Solène'LE'DOUAIRON'LAHAYE' '' Laboratoire'«'Mouvement'Sport'Santé'»' Université'de'Rennes'2' '

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1 Solène'LE'DOUAIRON'LAHAYE' '' Laboratoire'«'Mouvement'Sport'Santé'»' Université'de'Rennes'2' ' 1

2 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Orientation Contrôle Suivi PLANIFICATION,PROGRAMMATION,PERIODISATION Capacitésdu sportif Processusd entrainement QUALITES REQUISESPOUR LA PERFORMANCE 2

3 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Orientation Contrôle Suivi PLANIFICATION,PROGRAMMATION,PERIODISATION Capacitésdu sportif Processusd entrainement QUALITES REQUISESPOUR LA PERFORMANCE 3

4 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Connaissances desexigences actuellesdela discipline Connaissances descapacités réellesdu sportif Orienter'avec'le'plus'de'pertinence'possible'le'processus'd entrainement:' planification,'programmation,'périodisation'des'charges'd entrainement' 4

5 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Connaissances desexigences actuellesdela discipline Connaissances descapacités réellesdu sportif I Etudedelalittérature I Vécudumondesportif: situationréellesd entrainement etdecompétition 5

6 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Analysedesexigencesdel activité:laveillescientifique Impossible d'afficher l'image. Votre ordinateur manque peut-être de mémoire pour ouvrir l'image ou l'image est endommagée. Redémarrez l'ordinateur, puis ouvrez à nouveau le fichier. Si le x rouge est toujours affiché, vous devrez peut-être supprimer l'image avant de la réinsérer. Caractéristiquesgénérales: INbredekmparcourus/an INbredejoursdecompétition ITypedecompétitions IIntensitésrépartitions ) Profilanthropométrique Profilphysiqueetphysiologique: PMA,VO2max,CMA, qualitésanaérobieslactiques, puissancemax 6

7 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Analysedesexigencesdel activité:décryptagedelacompétition Photographie d un d triathlon CD au niveau international Coupe du Monde Championnat d Europe d - Championnat du Monde Frank BIGNET - FFTRI 7

8 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Analysedesexigencesdel activité:décryptagedelacompétition 8

9 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Analysedesexigencesdel activité:décryptagedelacompétition 9

10 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Analysedesexigencesdel activité Identificationdescomposantesclésdelaréussiteetdesfacteursdéterminantsdela performance Orienterl entrainementsurlescapacités/qualitésdéterminantesdanslasituationde compétition =spécificitédescontenusd entraînementsurlelongterme =prioritésdetravailhiérarchiedansletempsetlescontenus) Réductiondel écartentrecesexigencesetlescapacitésactuellesdusportif 10

11 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Connaissances desexigences actuellesdela discipline Connaissances descapacités réellesdu sportif Lerespectduprinciped individualisation nécessaireàl efficacitédel entrainement 11

12 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Uneindispensableconnaissancedusportif Agechronologique etbiologique Sexe Niveaude pratique Degréde disponibilité Expérience sportive Qualitéspropres Physiques Psychologiques TechnicoItactiques 12

13 ORIENTATION'DE'L ENTRAINEMENT'SPORTIF' Uneindispensableconnaissancedusportif L évaluation,unenécessitépourdonnerdusensauprojetd entraînement Choixetmiseenplacedetestsetd évaluationspertinents I BUT' I mettreenévidenceleprofildusportif déterminerledegréd adéquationentrelesexigencesdel activitéetleprofildusportif Iélaboreruneprogrammationd entraînementindividuelleetadaptée Iévaluerlaprogressionàdiversmomentsclésdelasaison Iajusterlaprogrammationaufuretàmesuredecestests 13

14 LE'MONITORING' ElévationprogressiveetquasiIpermanenteduniveaudeperformance Marathon 400mNagelibre Nécessitédeperfectionnersanscessetouslesaspectsdelapréparationdusportif Rationalisationduprocessusd entrainement: optimisationducouple«chargesd entrainementirécupération» Mujika'et'al.'2010' 14

15 LE'MONITORING' Nécessitédecontrôler,mesureretquantifieraveclemaximumdeprécisionlescharges d entrainement Optimiserlesadaptationsphysiologiquesetin'fine'laperformance Prévenirlesrisquesdefatigue,desurentrainementetdeblessures LE'MONITORING,' ' unoutilpermettantunsuiviextrêmementprécisde: laquantificationdelacharged entrainement l étatdeformedel athlète 15

