WHEAT PRODUCTION TRAINING

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1 WHEAT PRODUCTION TRAINING CENTRO INTERNACIONAL DE MEJORAMIENTO DE MAIZ Y TRIGO INTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND WHEAT IMPROVEMENT CENTER Mexico

2 V!HEAT TRAINEE PRq'DUC TI ON T'"""" EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS INTERNATIONAL VfHEAT AND MAIZE IMPROVEMENT CENTER June 1975

3 Partici;iantn Ibrahim M. Baghdadi Research Department - Ministry of Agriculture Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Nourredine Benattalah Project Cereales - Ministry of.agriculture Medea. Algeria Ham.anou Dries Project Cereales - Ministry of.agriculture Belfort. A le;eria Ahcene Frikha Project Cereates - Ministry of.agriculture Constantine. Algeria Rafael Garcia Calderon Extension Agricola, Secretaria. de Agricultura y Ganaderta Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico Muhammodu Gusau Attahiru Ministry of Agriculture... North Vvest State Sokoto Nigeria Eric K. Gwar..L:na Ministry of Agriculture - North V!est State Sokoto, Nigeria Amos VT. Hamm.an Ministry of Agriculture Maiduguri I Hgeria Kamal Fouzul Kamal Agronomy Division - Agriculture Research Institute Dacca 15, Eangladesh Mohamed. El R.adi Maatougui Project Cereales - I D. G C Belfort, Algeria Mohammed A. Zerkoune Project Cereales - I D G C. Belfort. Algeria

4 Contents Participants Introduction: Seeding: A general discription of the Soils and Weather conditions. The effects of dates of planting on the yield components of six wheat varieties. R.afael Garcia C, - Mexico The effect of row spacing and seeding density on yield and yield components of triticales and bread wheats. Kamal Fouzal Kamal - Eangladesh Off station yield trials. I-Iar..:lanou Dries - Algeria Crop :M:anagem.ent: Nitrogen Rate Trial Ibrahim Baghdadi - Saudi Arabia Crop Protection: Influence du fractionnement et dates d 1 apport de Pazote sur le caractere "Mitadinage" en Triticum.L urm.~:::. (The effects of Split applications ;f nitrogen on Yellow Eei~ey in Trit~~u~ :Qur_l!_r:~L Nourredi.ne Eenattalah - AJ1eria Effet di deficit d' eau aux differents stades de developpn:.ent du ble. (Effect of moisture deficiencies at different growth stages of wheat). Ahcene Frikha - Algeria B:erbicides for wild oat (Avena fatua) contrgl in Jupateco Eric-:K~-G1vamna - Nigeria Effets de differents herbicides sur phahris m.inor, Moham.m.ed Arezki Zerkoune - Algeria Mesurol for bird control in wheat fields ArrloS 71.HamrJJ.an - Nigeria cont.

5 Contents cont. Forage Production and Grain Yields of 11/heat Trittcales and Barley Amos v7. Hamman - Nigeria Management of triticales, oats, and vetch for forage production. Mohammed El Ea.di Maatougui Algeria Economics: Estudio de costos en producci6n de trigo. (Wheat production costs) Rafael Garcia c... Mexico

6 vvheat PRODUCTION TRAINEES EXPERIMENTAL AND DEMONSTRAT_ION Pi.EPORTS INTRODUCTION This report covers experiments condl!lcted at CIANO( Centro de ~vestigaciones Agri'colas del Noroeste). Ciudad Obregon, Sonora during wheat season by CUAPAYT Wheat Production Trainees. The experiments were d~sl_ned by the trainees as a series of training exercises centered around identifying a "package of practices" required for increased wheat production. All experiments were conducted at CIANO, Ciudad Obreg6n, Sonora, Mexico from November 1974 to May John H. Lindt, Jr., Paul Marko, Herbert Floyd, Training Agronomists and R. A. Fischer, Physiologist Agronomist; Mathew Mc Mahon and Patti-ck wan, Agronor.nists, advised on the dc:sign and layout of the experiments and assisb:i during the conduct of the experi::.;,-:ents and advised on statistical analysis and the preparation of the final reports. Eduardo Moscardi helped with the economic analysis. A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SOILS AND V7EATBER CONDITIONS FOR TEE CIANO STATION This station is located 12 Kms south of Ciudad Obregon, Sonora M~xico. It is on a level land at latitude 'N and longitude of wand an elevation of 40 m above sea level. T-he soil is an entisols containing approxir.nate ly 5 0 percent clay, percent silt, percent sand, and about 1 percent organic matter. The ph is 7.5 and the base exchange capacity is 25 to 34 me/1. Salinity is not a problem on the station. The soils are appro imately two meters deep without root restricting layers.

7 Vt/EATHER RECORDS DURING THE GROV/TI-I PERIOD TEMPERATURE (O C) Mean Extremes Long term* Solar Radiation Rainfall Mean evap. Months Max. Min. Max. Min. me ans me ans mm (mm) Max. Min. Cal/cm/day long term yrs rr,s. I>Tov Dec S Jan Feb , I\rmr April Means Total long term * Long term years. - ~- --' ~ ~-

8 Introduction The Effect of Dates of Planting on the Yield Components of Six \/?heat Varieties ' Rafael Garcra C alder6n N;Iexico Studies on date of planting have shown considerable effects on the yield of crops like wheat and other cereals. Many w9rkers of the work-; have evalµa.ted the effects which a1~e confronted witli the pro~lems. Optimum date of planting is one of the factors which influence the varieties to give high yield. Again, variety should be considered as one of the most important factors responsible where yield is concerned. Thus, it is necessary to involve or introduce wheat varieties with high yield potential. It is well recognized that the ad2.ptability of varieties varies from place to place. A variety of reputation may or may not give it's inherent performance in certain areas. It has, therefore. beca:m.e imperative to get hold of a good number of wheat varieties and put them on trial with the above perspective. An experiment with the effect of date of plarlting on the yield components of six wheat varieties was, therefore,. undertake.n with six wheat varieties and three dates of planting at an interval of te:i. days. The objectives of the study were: 1) To find out the proper time of planting of the varieties concerned~ 2) To study yield contributing factors and compare them with respect to yield among the varieties concerned. Materials and Methods The experiment wa~ carried out at CIANO, Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. A general description of this center is given in the introduction of this bulletin. Planting Materials Six varieties were the planting material for this experiment, the varieties we re: See Table in next page.

