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1 Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? Bilingual edition: English & French Under the direction of Hervé Mathe

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3 Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation?

4 The Institute for Strategic Innovation and Services The Institute for Strategic Innovation and Services (ISIS), is a research and scientific activity center within ESSEC Business School in Paris and in Singapore. Founded in January 2004, the Institute s mission is to generate, stimulate and promote innovation within the knowledge and service economy of the 21 st century, thereby contributing to responsible growth and the competitiveness of organizations. The Institute instructs the mechanisms of organizational and managerial change and identifies tools to measure the performance and the creative capacity of teams. ISIS leads an international network of economic and academic partners focused on one common goal: the development of concrete knowledge and of structured know-how. Through the Matins de l Innovation (Innovation MasterClass) and other continued exchanges with economic leaders, this network has essentially become a community built around theoretical reflection and the dissemination and sharing of innovation methods in a service economy.

5 ESSEC Asia-Pacific The Asia-Pacific campus, strategically located in the vibrant city of Singapore, represents the perfect foothold for ESSEC Business School to respond to the increasing demand for management education in Asia. ESSEC Asia-Pacific is actively involved in developing close collaborations with companies in the region evidenced by mutual engagement in corporate related projects, career placement successes, and ground breaking research. This commitment has propelled the launch of three research institutes: The Institute for Research and Education on Negotiation, the Institute of Health Economics and Management and the Institute for Strategic Innovation and Services. To encourage further sharing and exchange of knowledge, the school regularly organizes thematic events such as the Cross- Border Innovation and Entrepreneurship Symposium with Singapore Management University in December 2012, and the Symposium on Globalization and the Return of Geography in partnership with the ESSEC Center for Capitalism, Globalization and Governance in February Today, ESSEC Asia-Pacific aims to focus furthermore on the Asian market. The association Innovation & Society aims at encouraging and analyzing the social responsibility of innovators, whether they are an individual or an incorporated entity. In order to do so, it brings together researchers, professors, economic leaders, public authorities and civil society representatives around a collective effort of scientific reflection and animation around the different dimensions of innovation, its stimulation mechanisms, the assessment of the economic, social and societal consequences of innovation, and of research in and education of innovation, to name a few. innovationandsociety.com

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7 Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? Under the direction of Hervé Mathe

8 Under the direction of Hervé Mathe A Professor in Innovation and Strategy at ESSEC Business School, Hervé Mathe is also Dean of ESSEC Asia-Pacific in Singapore, and the President of the Institute for Strategic Innovation & Services. Under the auspices of the Institute, a number of research chairs were created, such as the Chair in Innovation & Services, the Chair La Poste in Strategic Management of Services, and the Chair in Innovation and Quality of Daily Life. ISIS would like to thank Xavier Baraton, Group Vice-President, Corporate Packaging and Automation, STMicroelectronics, François Luc, Vice-President R&D, Thales Solutions Asia and Xavier Pereira, Marketing Director, Microsoft Asia Pacific for their contributions to the discussion R&D policies in multinationals in Asia: a driver for global innovation?. As well as Sophie Jacolin and Roisein Kelly Transliteration, for their contribution to this cahier. This publication is from the "les Portes de l Innovation" series.

9 TABLE OF CONTENTS ASIA: AN INCREASING PART OF R&D WORLDWIDE... 9 Comparative evolution of American, European and Asian R&D investments... 9 The behavior and motivations behind multinationals R&D investments in emerging countries OPEN INNOVATION: A LEVER FOR DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION Disruptive innovation, a condition for the survival of companies Open R&D to promote disruptive innovation ASIA: TOWARDS OPEN AND GLOBAL INNOVATION The strengths of Asia for open innovation Obstacles to overcome WHAT ARE THE PERSPECTIVES FOR THE FUTURE? The large innovation markets of tomorrow Towards innovation hubs Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 7

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11 ASIA: AN INCREASING PART OF R&D WORLDWIDE Comparative evolution of American, European and Asian R&D investments Despite the unfavorable economic climate, there is an increase in R&D investments globally, especially in the vast majority of emerging countries where investments in R&D are resolutely ascendant. Indeed, while the U.S. participation in the global R&D effort reached 32.8% in 2012, in Asia, this participation went from 34% in 2010 to 35.5% in 2011, finally reaching 36.7% in However, investments in Europe remain stable, going from 24.8% in 2010 to 24.5% in 2011 and finally 24.1% in In Asia, China has been the largest contributor since 2010, with a total of 16.2% in In comparison, Japan s investment represents 11.8%, the equivalent of 148 billion USD. Although India is far behind (2.8% in 2012), it has however developed highly efficient R&D in specific fields that do not necessarily require significant investments. It is thus important to keep in mind that the impact of an R&D policy cannot be measured simply by the amounts it is allocated. The impact of a policy is also determined by how it is implemented. For example, for many years Apple invested significantly less in R&D than its many competitors. But they did it in such a way that the company as a whole implemented the innovation processes. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 9

