Use telecommunication systems, develop intelligent connection points to feed the multi-modal networks and give us road users a multi-modal choicei

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1 5 Use telecommunication systems, develop intelligent connection points to feed the multi-modal networks and give us road users a multi-modal choicei Coming to my introductory statement concerning Martin Luther some 500 years ago, I am glad to say that we have already taken major steps in improving accessibility into city centres. The term "City Logistics" is doing the round and initial results are quite promising. Interestingly, the freedom of choice as to what type and size of vehicle is used is again crucial for the success of the system. Freight transport centres at the outskirts of cities offer connection points between two or even three sub-stations with modern terminai facilities. These centres act as interfaces between long-distance, regional and city distribution systems and in conjunction with tailor-made vehicles for the final distribution of goods to the shops inner-city congestion has already improved. Electronic route planning systems have been developed and in connection with the above mentioned intelligent infrastructure, matters should improve even more. We ali know that the lack of updated traffic information and the absence of optimized transfer points turns intermodal transfer into a hassle. Passenger transport centres could function as connection points between longdistance and urban railway stations on the one hand, and road-based transport on the other, with Park & Ride parking lots, city car and bicycle hire bureaus. Automated parking lot systems which are already commercially available, offer the option of space-saving car parking without having to search for parking spaces. Here, the Daimler-Benz Group regards itself as a partner capable of offering concepts, concrete planning, products and components for joint projects and has already gained vast experience with "rnoving what matters". And, believe me, we will follow this strategy even further. Our people mover systems for airports are only one example of how to deal with mass transport. Daimler-Benz Industrie AEG has additional systems in stock for ali sorts of different inner-city tasks.

2 6 Taekle inner-city traffie with new and radieal solutions but allow free market powers to grasp The merging of automobiles and communications is unstoppable. Common sense dictates that a forward-iooking corporate strategy must be to supply control and communication systems for the integrated networks needed in a few years. In addition, road transport can at least be partially improved by implementing co-operative and integrated transport concepts. It is here that one can observe a change in the traditional customerproducer relationship. Whereas in the past, it was good enough to be an individuai supplier of one part of the transport system, today's clients are more and more interested in comprehensive, turn-key solutions. This change of demand ealls for an improved co-operation of system part suppliers or even the merging of whole companies into a comprehensive system supplier. We therefore cali upon the politica I world to take a closer look at the change of relevant markets. Mergers, acquisitions, strategie alliances and joint ventures will increasingly become a characteristic trait of today's transport world. Mergers, aequisitions, strategie allianees to the reseue! Let us develop fully eomprehensive traffie systems! With the demand for new transport systems, let us not turn a blind eye to one of today's most pressing issues: the environmental impact of traffie. With dwindling resources we will ali increasingly have to treat the existing resources -more efficiently. The introduction of new energy and emission oriented incentives is something we would gladly foster. Indeed, the introduction of intelligent transport systems could well allow a fairly smooth incorporation of environmentally related incentive systems. Recently, the introduction of scrap premiums granted for old cars when purchasing a new one might seem sensible. l, however, see this topie

3 7 somewhat different. First of all, the scraping premium is only a short-term issue. Sustainable developments can not be expected. On the other hand, one has to keep in mind that the construction of a new car also has adverse effects on the environment. How many Iitres could that old car have consumed more until it weighed up for the energy and resources spent on the new one? The only positive effect is that the existing fleet of cars is modernised. Whether or not the overall ecologica I impact is positive or not, however, remains debatable. A scraping bonus might modernize the fleet, but don't necessarily cali it ecologica!. Another issue often discussed is the three Iitre caro Technologically, the car is an incredible challenge, but it is possible to build. The car, if you Iike, is already there. But the market for such cars is missing. In addition, you might Iike to follow this line of thought: government increases fuel tax, the automobile manufacturers react and develop a car with an accordingly lower rate of consumption. The car owner, if in the first piace willing to buy the car, is stili paying the same amount of tax on his fuel bili and industry has spent, say, DM3bn on research and development for the caro Who is the actual beneficiary? The state - in ali respects - and the environment to a certain extent. What we would therefore Iike to see is a system of incentives, which would clearly specify the adverse effects of certain behaviours in traffico Having said this, the traffic user obviously needs an environmentally friendly option offered to him at the same time. It would then be up to the traffic users to decide on the appropriate mode of action. A c1ear yes to ecologicai reforms to the traffic system, but only on the grounds of incentives and not restrictions These numerous ideas and conceptions have impacted upon the technological response of Daimler-Benz. But to mention a few of the strategies adopted:

4 8 traffie management system STORM (Stuttgart Transport Operation by Regional Management). On-Iine real-time traffie management system giving information on routes and publie transport alternatives. fleet management in the road haulage seetor. Communieation systems Iinking the fleet of vehieles with one another. More freight with fewer vehieles. Road and Rail Projeet (eombined transport). In eo-operation with the German Federai Railways we are developing a system to divert more heavy trueks off the road onto trains. freight transport system A projeet involving ali eorporate units of Daimler-Benz, aiming at aehieving eomprehensive transport solutions in freight traffie. Researeh aetivities within the eontext of the European PROMETHEUS Projeet. Dual Mode Route Guidanee, real-time traffie information and guidanee system to avoid ineffieient destination seareh routines. In summary, it seems elear that the traffie of tomorrow will be totally different to what we are used to today. If we want to meet the ehallenges of today's problems we will have to invest a lot of money and intelleetual resourees to come up with feasible, workable solutions. I hope to have outlined the route we are following, showing how eomplex a matter transport has beeome. Non-integrated solutions are bound to fai!. What we require are international, even global systems of transport, whieh will allow to realize the individuai strengths of ali modes of transport. If we sueeeed in this task, I am sure that Europe will enjoy many years of prosperity for ali of the people. Thank you_ for your attention