16 LE'MONITORING' 2typesdemonitoring CONTROLE delacharge d entrainement SUIVI' desadaptations àl entrainement Quantifierlestimulus d entrainement Vérifierquel athlètes adapte favorablementauxstimuli d entrainement Vérifiersonétatdeforme 16

17 LE'MONITORING' 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement «'Pour'bien'planifier,'il'faut'd abord'bien'quantifier'»' Orientation Contrôle Suivi PLANIFICATION,PROGRAMMATION,PERIODISATION Athlète Processusd entrainement PERFORMANCE 17

18 LE'MONITORING' 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement «'Pour'bien'planifier,'il'faut'd abord'bien'quantifier'»' Lesoutilsdemesuredelacharged entrainement,uneaidedansladémarchede planification I I Programmationdescharges I Contrôledescharges Vérificationdel adéquationentrelachargeprévueetlachargeréellementvécue 18

19 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement Différentesméthodesdequantificationdelacharged entrainement Borresen'et'Lambert,'2009' Quantification delacharge externe Plusgrandeadéquationpossible Quantification delacharge interne Stimulus d entrainementimposé àl athlète distance,puissance ) Réponsesdel athlèteà lachargeexterne FC,perceptionde l effort ) 19

20 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement REVIEW ARTICLE Sports Med 2009; 39 9): /09/ /$49.95/0 ª 2009 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. The Quantification of Training Load, the Training Response and the Effect on Performance Jill Borresen and Michael Ian Lambert MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Contents Abstract Quantifying Training Questionnaires and Diaries Physiological Measures

21 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement Lecontrôledelafréquencecardiaque Méthodeobjectivelaplusfréquemmentutiliséepourévaluerlachargeinterne indicedel intensitédel exercice) Achten'et'Jeukendrup,'2003' RelationFC/intensitédel exercice %VO2max=%FCréserve Karvonen,'1988' 21

22 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement Lecontrôledelafréquencecardiaque Limites'à'l utilisation'de'la'fc'comme'indice'de'l intensité:' I influencée par de nombreux facteurs qui modifient la relation chargedetravail/réponsecardiaque: variationintraiindividuellejournalière niveaudefatigue conditionsenvironnementales hydratation altitude traitementmédicamenteux Enconditionscontrôlées,laFCpeutêtreutiliséecommeindicateur del intensitédel exercice Lambert'et'al.'1998' 22

23 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement Lecontrôledelafréquencecardiaque Limites'à'l utilisation'de'la'fc'comme'indice'de'l intensité:' I appropriée uniquement pour les activités d endurance sollicitationcardiovasculaireetrespiratoiresuffisante) Problèmepourlesactivitésdeforce,vitesseetlessportscollectifs Nécessitéd utiliserd autresoutilspourquantifieretcontrôlerla charged entrainement 23

24 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeTRIMPTrainingIMPulse)deBanister Méthodederéférencepourquantifierlacharged entrainementbaséesurun indicateurobjectif,l évolutiondelafréquencecardiaquependantl entrainement Banister''et'al.'1991' Miseenrelationdelafréquencecardiaquemoyennedelaséanceavecles caractéristiquesindividuelsdel athlètefcreposetfcmax,sexe) pourquantifierlachargeréellementvécue TRIMPshomme)=duréeséancemin)x%FCderéservex0,64xe 1,92x%FCderéserve) TRIMPsfemme)=duréeséancemin)x%FCderéservex0,86xe 1,67x%FCderéserve) 24

25 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeTRIMPTrainingIMPulse)deBanister Limites' à' l utilisation' de' la' méthode' TRIMP' Banister' comme' indice'de'l intensité:' I nécessitel utilisationdecardiofréquencemètres I I appropriée uniquement pour les activités d endurance sollicitationcardiovasculaireetrespiratoiresuffisante) le moyennage de la FC minimise l impact des efforts de haute intensitéutilisationlimitéepourleseffortsintermittents) 25

26 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeTRIMPTrainingIMPulse)deEdwards MéthodeobjectivepourquantifierlachargeàpartirdelaFCpourl entrainement intermittent Edwards,'1993' Zones' %'FC'max' Coefficient' Zone1 50I60% 1 Zone2 60I70% 2 Zone3 70I80% 3 Zone4 80I90% 4 Zone5 90I100% 5 TRIMPs=duréedanschaquezoned intensitéxcoefficientcorrespondant =duréezone1x1)+...+duréezone5x5) 26

