans cette connexion atlantique. 19

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