9 2 Height?f plants Color of Col.a- of. Gluten quality cm spike grain Maturity Sonora White Red Hard Pot am Brown Cream Soft Yecora vtuite White Hard Jupateco Vlhite Red Hard Saric V/hite Red Hard,Pajeme VJhite Red Hard Dates of Plantin_g There were three dates of planting with an interval of ten days: Early Early Medium Medium Late Late A) 30 November B) 9 Decer.aber C) 19 December 1st. planting 2nd. planting 3rd. planting The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four rep;ications Ea.ch block was split into three main plots on which the three dates of planting were distributed at random. Each of the main plots then were divided into six sub-plots and the varieties were distributed at random. - T.he total number of unit plots was, therefore, 4 x 3 x 3 : 72 each of these plots has an area of 1. 8 x = 5. 4 St}. mate rs of which the harvested area was four rows x (2. 40 sq. meters). Fertilization.Fertilizer was applied as a basal dressing before planting at the following rates: Nitrogen 100 Kg/ha as Urea; Phosphorous at 40 Kg/ha as Triple superphosphate, applied to all treatments. The experiment was seeded by hand at the rate of 100 Kg/ha for each variety and date of planting. Irrigation was given to different treatments as and when required. The following experimental observations were taken and studied from each plot: a) plants x m2 at emergence. b) number of days to flowering c) number of total tillers d) height of plant e) ~1Utnber Of ~pikes X m2 f) number of spikelets x spike g) weight of grains h) hectoliter wieght i) yield

10 - 3 - Summary Table 1 Rate of emergence (Pl-:J;::.ts/ m2) Var Dates S.onor~ 78. ~ Potam Yecora Jupateco : Saric Cajeme Total S. 5 ' Mean Tot.al ~OS Mean CV(a) % CV(b) % LSD for differences among main plot treatments : LSD for differences among subplots treatments = LSD foi;-. differences among subplots treatments for the same main plot {among varieties mean for the same date) : Summary Table 2 Number of total tillerc (m2) Var Dates Total Sonora Pot.am Yecora :' Jupateco Saric Cajeme ~ Total l Mean Mean 2S asa. o CV( a} 31.'32% CV(b) % LSD for differences among subplots treatments = LSD for differences among subplots treatments forthe same main plot (among varieties mean for the same date} : 53.46

11 - 4 - Summary Table 3.Days to Flowering Var Dates l SOnora 1ir ' ~0 Potam Yecora Saric Cajeme Total 52S Mean a1t" 'Total Mean CV( a) /o CV(b) 1. 76% -:- LSD for differences among main plot treatments = LSD for differences among subplots treatments O. 87 LSD for differences among subplots treatments for the same main plot (among varieties mean for the same date) = ~.13 'l<;"i. Summary Table 4 Height of Plant (cm) Var Dates Total Mean Sonora 90;, Pot am Yeeora Jupateco s Saric '16.S Cajeme so Total Mean CV( a) 3. 41% CV(b) 3. 74% LSD for differences among main plot treatments : LSD for difference,;1 among eubplots treatments : LSD for differences among subplots treatments for the same main plot (among varieties mean for the same date) = 4.40

12 - 5 Summary Table 5 Number of spikes per m2 Var Dates Sonora ; Pot am ~ Yecora Ju pate co Saric Cajeme 32p Total Mean Total Me.an CV(b) 5. 34o/o LSD for differences among main plot treatments;;_ LSD for differences among subplots treatments : LSD for differences among subplots treatments for the same main plot (among varieties means for the same date) : CV( a) lo Summary Table s Number of spike lets per spike Var Dates Sonora : 25 Pot am Yecora Jupateco Saric Cajeme s.10 Total Mean Total J Mean CV( a) 8. '1 /o CV(b) /o - LSD for differences ainong main plot treatments L 75 LSD for differences among subplots treat :c, ents = 31 LSD for differences among subplots treaments for the same main plot (among varieties me2.lls for the same date) : 1. 51

13 - 6 - Summary Table 7 Hectoli ter weight Var Oates Total Sonora. sj.133 s2. 58 ' e2~ :. 6S Potam Si_.a Bi Yecora Jupa.teco SO Saric Cajeme S J ~ { CV(a} 1. 02% CV(b) C.70% :..SD for differences among subplots treatments : l.sd for differences among subplots treatments f9r the same main plqt (am-0ng varieties m.ean for the same date) : Summary Table 8 Weight of 1000 grains (12% moisture) Var Date Sonora Pot am G Yecora Jupateco Saric Caje;me Total '9. 3 Mean Total Mean 4G.8 5J.9 i:;,-. n v ~J Ill \,J _r 52.4 CV( a) 4. 05% CV(b) 2. 99% ::-c LSD for differences among main plots treaments e l.sd for differences among subplots treatments = o. 00 LSD differences among subplots treatments for the,same main plot {among varieties mean for the same date) = 1. 98

14 - 7 Summary Table. 9. Yield {Kg/ha 12% H 20) Var Date Total Mean Sonora '.> Potam Yecora Ju pate co Saric Cajeme Total S Mean $ CV(a) "/o CV{b) 9. 32% I.SD differences among main plot treatment 982~_.39 LSD for differences among subplots treatments : LSD for differences among subplots treatments for the sar.ae main plot (among varieties mean for the same date) = SSS. 35 Results PJ.ants/n_,2 at emergence varies for the v::i.rieties and date. of planting. The rate of emergence increased with delayed planting, except for the varieties Yecora, Saric and Cajeme. The varietieinuld date of planting were found statistically significant for the rate of emerge~ce. I The total mµnber of tillers per m2 for dates of planting increased up to the last sowing. The highest number of tillers per m2 was found from the variety Cajeme and was followed by Yecora, Potam, Sonora, Saric and Jupateco. The effect of varieties. was found statistically significant for the total number of tillers per m2. The days required for flowering from the date of sowing were found decreasing with the delayed date of planting.

