Abstracts of the talks: Wednesday 11 February. Session 1: Climate change and system vulnerability 8. Session 3: Livestock system adaptive capacity 13

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3 Table of contents Introduction : network ReColAD 1 The metagrogramme ACCAF 2 Program 6 Abstracts of the talks: Wednesday 11 February Session 1: Climate change and system vulnerability 8 Session 2: Forecasting the impact of global environmental changes on livestock 10 Session 3: Livestock system adaptive capacity 13 Session 4: Animal adaptive capacities: from theory to practice 15 Presentation of the ateliers: Thursday 12 February Atelier 1 : Genetic strategies to improve adaptation 18 Atelier 2 : Phenotyping strategies to quantify animal adaptability 20 List of posters Atelier 3 : Adapting Farming systems to Climate Change by type of production and agro-climatic conditions Abstracts of the posters List of participants 44 Presentation of the participants 48 0

4 The ReColAd Network Climate change is one of the major issues of our era. Many direct and indirect consequences are expected in the short and medium-term on livestock breeding, both in the South (Mediterranean and tropical areas) where climate constraints are already important and will worsen in the near future, and in the North where heat waves and drought are becoming more and more frequent. Even though the nature and magnitude of the effects vary from one region to another, adaptation of animals and more generally, farming systems to the effects of global warming is a challenge to which research actors from the North and the South must be dedicated. Because of the difficulty of this challenge it is essential that scientists from both regions work together, in order to understand how domestic animals can adapt to climatic and environmental changes. The main goal of ReColAd is to build an international network for sharing practices, methods and data to promote in concerted and organized way, efficient approaches to help animals and farming systems adapt to climate change. This will allow broadening the range of knowledge and discussion to encourage multidisciplinary research approaches in the development of new research programs. Le changement climatique est l'un des enjeux majeurs de notre époque. Beaucoup de conséquences directes et indirectes sont attendus à court et à moyen terme sur l'élevage, à la fois dans le Sud (Méditerranée et les zones tropicales) où les contraintes climatiques sont déjà importantes et vont s aggraver dans un avenir proche, et dans le Nord où les vagues de chaleur et la sécheresse sont de plus en plus fréquentes. Même si la nature et l'ampleur des effets varient d'une région à l'autre, l'adaptation des animaux et, plus généralement des systèmes agricoles, aux effets du réchauffement climatique est un défi auquel les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud doivent se consacrer. Devant la difficulté de ce défi, il est essentiel que les scientifiques des deux régions travaillent ensemble, afin de comprendre comment les animaux domestiques peuvent s adapter aux changements climatiques et environnementaux. L'objectif principal de ReColAd est de construire un réseau international pour le partage des pratiques, des méthodes et des données afin de promouvoir de façon concertée et organisée, des approches efficaces pour aider les animaux et les systèmes agricoles à s adapter au changement climatique. Cela permettra d'élargir l'éventail des connaissances et des discussions pour encourager des approches de recherche multidisciplinaires dans l'élaboration de nouveaux programmes de recherche. 1