27 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeTRIMPTrainingIMPulse)deEdwards Limites' à' l utilisation' de' la' méthode' TRIMP' Edwards' comme' indice'de'l intensité:' I surousousestimationdelacharged entrainementparrapportà la méthode subjective RPE, selon le temps passé à haute ou basseintensité Borresen'et'Lambert,'2008' Limitepouvantêtreliéeausystèmedepondération: lesfcles+faibleet+élevéedechaquezoneontlemême coefficientalorsquelachargephysiologiqueestdifférente unbattement/minsuffitàpasserdanslazoneinférieureou supérieure,diminuantouaugmentantlachargedefaçon disproportionnée 27

28 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeTRIMPTrainingIMPulse)deEdwards Limites' à' l utilisation' de' la' méthode' TRIMP' Edwards' comme' indice'de'l intensité:' I méthodenonvalidéescientifiquement I nécessitel utilisationdecardiofréquencemètresde«hautegamme» permettantledécoupageautomatiquedutempspassédanschaque zonedefcex:logicielpolar) 28

29 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeTRIMPTrainingIMPulse)deLucia TRIMPEdwardsmodifié Lucia'et'al.'2003' Earnest'et'al.'2004' Impellizzeri'et'al.'2004'' Zones' Zone'de'FC' Coefficient' Zone1 <SV1 1 Zone2 EntreSV1etSV2 2 Zone3 >SV2 3 TRIMPs=duréedanschaquezoned intensitéxcoefficientcorrespondant =duréezone1x1)+duréezone2x2)+duréezone3x3) 29

30 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeTRIMPTrainingIMPulse)deLucia Limites'à'l utilisation'de'la'méthode'trimp'lucia'comme'indice' de'l intensité:' I LimitesidentiquesauTRIMPEdwards Stagno'et'al.'2007'' 30

31 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeRPERatingofPerceivedExertion) Méthodesubjectived évaluationdeladifficultéperçuedel effort trèsaccessiblepourquantifierlachargeinterne MéthodevalidéeàpartirdelaméthodeTRIMPcommeréférence Foster'et'al.'2001' Charged entrainement=rpedelaséanceéchelledeborg)xduréemin) Echellede Borg L entraineur multiplie ensuite cette note par la durée de la séance en minutes pour obtenir la charge d entraînement. 31 Exemple : Un individu fait une séance de 1h10 min et situe la difficulté de la séance à 6. Donc :

32 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeRPERatingofPerceivedExertion) Méthode'simple,'pratique'et'validée' dansdiverssports: Iindividuelsd endurance Iindividuelsforce/vitesse I collectifs Impellizerri'et'al.'2004'' Day'et'al.'2004' Coutts'et'al.'2003,'2007' Gabbett'et'al.'2007' Minganti'et'al.'2010' Manzy'et'al.'2010' Haddad'et'al.'2011' Psycharakis'et'al.'2011' 32

33 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeRPERatingofPerceivedExertion) Limites'à'l utilisation'de'la'rpe'comme'indice'de'l intensité:' I la perception individuelle de l effort est influencée par de nombreuxfacteurs personnalité niveaudefatigue conditionsenvironnementales concentrations hormonales catécholamines) substrats énergétiques glucose, glycogène,lactate) William'et'al.'1989' Bienquedesmesuresphysiologiquesobjectivessoientplusprécises,la méthodesubjectiverperesteefficaceetprécisepourévaluerlacharge d entrainement 33

34 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeRPERatingofPerceivedExertion) Le'cas'particulier'de'l entrainement'en'résistance'force)' Charged entrainement=rpedelaséanceéchelledeborg)xnombrederépétitions Sweet'et'al.'2004' McGuignan'et'al.'2004' Day'et'al.'2004' 34

35 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeRPERatingofPerceivedExertion) Limites' à' l utilisation' de' la' RPE' comme' indice' de' l intensité' du' travail'de'résistance:' I La RPE est influencée davantage par l intensité que par le I I volume LaRPEvarieenfonctiondesgroupesmusculairessollicitées Sweet'et'al.'2004' McGuignan'et'al.'2004' LaRPEestinfluencéepar: typedemouvement typologiemusculaire modedecontraction Sweet'et'al.'2004' Day'et'al.'2004' niveaud expérience délaideréponse Sweet'et'al.'2004' Day'et'al.'2004' 35