12 With the exception of Greece, all the European states have increased their investments in R&D, even Italy, Ireland and Portugal who are facing major economic difficulties. The European Commission has launched a program by which it intends to double the amounts invested in basic research by 2014 to reach 60 billion. However, the U.S. is still considered to be the leader in a number of advanced technologies. The behavior and motivations behind multinationals R&D investments in emerging countries Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? In a study conducted in 2011, McKinsey looked into the behavior and motivations of multinationals regarding their investments in R&D in emerging countries. Two-thirds of the executives surveyed declared their company carried out R&D in those countries. In doing so, most of them try to align their R&D policies with the global objectives set out by the group, whether these are to obtain lower development costs or to have better access to consumer insight. However, many executives at the head of R&D organizations seemed somewhat disappointed with the performance of their research facilities in emerging countries. In particular, they referred to the problem of the high specialization in specific fields, which is not conducive to a transversal approach to innovation and provides limited opportunities to combine service value and technological value. 10

13 Why then do they invest in R&D in emerging countries? For 44% of these managers, the primary motivation for investing in R&D in emerging countries is to gain access to low-cost research and solutions - even if this motivation is becoming less and less important. For 39% of them, the main motivation behind this policy is to have better access to consumer insight and to seize local market opportunities. By getting closer to their future customers, companies hope to learn to operate in a fashion better suited and adapted to them. By developing products in Asia, multinationals therefore hope to capture market shares destined to increase in the future. STMicroelectronics for example, the premier European actor of semiconductor packaging, has based its R&D dedicated to the assembly of semiconductors (what they call packaging) within close proximity to its clients and Business Units on the one hand, i.e. in Europe, and on the other near the manufacturing ecosystem mainly in Asia. According to a report by the National Science Board published in 2012, North American multinationals are increasingly locating their research operations overseas. All the innovative and high-performing companies conduct R&D operations in Asia. This benefits Asian economies, which, the Board underlines, increase their own investments in science and technologies. The number of researchers employed by U.S. multinationals overseas has doubled between 2004 and 2009, to reach a Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 11

14 total of 270,000. China and India are the regional destinations preferred by multinationals for outsourcing their R&D. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? The rationale for outsourcing R&D operations to Asia and investing in research there has shifted from costs to competencies: multinationals seem to no longer be looking for lower costs, as was the case in the past, but rather skills, competencies and talented individuals. Certain multinationals also declare they invest in R&D in Asia to obtain disruptive innovations that, increasingly, emerge out of Asia. Companies therefore increase their presence in Asia to capture market opportunities thanks to disruptive innovations that could radically modify the markets in years to come. In the last fifty years, Asian economies have grown astonishingly quickly. However, in doing so, they only produced a limited amount of innovations of their own. Today, the situation is reversed. More and more significant innovations originate in Asia, whether they are the product of multinationals working in Asia, or of Asian companies themselves. R&D in Asia seems to be evolving: it is now less a matter of adapting existing products for local consumption than implementing true product development processes. Thales took this evolution into account. As François Luc, its R&D Vice-President, underlines, the initial model which mainly consisted in offering its products in Asia in 12

15 a way that was adapted to local markets, soon revealed its limitations. Thales then decided to establish a proper research center in Singapore, thereby benefiting from local technologies, competencies and laboratories, in a structure that was fully integrated within the group s research organization and its technology. That is how products were developed in Singapore and are now offered throughout the world, beyond the Asian market, in Mexico for example. Going from success to success, the Singapore research team is growing and receiving more and more support from the group. First established in 2003, this team now has 60 full-time equivalent employees, scientists and engineers, half of which are involved in the CINTRA program, launched in partnership with the CNRS and the Nanyang Technological University. Their research is dedicated to signal processing and sensors, high-accuracy systems simulation environments, as well as some target markets in the areas of defense, smart cities (transport, security) and air traffic management. Another significant element in the R&D strategies implemented by multinationals is that they perceive that there are centers of excellence in Asia that can address the needs of emerging markets in general. To succeed in Latin America or benefit from the announced growth in Africa, for example, firms will need specific solutions which are being developed in Asia. It has become clear to companies that the innovation processes engaged in emerging markets are different from Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 13