15 - 8 The variety Cajeme required highest number of days for fioweri.ng from the date of sowing and which was followed by Saric, Jupateco, Yecora, Pdam and Sonora. And the same wei'e found statistically significanf for varieties and date of planting interadion. The effect of dates of planting on height varied among the dates of sowing The height for second date of planting was shorter than the first and third date of sowing, however, the height for the third date of sowing was highe_st than the earlier date of sqr:ing. The variety Jupa.teco was found to give the r.c...aximum height and it was followed by the varieties Sonora, Potam, Yecora, Cajeme and Saric. The height for varieties and date of planting were found to be Stattsttcally significant. The number of spikes per m2 for dates of planting increased up to the last sowing. The variety Cajeme gave he maximum number of spikes per m2 and which was followed by Yeeora, Saric, Jupateco, Sonora and Potam. The number of spikes per m2 for the varieties, date of planting and their intera.cion were found to be statistically significant. The number of spikelets per spike varies for the varieties and date of planting. The number of spikelets per spike was found decreasing with the.delayed date of planting. The variety Jupateco gave the maximum number - of spikelets per spike and it was followed by the varieties Yecora, Potam, Cajeme, Sonora and Saric. The varieties, date of planting ahd their interaction were found to be statistically significant. The test weight of grains by the hectoliter Balance revealed that only varieties have significant effect on the test weight of grains at 5% level of probability while the effects of date of planting and their interadion on the last weight were found to be insignificant. The variety Jupateco gave the highest test weight and it was followed by Sonora,.Potam. Yecora, Cajeme and Saric.

16 s The effect of dates of planting and varieties on the grains weight found to be significant at 5% level of probability. The first date of planting induced 'higher weight in the grains than the later dates. The highest grain weight was. found for the variety Cajeme and lowest was the variety Jupateco. The interaction of variety and dates of planting was insignificant. The effect of dates of planting, varieties and their interacion on the grain yield was found to be significant at 5o/o level of probability. The first date of planting induc.ed highest yield per unit area ~nd the yield was affected by the latter dates of planting. The variety Cajeme gave highest yield among. the variet~es which was followed by Potam, Jupateoo, Yecora, Saric and. 'Sonora. Discussion The tqtal days required for flowering were highest during the first planting and gradually decreased as dates of planting were delayed (Table 3). The dates of planting were found to have differential effect on the pl ant height. The 30th. l bvo::.:.:,cr planting, attained the hig~st height, of followed by the 9th. December planting with a height of cm and increased the height in the 19th. December's to cm (Table 4). The dates of planting influenced on the number of tillers per square meter, the highest number of tillers were obtained from the 19th. December planting, however, the other two earlier dates of planting of 9th. December and 30th. November produced less number of tillers. The effect of interadion of the varieties and dates of planting was insignificant, however, it can be found in the table 2. Dates of planting have been found to influence significantly the number of spikes per m2. The 19th. December planting influenced to give the highest number of spikes per m2: 329, 5. The 9th. December.planting produced the second highest number of spikes per m2: 300, and at last, the 3oth. November planting which gave only spikes per m2. The interaction of dates of planting and varie-tes were significant. Tt10 results are shown in Table 5. The number of spikelets per spike produced by the varieties were influenced by the dates of planting, a maximum spikelets per spike obtained from the 30th. November planting, and the lowest number was for the 19th. December planting with spikelets per spike. The results can be seen in Table S

17 10 The interaction of varieties and date of planting was significant. The combination Jupateco and the 3oth. November planting was found to bgive the highest nuxnber of spi~lets per spike. The effect of dates of planting on the hectoliter weight showed that the 19th. December planting gave the maximum hectoliter weight 82.10, and it was followed by the 30th. November Sl. 52 and the lowest number for the 19th. December 1 s. Results are shown in Table 7~ The effect of dates of planting on the 1000 gra.ij;t weight was most pronounced. The 30th. November planting gave grs: from this date, the grain weight was found decreasing as date of plariting was delayed and the lowest ~grain weight of grs was noted during the last date of planting, 19th. De.comber. Results in Table 8. Differential response of grain yield tp the dates of planting was observed. The early date of planting, induced inereasing grain yield and decreasing of dates of planting were delayed. The final grain yield obtained is supported by the yield components ltke tillers, spikes of spikelets per spike and grain weight~ Recommendations The maximum grain yield of wheat was obtained.from the varieties Cajem.e, Potam and Jupateco on the 30th. November sowing... it could be.the optimum date of planting for the varieties mentioned. This is, however, a sample experiment for <;>ne year only, in ord~r to get a general recommendation, a further continuation of the study for few years is required. also using other two earlier dates of planting to get the optimum range of time of pl&"lting.

18 The Effect of Roy~ Seacin&; 1 and Seed~ ~'ensi.tz on 1 Yield and Yield Co$:pprien*s of Triticale aqd '.6reac1,':J7hea~ '. ' Introduction: \ Kamal Fouzul Knr.o.al Bangladesh Since trtticale is a syrithetic "species" and a new crop, the o:?timum aeronom.ic conditiono for its cultivation have to be known before it goes into co:-:..'lmercial production. Part of thio agronomic infor::-.. :.ation is its optimu::.j. spacinz and seeding density; hence, an e;=periment was undertaken. : The objectiveo of the experiment, were to determine the effect of row spacinz and seedinz denoity for triticale lineq as well as to atudy the effects on yield components. and com!jai'e them with an established wheat variety. -,Tl ork previously carried o~:t on S?acin5 and density in the Yaqui Valley; :Mexico by Fischer (19?1-'l2), (72-72), and Omar (1974) showed that interactions spacinf, x density, and variety x S?acing x density, did not show any significant difference for the lines PM 21?., PM 3:.2,, cinnamon and bread wheat variety yecora. Materials and Methodo: The location of the e;!:periment was CIA:r JO (Centr;:, de Investigaciones Azricolas del Noroe::::te)~. Cdo Dbregon, Sonora, Mexico. The e;r')~rim.ent was set in s,ut-sµlit plot deoi5n vrith four re?licatf. :.ns. The m.ain plots were three triticale, Yorer.t1e, Bacum, Beaele lines and one bread wheat':~ orim variety. There were three row spacine; (15, SJ, ~5 cm) three seeding densities, l:jo!:e!)er hectare, The total num.ber of sub plots 7ras 144 (. 4 x 3 x 3 x 4), and each sub-su::; -olot measured 5.x :'. 8 :.-rl The rate :>f fertilization was 1EJ kg. N, and 43 "'..~5. P2 05 per hectare, the sources of nutrients vrere Urea and triple super phosphale res!jectively applied a::.: basel dressine;. The e.;qeriment wao. planted on the 2.nd of Decen1ber, To otudy the yield components, the following data was taken from each plot before harvest;... I