5 Le métaprogramme ACCAF ACCAF : Adaptation de l agriculture et de la forêt au changement climatique Le changement climatique a des effets visibles, comme la stagnation des rendements de céréales en Europe depuis quelques années, et les mesures disponibles estiment que les productions animales représentent jusqu à 18% des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Il est donc nécessaire, d une part d adapter les systèmes de production au réchauffement climatique, et d autre part d identifier des pistes pour que forêts, cultures et élevages puissent contribuer à atténuer ce changement climatique. L activité agricole et les milieux naturels terrestres sont appelés à subir la majeure partie des impacts du changement climatique, nécessitant d importants efforts d adaptation. De plus, les stratégies d adaptation mises en œuvre par l agriculture au sens large génèreront des externalités positives ou négatives (notamment en termes de gaz à effet de serre, de biodiversité, de ressources en eau et en sols) qu il est nécessaire d évaluer. Un bilan des recherches en cours à l Inra au lancement du métaprogramme en 2011 indiquait de larges lacunes ou points faibles thématiques que le programme a pour vocation de combler. Les recherches ont pour l instant porté très majoritairement sur les impacts du changement climatique et dans une moindre mesure sur la vulnérabilité des systèmes. Peu de travaux ont été développés sur l adaptation au changement climatique, sur les externalités induites, sur les coûts et les bénéfices de l adaptation, alors que ces domaines correspondent à des enjeux socioéconomiques majeurs. Le métaprogramme travaille à comprendre les effets conjoints des différentes modifications globales provoquées par le changement climatique sur l activité agricole et les milieux naturels terrestres, et à réfléchir aux stratégies d adaptation ainsi qu à leurs conséquences environnementales et socio-économiques. Outre des appels à manifestation d intérêt propres, le métaprogramme abonde aussi plusieurs Eranets (Foresterra, JPI FACCE Climate Smart Agriculture, RUS) afin de favoriser l émergence de projets pluridisciplinaires internationaux. Les 7 objectifs du métaprogramme ACCAF 1- Evaluer et gérer les risques et les opportunités à moyen terme associés à la variabilité et aux extrêmes du climat et définir des stratégies visant à anticiper et pallier les crises climatiques ; 2- Projeter et scénariser (avec une quantification des incertitudes associées) les impacts régionaux du changement climatique sur l agriculture et les écosystèmes plus ou moins anthropisés ; 3- Comprendre et maîtriser les principaux effets du changement climatique sur la biodiversité, son évolution (aires de répartition des espèces, diversité génétique) ainsi que celle de la santé (espèces invasives, bioagresseurs et leur diversité génétique, maladies) des écosystèmes, agro-systèmes et des bêtes de rente ; 4- Améliorer génétiquement les espèces cultivées ou domestiquées et les animaux de rente aux modifications du climat et de ses conséquences (composition de l atmosphère - CO2, ozone, nouveaux bio-agresseurs, etc.) et renforcer la capacité d adaptation des systèmes de culture, des systèmes de production et des filières ; 5- Développer des technologies innovantes de l adaptation compatibles avec la réduction des émissions et l augmentation ou la pérennisation de la taille des puits de gaz à effet de serre ; 6- Identifier les coûts et les bénéfices de mesures d adaptation au regard de différents enjeux : compétitivité économique, biodiversité, ressources en eau et en sols, satisfaction des besoins alimentaires, qualité et sécurité sanitaire des produits ; 7- Définir des modes d organisation collective (gouvernance des territoires, assurances, formation, innovation, valorisation) susceptibles de renforcer la capacité d adaptation de l agriculture et de la forêt au changement climatique. 2

6 Le métaprogramme ACCAF Le métaprogramme ACCAF se concentre sur 5 thématiques de recherche principales : Adaptation des ressources naturelles et des territoires Adaptation des productions végétales Adaptation des productions animales Adaptation et biodiversité Adaptation et santé animale et végétale Les actions en cours au 1er février 2015: 18 projets de recherche pluridisciplinaires et 7 actions internationales (réseaux, projets bi- ou multilatéraux, etc.). Formalisation d un cahier des charges pour un portefeuille de services pour l adaptation à l échelle nationale, reposant sur des produits issus de chaînes de modélisation agro-hydro-climatique (action menée dans le cadre d Allenvi). Pour en savoir plus : 3