16 the processes they are used to following in mature markets and that do not seem adapted to the economy of tomorrow. By conducting R&D in Asia, they are therefore forced to redesign their own innovations processes in their own countries, whether that is in the U.S. or Europe. If it is true the R&D centers in Asia are still more dedicated to product development than basic research, this situation could change. The most advanced countries, such as Japan and Singapore, have started investing significant amounts into pure research. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? To finish this brief overview, we must underline two observations. The first is that more and more, survey after survey, the criteria of skills and competencies of engineers and scientists in Asia is taking precedence in the motivations for multinationals to locate their R&D in Asia. For this reason, certain regions that were dominant in the past in terms of innovation, such as Bangalore or Beijing, are no longer seen as relevant implantation locations. It has become too difficult -and too expensive- to recruit there. New regions are emerging in Asia, where companies have access to pools of highly qualified and talented researchers. Beijing is still home to Microsoft s largest R&D center in Asia, with 230 researchers, among the 900 that the group has in its thirteen research centers. Every year, the group invests 9 billion USD in R&D, of which 500 million are destined to the center in Beijing. It is specialized in 14

17 natural user interfaces, next generation multimedia, data intensive calculations, on-line advertising and computer science fundamentals. As well as this, Microsoft has 27 centers in the Asia-Pacific region, where small teams develop R&D activities, on a project by project basis. The second is that fiscal incentives and other advantages offered by Asian governments for R&D investments are less attractive to foreign companies than policies implemented by these countries to support higher education and to promote the acceptance of new technologies by society. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 15

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19 OPEN INNOVATION: A LEVER FOR DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION Disruptive innovation, a condition for the survival of companies In the current competitive context, the ability to offer a disruptive innovation is critical for the survival of companies. Disruptive technologies, i.e. that make previous ones obsolete, are a crucial lever for growth. For example, it is because Kodak, once a leader in the market of analogue photography, was not able to adapt to the digital era in time that it was nearly decimated. The authors of Objectif innovation 1 tell us that companies which do not invest in disruptive innovations are doomed to disappear within thirty years. For example, when Apple concentrated solely on computers it nearly collapsed. It owes its survival to the exploitation of new technologies that led it to offer the ipod and the iphone. François Luc, Vice President R&D for Thales tells us investing in technology is the life-insurance of the future of your company! Ever shorter cycles For Microsoft, the survival horizon is not thirty years but ten, as testified by its Asia Pacific Marketing Director, Xavier Pereira. Every ten years, Microsoft has to launch an innovation to reinvent itself. This rhythm has fundamental consequences 1 Jean-Yves Prax, Bernard Buisson and Philippe Silberzahn, Objectif innovation : Stratégies pour construire l entreprise innovante, Dunod, Paris, Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 17

20 on how research, engineering, sales and marketing have to work together. And the stakes are important! One company out of five of the Fortune 500 ranking uses Microsoft s cloud productivity services; Microsoft s SharePoint collaboration platform is used by more than 70% of the companies from that list; its Xbox Live has no less than 40 million users in 35 countries around the world, and skype has reached 200 million users every month. Since Windows 8 was released, more than 40 million units have been delivered, more than the total of Mac users. Today, thanks to the evolutions of Windows, Microsoft is reshaping its company around a new vision. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? Microsoft is primarily known as a software company. However, its survival depends on it going beyond this domain. While software is what made the difference in the 1990s, the integration of software and hardware is becoming increasingly important. Microsoft must therefore evolve towards hardware, and a large number of hardwarde manufacturers are located in Asia. If the company is not one step ahead on how it intends to implement its vision in hardware, it could miss a major technological shift. A new era is dawning. An additional difficulty to take into account is that software is becoming increasingly complex, because they have to integrate cloud computing and be used on a very wide range of devices. Finally, services should also be taken into consideration: we have to offer new applications, and make sure they are fully integrated. 18