19 2 height of?lants to to~? of the spike in ems. number of Spikes per m~' ~.. ntir.a.ber of s?il<elets pe.r O~Jike Besides, the dates of 5 3 % of flov1ering or ear ei1j.ergence and percentaee and angle of lodzing 1 VTere noted Leaving the bc11 der rows aside, a three meter len'.jth was harveoted from the center )f. central rows. Tv7o hundred dried grain were counted at rando:;,"n frora dried seed (at 70 c for 48 hrs.) fror...1. su.b-oub plot for 1330 grain weight. - ' r: orim was harvested on 3 May and the triticales were harvested on :!.3th May, 19~/5, Results and Discussion: The F values, in the analysis for the means of all interactions and main effects were non significant at 5% level of probability. Hence, the null hypothesis cannot be..::. 1 ::::~2ted for effect of row spacing and seeding density on the srain yield - Dr. Fischer ( and 72-73} and Gmar (19'?4) also observed that interactions spacing x density and variety x spacins x density did not shov7 any significant difference for the lines P:M: 212, Pm 312, cinnan.1.on and bread Yrheat variety Yecora. It can be seen frol'l the variety x spacing x density interactions on the grain yield (table No 1) that triticale Beagle rave the highest rnean yield at :.5 cm roy1 spacins;~ and 4:J kz. - seeding density per hectare. The main effects due to variety, spacing and density on the grain yield (table 1To. 1) reveals that Beazle gave the highest yield. in 15 er.a row spacine; and 80 l:g. seeding density.~ The yi~ld components were studiec~ and it was found that Beagle have the highest nur~'lber of ;;~)ikelets per spike in 15 cm row spacing and 40 krr. seeding density y/::'..": ~~ori.1::1 gave the lowest number of S?ikeleto '_;er spike. The variety x spacing :r density and spacing x density interactions means were found sienificant at t:o/o level..,77hile, the effect '.)f spacing and density on the number of spikelets was hiehly significant of 1% level of probability (table ITos. 3 and 4). The number of spikes per EJ.2 decreased with the increaoe of row opacing v1hile the sanj.e increased with the increase of seatlinr-t.., <.:> density per hectare. The highest number of G?ikes :)er m 6 was siven by triticale Bacum {table Nos, 5 and -.:),./

20 3 Triticals Beagle was found to attain the hi2:hest height vrhich was followed by Bae um, Yoreme and bread v-1heat Torin1 (table 'Noc. 7 & 8). The t:-iticale Bacum suffered from serious lodzing due to hard wind durin5 2nd to last,~1eek of P.qril, ls'?~. Beagle suffered s. little from lodeinz (table No. 9). Conclusion: FroE"l a statistical point of view no significance was sho 1 :m in erain. yielde; f::>onj. an agronomic point of view it would 0e helpful to have n'lore inforn:..ation in oz-der tp. :n oduce a definite staterlent on the effect of sljacinz and density on yield. Triticale Yorer.o.e, Eacum, Beas;le and bread wheat Torim could i:.e grown in crn.s rov1 s:jacing and 3J k;;. oeedine density '.)er hectare, until more definite ir..form2tion of the agronomic effects :>f ::::pacing and density is obtained... /

21 - 4 - TABLE No. 1: Effects of Variety x Spacing x Density Interactions on the Grain Yield TONS/HA YCREME 43 ke. 80 kg 120 kg. 15 cr.."'.l.s 3.17 G. 3'.j J. 23 l'/f...ean.;?."',.., ti ~ 3.43.~: "-'.., "' J. 28 ~ ' BACUIVI ~[[ean 3.29 ~: _... r;:: ems 7.~o 5.95 ~.17 var...., 41 ~~ ti oJ9 -J ' Mean " '.)... ~.>. u_, 3.28 J. 39 var J. 25 BEAGLE 11-~..t,,., cr... 'lg If ~ Q 3:1. 3o5J E.80 It 5.9] ~ Mean.: 0 59.::. '79 5.9D var 3.49 TORIM 15 ems E5 ') ~ ~ -1. v..) 3o45 SJ 3.13 ~ 9J 3.40 "" ~.,13 4E ti 5. _::;3 2o 24-5,90 ~ I"'\(:' Mean ,,). J.28 ~_, 5.93 var ~ /

22 TABLE No. :.::: Sumr.nary all Varieties TON/J:-IA 0.:>?CJ.cmg Dsnsity : &:-'",.;,.._, 40 kg Cll1.S !-err J. 2!. 13J kg G. :)1 Mean ~ ~ r~ ~,., vv... ~ '=!'J :.49,:11!? n1..;:v...; ~ "" ~ ;:;...) ~ 19 ::'.. 55.:, 18.~ Ll.'7 '-' 0.lo.. ;.?.Q Mean 3 i:;-.., :) -~ ")"... 0 L'..1-t.1 3,25 TAELE No. 3: Effects of Variety x S::;>acing x Density Interactions on the Number of S?ikelets/Spike 40 kg B'J k".'." ke Mean Y03.E?t1IE 15 ems n"> " ~r.j,...) 25.5 ;;5. 9 SJ 254] " 24, Mean 25.2 /,[ D BA CUM 1~ cr.c.s 2!S.2 ~7. J :' J If :. 2 ~ ~: <..} 25, Mean 2r:: ;:i... h 2!::. 9 ;::5, 8 7it 0 8., f:'. I~ 10. "... ~~.3 ni:; n t- t..' ~I ~-~ o4 :-; _. s ~ BEAGLE TOPIM TABLE No. 4: 1 i::.-.. v c::... -:;.S s:>.. s o7 30 3? ~,!... ~..., G.9... ' i:: Mea.n 3L 'l 31., 0.:. ~..; n1 cm.c /~.f... 3 ~:3. 9 :;:.J. '? 30 If 2{L ~ t"\.").. :"' /".J..;. '-' ,l Mean 20.0 ~0.1 19, 3 1 r:: w"..v Sur.a.mary of all V:::rieties Spikelets/Spike '::2.4 ':>"! ~ ~.:... _, SJ.8 '). -. uj......,,, 2 ] ~ :rn. 7!.9 3 Spacing. 15 cmo 2J IEaan Density 4Jk::.; !L8 :::4.,.I 25.. ~ 8 3kg,..., ~ ~ ~i\.~ a ~J?,5, '"' r~,.,. ' """.. 13J kg 2...;? a..;., ~400 25o3 Mean 2.J o ~7

