European Data Privacy Day 2012

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1 privacy 2012

2 European Data Privacy Day

3 INDEX Many thanks to the contributors of this booklet for their collaboration! Text editing by Rocco Bellanova and Irina Baraliuc Layout by Nordic Material Printing by Arteprint Supported by De Buren and Research Group on Law Science Technology & Society (LSTS) at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel Responsible publisher: Paul De Hert, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium Intro - Paul de Hert Shibuya, Tokyo Marleen Wynants Stronger, more effective and more consistent - Peter Hustinx Minority Report on Smart Houses - Wojciech Wiewiórowski You are Here - Ophelia Van Campenhout Big Bang - Lieke Marsman Privacy by Design: Let s be smart and implement it! - Andreas Krish Photo Shoot at Laguna Beach - Dylan Belgrado Le monder entier enterre la vie privée - Jean Marc Manach State Secret - Ester Naomi Perquin Rainbow over Senate Building, Brasilia - Jeroen Goffings You cannot have Privacy without Transparency - Jean Gonié Transitions - Max Pinckers 3

4 INTRO A foreword by Paul De Hert Dear reader, On 28 January 2012, Europe and the rest of the world celebrate the European Privacy and Data Protection Day. A whole day of events, organised by civil society and governments, will draw the attention to privacy discussions in our societies was a year with privacy discussions about Facebook, use of hacking by journalists, use of intelligent CCTV by police forces, use of twitter during urban riots, face recognition, smart houses and smart viewing of houses, and ICT for active ageing. Declarations and writings stating that privacy is dead confirm the urgent need for more debate about these issues. This booklet brings you several prominent privacy voices that speak through images and words, with thanks to deburen for their selection of poems. It invites you to take part in the ever growing movement of people who are not afraid of technology and for whom privacy matters. Check for European privacy events in your city on: Enjoy reading the booklet, enjoy your privacy. Paul De Hert Law Science Technology & Society Research Group (LSTS), VUB Professor Paul De Hert (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) 5

5 Shibuya, Tokyo 2006 by Marleen Wynants Marleen Wynants (1958) is an independent journalist, publicist and consultant. At present she is the director of CROSSTALKS, the university and industry network of VUB, organizing events on Early Warnings, the Future of Medication, e-payments, Energy Efficiency and conducting the Pecha Kucha Nights in Brussels together with Alok Nandi (Architempo). 7

6 stronger, more effective and more consistent by Peter Hustinx Ensuring stronger, more effective and more consistent protection of personal data in the European Union When the Directive 95/46/EC was adopted, the Internet was still hardly visible and far from its present highly dynamic reality. We now live in a world that is increasingly global, internet driven and dependent on the wide spread use of ICT in all areas of life, including the most private and intimate ones. It should be clear that this is not the time to reinvent data protection. Instead, much attention should be given to making data protection more effective in practice. This means a greater focus on implementation and enforcement of data protection principles and on the delivery of data subject s rights. Peter Hustinx (1945) has been European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) since January 2004 and was re-appointed by the European Parliament and the Council for a second term of five years. He has been closely involved in the development of data protection legislation from the start, both at national and international levels. Before entering his office, Peter Hustinx was President of the Dutch Data Protection Authority since From 1996 until 2000 he was Chairman of the Article 29 Working Party. He received law degrees in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, and in Ann Arbor, USA. Another point in this context is the need for greater harmonisation of rules across the EU. The present diversity of national rules is not helpful for effective data protection. A strong emphasis on the internal market perspective is not only good for international business and cooperating governments, but also for data subjects that increasingly move around the EU. More effective data protection also requires that data subjects should be enabled to exercise their rights more easily and 9