36 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeRPERatingofPerceivedExertion) Au'delà'de'ces'limites laméthoderpefournitplusieurs indicateursutilesdanslecadredel optimisationdel entrainement: I la'charge'hebdomadaire=sommedeschargesdechaqueséance, I> Mise en relation avec la charge hebdomadaire optimale fonction de la programmation et de la planification de la saison, bessures I l indicateur'de'monotonie= Moyennedelachargehebdomaire EcartItypedelachargehebdomadaire 36

37 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement LaméthodeRPERatingofPerceivedExertion) Au'delà'de'ces'limites laméthoderpefournitplusieurs indicateursutilesdanslecadredel optimisationdel entrainement: I l indicateur'de'contrainte=monotoniexchargehebdomadaire I l indicateur'de'fitness=chargehebdomadaireicontrainte 37

38 1IContrôledelacharged entrainement Eur J Appl Physiol DOI /s ORIGINAL ARTICLE A comparison of methods for quantifying training load: relationships between modelled and actual training responses L. K. Wallace K. M. Slattery Aaron J. Coutts Received: 24 March 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 ValidationdelaméthodeobjectiveTRIMPBanisteretdelaméthodesubjective RPEparunmodèlemathématique Abstract Purpose To assess the validity of methods for quantifying training load, fitness and fatigue in endurance athletes using a mathematical model. Methods Seven trained runners VO 2 max: 51.7 ± 4.5 ml kg 1 min 1, age: 38.6 ± 9.4 years, mean ± SD) completed 15 weeks of endurance running training. Training sessions were assessed using a heart rate HR), running pace and rating of perceived exertion RPE). Training dose was calculated using the session-rpe method, Ban- HR) for the session-rpe 0.43 ± 0.37) and TRIMP 0.48 ± 0.39) methods and moderate-to-large correlations between modelled and actual fatigue measured through HRV indices for both session-rpe 0.48 ± 0.39) and TRIMP 0.59 ± 0.31) methods. Conclusions These findings showed that each of the training load methods investigated are appropriate for quantifying endurance training dose and that submaximal HR and HRV may be useful for monitoring fitness and fatigue, respectively. 38

39 LE'MONITORING' 2 Suividesadaptations «'Pour'bien'planifier,'il'faut'mesurer'et'quantifier'les'adaptations'induites'par'l entrainement'»' Orientation Contrôle Suivi PLANIFICATION,PROGRAMMATION,PERIODISATION Athlète Processusd entrainement PERFORMANCE 39

40 2 Suividesadaptations Inductiondesadaptationsoptimales Nécessitéd unéquilibreentrelacharged entrainementetlarécupération Etudessurl effetdoseiréponsedustimulusd entrainementsurlaperformance Foster'et'al.'2001' Uusitalo'et'al.'2001' 40

41 2 Suividesadaptations Effets'positifs:'' adaptations physiologiques, neuroimusculaires, psychologiques Athlète Condition physique Charges' d entrainement' Force mentale +/I Performance' Effets'négatifs:'' diminutiondesréserves énergetiques, inflammation,dommages musculaires, stresspsychologique Fatigue D après'banister'et'al.''1991' modifié)' 41

42 2 Suividesadaptations Charges' d entrainement' Athlète Condition physique+++ Force mentale+++ Capacité'de' performance'max' FatigueIII D après'banister'et'al.''1991' modifié)' 42

43 2 Suividesadaptations Lecontrôledelacharged entrainementdoitêtrecomplétéetcorrélé parunsuividesadaptationsbasésur: Etatdeforme Niveaude fraicheur Lesuividesadaptationsinterindividuellesàl entrainementnécessairepourcontrôler: I laconditionphysique I lesniveauxdefatigue,destressetderécupération 43