7 The metaprogramme ACCAF ACCAF: Adaptation of agriculture and forests to climate change Climate change has visible effects, by contributing for example to the yield stagnation of cereals in Europe in recent years, and, based on the available measures, researchers estimate that livestock production accounts for up to 18% of greenhouse gas emissions globally. So it is necessary, first, to adapt production and social systems to climate change and, also, to identify cases where forests, crops and livestock can contribute to mitigate climate change. Farming activity and natural environments are expected to bear the brunt of climate change impacts, so it is here that adaptation efforts will be the greatest. Furthermore, adaptation strategies implemented by agriculture at large will generate positive or negative effects (particularly in terms of greenhouse gases, biodiversity, water resources and soil) which we need to understand better. An initial mapping of ongoing research at INRA done while the metaprogramme was launched in 2011 indicated several thematic gaps or weaknesses which the programme aims to address. The research has so far focused very heavily on the impacts of climate change and, to a lesser extent, on systems vulnerability. Little work has been done on adapting to climate change, on the induced effects, on the costs and benefits of adaptation, despite these being major socio-economic challenges. AAFCC metaprogramme aims to understand the combined effects of the various global changes caused by climate change on farming and natural environments and to consider adaptation strategies and their environmental and socio-economic consequences. In addition to its own calls for expression, the metaprogramme also abounds in several Eranets (Foresterra, JPI FACCE Climate Smart Agriculture, RUS) in order to promote the emergence of international multidisciplinary projects. Seven major objectives for ACCAF: 1. To assess and manage the medium-term risks and opportunities associated with the climate variability and extremes and define strategies aimed at anticipating and mitigating climate crises; 2. To plan and develop scenarios (quantifying the associated uncertainties) for the regional impacts of climate change on farming and more or less managed ecosystems; 3. To understand and control the main effects of climate change on biodiversity, its evolution (range of species distribution, genetic diversity) as well as health (invasive species, pests and their genetic diversity, disease) of ecosystems, agro-systems and livestock; 4. To genetically improve cultivated or domestic species and livestock to adapt them to climate change and its consequences (composition of the atmosphere - CO2, ozone, new bio-aggressors, etc.) and strengthen the resilience of farming systems, production systems and sectors; 5. To develop innovative adaptation technologies compatible with reducing emissions and increasing or maintaining the size of greenhouse gas sinks; 6. To identify the costs and benefits of adaptation measures in respect of various issues: economic competitiveness, biodiversity, water resources and soil, fulfilling the demand for food, product quality and safety; 7. To establish collective organisation systems (local governance, insurance, training, innovation, development) that can strengthen the resilience of agriculture and forestry to climate change. 4

8 The metaprogramme ACCAF ACCAF is focusing on five main research areas: Adaptation of natural resources and territories Adaptation of crops Adaptation of livestock Adaptation and biodiversity Adaptation and animal and plant health Ongoing actions by 1 February multidisciplinary research projects and 7 international actions (networks, bi- or multilateral projects, etc.). Formalization of the specifications for a portfolio of adaptation services at a national scale, based on products coming from agro-hydro-climate modelling chains (action led within Alleni). More information: 5

9 Program Wednesday 11 February Session 1: Climate change and system vulnerability 08:30-09:00 Registration 09:00-09:15 Introduction to the workshop 09:15-09:30 The metaprogramme ACCAF. Thierry Caquet, INRA 09:20-10:00 Vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of livestock production systems to climate changes: An overview from different geographic regions. Anne Mottet, FAO 10:00-10:30 Direct and indirect effects of climate change on the livestock sector from an economic and social perspective. Alexandre Ickowicz, CIRAD 10:30-10:45 Coffee break Session 2: Forecasting the impact of global environmental changes on livestock 10:45-11:15 Evolution of foraging system (and raw materials) in the next 50 years in the light of climate changes. Rémy Delagarde, INRA 11:15-11:45 Bioclimatology and adaptation of farm animals to a changing climate. Lance H. Baumgard, Iowa State University 11:45-12:30 Quantification of the impact of climate change on animal health: Effects on Pathogens, Effects on Vectors and Effects on Hosts. Renaud Lancelot, CIRAD 12:30-14:00 Lunch break Session 3: Livestock system adaptive capacity 14:00-14:30 Strategies to improve livestock system robustness: moving toward a heterogeneity of the livestock system. Emilie Ollion, INRA Clermont-Ferrand 14:30-15:00 Transposition to temperate countries of farming practice experiences and/or genetic resources from the tropics: the example of mixed animal production system. Giséle Alexandre, URZ, INRA 15:00-15:40 Adaptive strategies to climate change at the livestock system and farming level. Philippe LESCOAT, AgroParisTech 15:40-16:00 Coffee break 6

10 Program Session 4: Animal adaptive capacities: from theory to practice 16:00-16:30 Knowledge and gaps in G*E interactions: will the current selection breeds still be the best ones in the future? María Jesús Carabaño, INIA Madrid 16:30-17:10 Choosing genetic strategies to improve animal productivity and adaptability under harsh environments: experiences from classical selection, cross-breeding and genomic selections. Florence Phocas, GABI, INRA 17:10-17:40 Phenotyping strategies to measure animal adaptability to harsh climate. Umberto Bernabucci, Univ. Tuscia, Italy 17:40-18:00 Conclusions of the first day 18:00-18:30 Poster session Thursday 12 February The aim of the first two "ateliers" is to develop a discussion to identify strategies to face climate change from a genetic and a phenotypic perspective, respectively. The results of these discussions will be hared in the afternoon plenary atelier, centered on the farm system. The aim of this afternoon discussion is to identify the best strategies, taking advantage of acquired knowledge, to propose a farming system less vulnerable to Climate Change. 9:00-12:00 Atelier 1: Genetic - approaches to improve adaptation to climate change in livestock 10:30-10:45 Coffee break 12:30-14:00 Lunch break Atelier 2: Phenotyping strategies to quantify animal adaptability 13:30-17:00 Atelier 3: Adapting Farming systems to Climate Change by type of production and agro-climatic conditions 15:00-15:30 Coffee break 17:00 End of workshop 7