5 190KT. ' 94 15:14 DB RE5ERRCH P.34 Forecasts signalling collapse of transportsvstern Our transport svstem. approaching its limits already todev. will be burdened even more in the future by a s ron inerease in transport v<llijmes in.jh~ 90's. By the 'year 2QQQ. oth Ge~~~~~~g~and freight trafficwill expand muehmorestronglythan in the80 s. T'hareasons for this arewelfknown: the expeeted population growth in west Germany; the reorientation of traffie flows within the unified Germany;~ acceleration of economie growth in the next few vears : the intensitving dlv1slon of labour between national eeonomiesand within German industry; the Iroeralrzatlon ot transport markets in thea and finally the continuing mcrease In the pooulation's demand tor mobility. In view of the bottlenecks already apparent for alrnost ali modes of transport, the expected increase in transport volumes will undoubtedly exacerbate the problern. Whi/e darnand for transport servicesis expanding in Germany...t!le.. transportinfrastructure is rather poor in east Germany and inereasingly apptoocfìlng Its limlts in west Germany. I he transport sector could thus become the minimum factor of economie development in Germany. aut optimistic torecast for real GNP growth of 3 % to 4 % p.a., howsvsr, ìs based on tha absence of sueh bottlenecks; economlc growth to this extent can only be achieved if we take appropriate measures Quickly to pravent the transport system trom eollapsing. 1. Expansion and new development o, the transport svstem The first measure should be the expansion and new development of transport ro~this. action, however. was given a low priqrityj~ 8(Ls,. Investment in transport infrastructure clearly lagged behind the incraase in transport volumes. apparently because of overly pessimistic growth prospeets for our economy. The false assessment of the future population growth and ecologicai concerns also played a part. At present. the eonstruetionofnewtransport routes as is shown by the latest transport route pian - has high priority again. The 17 "German Unity transport projects" costing DEM 56 bn c1earlyrefteet t~at transport policy is now on the ri2httrack. progress in this field. however. is stili much too slow. And it remains to be seen whether the /aw on aecelerated route planning can really decisivelv shorten the tirne between the prooosat and the ground breaking. The planned European high-speed railway network represents an Important step towards rearmfegration in EuroPi4ltwill be the beginning of a new era of railway transport, as it will help overcorne the separation among nationat raiìwav svsterns. which is responsible for the rather mooest share of rail transport in total crossborder transportvolumes. Scattered rail transport is now on its way to becoming a real natwork. The Ifo economie research institute has estimated the capitai spending requiremsnts for transport routes in east Germany until tbe year 2000 at DEM 210 bn (based on 1990 pricesl. lnvestrnent in the develorxnent of the network. especiallv for motorways, is not inctuoed in this figure. Ali in ali. funds reqoired in east Germany shouldtherefore be roughly twiceas high. Ctearlv. pure budget financing exceeds the possibilities of oubuc-sector financing by far, especially as the transportseetoris only one ofrnanv absorbing public funds. According to cornrnonts by tne Minister of Transport, the government's highest priority investment requiremsnts for rait, road and waterway transportwill onlvtotal over DEM280 bn by the year Only two thirds ot this arnount cari be financed convsntionauv. To fili the gap of roughly DEM 100 bn, the minister sees possibititìes of mobilizing private capitai. Following a detailed analysis, including legai implications, the FederaI Government has decided to realize two projects. tha Nurembourgl Munich line!jnd tha Engelberg tunnel near Stuttgart, o~rjvate 'concession mode!' developedbyoeutsche Sank. Thisa/readymeans some progress, but at a volume of only DEM 3.3 bn it is stili much too small. Most im portant is the strengthening of the West/East axes between the two parts of Germany. Here. an upgrading of the totally overburdened A 2 motorway trom Bedin to Helmstedt through private initiative is urgentjy required. 2. Improved utilization of infrastrueture To more efficiently exploit the existing transport routes. an "intelligent" utilization of infrastructure capacities is necessary... According to an analysis by the "FederaI Railway GovernmentCommission N, capacity resenes of 30 % to 50% in rail transport can be mobilized by computer-controlled intervals between trains with the help of electronic signals. 2