44 erature is that they are not sport-specific. 30 Indeed, several studies evaluating training-induced fatigue in athletes used incremental 23,35,46 or time-to-exhaustion tests 25 that fail to replicate the movement or physiological demands of the sport. However, the recent development of a reliable rugby league match-simulation protocol 48,49 provides a model 6-week intensified training period. that replicates the movement demands 35 In overreached players of a match. Where maximal running speed was reduced by ~5% and ~10% at perceptual and neuromuscular data alert the practitioner weeks 5 and 6, respectively. However, practitioners should to signs of fatigue, having players perform short cycles carefully consider the utility of maximal-performance tests, ~5 10 min) of the simulation protocol would enable an given their potential to cause additional fatigue. understanding of the player s match-performance 31 capacity. This should be coupled with movement GPS), physi- A criticism of many performance tests used in the literature is that they are not sport-specific. ological heart rate), and perceptual measures 30 Indeed, several RPE) to studies evaluating training-induced fatigue in athletes used quantify fatigue status. In addition, the simulation could incremental be used to establish 23,35,46 or time-to-exhaustion tests the fact that athletes have 25 that fail to recovered replicate the movement or physiological demands of the from a period of intensified training or their suitability to sport. However, the recent development of a reliable rugby resume playing after injury and rehabilitation. league match-simulation protocol 48,49 provides a model that replicates the movement demands of a match. Where Interpretation perceptual and neuromuscular of Fatigue data Data alert the practitioner to signs of fatigue, having players perform short cycles While several tools exist for the measurement of fatigue 2 Suividesadaptations Testsdeperformance identify a fatigued condition, as this may fall within the boundaries of typical variation for some measurements eg, jump Fatigue measurements and Recovery ~1 6%; in Rugby Cormack League et al 42 ) 471 but not others eg, CK ~27%; C. Twist, unpublished observations). Likewise, the simple observation of a change in any measure, while appealing, should be interpreted with the magnitude of change in any measurement that warrants intervention for an individual is not clear. This is caution if its reliability is poor. Therefore, we believe that the first stage of detecting a meaningful change in fatigue exacerbated by the varied reliability associated with status should be to establish the interday reliability of each measure of fatigue discussed herein. Accordingly, the measure CV) for each individual by simply taking we would discourage the use of arbitrary cutoff points repeated measures in similar conditions ie, nonfatigued, eg, change of 5%) across different measurements to same time of day, controlled diet, etc) and calculating identify a fatigued condition, as this may fall within the the SD/mean) 100. Based on modified standardized boundaries of typical variation for some measurements effects, this can be multiplied by factors of 0.3, 0.9, and eg, jump measurements ~1 6%; Cormack et al 1.6 to determine what would be small, moderate, 42 ) but and not others eg, CK ~27%; C. Twist, unpublished observations). Likewise, the simple observation of a change 50 in large changes, respectively, in the measure of fatigue. In this way, the reliability of the measure is accounted for any measure, while appealing, should be interpreted with when detecting a meaningful change, and the magnitude caution if its reliability is poor. Therefore, we believe that of that change can be determined. the first stage of detecting a meaningful change in fatigue Unfortunately, given the categorical nature of questionnaire data, such an approach to measuring a mean- status should be to establish the interday reliability of the measure CV) for each individual by simply taking ingful change in perceptual fatigue is not appropriate ~5 10 min) of the simulation protocol would enable an in the days after training and rugby league matches, understanding of the player s match-performance capacity. This should be coupled with movement GPS), physi- same time of day, controlled diet, etc) and calculating repeated measures in similar conditions ie, nonfatigued, ological heart rate), and perceptual measures RPE) to the SD/mean) 100. Based on modified standardized quantify International fatigue Journal status. of Sports In Physiology addition, and Performance, the simulation 2013, 8, could effects, this can be multiplied by factors of 0.3, 0.9, and 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc. Table be 1 used An to Overview establish the of fact Tools that for athletes Measuring have recovered Fatigue and 1.6 Recovery to determine Status what in would Rugby be League small, moderate, Players and from a period of intensified training or their suitability to large changes, respectively, in the measure of fatigue. 