21 Characteristics and risks of disruptive innovation With regards to incremental innovation, disruptive innovation is characterized by a very sustained development and by the fast achievement of a high level of performance. However in its initial phase, it presents relatively low quality and performance. For example, the Apple 1, one of the very first computers of its kind ever launched onto the market, was mocked by IBM engineers! However, the product improved quickly and overtook all its competitors. One of the difficulties of disruptive innovation, compared to incremental developments, lies in the difficulty of assessing its ROI. If you are able to, it means that it is already too late: the new business model has already been installed by others, who took the spot on the market before you. Moreover, it is very difficult to produce a disruptive innovation if you work alone, because you will need to use technologies that are not directly connected to your core business. If you develop mobile phones for example, you will have to work with experts from battery technologies. A company can seldom bridge the technological gap that will help it introduce a highperformance disruptive innovation alone. How then should a technological innovation be managed in order to to ensure success? An important concept to take into account at this point is the level of technological readiness. There are many scales available to measure this. The one used by Thales has nine levels, and is divided into two major activities: research and technology on the one Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 19

22 Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? hand, and engineering on the other, i.e. product development. In the first field, R&T, teams work on principles (principles of physics, algorithms, etc.) without any link to a particular market. If you are not active in this first field, you will only be able to offer incremental innovations, and, as discussed previously, your future will be limited to thirty years. In the second field, the focus is on refining products to increase their performance, by applying the principles defined by the other group. This goes through different phases of prototyping and confronting the new technology to the market and users, and the risk is progressively reduced. It is therefore crucial to always be able to identify in which phase of the process you are, to guide the project accordingly. It is generally quite easy to find institutional support and financing for basic research. Once the innovation is marketed, you have access to customers and you can achieve good profit margins. The difficulty arises during the intermediary stage: the testing phase. This phase is when the company may have cash-flow difficulties, and is often referred to as valley of death. The challenge lies in being able to transfer the innovations from fundamental research towards the engineering phase, by walking through the valley of death unscathed, and to transform your innovation into a marketable product. 20

23 Open R&D to promote disruptive innovation Is it better to go through the valley of death alone or with others? In other words, with open or closed innovation? Open innovation helps to limit the risks inherent to disruptive innovation. In order to push ideas through the innovation funnel, from basic research to engineering, you have to be able to feed it externally, through mergers and acquisitions, with spin in and spin off, alliances, research collaborations, etc. The open innovation model progresses faster than the closed model. Some tests will be a success, and others will fail, but at least the company will have shared the investments and their risks. In return however, this means accepting a more reduced market share. Partnerships can also be detrimental as they can present a threat in terms of intellectual property or can generate knowledge leaks. Open innovation, however, remains an excellent way to maximize the chances and to minimize the risks of an innovation process. Some Asian countries provide a favorable ecosystem for successful innovations. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 21

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25 ASIA: TOWARDS OPEN AND GLOBAL INNOVATION As François Luc reminds us, it is important to remain humble in terms of innovation: you sow without ever being sure of how much you are going to reap. To a certain extent, it all depends on the soil you chose, it is therefore important to identify the right territory. Open innovation requires several qualities: multidisciplinary top universities; growing research budgets; quality of life; multicultural openness; appropriate protection of intellectual property and finally a proximity with end users and the market that make it possible to implement changes and obtain faster develop rates. A certain number of Asian countries - Singapore in particular- offer these qualities. The strengths of Asia for open innovation A cost-competitive environment As discussed previously, investments made by multinationals towards R&D in Asia were initially motivated, by a competitive cost environment. This is no longer their main attraction lever today. Competencies Within a context of global and open innovation, what seems much more attractive for these multinationals, and now one of their main criteria for outsourcing, is the possibility for close proximity to advanced competencies in Asia. For example, Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 23

26 it was in Asia, and nowhere else, that STMicroelectronics further grew additional expertise to face up to one of its major technological challenges: switching from gold cables to copper wires in the design of its semiconductor packages. With the ever-increasing price of gold, it became paramount for the company to implement this change promptly, as it was a condition for its competitiveness. The group has been working on this transformation for the past years, with a significant acceleration recently. As of end 2012, it had already converted 800,000 km of wires used in its packages to copper, i.e. to the moon and back! Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? To implement this change, it worked with its material suppliers (wires, resin, etc.), the wafer manufacturers to redesign the chips, its equipment suppliers (located mainly in Asia) and with qualified teams (engineers, etc.). However, it was actually more difficult to find further technical experts in packaging in this field in Europe while there were several of them in Asia, thanks to the presence of large, well-implanted manufacturing networks. Will the younger generations still be attracted by research and want to develop their competencies? Or will they be drawn to the Sirens of finance? Xavier Baraton, Vice President Corporate Packaging and Automation of STMicroelectronics, tells us that in order to nurture this breeding ground for talent, it is essential to foster close ties with universities, to identify and attract future researchers early on and show them the extent of the value of the R&D developed by the company. 24