6 19 0KT. ' :15 DH RE5EARCH P. 35 In road traoscort. modern traffic guidance svsterns a/so increase the capacity of the existing road network. With tne help of board cornputers. road ussrscan be provided with suggestions tor certain routas, danger warnings end soeed recornmendations. This indudescornputer-assistedparking guidance svsterns to avoid superfluous searchinç. In shqrt-distance haulage, too. there is stili consioerabte ratiooalization ootentìal, Instead of separate deuveries by each suoolìsr. ths flows of merchandise should be bundled bx custorner end detivered via regional dlstrtbution centres. e.;.9. located near railwav statioos. through private Iorwarders. Hers. especially freight transoort centres would be appropriate. Iike the logistic centres of merchandise transport in Sremen. Thanks to modero technoloqv. the high snare of empty running in factory transport (60%) and commercia! transport (35%) can be greatly reduced. providing relief for city centres, Capacitv reserves and cost cutting can also be mobilized by retorm ot air traffic control, which should ansure that the European ATC svstern is harmonizedandths currentdivision into different svstems is overcome. Such a rsform could be realized by the expansion and streng1hening of the cunent Eurocontrol system... Traffic f10ws can also be reduced by quite simple. quick.acting measures. Taxincentives and free parking spaces for car pools could lead to enormous relief ehects during peak hours. At present. tha average number of persons travetling per vehicle in our cities is on/y just undar Integrated transport $yst~m Besides improvemants of the individuai modes of transport. we also need a cooperative, i.e. an integrated transport system. There is large-scale demand for harmonization (e.g. of existing different rail technologies) both beyond national borders and between competing transport modes. Above ali. interfaces between private motor transportand local publictransport as wall as between rail and airports need to be improved. One particularly negative example in this conneetion is the newmunich airport. which is ditticult to get to by both rail and caro Moreover, tha division of labour between the different modes of transport should be optimizad. In short-distance haulage and distribution. cars and lorries enjoy advantages whereas rait is the preferred mode of transport for medìum distances. Air traffico however. is inaffiqent fordistan~s~l~ss than 400 km. Since short-distance air tratfic takes up considerabte resources. as for instance airport terminals and take-off ano landing slots, ~_ t short-distance air traffic to railr r ffi would be desirab e. The bost exarnple of such fruftful cooperation is the area of combined transport. Combined transport betwean rail and road is consìdered the mathod of transport for the future as lt combines ths system bensfits of each individuai transport mode in an intelligent fashion. Far rail this means that transportso 9000s should be bundled inereasinglyfor longdistance heuiaçe. The Ilows of merchandise can be carried out more rationally ano environrnent-frlendlv. lntarnationaì combined transport is already cheaper than other alternatives in just under a fifth of ali cases todav. 4. More market - more competition One of ths most irnportant preconditions far tne establishment of an etticient transport sector is to permit more market and therefore arso more compstition. Forrailtransport, for instance. this can be achieved by means of a separation of rail network and operatìon. The railway could then concentrate fully on the ectuat job of transportation butwouldhave to pay for the use ot the network. Admitting private operators would have tha following advantages:. Productivity reserves would be exploited and existing shortcomings reduced... The volume and strueture of rail transport would be subject to markat conditions. Transport charges should decline for routes that are heavily used and can be serviced at low costs whereas they would rise for less heavily used routes. This would also destroy the basis for cross-subsidization. Competitive structures would arso lead to a more differentiated range of services. Additional suppliers could specialize in certain transport services or price and quality categories... Commerciai and non-profitable tasks could be saparated more easily. It would thus become transparent which routes are unprofitabla. Keener competition a1so in ili! traffic shoukl lead to better capaci!'lytilization and would therefore facilitate the handling of the enormous expansion of alr traffjc volumes. The traditional market order has led to an inefficient E.ur:ope.an. ro~!.e n~orko(ientatedprimarjlyjojbe national 3

7 19 0KT. ' 94 15:15 DB RE5EARCH P.35 interest of mostjy state-owned airlinesand less to oemand and costs.well-established supp/iers are given preferance in the allocat ion of teke-off and Ianding 510t5 and access is maoe very difficultfornewcomers. Insteadthe slots should be auctioned off so as to achieve batterutilization. ofthe scarce aìrport and aerospace capaeities. What is im portant in tsrms of both regulation andtransoort policy is the urgently required step towards more market ecooomy by :_./ introducing a road j)r[cing system. Ali new roads.:><;" tnat can be bullt w ith in th~uyvjld~ wjll not suffice to keep pace wjth the increase in Ii transport volumes. As long as the usa of roads. rernams free of eharge.jraffic participants w ill 1 )ç tewp to waste resources. Road prices eoutd 59 fixed f1exib/y over the day and varyiing trom region to reç ìon accordiog to the volume of traffico like market prices they would steer demand and adjust the amount of traffie to road capacities s~as to pre2vent a conacse. Besides avoiding supeìfluous rides It 15 In partieular the shift of traffie to otf-peak times that is to be aehieved.. R08d pricing can be applied both to cover an {( entire inner city area and for certa io motorway connectìons.!..ectroo ic chip card systems. which havealready been tasted successfuliy, are consioered to be the most adeguate teehnology. A commission ofeconomie experts dt the Berlin senate has recentlv come out in. tavour of introducing flexible road fees, depending on tm volume of traffie at a rticu lar lime o t e y. eeor mg to the comrnission. this is the best way of dealing with the problem ofprivate motor vehicle traffiç In CIty centre~. co LP "",,' e.-t, ~. ~, ~~. -(. l0~ ~\~ ~ Frankturt, am Main Hans-Joa chim Frank, (69)