50 BRIEF REVIEW resume playing after injury and rehabilitation. Change after In this way, the reliability of the measure is Minimum accounted for Tool Measures match Reliability when Advantages detecting a meaningful Disadvantages change, and the recommendation magnitude Questionnaire Muscle soreness peak 1 2 d Unknown Easy to administer Subjectivity Record weekly, Interpretation of Fatigue Monitoring Data of that change can be determined. Fatigue peak 1 2 dfatigue and sensitive Unfortunately, Recovery given means the players categorical can nature within of 2 3 questionnaire Players data, such an approach to measuring a mean- While several to changes in easily manipulate d postmatch Mood tools exist for the measurement in? Rugby of fatigue League in the days after training and rugby league matches, ingful performance. change in perceptual responses. fatigue is not depending appropriate on Sleep quality? training schedule). Blood-borne Creatine kinase peak Craig 1 d Twist Varied and Jamie Useful Highton Costly and Only use markers understand the invasive. Poor when other Rugby Testosterone:cortisol league a contact team sport performed at an average intensity similar to that of other team sports peak 1 d mechanisms of temporal markers suggest Table 1 An ~70 80% Overview VO 2max of ), Tools made up for of Measuring unsystematic movements Fatigue and of varying fatigue Recovery type, and health duration, Status and relationship in frequency. Rugby with League The high investigation Players of number Glutamate:glutamine of collisions, repeated eccentric muscle contractions status. associated with accelerating performance and decelerating, health status. and prolonged aerobic nature of Change rugby league after matches result in the development of fatigue and perceptual in the days after Minimum Tool exercise. Measures Monitoring the presence match and magnitude Reliability of this fatigue Advantages to maximize performance changes. Disadvantages and training adaptation is an important consideration for applied sports scientists. Several methods have been proposed to measure recommendation Neuromuscular Questionnaire CMJ Muscle flight soreness time the magnitude of fatigue in athletes. peak Perceptual 11 2 d d Good Unknown Indirect Easy to marker administer of Difficult Subjectivity to Record weekly, measures eg, questionnaires) are easy to employ and are performance fatigue and can be identify matchspecific fatigue. depending on 2 3 d postmatch sensitive Fatigue to changes in performance. peak However, 1 2 d and sensitive means players can within 2 3 the subjective nature of such measures should be considered. easily embedded Blood Force biochemical markers of to changes in easily manipulate d postmatch Mood? fatigue may provide a more objective measure of homeostatic disturbances associated with fatigue; however, the cost, level of expertise required, in performance. the training responses. and high degree of variability of many training depending schedule). on Power of these Sleep measures quality often preclude? them from being used in the program. applied setting. Accordingly, simple measure training schedule). Blood-borne of muscle Creatine function kinase eg, jump height) peak 1 and d simulated Variedperformance Useful offer to the most practical Costly and appropriate Only use Performance markers method Running of determining velocity the extent of fatigue experienced Good by rugby Can understand identify league the matchspecific determined, fatigue provided and causes that the reliability players. A Time-consuming invasive. meaningful Poor change in Use when when other other tests each measure Testosterone:cortisol of fatigue for the monitoring of players can be easily peak 1 d mechanisms of temporal markers suggest of the measure is known. Multiplying the coefficient of variation and by performance 0.3, 0.9, and 1.6 can additional be used to fatigue. determine fatigue or when a small, RPE fatigue and health relationship with investigation of Glutamate:glutamine moderate, and large change, respectively. capability. status. performance returning health status. from Heart rate and perceptual Keywords: collision sport, muscle damage, underperformance injury. changes. Definitions:, increased;, decreased;, unchanged; CMJ, countermovement jump; RPE, rating of perceived exertion. Neuromuscular CMJ flight time peak 1 d Good Indirect marker of Difficult to Record weekly, performancerugby league is a high-intensity collision sport running fatigue ~ and can km/h), be moderate-intensity identify match- running 2 3 d postmatch 44