7 should be given a few additional rights to protect their interests. An interesting example is the right to require that personal data are deleted or transferred to another provider the right to be forgotten or the right to data portability which might be particularly useful in the context of social networks or other online services. free from any influence in the exercise of their duties. Complete independence is not inconsistent with the principles of democracy and legality. It requires transparent procedures for appointment and annual reporting on activities, so as to ensure a structured dialogue between independent authorities and governments or parliaments. Data controllers are now responsible for compliance with data protection rules, but in practice this often leads to formal arrangements and responsibility at the end if something goes wrong. Instead, they should be mandated to be more active and to take all those measures which are necessary to ensure that data protection rules are complied with. This is referred to as the principle of accountability that would require data controllers to be able to demonstrate that they have taken all appropriate measures to ensure compliance. The principle of privacy by design would fit in the same approach: controllers should be able to demonstrate that appropriate measures have been taken to ensure that privacy requirements have been met in the design of their systems. At the same time, supervisory authorities should be given adequate resources and stronger powers of enforcement that are equivalent in all member states. They should also be allowed to use these powers more strategically, including the possibility to be more selective, in the case of substantial risks or systematic wrongdoing. Data protection authorities should be A legal framework that would provide all of the above elements would be much better in the position to deal with the challenges of new technologies and globalisation. The EDPS The European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) is an independent supervisory authority devoted to protecting personal data and privacy and promoting good practice in the EU institutions and bodies. He does so by monitoring the EU administration s processing of personal data; advising on policies and legislation that affect privacy and cooperating with similar authorities to ensure consistent data protection. 11

8 Minority Report on Smart Houses by Wojciech Rafał Wiewiórowski Dr Wojciech Rafał Wiewiórowski the Inspector General for the Protection of Personal Data (GIODO) Holding the position of the Inspector General for the Protection of Personal Data since August He is a member of the Polish Association for European Law, a mediator in the Court of Conciliation for Internet Domains at the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunications, a Secretary of the Council of Minister s Committee for Informatisation and Communication, as well as a member of the Committee on Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations assisting the European Commission. His areas of activity include Polish and European IT law, processing and security of information, legal information retrieval systems, informatisation of public administration, electronic signature and application of semantic web and legal ontologies in legal information processing. As Philipp Dick and Steven Spielberg predicted, agent John Anderton will be chasing future murderers in 2054 using visions generated by three precogs. I doubt I will be following such stories being 83 years old, but I am sure a major part of Dick s reality will be with me these days. What I will really need, when I am 83 (if I survive), is to have an all-day-care given to me by my smart house. The system (systems) which will surround me in my smart house should know as much as possible about my real needs. Where does this knowledge come from? Certainly from research done about me when I am old. But I guess the biggest part of the data which would be useful for smart house systems consist of information collected throughout the lifecycle of the object of care. That means that my behavioral information, collected from 1971, will have its meaning and financial value for commercial and social activities in Information on my interests, preferences, needs, experiences and dreams is collected right now in various types of databases managed by the state, by business entities as well as in social media resources. The cost of storing the collected data has been lowered significantly in recent years and is not an economic obstacle any more. Data mining techniques allow to create miracles out of these data resources by finding unobvious relations between datasets. 13

9 No one can imagine how data mining will develop in the next 40 years. It is therefore economically justified to keep behavioral information stored in case it becomes financially valuable at the time I am old. The only problem is that the law forbids the use of such a business model. The principles of data minimization and adequacy of stored data to the purpose to be achieved constitute a legal obstacle to smart house models. Especially when taking into account the general prohibition of storing data in case it is needed in the future. From the point of view of a data protection authority my general question is this: who is the owner of my data from 2011 which will be used for smart housing in 2054? However, at the same time I have to ask: is a Google official right when he says that data minimization is probably the greatest crime against humanity which we commit today? 15