23 ... -.J - Tl~BL.E No. '"' ~ Effects of Variety x 8pacine x Density Interactions on the Hu:n1ber of Spikes/m2 Spacing Densities: 40 kg BG k_.:;...,!so kg Mean YORE ME 15 c=.1.s 353" ?'! '? " l! 'l ?.S'!.l,,~ ~.~ l..j'...i v. _i ~ Mean CL BACUM!5c1ns t$9.?. 80). 7 3J ~ Z{~~S J Mean?.J ,5 BEAGLE 15 ems ~;. 5 4~ ' J 45 13:3.4 1~ ~ (..;Uc ~ 1:.,, : Mean ~33.~ J TORIM :5 crns !::J9.? l =: :. 4 A~'.. ~ E.J ~j,0.1 Mean TABLE No. :: SumI".nary of all Varfatieo Numter of Spikes/m2 Gpacing Densities _..,, "'.1"1 k",. sa ke 1."J'J kg Mean 1~... ems 431.J '117' 1 5~ ~.34 ~ ttr:: _.,., 15J.5 2JJ.9 2.:.008?,0)' 0 :Mean ,:

24 - 7 - TABLE No. '"! : Effects of Variety x Sp~cing x Density Interactions on the Height of Plants in Cr.a.s. 40 kg/ha SJ kg/ha 13::> kg/ha Mean YORE ME 15 cr.o.s 1!.0.5 1J8.4 llj ~.. r-..., l:t ~-0 J ;_.\..:_j. -' Ai: ~"- " L3.;3 ~~-4,, 5!.. 3' 7 Mean L.2.0 1!.2. 7 :tl_ ~ ~.B.ACUM i:::. ems l :_ ?.4. :; ~::. 0 -"' ?.4.G fi 12? ;_ 21 3 Mean ~~20, ?.1.S -; t.: BEAGLE _., cr:n.s 137,3 1 _0v '"'"' -o -~.J :.35' 8 3 ') It 133. :J :_ ~.7 4S fl 135.\J 13'J.9 135,, Mean ~.3e.. 4 TORIM 15 crn.s 75, ;: _;. 1 7.~" 1 30 "?7.5 8:' '78. : :.a '?8. J.,., '1 Mean '! '13.:J, :... TABLE No. 8: Summary of all Variety Height of Plants in Cll/iS, S9acine Density 40 Kg/ha 8} kg/ha ljo kg/ha Mean 15 crns ~.._:_ 1..., v 11G.3 HO , '.3 1: _:;:, 8 4t ::: :_:.l. 3 :..1~. 9 Mean lll 7 ::. ]_ l 1. ;_ I

25 - 8 - TABLE No. 9: LODGING Variety x Spacine x Denoity Interaction on Lodgir1g Estimates in % and An;:;le. YOSEME BA.CUM BEAGLE 15 cr s ll Mean le ems 30 It Mean 15 ems ll Ivfaan 40 kg/ha BO k-e/ba 1. I 75% % kg/ha 1 :Mean 72% "/o /o-80 30o/o 80 75"/o-70 75%-70 69%-6 30 l 72"/o-.3 l. 50. i ; 90"/o "/o-47.'_12) 93. 7"/o-53.~ 92o/o i 80o/o 'fo-55o l 71"/o j 80. 3o/o-51. so 71. 6%-43 70o/o-3fP 90"/o-50 77"/o-Sl o/o-53. 5o 84%-54. ~ 84. 9"/o ~ lo/o I 0 '3 75%-73 75"/o-7G 0 0 " J %-45 30% %-57. 5o 52%-57 TOR.IM 15 Ctr.1.S Mean () D 0

26 Off Station Yield Trials Hamanou Orie s Aleeria Introduction La cereale est 1 1 une des premieres cultures pour qui l'homme a porte un grand interet. Jusqu 'a nos jours, elle occupe le plus fort pourcentage en superficie. Par exemple., l'etat de Sonora, a lui seul, fournit les 50% de la production c~rt!aliere au. Mexique. Les varietes rencont~es; cette annee, dans la Vallee d 1 El Yaqui furent principalement: Yecora, Tanori, Torim, Cajeme et Jupateco (nouvelle variete culti~e cette ann6e en grande superficie) en ble tendre, Cocorit et Jori en ble dur. Actuellement.. une nouvelle culture, faisant toujours objet de recherche, a fait son apparition dans le do;.:n.aine cerealier et qui est: LE TRITICALE. Pour certain, le triticale est consider~ comme une culture tres prometteuse, pouvant remplacer un jour le ble; ceci pour des ratsons particulieres, propres a elle. En effet, les resultats obtenus dans les recherches expc!rimentales, ont caracterise le triticale comme etant une culture a haute potencialite de rende... ment, a bonne qualite technologique et en fin, a bonne adaptabilite eccl ogique. Cepet'ldant, s 1 est on pr6occup«! du comportement de cette culture, sous conditions naturelles, en grandee superficies, sur les terres memec des agriculteurs. Objectifs L 1 un des premiers objectifs de cet essai est de voir la performance de rendement du triticale par rapport aux bl~s (bl6 tendre, bl~ dur) dans differentes zones agronom.iques. de la Vall~e d 1 El Yaqui. Le second objectif est la vulgarisation de cette nouvelle culture, d 1 une facon purement visu~lle, aux agriculteurs. Un autre objectif a.uquel le CIMMYT s 1 interesse, est le retour d'information, c'est a dire, le comportement de cette culture en dehors du microclimat habituel de la station, le jugement,!'acceptation du triticale par les agriculteurs. M6thode et MatE!ri el Le dispositif emplo~ pour cet essai est le type bloc. La randomisation est complete.