45 2 Suividesadaptations Testsdeperformance Un'exemple'de'test'de'performances'maximales'en'rugby' Eur J Appl Physiol DOI /s z ORIGINAL ARTICLE Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players Aaron J. Coutts Æ Peter Reaburn Æ Terrence J. Piva Æ Greg J. Rowsell CorrélationentrelesvariationsdeVO 2 maxetlesperformancesaumsfttestnavettesur20m) surpériodesd entrainementintensifetaffûtage Accepted: 7 November 2006 Ó Springer-Verlag 2006 MSFTutilepourévaluerlatolérancedel athlèteàl entrainementdehauteintensitéenrugby Abstract The aim of this study was to identify indicators of non-functional overreaching NFOR) in team sport athletes undertaking intensive training loads. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players were randomly assigned into two pair matched groups. One nificantly different between the IT and NT group was the glutamine to glutamate Gln/Glu) ratio even though testosterone, testosterone to cortisol T/C) ratio, plasma glutamate, and CK activity were significantly changed after training in both groups. Positive 45

46 endurance performance. 3-km RTT performance was significantly reduced 3.7 ± 7.5%; p < 0.05) following four weeks of overload training in the IT group confirming a state of overreaching. During the same period, 3-km RTT performance significantly improved in the NT group 3.0 ± 1.1%; p < 0.05). Following the two-week taper, 3-km RTT performance significantly improved in the IT group 7.0 ± 5.6%; p < 0.05). Hemoglobin concentration in K O lo Introduction Overreaching is defined as an accumulation of training and/or non-training stress resulting in a short-term decrement in performance capacity, in which restoration of performance capacity m o q o [1 2 Suividesadaptations Testsdeperformance Human Performance Laboratory, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, U Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2007) 10, Aaron J. Coutts Ph.D. School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism University Kuring-gai Campus P.O. Box 222 Lindfield, NSW 2070 Sydney Australia P Fax: Accepted after r ORIGINAL PAPER Practical tests for monitoring performance, fatigue and recovery in triathletes Aaron J. Coutts, Katie M. Slattery, Lee K. Wallace A. J. Coutts L. K. Wallace K. M. Slattery Int J Sports Med 2007; 28: Georg Thieme Verlag K DOI /s Publish Monitoring Changes in Performance, Physiology, Biochemistry, and Psychology during Overreaching and Recovery in Triathletes School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia Received 1 August 2006; received in revised form 1 February 2007; accepted 2 February 2007 KEYWORDS Overreaching; Athlete monitoring; DALDA; Jump tests I Abstract Performancessur untestmaxde3kmencap durantlapériodedesurcharge:! I Summary Few studies have described simple tests which can be used to provide an early warning of overreaching. The purpose of this study was to examine selected practical tests for monitoring changes in performance, fatigue and recovery of endurance athletes. Sixteen male triathletes were randomly assigned into matched groups. The normal training NT) and intensified training IT) groups completed 4 weeks of training followed by a 2-week taper. Physiological measures were taken pre- and post-overload and post-taper periods during an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. Performance was assessed weekly using a 3-km run time trial 3kmTT). Five-bound jump for distance 5BT) and submaximal running heart rate HRsubmax) test were measured twice weekly and the Daily Analyses of Life Demands for Athletes DALDA) were recorded. During the overload training period, the IT suiteàl affûtage:" group completed 290% more training load than the NT group p < 0.001). After the overload training period, 3kmTT in the IT group was reduced compared to both pre-training 3.7%, p <0.05) and the NT group 6.8%, p <0.05). 5BT was decreased by 7.9% in the IT group following the overload period p < 0.05). The IT group also demonstrated increases in stress reaction symptoms from the DALDA. Following the taper, the IT group improved 3kmTT. In contrast, the performance, physiological and psychological markers of NT group remained relatively unchanged throughout the 6-week training period. There were weak significant correlations between weekly changes in 3 kmtt and 5BT r = 0.37, p < 0.01). The DALDA and 5BT may be practical tests for assessing changes in performance, fatigue and recovery of endurance athletes Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Testmax#fatigue The present investigation compared responses in previously identified physiological, biochemical, and psychological markers of overreaching in triathletes. Sixteen experienced male triathletes V O 2max [mean ± SD] = 55.7 ± 4.9 ml kg 1 min 1, age = 31.3 ± 11.7 yr) were divided into matched groups according to physical and performance characteristics, and were randomly assigned to either intensified training IT) or normal training NT) groups. Physiological, biochemical, and psychological measures were taken at baseline, following four weeks of overload training and following a two-week taper. The IT group completed 290% greater physical training load than the NT group during the overload period. The subjects completed a 3-km run time trial 3-km RTT) each week in order to assess the time course of change in endurance performance. 3-km RTT performance was significantly reduced 3.7 ± 7.5%; p < 0.05) following four weeks of significantly decreased and urea increased in both groups during the overload period p < 0.05). During the taper hemoglobin normalized with a greater increase in the IT group compared to the NT group p < 0.05). A significant increase in free testosterone to cortisol ratio was also observed in the IT group compared to the NT group during the taper p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any other biochemical variables during the period of investigation. The RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire showed an impaired recovery-stress state with increased training load, which improved following the taper in the IT group p < 0.05). These present results suggest that none of the physiological and biochemical variables measured in this study were effective for the early identification of overreaching in experienced triathletes. However, the RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire may provide 47 a practical tool for recognizing overreaching in its early stages. These findings have implications for monitoring training status in athletes in a practical training setting. Evaluerl efficacitéd outilssimples n induisantpasdefatiguesupplémentaire pourrefléterleschangementsde performancesmax Training & Testing

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