11 Abstract of the talk Session 1 : Climate change and system vulnerability Vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of livestock production systems to climate change Anne MOTTET Livestock Policy Officer, FAO Contact: Short CV Anne Mottet is a Livestock Policy Officer with FAO. She holds a PhD in agronomy and a master s degree in agricultural economics and has over 10 years of experience in the livestock sector. Over the last years, she has been involved in animal products market analysis, agricultural and rural policy assessments, strategic consulting to the European livestock sector and support to livestock and environment policies, including global and regional assessments of natural resource use efficiency by livestock systems, livestock and climate change and ecosystem services. She is one of the co-authors of Tackling climate change through livestock: a global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities (FAO, 2013) and of Vulnerability and Resilience in Livestock Systems in the Drylands of Africa, a contribution to the World Bank flagship report on the Economics of resilience in the drylands of Africa. Abstract Climate change is the most serious environmental challenge facing humanity, threatening the well-being of future generations. The urgency for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapting to climate change is an unprecedented challenge for the international community but can be addressed with the right policies that support innovation and investment to reduce emissions, improve resilience and increase productivity. Livestock matters to climate change. The sector contributes to 14.5% of total human induced GHG emissions (IPCC, 2014; Gerber et al., 2013). Technologies and practices that help reduce emissions exist but are not widely used. Those that improve production efficiency at animal and herd levels, including feeding, breeding, health and reproduction management, also have productivity co-benefits. In addition, livestock can benefit from carbon offsets that represent potential additional income. Climate change matters to livestock. Direct impacts on production range from extreme climatic events, droughts and floods, to thermal stress and reduced yields or water availability. Climate change also affects livestock indirectly through productivity and quality of forages and animal diseases, modifying the patterns of affected areas and livestock vulnerability at the same time. 1.7 billion people in the world depend on livestock for a living, among which 1 billion poor. A large proportion of poor livestock keepers are highly exposed to climate change. But solutions exist to increase resilience and improve livestock adaptation to climate change. As a natural adapter to climate change, livestock are indeed an asset for resilience. Examples from different regions are provided, including results from a modeling effort in the drylands of Africa, which show that interventions can significantly increase the output of livestock products (5% to 20%) if accessibility to feed is improved. Livestock has the potential to act as a buffer and to decrease the impact of variability in usable biomass through consecutive filters: animal requirements feed rations and eventually meat and milk production. Livestock proves to be a significant asset for adaptation to climate change. 8

12 Abstract of the talk Session 1 : Climate change and system vulnerability Direct and indirect effects of climate change on the livestock sector from an economic and social perspective Alexandre ICKOWICZ Head of UMR SELMET Animal production researcher CIRAD Contact: Short CV Veterinary ; Animal production science in the tropics ; Focus on pastoral systems in semi-arid environment ; ruminant nutrition and feeding behavior on rangelands ; rangeland dynamics and management. Abstract Livestock production systems provide multiple services to population and within territories. Based on studies carried on in different countries in Mediterranean and tropical environments, we show that climate change and/or climate variability have clear impacts on social organization and economic activities of livestock producers. This is due in part to direct impact of climate factor on production systems but also to indirect impact of global economic factors that are sensible to climate change or variability. Livestock producers hence identify and develop specific strategies to mitigate climate impact on the sustainability of their production systems. 9