8 l." ti /,,' I THE PIGGYBACK CONSORTIUM

9 Initial networkfor Piggyback services ~ 'l "" li 7t1~~~"~fJ'1'5~'1'g;:~i1' ''"''' (~'" "' =~=~"""'"""~~~Tr;~"f0;S7?l'4'isr~'-~~:r:w~~); '. >i A ~?$~~~~nrw ~' The route and terminals Stranraer ~ =~~...~...~."" Holyhead... Glasgow Heysham ~ Liverpool Manchester The spine mute chosen l'or further stucly links Irelancl/Scotlancl with the continent via various Irish Sea Ports. A wide range of intermediate locations can be served. giving Piggyback users additional access points in No rt h \V'est Englancl, the Micllancls ancl So u t h East Englancl. Piggyback uses the sarne type of lifting equiprnent as containers and swap boclies, so existing. planned and proposecl international Ireighr terminals are ali suitable. A common set al' safety requirements l'or cross channel traffic is applicable to ali form of Ireight moved through these terrninals The Piggyb:lck system is equally suitable far journeys solely within the UK us in g this spine route. On the Continent there are few physical constraints to Piggyback routes, so the cnel destinations will be clecided on a purely commercial ami dernand basis. ~GLASGOW /~~ I 1-,., ::: MANCHESTER PARIS - =' FRANKFURT I / \ LYON MUNCHEN BORDEAUXIl STUTTGART I r"gnon I \::::",:""G PERPIGNAN \ Redhill Routes costed within study Ashford London I MILANO To test the commercia! viubilitv. the col1slllt:tm.'i e.'itahlished a modcl h:l'ied 011 the :d)()it mternational tcrmin.rl-. Other route options considered Potential future extensions Existing intermodal Lo-Lo terminals Other intermodal terminai options

10 Pigg yb ack m eans carrying roa d tra i lers o n rail wagons. w ìthour tract or units o r their dri vers, Il is ve ry co mmon in Nort h America, w here trailers are carrie cl fo r hu ndreds o f m il es o n flat wagons. Some clesig ns CIIl a lso b e used for conta iners, lìke thi s Sante Fe spine ca r. I t" " - " " ~. ~ "-~~, ',. ;,, i i. ' Piggyhack is also popu lar in Cont inen ral Europe. H owever hrid ge s a n d runne ls over the tracks are lo w c r on th is sid e of ih e Atl antic, so s pe cia l ' p o ek e t ' wa g o n s with a \\ ide space bet wccn rhe tr.uncs have been use d. Cr.m e s piek IIp th e tru i ler.i n d p l.i ce It OIl rh e \\ ;tg o n so t hur t h c wheels d ro p into th e p o c k et". whcrc [ hl' rvres are onlv 35011lIl1 above rhc r: 1I lnforurn.uelv. coruincntal p(lcke[ \\ ;lg(l Il~ ;II'~' [00 widc ro cle.n rhe plau orms.u Britisl: st.mo n- ; 'l' hl' Co nxo rt iums.iim is to d evc lop o ne or Il10It' r.i il w.igo ns [;Iiloled to th e rcx tri ct ed wi chh 01' lìrituins r :l i h\';iy IO;lcli ng g;llige ( \\ 'h il 'h dete rm incs the hc ight.md vv idth o! r l ; lin,~ ) cvvn thoug h SOIllC exi I;l lo.rd ing g ; l lige hei ght is nccdcd lo c ; l l r y su nd.i l'd li11 high ;1ir- suxpc n-run t r.tiler s.

11 The d iag r.un o n th C:' righ: sho\vs how a no rma l hci ght rru iler. w ith i ts ai r springs deflarcd. fits w ith in the ex isting w id th o f rhe L'I\: lo. rding g a uge. but exceeds rhe hc ight. especially ar rhc top corners, However. il clears the UIC GI3+ ga uge c u rre ruly heing inr ro d uce d on princip a l frelghl routc s in Fra nce. so there are no problern s o n tha t side 01' th e Channe l. To ac cornmodate these trailers in the L'I\:, the loaeling gauge he ight m ust b e in creased h y about 170ml11. IO c reale t he Pigg yb ac k g:l uge ( P I3 J. Tend e rs have been so ug h t h y the Co nson iurn l'o r roll ing stock l O m eel th is unusua l specification. Th e \\ 'ago ns will hl' ab le to operate o n ali m.un sta nd a rd gauge ro u tes th ro ughout Bri tui n ami co nt inc n tal Europe. a nd can e\'e n b e uscd to ca rry tra ilers in Brituin belore the loading gauge is e nlarged, provided the se have a lo w er-rhan-no rm al 1'0 01' p rofile. Th e wa go ns mav a lso b e a b le to Lo ad ing Gauge Profile EUROTUNNEL carry co ntainers an d xwa p bod ies. Until rhe vo lum e 0 1' p iggyha ck tr :Lf"fi c has built up to the point w here fu ll tra in lou d s c m hl' iustifi ed. il is lik elv that piggyba ck \\ 'ag ons wi ll l'u n in com h ined tr.mspo rt trains o ffering a mix a l' cont ainer, s\vap bod y and trai lcr CJp :lcit y, Th e se can ali be h.mcllecl by the same c r.m e s at existing o r pl.mncd frei ght te rm inal s. Brita in In sho rt PB ga uge hrings th e fu ll ('JngL' 01' inr c rrn od al rechniq ues to Headroom above raillevel --r::::...pr;=~:::...,...::2+_..,4,13m Comparison ot Loading Gauges Pig gyback trailer (outlined) needs 4.13m headroom abov e ra il level Otber in terniodal Opp orfu l/ ities A I p re sc-ut. l he m.i x ìmum he igl ll o f container or S\\':lp!)()lh- i h.u U Il ht: rr.i nsporte d l 1Il in u -rn ut ir >11:11 frl'ighl tr. un -. u>in g the Ch.m ne l Tunnel i> <) Ieet. :mel L'\en l he se C Il1 o n lv IlL' ca rricd 011 rou ll's,~ p e c i ; li h ' clctrl'd [( ) li IL' SIl I loaeli llg gauge, II" l 'l'rlain roliles.uv tu rtlu-r L'nbrgL'd l o l'igg\l);icj,. I l' 1l) g: lllge. rhc» t) l't () in iligil h ()xl',~ ( 11' higgcr, il' nl'nk'd J G li1 Ix: u rn el!. Evcn more Ill lc rcsting is l ile o ppo rt unir. vvhich l'il gjlige o pl'n ~ II p t'or th c o pcr.uron 01' h im o d:i l tr.ulc r-; Se\ 'L'r:d th o us.iud (li' ril L'sL'.',(rL'ng[ilenL'eI [u ìk 'rs m.i v hl' SL'e n in th «I S,\, l'illwr on th «hi g h \\ 'J \ ' bc hind :l trucr or unir. o r co up lcd intr : lo ng rr.iin w ith [h l' ro.«l \\ 'hel'!> r;li sed ;lild Ihl' L'nel ot' ~,; tc il [r :liler su p po rl n i h\' :l uil ;1.\iL' o r hugi e F li rop t: ',~ h r~[ l'l >(1l1l1l'rci.d h illlull.d ~~' j'\ i l ' l' is ( l ll ~' li ) slirl OPl'r:lli ng ik'[\\l'cn C LTllta J1 1 ;1I1c1 [[;d\ bre 111 l C)l),+ Sil1Cl ' rl ll' \ ' l'l' q liire \II'[u :dl\ tlw SJm e \\ 'idtll ;l nd hl' igl ll : l ~ l\~ g\ hjl k 1\'il l'll I Hl rjil. :Ill\' m ure cle:ii'eli [u l' Il g: l ll ge \\d l : d ~o hl' ;1\: ti!jh ll' l'o r hil1lul Ld (11)l'I"Jl ii 1il 0 1' ' U llll.lil! Ileigilt l l":ti!crs