10 You ARE HERE by Ophelia Van Campenhout Ophelia Van Campenhout a.k.a. Nordic Material (1978) Brussels 17

11 BIG BANG by Lieke Marsman One night on TV a physicist says it s not impossible the universe will one day stop growing and slowly, faster than light, implode. In that case trillions of cosmoses might succeed ours and we d now be left dangling from a family tree of universes. Imagine only being able to reproduce by ceasing to exist. Next morning, when at the start of a day I see I ve begun breathing again, I compare this tossing around of stars to the bobbing about of my breasts, to a radio aerial you can keep sliding aimlessly in and out and then, my most successful shot to date, to a sea anemone. From the poetry collection Wat ik mijzelf graag voorbehoud ( What I Like to Impress on Myself ) by Lieke Marsman, winner of the Liegend Konijn Debut Prize Translated from Dutch by Paul Vincent. The Liegend Konijn Debut Prize is a biannual award for the best Dutch-language debut poetry collection published in the Low Countries during the preceding two years. This literary award is an initiative of the Vlaams-Nederlands Huis deburen (www.deburen.eu) and poetry magazine Het Liegend Konijn. 19

12 Privacy by Design : Let s be smart and implement it! Andreas Krisch is President of European Digital Rights (EDRi). He works on data protection and privacy in the area of RFID and the Internet of Things and represents EDRi amongst others in the European Commission s Expert Group on the Internet of Things. European Digital Rights was founded in June Currently 28 privacy and civil rights organisations have EDRi membership. They are based or have offices in 18 different countries in Europe. by Andreas Krisch In the past years we have seen a trend that computing technology gets integrated in more and more objects of our every day lives. Manufacturers and retail companies integrate Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chips in their products. Our mobile phones became smart phones which allow us to use the internet no matter where we are. Utilities started to equip our homes with smart meters which communicate our energy consumption every few minutes. And our cars which already seem to be computers on wheels will soon be connected with other relevant traffic information systems to build so called intelligent transport systems, where traffic information will be monitored, analysed and utilised in real time. Together with other technologies this will form the Internet of Things, a network of objects communicating autonomously with us and with each other. Many of these technologies were and are developed mainly with their core functionality in mind, while it is often on the affected individuals to demand a proper protection of privacy and personal data. To name only a few examples: In the past year the fashion label Peuterey was awarded the German Big Brother Award for covertly equipping its products with RFID chips. In the Netherlands consumer protests led to the rejection of the proposed law on smart metering and a public transport provider in the same country was awarded a Big Brother Award for rolling out an insecure e-ticketing solution and even considering it to be used for payment purposes. 21

13 If we want the vision of the Internet of Things to become a successful reality, we need to include privacy and data protection as design criteria from the outset. IT design is now required to take the next inevitable evolutionary step, as designing and building IT systems that deliver quite good and mostly stable core functionality is not good enough any more. IT systems need to continue providing these characteristics and to protect the fundamental rights of individuals at the same time. The same is true for legislative acts. The data retention directive, to name only one example which might have far reaching consequences when the Internet of Things becomes reality, is in clear contradiction with the fundamental rights to data protection and privacy, as no evidence exists that this measure is proportionate and necessary in a democratic society. It therefore should be immediately abolished. The concepts of privacy by design and privacy by default have been discussed at length in the previous years. Now it s time to be smart and implement them in our IT and legal systems. This will establish trust and enable us to make the Internet of Things the Internet for the People.. 23

14 PHOTO SHOOT AT LAGUNA BEACH by Dylan Belgrado Dylan Belgrado Brussels 25

15 Le monde entier enterre la vie privée Jean Marc Manach blogueur au Monde.fr (BugBrother), auteur de La vie privée, un problème de vieux cons? by Jean Marc Manach La mort, c est triste. La guerre, c est dommage. La liberté, c est bien. Et la vie privée, c est vachement bien. C est même très important. C est comme les femmes ou les handicapés. Il fallait donc y consacrer une journée. Tous les ans, depuis 2007, on fête le 28 janvier la Journée de la protection des données (DPD, en anglais), initiée par le Conseil de l Europe, dont la Convention pour la protection des personnes à l égard du traitement automatisé des données à caractère personnel, datant de 1981, reste à ce jour le seul instrument juridique contraignant sur le plan international. Depuis 1981, le monde a bien changé, et pas seulement parce que le web a explosé, mais parce que l informatique régit des pans entiers de nos vie, et qu il est de plus en plus difficile voire impossible, de vivre déconnecté. Dès lors, les questions informatique et libertés devraient avoir elle aussi explosé. Que nenni : aujourd hui, le seul problème se situe entre la chaise et le clavier, et c est vous qui en êtes les principaux coupables, responsables, et victimes: faites très attention à ce que vous écrivez et partagez sur les Internets et, surtout, ne montrez pas vos fesses sur l internet! Sinon, vous risquez d être licenciés, à cause de Facebook, ou bien d être harcelés par des cyberpédophiles... Dans une étude publiée l an passée à l occasion de cette Journée, Microsoft avait ainsi rappelé que 70% des recruteurs américains, 41% des britanniques, 16% des allemands et 14% des français ont déjà eu l occasion de rejeter une ou plusieurs candidatures du fait de 27