13 Abstract of the talk Session 2 : Forecasting the impact of global environmental changes on livestock Evolution of ruminant foraging systems in the next 50 years in the light of climate changes Rémy DELAGARDE Leader of Dairy systems team at the UMR INRA-Agrocampus Ouest Pegase, Saint-Gilles Researcher in grazing ruminant nutrition INRA Contact: Short CV Rémy Delagarde was graduated at ENSA Montpellier (France) in Animal Production, and has the HDR diploma for research management since He has a 20-year experience in nutrition, feeding, behaviour and digestion of dairy cows under temperate grazing systems. He is from 7 years the leader of the Dairy systems team of the UMR1348 INRA-Agrocampus Ouest PEGASE (http://www6.rennes.inra.fr/pegase). He developed 10 years ago the GrazeIn model for predicting daily pasture intake of dairy cows, currently used in several tools such as INRAtion for formulating ruminant diets in France and other European countries. He has many contacts with research institutes and universities in Ireland and America Latina. His main scientific interests are regulation and prediction of pasture intake of dairy cows and dairy goats. He is author or co-author of more than 40 peer-review papers or book chapters, and of more than 60 communications. Abstract Forages, fed fresh (grazing mainly) or conserved (silages, hay) represent 70 to 90% of the ruminants annual diet. Ruminant production systems are potentially highly sensitive to climate changes because of the great sensitivity of pastures and forages production to heat and drought periods (+-50% of annual production). As herd requirements are high all over the year, farmers need to be globally self-sufficient (auto-security), so to adapt their foraging systems. Ways of evolution of foraging systems will be structural (anticipation, low reversibility) and tactical (corrective actions, more reversible). Main ways are : decreased stocking rate, increased forage stock security (more than > 6 months), diversification of feed resources (winter, spring, summer and autumn growth periods), change of the annual pattern of grazing periods, increase proportion of dual purpose crops (maize, sorghum, cereals-legumes) that may be cropped young as forage or mature as grain, replacement of maize by sorghum (greater water use efficiency), summer or winter intercrops, using new crops as forage, also for grazing : beet, turnip, chicory, plantain, multispecies swards, lucerne, red clover, leguminous shrubs, trees. To be consistent, herds characteristics and herd management should also be adapted, both structurally (long-term) and tactically (short-term) : more robust animals (change of breed, cross-breeding) with less diet energy density requirements, calving periods adapted to forage availability, drying duration, herd size and culling management, once-a-day milking, etc. These changes are to be considered within the context of prices volatility (need to control production costs) and extension of farm size that generally increases mechanisation (milking and feeding robots) and decreases area accessible per cow, both decreasing use of grazing at farm level. 10

14 Abstract of the talk Session 2 : Forecasting the impact of global environmental changes on livestock Bioclimatology and adaptation of farm animals to a changing climate Lance BAUMGARD Jacobson Professor of Nutritional Physiology Professor Iowa State University Contact: Short CV Education: PhD: Cornell University (2001) MS: University of Minnesota (1998) BS: University of Minnesota (1995) Research Activities: Environmental and Nutritional Physiology Ruminant Nutrition Main Publications: Baumgard, L.H., and R.P. Rhoads RUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: Ruminant production and metabolic responses to heat stress. J. Anim. Sci. 90: Baumgard, L.H., and R.P. Rhoads Review: Effects of heat stress on post-absorptive metabolism and energetics. Ann. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 1: Rhoads, R.P., L.H. Baumgard and J.K. Saugee Metabolic priorities during heat stress with an emphasis on skeletal muscle. J. Anim Sci. 91: Johnson, J.S., M.V. Sanz-Fernandez, J.F. Patience, J.W. Ross, N.K. Gabler, M.C. Lucy T.J. Safranski, R.P. Rhoads, and L.H. Baumgard Effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal body composition in pigs: II. Finishing phase. J. Anim. Sci. 93: Abstract Climate change and thermal stress in particular, is a key limiting factor to efficient animal production and negatively impacts health and development during postnatal life. In addition, thermal stress (especially heat stress) during in utero development can permanently alter postnatal phenotypes and negatively affect future animal performance. The global effects of thermal stress on animal agriculture will likely increase as climate models predict more extreme weather patterns in most animal producing areas. Consequently, thermal stress threatens global food security and this is especially apparent in developing countries. There is an urgent need for the scientific community to develop mitigation strategies to increase production of high quality animal protein for human consumption during the warm summer months. 11