12 T11e Piggyback Consortium ~ ~.-..~..., ~ _ '" - ~ - _~ --. ~ _v ~,~, """" ~,... ~_... ' -..,-,.~ - -." '"""~ ~ - ~;"" ""' r =''''' '''_ ~_ ''''''''' _'--- ' " ''''' _ ~~~ A group 0 1' 33 freight transport operators. pon and terminai operators, rail track authorities, local authorities and other interested groups dedicated to studying the Ieasibility 0 1' piggybacking 4 metrc high road serni-trailers through Britain on special rail wagon s, Membersh ip covers Eire, the United Kingclom an d France. as wc ll as Europcan organisations. The route corridor - Railrrack has accepted thc mute recomrnend ed by thc consultants, and is undcrtaking a verification. part fundcd by the Piggyback Consortium. 01' the co m and viabilit y In 1993, the Piggyback Consortium commissioned a stud y on the costs and viability 0 1' upgrading the route corridor Ireland/Sc otland - continent via the Channe! Tunn el to carry 4 m high standa rd road serni-trailers on rail wagons, as well as the design of the wagon and the likely traffic o concluded: The Report was published in ApriI 1994 and Rollin g stock could be built to carry the semitrailer s past British platform s. The COSI 01' upgrading the spine rout e was about f 70 million, There is a robust commerciai case for piggyback and the consultant s believed that some 400,000 trailers per year could be carried by the end of the 1990s. 01' upgrading the initial roure selccted by our consultants, includin g its relatiouship with the West Coa st Main Linc improvernent study. The results will be available in late 1994 when a decision \V iii be rnade about the implemcnuuion and funding 01' a dctailed ami lu lly costed assessment 01' thc engineering work involved. Programme: Roure upgrading co sts verification study Rolling stock - tcnders for prototype wag ons Funding - source for activities Route - detailed and costed en gineering study Rolling stoc k - devel opm ent and rnanufacture o f prototype(s) Funding - develop proposals for full manufactu re of wagons and loaeling gauge upgrade. Rolling stock - the Piggyback Cousortium is seeking tender- l'rom rolling stock manufac turc rs l'or the prod uction al' prorotypc wagons, wi th funding and opera tional propo sals l'or thc prototypc. and also quouuions l'or lots 01' single or articulatcd \\ 'ago n~ capablc 01' carrying 100 or 5()() trai lers. Operators' intercst - thc Consortium \V iii seck fu rrhcr intcrest l'rom treight. por! and terminai operators ami othcrs intercst ed in iakin g ìorw ard thc future operati ons 0 1' pigg\ hack servi cc s. Initially rhesc are likc lv to operate in conjunciion with othcr co mbi ned Iransport scrv iccs. Start of protot yp e operation using lo w height trail er s. Commerciai de cision to pr oceeel with loading gauge up grade and manufacture of se ries production wagons Start of piggyb ack commerc iai operati on Whcn thc physica] work on thc route improvcmerus ix underway. and ouc or more opcraiors have placed orders l'or CI fleet 01' the new piggyback wagons.