27 - 2 Chaque essai est consti.tu6 de deux repetitions. Les parcelles ont 50 m de long et m de laxte Les vari6t6s de triticale utilis6es sont lea suivantes: Bacum Beagle. Rah uni Navojoa.(PM 308) Yoreme Deux autres vari~ms.de bl~ sont int~grees dans l'essai. Ces deux bl~s contifueront les temoins de comparaison. Jupateco bl~ tendre Stork (Mexicali 75) Choix des Locations R6centes varie!t~s productives Cinq locations sur la vall~e d'el Yaqui,, et sur les.ter:res memes des ag:riculteurs ont 6t~ choisies en d~but de campagne. Le choix a 6t~ fait avec!'aide des extensionneistes. Pour des raisons de faible le~e, de mauvaise reussite de 1 'essai, nous avons ~t6 contraints d'~liminer une location. Les quatre autres restantes portel le nom des agriculteurs: Parada, Garcfa, Karam, Amaya. Conduite des Essais Le sol est pratiquement de meme constitution dans les trois locations Garcra, Karam,Amaya. c.o.d. argileux avec un leger pourcentage de limon. est plus sablenneux dans Parada. La preparation du lit de semcnc.e est plus ou moins reguliere pour les quatre essais, et a de!but~ dans la deuxieme semaine d'octobre, sauf pour Alll.8-"' La pr~paration dans ce cas.a ~t~ faita tout juste avant de ser.ner. Le lit de semence ~tait un p-ai defectueu : Pour chaque location on retrouve deux passages de cover croop, et un oti. deux passages de land plane. Parada Garcra Karam Amaya Fertilization N Kg P :ioo 100 Pate of seeding Rate of seeding 100 Kg/ha 100 Kg/ha 100 Kg/ha. 100 Kg/ha Insecticide control 3/ /4 1 3/4 I None ~arathion) parathion) (parathion) Hand weeding x x x x Irrigation Date harvest 7 May 12 l'aay 12 l\.'.l:ay 12 May

28 3 - Aim d'eviter tout effet de bordure, nous avons procede a la recolte des rangs se trouvant au milieu de la parcelle. ~ Remarques gen~rales sur les locations L 1 essai Parada a presente un taux de leree tres faible, le comportement regetatif a em satisfais2.nt. Un tiers(!/ 3) de la semence a ete perdu au semis pour l'essai Garcra. Ceci.est du en plus de 1 1 arriree tardive de la premiere irrigation (2 semaines apres semis) a une profondeur de semis estimee grande (7cm). Karam a presente le meilleur comportement tout au long du cycle. Bien que la preparation du lit de semence fut un peu defectueuse pour Amaya, nous pouvons dire que l'essai a ete satisfaisant. Presentation du Tableau de Rendement L 0 c a t i 0 n s Varietes Parada Garcra Karam Amal.a Bacum S S Stork Beagle S.1 Rahum 5.8 E S.5 Ju pate co 6.4 G PM Yoreme CV 2"/o 20/o 3% 4% LSD TZha o. 400 TZha o:. 488 TZh~ o. 644 Tlha L 1 analyse statistique a montre que le coefficient de variation des essais varie de 2 a 4%. Ce qui signifie que les essais sont :n ecis. D 1 autre part, i1 n'y a pas de differences significatives entre les trail:ements des locations Parada, Garcra et Amaya. n'y a pas de difference signific'ative entre blocs egalement. Ce qui signifie que toutes les varietes dans les trois stations ont les memes potentialites de rendement. Elles s'egalent toutes. Si l'on enleve au Mmoin lap. p. d. s. (LDS) toutes les vari~tes se situent dans le meme groupe. Par contre l'essai de Karam presente des differences significatives entre traitements. La difference se note surtout pour Bacum, et dans ce cas c 1 est du au fait que cette vari~m avers~.

29 - 4 Analyse Economiq,ue L 1 analyse ~conomique, dans ce cas d 1 expr ~ rimentation n 1 est pas n~cessaire, En effet, tous les facteurs sont suppos~s constants, notamment, pr~paratbn du terrain, plus ou moins le nombre d 1 irrigations, et les doses de fertilisation. Le seul facteur varient est les traitements, les locations par cons~quent 11 n 1 est pas interessant de faire une analyse ~cononuque. Comparaison entre locations Le but de cette comparaison est de voir ci entre locations, il ya interaction, locations x traitements. C 'est a dire si les differences entre traitements pour differents locations sont significatives ou pas. Pour cela, la methode appliqu~e est la serie d 1 essais. Ref. bibliographique "Disefios experi~ mentales 11 Vlilliam G. Cochran et Gertrude M. Cox. L 1 analyse statistique a montr~ qu 1 il n y a aucune difference significative pour la r6lation, location x traitement. Par contre, il ya de differences significatives entre les traitements eux-memes, Ceci s 1 explique par -la difference de milieux et types de sol ou ont ~t~ implant~s les essais. La p.p. d. s. (~D) s'eleve a O. 532 T/ha Le C. V. est 5% Tableau de comparaison en pourcentage des triticales par rapport au,'{ temoins Var. Locations Parada Gare fa Karam Arna ya Depassant Jupateco Bacum Stork Beagle Rahum Jupateco T check PM Yore me Ce tableau nous montre une comparaison des vari~t~s de triticale par rapport au temoin bm tendre Jupateco. Nous pouvons constater que le Mmoin n 1 a ~t~ d~pass~ que: 1 fois par Bacum dans la location Parada 1 fois par Stork dans la locatio~ Karam La meme comparaison est faite par rapport au bm dur Stork. Les r~sultats les sub ants. sont

30 - 5 - Bacun a depass~ 1 fois Stork dans la location Parada Beagle a depa:ee 1 fois Stork dans la location Purada Jripateco a d~passe 3 fois Stork dans las locations Parada, Garcra, Amaya. Nous pouvons, en. cons~uence remarquer que Jupateco demeure la meilleure variete par ses rendements. D'un point de vue classification des locations, Karam a donne les meilleurs rendements et Ga.rcra les plus faibles.. Conclusion En rappel de l'objectif cite au d~but et qui est tester la performance.. des triticales par rapport au bm, cette ~tudc nous montre que I'on ne peut conseille~ d'une facon categorique cette nouvelle culture au profit des bles. Cependant comme nous pouvons le constater les rendements de triticale obtenus n'en demeritent pas {voire location Karam). Dans certaines locations (Garcta,par exemple) les triticales ont verse ce qui a entrainee une baisse de rendetnent. Cette verse pour Garcfa est la consequence de la derniere irrigation qui fut t ~:'dive, 2. avrii. Nous pouvons cortseiller la continuation de!'experimentation demonstration la campagne suivantet D 1 autre part, ces essais ont permi, l'introduction de cette nouvelle culture ~upres des agriculteurs de la Vall~e d 1 El Yaqui. Elle fut inconnue pour la plupart d 1 entre eux.