27 Future researchers take interest in high-tech projects, even more so when they realize that significant investments are allocated to these projects. It motivates them. Another key motivation factor for young engineers in this industry is that they have the opportunity to discover the wide variety of different dimensions that this profession has to offer, in a variety of countries. It is therefore also an opportunity for them to discover the world. In this respect, François Luc added that the pedagogic content and approach of scientific and engineering schools is evolving, and is now committed to educating innovators. There may well be less researchers and engineers tomorrow, but there will be more people who contribute towards innovation. And given the crises that banks are experiencing these days, today s financial magnetism will most probably wane. Xavier Pereira underlined that every year, Microsoft receives more and more applications for research, mainly in Asia. The number of European candidates who want to come to work in Asian research centers is increasing. This will ensure a higher diversity of competencies in these centers. Statistics corroborate these points of view. As underlined by Hervé Mathe, the U.S. provided less than 4% of the young engineers who graduated in 2011 worldwide. In the U.S. and the UK, people are still encouraged to pursue careers in wellpaid sectors, such as law, finance and medicine. An important fact to bear in mind is that 65% of scientific Ph.D. students in the U.S. are not American nationals. At the other end of Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 25

28 the spectrum, 34% of the engineers who graduated in 2011 graduated from Chinese institutions. Asia has somewhat taken on the responsibility of producing a higher number of engineers and scientists than western countries. France and Germany are more successful than the UK in maintaining a certain appeal for scientific studies and engineering tracks. But Asia remains the most fertile location, and is also where engineering schools have the most significant resources. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? Proximity to users and markets Asia is undergoing a considerable mutation in the field of technological innovations and evolution in customs. Schematically, we can consider that in the past, the countries with a mature economy launched technologies that others then adapted. Today, however, Asia is at the origin of innovative and diversified uses. In Bangladesh for example, the Internet is used on mobile phones quite extensively, whereas New Zealand has developed a very unique approach to the web. It is crucial for any innovative company to follow these mutations as closely as possible, in both usage and behavior. That is the concern expressed by Microsoft. Xavier Pereira tells us that the near absence of Microsoft research centers in Asia in the past led it to miss market and/or technological opportunities, such as the localization of mobile phones for the Chinese market or certain touch technologies. Proximity to the main actors of the value chain A presence in Asia is all the more necessary for companies like STMicroelectronics, as the electronic components sector 26

29 is mainly based there. The group needs to maintain close relationships with its material and equipment suppliers that are based mainly in Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, China and in the Philippines. In 2011, 70% of electronic components were made in Asia. As for the clients for whom the components were destined (to be integrated in mobile electronics for example), 63% of them were based in Asia, 24% in Europe and 14% in the U.S. However, 33% of them were actually for Asian companies themselves, 38% were European and 29% were North American. In other words, large U.S. mobile phone manufacturers, for example, produce in Asia, but design their innovations in California. The same can be said about components in general. For that reason, it is important that STMicroelectronics is present where the products are designed, i.e. in the west. Obstacles to overcome Despite all of these advantages, some obstacles inherent to the Asian context must be resolved for open innovation to successfully happen. For example, although Asia offers many competencies, it is still more difficult for companies to retain engineers. It is a challenge that is non-negligible for STMicroelectronics for example, for whom it is important to reinforce its attractiveness and retain these qualified professionals. Besides, for Xavier Baraton, the expertise of the R&D institutes, already very advanced, could still be Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? 27

30 strengthened. Innovation is still in its developing phase in the field of microelectronics. If it is true that Asia has been home to development and manufacturing processes for forty years, it is only in the last ten years that products are actually being developed there. In the field of microelectronics, and perhaps in other fields as well, the investment framework in Asia is somewhat less structured and coordinated than in Europe. While in Europe there are communities of investors, in Asia things are done country by country. The Singapore Economic Development Board however offers important funding and has established a fruitful partnership with STMicroelectronics, and helped it launch its industry in Singapore. Multinationals' R&D strategy in Asia: a driver for global innovation? Intellectual Property One question remains: that of intellectual property, especially in China. However, it is believed that this issue will be less and less the subject of debate in the future. How do multinationals see it? From the point of view of Thales, which only has a small team in China, the question hardly rises insofar as the research activities that are developed are ones that produce quick wins. This fast-paced development makes it possible to hold the upper hand: whenever you are faster than others and enter markets before others, the difficulty of protecting intellectual property disappears. STMicroelectronics has just established a packaging R&D team in China (in addition to its manufacturing infrastructure in Shenzhen area) with experienced and trusted Chinese team members that have 28

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