13 The Piggybactz Consortiu m comp rises the [o llo u.ing orga ntsations. (a l Sep tetnber 1994) \1.; I;', C E:-'TR AL SEA Coxnmo u Iot xr TASK GH OU' l.:,' THE PIGGYBACK CONSORTIUM / I : } C CRRIE LI :"'E \! ;': \ ::;_1,; l : J.. :'-,' K E:"'T COl::-'T Y C O C:"'CIL ' 0 ' ( ~ \ i -, '; " \, **. * * *.* M S: G T.'. :"'KEIl S A:<O T It'.ILERS LTn '. I ì M EIl SEY O OCK5 & H'.RIlOI;Il CO~ IPA :-'T, ~.' "' Th e Piggyback Consortium is grarefu l IO the Co rn mission of the Europea n Co rn munities for assista nce with funding for previ o us and present studies uncler the Pilor Action for Comb ine d Transport ( l'a Cn scheme. ì\'orth or E:<GU:<D REl;IO:"'.'.L C O:"'SOIl TI L.\ I NOIlTII WEST REG IO:"'.\L A SSOCl..\TI O :", 1'& 0 FFHRY.\L\:'TEIl S R '. ILFll EIGHT DISTIlIllLTIO:"' Forfurtb er informat ion. contaci.- The Secrerary [O the Con soruum t,v~ r..:>...t"1-cjl:,..q... ivlick Sutch. Kenr Co u n ry Council Highways Dc paruuent, Springfie!d. Maidstone. Kent MEl 4.2 LQ R \ILTRACK S\"CF l'rh Tu ur r: C OI ":\"1II'S l"\lilxli\t. Te! Fa x ') T ll \\:"'I.O,\!J F REIGIIT SO l T H EAST UXIO :"' Or ELHOI'H:"' R'.II.\X '.-\Y! \, () [ STHlES ( LJ \"IFE)

14 fufoiloitique l'1m 1130 mi 11;4 IV marché communautaire UVREBIANC: DES PROJETS DI/NFRASTRUCTURE, MAIS P~S ASSEZ DIARGENT Les travauxdu groupechargéde désjgnerdesprojetsqci serontlancésdanslecadreduuvreblancsurlacroissance, " la compétitivitéetl'emplol-ontavancéau del~de toute attente, a dit slinprésidenthenniilg Christophersen, le 28 8vlilà Buxelles. Toutefois, le commissaire européen chatt1é du budgetddmetque -desquestions ditticiles telles que I~ financement ne sontpas encore résolues". J.e2hvri 1&94.~.486k\fI) Le livre blanc contenaìtune liste indicative de 26 projels de transports primordiaux.. Après quatre sessions du groupe Christophersen, composé de représeatants des Etats de I'Union, la liste a été "ajustée" en fonction de leurs desiderata. ~cbien qu'ellesoit continuellement mise à jour, il y a un accord pour continuer à travaillersur celte base", dit la Commissioneuropéenne. Voici la liste des projets d' infràstructures prioritaires, telle qu' elle étaìt établie par legroupe Christophersen au 2R avrill994: (I) Travaux déjà engagés ou susceptibles d'ètre engagés dans les 2 ans: 1. Axe du Brenner: TGV; transport combiné 2. TGV (Paris-) Bruxelles-Kéln-Amsterdarn-Londone BelgiQue: Frontière F/B-Bruxelles-Liège-Frontière B/D et Bruxelles-Frontière B/NL Royaume-Uni; London-Channel Tunnel, Pays-Bas: frontière B/NL-Roterdam-Arnsterdam.. Allemagne: (Aachen-) Kòln-Rhin/Main 3 ~ TG'V sud:.., Madrid-Barcelona-Perpignan Madrid-Vitoria-Dax 4. TGV Est: France: Paris-Metz-Strasbourg (-Karlsnuhe);. jonction avec Metz-Saarbrucken-Mannheim et Metz-Luxembourg; Allemagne: Munich-Niimberg-Erfurt-Halle/Leipzig-Berlin 5. Ligne Betuwe: Transport combiné/rail conventionnel Rotterdam-frontière NL/D (-Rhin/Ruhr) 6. Liaison Lyon-Turin: TGV/Transport Combiné France-ltalie 7. Autoroutes grecques: Patras-frontière Greco-Bulgare; Corridorest-ouest: Via Ignatia Igoumenitsa-Thessaloniki-Alexandroupolis 8. Autoroute Lisbonne-Valladolid 9. Cork-Dublin-Belfast-Larne-Stranraer: liaison ferroviaire lo. Aéroport de Malpensa (Milano) l' 1) J) rl Dr", 'iila, le-. - 5we.~. " ~ il\' ('f iw-l ' (II) Projets susceptibles d' ètre acc élér és, afin d'engager les travaux dans les 2 ans: Il. Transport cornbiné - dans toutc l'union 12. Autoroutc Nurernberg-Prague 13. Autoroute Bcrlin- Varsovie (-Moscou), cn parallele avec TGV 14. Autoroute Dresdcn-Prague ] 5. Liaison routière Irlandc-Royaurnc-Uni-Benclux J6. Aéroport dc Sp ala

15 17.Aéroport de Berlin 18. Autoroute de la Maurienne 19. Autoroute Marateca-Elvas 20. TGV au Danemarlc IV marché communaufaire (111) Projets nécessitant une étude plus approfondie 21. Felunam Belt: lien fixe entre l'allemagne et le Danemarlc 22. Autoroute Bari-Otranto 23. Canal Rhin-Rh6ne 24. Canal Seine-Escaut 25. Canal Elbe-Oder 26. Travaux sur le Danube entre Straubing and Vilshofen 27. TGVRanstad-Rhin/Ruhr; Arnsterdam-Arnhem-Cologne 28. Corridor routier Valencìa-Zaragoza-Somport 29. TGVTurin-Venice-Trieste 30.TGV Brenner-Milan-Rome-Naples 31. Auroute Trans Apennine Bologne-Florence 32.Transrapid (frain à sustentation magnétique allemand) 33. Jonction TGV Luxembourg-Bruxelles