31 NITROGEN RATES TRIAL Ibrahin1. M. Baghd2C:i Saudi Ara ~ie Introduction: Crop fertilization depends on many factors, for example, variety, soil, climate, cultural methods, and methods and time of applying fertilizers are all important. To find the responses of the crop to fertilizer, a field experiment is the most reliable and necessary way to check the results of soil and plant tissue tests. The mai.j:i objectives of my experiment were: 1. - To determine the rates of nitrogen fertilizer which will make maximum economic returns. 2, - To study the reaction.o'f three varieties of wheat at different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: Six levels of nitrogen fertilizer from (0 to 200 kg/ha) were applied at planting time by hand, on a surface of a prepared seed. IJVheat was the previous crop. and a rather substantial amount of nitrogen was available in the soil. The three varieties were: Yecora, F70, Super X, and Mexicali 75 (Stork a durum wheat}. The experiment was a split plot design, with varieties _as main plots, and fertilizers au sub-plots in four replications. The area of ench plot was m2 (2.8 x 1.8 m) in six rows 30 cm apart. Phosphate was applied before planting at the rate of 80 kg. of phosphorus/ha. The seeding rate was 100 kg/ha sown on November 29, 1974, followed by irrigation on Nover.nbiar 30, Climate and soils are described in the information of this report. The experiment was irrigated 5 times. The crop was harvested on April 22, 1975 from center area of 1. 8 m2 (1. 5 x 1. 2 m.) from each plot, and grain yields were recorded after threshing. Results and Discussion: Figure 1 shows the grain yields at different rates of nitrogen... /

32 - 2 - fertilization. Table 1, the yield and yield components. The presence of considerable residual soil,, nitrogen 1 is evidenced by the all variety mean erain yield of the zero nitrogen treatment of 8233 kg/ha. The carry-o'1er of nutrients made the experimental area poorly suited for measuring normal response_s. From table 1, I found that in Yeeora the increase in grain yield rrclnly was account~d for, by the number of spikes/m2,, while the number of spikelets/ spike, and weight of 1000 kernels. was of less importance. In super x and mexicali 75 the correlation of the yieid components was mixed. The behaviour of mexicali was int'luenced by a very poor stand in some plots. Poor stands. were, to a large degree,. compensated for by increased tillering. Figure 1. grain yield at different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Yield &,~~ r 0 I i 6Qi()O+ yecora / -a,..0./ mexicali 75 Yecora Super x! )(' () 0 ".s:~ 75 mexicali 75 a =a 5St>o Ī I l I sooo-::- ~o Be l:>o 160 >0 NK!i/NA... /

33 Table 2. ~rieties I pro~ Yecora Super x- G:uadratic Mexicali 75 C ebb-douglas I. To calculate the economic :ptimum rate of nitrogen the Cobb Douglas and Quadratic productionswere fitted for the varieties Yecora and Super x. The best fit was obtained for Super x. using the Cobb ::::..ouglas and for Yecora the Quadratic production functions.. After identification of the production functbns, the next step was to calcul":::tte the optimurri.rate of nitrogen fertilization. To do this, I equated the marginal productivity of fertilizers (the slope of the curve) with the price relationship (the kilograms of wheat required to buy one kilogram of fertilizer, for this example 4. 2 kg. wheat - 1 kg nitrogen). This formula indicated the amount of nitrogen which gave maximum net income per hectare. Table 3. Yecora Super x Quadratic kg N/ha 9G.8 kg N/ha Cobb-Douglas S Due to the poor correlation of the production func~i:-a ~: yields. the calculated optimum rates of fertilizer to apply for maximum net income were not reliable enough (see Table 3) to form the basis of a recommendation. Recommendations: From Table 1, I found the maximum grain yields were with 200 kg/ha of n.itrogen, for Yecora and super x. But the economic analysis indicates that lowest per unit costs Jn greatest profitability will come from the use of considerably less fertilizer.... /

34 - {:_, - Therefore, my recommendation ts to repeat this experiment on less fertile soil, where there is response of nitrogen to get better results.. Considerable residual nitrogen is evidenced by the all variety mean grain yield of the zero nitrogen treatn;..ent of 3233 kg/ha. Tc>.ble 1: Fertilizer N. Resulto Yield Spikes/ Spiklets/ Vfeight of 1000 kg/ha m2 spike kernels /gm. Yecora 0 Nkg/ha fl mean Super x GO E mean Mexicali mean mean of all I

35 - 5 - L.S.D. varieties kg/ha 32.3 NS NS 3.2 L. S. D fertilizer kg/ha NS N'S NS NS NS :ns C. V. varietie so/o % 38.no/o 4.43% Fertilizer% 7.50!8. 9"/o 5.15"/o 2. 83%

36 f. + i"fji + +. ll"ei ~ ). /- ).. ~ I. :S1 N nz1 -!I -z: v 'S' I Sio + rs ~ c 0 t 4P -+: z v -a ~ ~ 0 ~ 1n '+ ':r ~ ni' ). V> 1 lt1 ::s 11 _!!.. ISi - Q5. '7- - ' n ISi m ISi ISi.. si. ~ -r- - ~1 ~ ~ 151 1'I ISi 151 r; llll ISi 151 m m ~ lg ~- N Ill UJ :r N Ill :r Ill! UI Lii Lii Ill m ~ a "' "' "' rm 1 19