15 Abstract of the talk Session 2 : Forecasting the impact of global environmental changes on livestock Quantification of the impact of climate change on animal health: effects on pathogens, vectors, and hosts Renaud LANCELOT Deputy director and head of epidemiology team, Umr Inra-Cirad Control of exotic and emerging animal diseases, epidemiologist Cirad Contact Short CV Renaud Lancelot is a French veterinary epidemiologist with a PhD in population biology and ecology. He is the deputy director, as well as the epidemiology team leader, in the INRA-CIRAD research unit Control of emerging and exotic animal diseases (Montpellier, France): He has a 30-year experience in the epidemiology of animal and zoonotic diseases, including 20 years of field work in French Guiana, Mauritania, Chad, Senegal, and Madagascar. Since 2006, he has been coordinating the large collaborative European projects EDEN (Emerging diseases in a changing European environment) and EDENext (Biology and control of vectorborne infections) (http://www.edenext.eu/). His current research interests are in the epidemiology and modelling of peste des petits ruminants, Rift Valley fever, and tsetse flies. He is the author of > 150 scientific publications, communications, books and statistical software. Abstract Several animal or zoonotic emerging infectious disease (EID) events were recently caused by vector-borne pathogens, e.g. bluetongue virus transmitted by biting midges, or tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. The effects of climate changes have been put forward to explain these events. Because the bio-ecological features of arthropod vectors make them highly sensitive to environmental conditions, vector-borne diseases are ideal candidates to assess the effect of climate changes on EID. The question was extensively studied these last years. Results show that each EID is a special case and involves a complex network of interacting causes. In several cases, socio-economic changes, including the intensification of trade and travels, were found to have a dominant effect over climate changes. Conversely, the indirect effects of climate changes on animal health have been rarely studied so far. For instance, regarding northern and sub-saharan Africa, climate-change scenarios often point to important consequences on farming systems (e.g., greater importance of small ruminants with respect to cattle) and urbanization. These changes will cause major changes in transboundary livestock trade, thus allowing the introduction of pathogens (and their possible vectors) into previously free areas. This is a further illustration of the need to better control animal diseases in their geographic are of endemicity, and to improve surveillance and preparedness for early warning and reaction in case of high risk of EID. 12

16 Abstract of the talk Session 3 : Livestock system adaptive capacity Strategies to improve livestock systems resilience: moving toward diversity Emilie OLLION PhD Student in animal production sciences Inra and vetagro-sup Contact: Short CV I m a French PhD student working on the evaluation of dairy cows and dairy herd robustness. At Inra and Vetagro-Sup. Before entering a PhD I validated a diploma of agricultural engineer at ISARA-Lyon. I completed my education with a master in animal sciences at Wageningen University followed by a master in European animal management (EURAMA) at EI-Purpan. My research activities aim at qualifying and evaluating the robustness of dairy cow and dairy herds. The first objective of my work is to develop methods to identify animals able to produce and maintain in fluctuating environments and get more knowledge on the existing diversity within dairy herds. The second objective is to evaluate the possibilities of using this existing diversity on farm as a improve robustness at the herd level. Abstract Agroecological transition of livestock systems represents an acceptable pathway to conciliate issues regarding efficiency, social acceptance and environmental burden of these productions. Developing agroecological practices implies to consider five major principles (Dumont et al. 2013), i.e. improve animal health management, decrease the use of inputs, reduce pollution by optimizing nutrients use and cycling, enhance diversity in the systems to strengthen their resilience and preserve biodiversity. This presentation emphasizes on the forms of diversities that can be developed on livestock farming systems to enhance their robustness, i.e. their capacity to face disturbances and come back to an equilibrium. The diversity of productions and resources on the farm is one main lever to improve the system resilience by multiplying the sources of income, decreasing the dependency on inputs and be less vulnerable to external fluctuations, like prices variability. Furthermore, the combination of different animal species, associated to appropriate management practices, can provide flexibility to adapt to different stresses, such as climate disorders impacting on forages quality and availability. At the herd, the diversity of animal physiological status (i.e. asynchrony) represents an additional tool for farmers to reduce the sensitivity of the herd to disturbances by minimizing the number of high producing animals at a given time. Finally, the evaluation of individual capacities of animals to face disturbances: their robustness, reveals an interesting within-herd diversity. Indeed, based on the dairy cows example, this diversity could be assessed by analyzing their management of trade-offs between life functions (lactation, reproduction, survival). Therefore, the management of herd composition according to individual robustness diversity could provide a new tool for farmers to strengthen the stability of their production in fluctuating environments. 13

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