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19 I_~ PREFAC:E DU PRESIDENT Il n'est de congrès consacré à la politique des transports ni de rencontre des Ministres concernés, à l'occasion desquelsl'unanirniténe se fait sur un point: le transport combiné est appelé à apporter une contribution substantielle à la solution des problèmes que posent les transports à l'heure acruelle, Cette techniquepermeten effet de désengorger les routes et est en mesure de garantir entre les grands centres industriels un ( - p sport sùr et respectueux de l'environnement. x.esconstats ne sont pasnouveaux. Nous devons plutòt nous demander pourquoi ils ne sont pas suivis d'actions pratiques, car il faut bien constater qu'en 1993, le transport combiné avait quitté la voie des taux d'accroissement encourageants qui se siruaient jusqu'alors autour de 20 % en transport international et devait se contenter - momentanément? - d'une augmentation de l % à peine. Plus de 1000 tran sporteurs et expéditeurs européens réunis au sein de l'uirr ont développé le transport combiné en tant qu'actionnaires ou commanditaires des sociétés membres de cette Union. Si, aujourd'hui, certaines entreprises et clients retransièrent des trafics du rail à la route, ce n'est pasde façondélibérée,cesont les conditions-cadre politiqueset économiques qui les y forcent: ( 1us de 2/3 du transport combiné international '-est constitu é de trafic transitant par les Alpes. Entre l'allemagne et l'italie,20 % environ du trafic de marchandises emprumem le rail dans le cadre de la technique combinée, cette quote-part atteignant rnèrne 40 % sur certaines relations relles que Cologne-Milan. Cela démontre les scores qui peuvent ètre atteints par le transport combiné lorsque prévalent des conditions-cadre appropriées (qui sont fixées pour l'essentiel par les pays alpins). Des plus grands courants de trafic européens, entre la Belgique, Ies Pays-Bas, la partie occidentalede l'allemagneet le nord de la France, à peine l % est acheminé en combiné. Cette situation est le reflet des conditions politiques régissant le transport dans l'union Européenne. Lalibéralisation en cours a profité enpremier lieu au transport routier. En effet, l'infrastructure autoroutièrea ét é développée et les temps d'attente aux frontières réduits, desorte quecetrafic parla route, devenuplus rapide, estencorepluscompétitif. Pour réaliser une harmonisation de l'imputation des coiìtsde l'infrastructure routière entre lesdifférents Etatsde l'union, des compromis intermédiaires furent trouvés, C'est ainsique des mesures de soutien au transport combiné ont été remises en question, telles que l'exemption de la taxe de circulation pour les véhicules routiers qui utilisent la technique combinée. Des conditions-cadre unilatéralcs qui faussentla concurrence entre les différents modes de transport conduisent à des mesures dirigistes qui sont ensuite incriminées. Un exemple, le referendum suisse, un vote de la population helvétique qui n'accepte plus de se laisser envahir par le transit routier de ses voisins de l'union européenne. Le secteur du transport doit ètre débarrassé des réglementations et subventi ons. L'UIRR en appelle aux responsables politiques des transports, pour qu'ils mettenten piace des conditions de concurrence équitables, en garantissant, en tout premierlieu, une imputation juste des coiìts d'infrastructure et sociaux à tous les modes de transport,et matérialisent lesdispositions existantes de sécurité par des contròles accrus. Dans ces conditions, le transport'combinépourra, en libre concurrence, jouer un ròle significatif dansl'acheminement des marchandises entre les grandes zonesindustrielles en Europe. Dans le contexte actuel, les sociétés de l'uirr assurent déjà annuellement l'achcminement de 1,3 millions d'envois, c'est-à-dire l' équivalent de 2,9 millions de TEU. Cela représente transports routiers d'une distance moyenne de 700 km qui sont transférés chaque jour au rail. De plus en plus d'envo is sont acheminés en trains-navettes rapides qui permettent aux elients de bénéficier d'une meilleure prestation et aux Réseaux d'une productivité accrue, car ce type d'acheminement évite les triages coùteux et l'imrnobilisation des wagons. Tout cela appelle comme condition préalable qu'il y ait une demande de transport élevée. Elle existe déjà sur plusieurs relations: sur les grands axes autoroutiers, lescamions se suivent en effet l'un derrière l'autre. Ourre les responsables politiques, les Chemins de fer ont aussi un ròle à jouer pour attirer ce potentiel, Une politique tarifaire axéesur le marché renforcerait la confiance dans la coopération rail-route. Dans le passé, les clients ont trop souvent diì faire l'expérience que les Réseaux prenaient prétexte de volumes de trafic en expansion pour augmenter leurs marges. L'attrait du recours au combiné s'eri ressentait immédiatement, et les clients hésitaient à consentir de nouveaux investissements. Les augmcntations de transport indiquent néanmoins le cap à tenir pour que se réalisent des volumes dc trafic et des chiffres d'affaires supérieurs. L'expansion signifie plus de liaisons directes, des parcours plus rapides et un bond de productivité en transport ferroviaire. Ce sont là les clés d'un transport combiné rentable. J Werner Kulper, Président de l'uirr j:.._ f I