37 Influence du Fracti:.mnement et Dates d 1 Amrt de l 1 Azote su.r le Caractere "Mitadin~e" (En triticum durum l Introduction I Nourredine Benattalah. Algerte. Nombreux ch.ercheurs, plus particulierement ies physiologistes. ont bien demontre a travers les experi': entations, :qu'ils orit men~es que les exigenees nutritives d'une plante donn~e varient $uivant les conditions environnantes dans lesquelles elle se trouve et que pour les memes conciitions environnantes les exigences nutritives different suivant les vari~t~s c~nsid~r~es. En g~n~rale, les programmes d'am~lioratlon ont pour objectif resoudre lea problemes qui limitent la produ.ction de l;>l~ pour permettre son intensification. Entre autres, je cita par exemple: Augmentation du rendement /ha Resistance aux maladies Bonnes caracteristiques gagronomjques Am~lioration de la qualit~. Or, les progl'atnmes d 1 am~lioration du tritic1:1r:~. ~un1n de ces dernieres ann~es ont donn~ des resultats tres significatifs en ce qui concerne les caracteristiqaes suivants: R~duction de 20 a 25% de la hauteur de la paille R~duction de '1 a 10 jours de la date de maturation Augmentation des rendements jusqu 'a 8 a S tonnes/ha( au niveau des expdritrientations)', tel est le cas de la vari~m Cocorit. Cepe.ndant, la. qua.lit~ des grains de ces dernieres vari~ms ou lign~es commerciales, se voient affect~es par la pr~sence du caractere d~nom~ 11 mitadinage 11, qui la surfact partfolle ou totale du grain. Ce caractere pose de nos jours, de gros problem.es aux agriculteurs et a l 1industrie alimentaire - Certains agriculteurs vont jusqu~ pntferer de cultiver le bm tendre A l1industrie le probleme se pose en reduisant le taux des proteines et par cons6quent la valeur alimentaire des pattes: spaghettis, macaro~is et autres produits. Pour ce cas, Pobjectif de!'experimentation que nous avons men~e consiste en le fait, de votr quel est le pra.ctionnement ou k date d 1 apport qui nous permet d'obtenir une r.neilleure qualit~ des grains.

38 Historiqu~ La caracteristique physiologique p~sente dans le grain du bm (triticum durum-ou triticum aestivum) bien connue sous les noms mitadinage : yellow berry = pa.nza blanca} a tir~ 1 attention des physiologistes des la 2eme et 3eme d~cade de notre siecle au USA et Canada. Les Drs. Jones et Mitchell (1923) concluent que le Mitadinage est la manifestation d'une mauvaise distribution h~tritionnele due a une insuffisance de Net autres ~l~ments. Simands et Fisher (l.981) determtnent que la designation du Mitadinage se rapporte ci quelque on plusieurs points blanc dans le grain du bl~ r~sultant de la quantit~ variable d 1 amidon dans l'endosperll"'..e. Amondt et Torrie (1935) ont abord~ l 1 ~tude de la texture du grain pour faire une grille de classification des grains a.ffectt1s par le Mitadinage. Ce meme travail a ~t~ repris en 1959 Sallans, et enftn, une 3eme fois par Castro (1970) pour e.boutir a la classification suivante: O Grain normal ou vttreux (r:ans mi.tadinage) 1 Traces de points amidonn~s 2 Petites taches amidcmn~es 3 Zones a.mtdonnt1es, avec couleur jaunnatre 4 -Plus de 50fo de la surface avec zones amidonn~es 5 1 OO'Yo de la surface amidonn4!e a vec couleur : j.aune pale Entin, pour terminer sur cet historique# c autres chercheurs:.ferruindes et Laira (1939) Hupos (1913) Russel (1S68) et Rhoades (1989) ont annonc~ en tenant compte de tardiw de N (au printemps) est beaucoup plus effective qu une a1 pl~cation prdcoce (au automne) pour l'accroissement des proteines dans le grail J'ajouterat a cela, du fait qu 1 il a une relation directe et in~rs.;) entre le taux des proteines et le pourcentage du mitadinage qu avec un haut pourcentage de protetnes ou a moins de mitadinage. Quelgues references Suite a notre entretien avec le Dr. Amaya - et bibliographie, U ressort que le mitadinage est e ga.lement un caractere here ditaire: i1 y a des vari~tias qui sont tres suceptil:>les et d autres le sont moi.ns. A titre d 1 exemple. je cite: Crane "S" 11gnt!e avanc~e mexicaine en laquelle s'observe pcu. ou P2 de mitadinage, et encore en basse condition de fertilisation. Jori C 69 vari~~ mexicabe moyennement sensible.

39 3 Queen lign~e ava.nc~e de l"inde et Cocorit 71 se classent con1me 100% sucep t :ibles au mitadinage. MaMriels et Methodes ~sultats. La vari~m Cocorit C 71 ~M fertilis~e avec N. Voir les tableaux de N azote: 6 traitements (unim/ha) Phosphore: 1 seule dose de 43 unit~s/ha 11pandue sur tous les blocs ( supe rphosphate). Notons que le sol a~~ p~c~-demment cultiw en soya mais i1 avait un haut niveau de fertilim du sol. Comme dispositif experimental, le bloc randomis~ a~t~ adopte avec quatre. repetitions. Je rappelle que dans cette expert:.: entation poor ce qui est des datzc d'apport de N, on.a tenu com.pte des conditbns pratiques en grand culmre en Algerie. Car apres le stade tallage le travail d 1 une telle o~ration ne peut se faire sans trop endomm.ager la culture. Ce qui n 'est pas le cas a Mexico, ou un apport tardif (me me stade epaison ) peut se faire en incorporant 1 azote dans ireau d'irrigation ou si possible par avion. Resultats et Discussions a) Observations diverses Au cours du suivi de l'e,..'"perimentation on a effectu~ des comptages sur les differentes composantes du renden1ent (plus la hauteur de la paille}, a fin de voir!'importance de l'azote sur le comportement de la plante. Voir ta.beau reca.pitulat if. On a ~gelement compt~ le nombre de tall.es, mais on n'a pas rencontr~ de difference entre les traitements ( y compris le temoin) Cela peut s expliquer par le fait suivant: du fa.it que le pr~cedent cultural est le soja, on peut dire que jusqu au stade tallage, le> d~ficience en azote m s 1 est pas manifest~e dans les plots Mm~ins. Arri~s au stade ~paison, le comptage des ~pis nous fa.it montrer qu'il existe une difference tres significative en le traitement temoin et les autres traitements, qui sont cependant egaux entre eux. Ceci nous permet de penser la deficience en azote commence a se faire sentir, ou s 1 est deja fait santir dans les plots temoins car la quantim insuffisante de N dans le sol du t~moin n 1 a pas perr.net de faire montrer un nombre egal d 1 6pf.B que celui de cmcun des autres traitements.

2 players Ages 8+ Note: Please keep these instructions for future reference. WARNING. CHOKING HAZARD. Small parts. Not for children under 3 years.

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