20 ""'" LACOOPEHATI0N PAR LE BIAIS DES PROJETS-PILOTES Les projets pilotes ont pour objectif la promotio n d' actions qui auraient valeur d'exernple en faisant meilleur usage des technologies, infrastructures et ressources existantes et en renforçant la collaboration intemationaie des différents intervenants. Le programme est appelé à donner rapidernent de nouvelles impulsions au transport combiné. Comparé aux mesures générales d'infrastructures de transport nécessaires, son budget ne représente toutefois qu'un petit pasdans la bonnedirection. Les deux premiers projets pilotes qui ont ét é retenus se rapportent à des corridors Nord-Sud qui pr ésentcnt des problèmes spécifiques pour le développementdu transport combiné. L'AXE ESPAGNEI PORTUGAL FRANCE ALLEMAGNE Le potentiel de trafic routier sur cet axe est considérable, de l'ordrede 800 véhicules par jour et par sensoles longues distances sont idéales pour le transport combiné qui a cependant divers obstacles àsurmonter: L'écartementdes voies de la Péninsuleibérique différent du standard européen impose un transbordement des unités de charge aux garesfrontière de Port-Bou ou Hendaye. Peu de transporteurs routiers ibériques disposent de caisses mobiles ou semi-remorques transbordables. Le prixdu transport routier y est basdu fait de salairesmoyens inferieurs. Ce projet, géré par les Chemins de fer espagnols, Renfe, en partenariat avec les Chemins de fer portugais, CP, l'uirr et la société française de conteneurs, CNC, vise avant tout à surmonter les différences de systèmes intervenant à la frontière pyrénéenne. Avec I'aide de l'union européenne, les capacités de transbordement à Port-Bou ont ét é développ ées, réduisant de moitié les temps d'arrèt à la frontière. Parallèlement, des projets informatiques ambitieux sont en cours qui visent, par une notification plus rapide des besoins, à permettre une meilleure régulation deswagons de chaque còt éde la frontière. Après la mise au point de ]'information interne aux Chemin s de fer, aux sociétés UIRR et aux soci étés de conteneurs, la phase suivante prévoit l'autornatisation des échanges entre Réseaux et opérateurs. Enfin, les Réseaux ont également créé des conditions commerciaies confor mes aux attentes du marché. Le succès du train complet entre Mannheim (D) et Tarragone/Barcelone (E) montre que la bonne collaboration porte ses premiers fruits. L'AXE GRECE - ITALIE EUROPE CENTRALE Alors que la Grèce n'a pas de froruièrecornmune avec le reste de l'union européenne, le conflit dans l'ex-yougoslavie a rendu cet isolement géographique encore plus problématique. De ce fait, lecorridor interne à l'union européenne via l'iralie a gagné ensignification. Une étude de l'uirr et de Uniontrasporti, société des Chambresd'Industrie et de Commerce italiennes, relevait un potentielde trafic d'environ 120 véhiculesroutiers (base (991) circulantquotidiennemententre Ies grands centres d'allemagne, le Benelux, le Danemark et la Grèce. Exacterneru le minimum requis pour remplir, à terme, un train de 30 wagons. Compte tenu d'une sériede problèmes spécifiquestels que le gabarit ferroviaire réduit dans le sud de l'italie, l'absence virtuelle d' équipements appropriés, le nombre important de petits transporteurs routiers offrant leurs services à très bas prix, l' étude préliminaire a démontré qu'au départft nouveau corridor ne peut fonctionner valablemey qu'avec un cornplément de transports italiens. Le très important potentielde Milan désignecette ville comme gateway de diffusion du trafic en direction du Nord. Il s'est révélépossible, dans le cadre du projet, d'accorder les horaires et conditions commerciales des arrnements et des Chemins de fer italiens, les FS, un des partenaires de l' étude pilote. Les durées d'acheminernent correspondent à celles de la route, ces dernières ne se réalisant souvent qu'au mépris des législationssociales, Au d épart, les c1ients étaient de grands transporteurs internationaux ayant déjà quelque expérience avec l'organisation du transport combiné et disposant par ailleurs des caisses mobiles ou des semi-remorques préhensibles par pinces requises. Entre-temps, le corridor est également accessible aux marchandises dangereuses qui sont acheminées.entre Patras (GR) et Brindisi (I) O ferry approprié. La société de tr ansport combiné italienne, Cernat, enregistre une participation accrue de transporteurs routiers, restés à l' écart en attendant que la faisabilitéd'une chaine de transport routemer-rail-route soitdémontrée. Les premiers résultats des programmes PACT sont encourageants. Ils ont permis d'augmenter l'attrait du transport combiné sur des axes existants et d'ouvrirun nouveau corridor. La philosophie de l'uirr consiste à se concentrer uniquementsur des actions offrant de bonnes perspectives d'amélioration concrèteduserviceauxclients, L'UIRR se réjouit du nombre croissant de projcts soumis à la Commission tout en espérant que la Direction Générale des Transports déclinera des études th éorique s de faisabilité portant sur des relations de faible potentiel, pour maintenir le cap sur le but principal des projets pilotes qui est la prornotion d'actions favorisant le transportcombiné

2 players Ages 8+ Note: Please keep these instructions for future reference. WARNING. CHOKING HAZARD. Small parts. Not for children under 3 years.

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