16 ce qu ils avaient trouvé, à leurs sujets, sur l internet. 78% utilisent des moteurs de recherche, 63% les réseaux sociaux, 59% les sites de partage de photos et de vidéos et 57% (seulement) les réseaux sociaux professionnels. 48% matent aussi les sites personnels, 46% les blogs, 41% Twitter et autres sites de partage d informations, 34% les forums de discussion, 32% les mondes virtuels, 27% les sites de jeux en ligne, 27% les sites spécialisés dans la détection de faux CV, et 25% les sites d enchères... L étude de Microsoft ne dit pas combien de postulants ont, par contre, été recrutés précisément au vu de ce qu il avait mis en ligne. Alors qu on n a officiellement dénombré, en France, moins d une dizaine de personnes licenciées l an passé suite à des propos tenus sur Facebook, une étude a pourtant récemment relevé que 18,4 millions d Américains auraient trouvé leur travail actuel grâce à Facebook, 8M grâce à Twitter, 10,2M grâce à Linkedin... Les internautes, ce douloureux problème Les internautes ne passent pas leur temps à mettre leurs fesses en ligne. Et les sociologues qui ont étudié le comportement des adolescents sur les réseaux ont découvert qu ils maîtrisaient, bien plus qu on ne le croit, leur vie privée en ligne (voir Vie privée: les petits cons parlent aux vieux cons). Pourtant, en consultant le site du Conseil de l Europe, on ne peut qu être frappé par le nombre de manifestations et d actions de sensibilisations, organisées à l occasion de cette journée, ciblant expressément les jeunes, afin de les sensibiliser aux dangers, en terme de vie privée, liés à l Internet... La notion de vie privée serait-elle ainsi soluble dans le www? Les enfants et les adolescents sont-ils devenus l horizon indépassable de la vie privée? Pourquoi, dès lors qu il est question de l internet, les plus de 40 ans sont-ils ainsi littéralement obsédés par le sexe, et le fait que le Net serait infesté de pédophiles? C est quoi, leur problème? La montée en puissance de la société de surveillance soulève de nombreux problèmes, et questions. Or, l essentiel du débat sur la vie privée porte aujourd hui sur le droit à l oubli, la soi-disant fin de la vie privée et les problèmes posés par Google et Facebook... Les terroristes ont gagné : ils n ont plus besoin de tuer des gens pour les terroriser. Et pendant ce temps-là, nos dirigeants foncent dans le panneau, et banalisent encore et toujours plus les technologies de surveillance, tout en s alarmant des dangers liés à l Internet. Il y a un mot pour qualifier cela : c est de la novlangue. On ne retient généralement de 1984, le roman de George Orwell, que la seule société de surveillance. On oublie que, pour y parvenir, la Police de la pensée de Big Brother organise aussi un appauvrissement planifié de la langue. On ne surveille pas pour surveiller, mais pour contrôler, et se maintenir au pouvoir. La question de la vie privée est politique : il n y a pas de libertés sans vie privée. Et je me plais à penser que le sujet est autrement plus intéressant, important et vital pour nos démocraties que ces histoires de fesses sur Facebook... The original article contains a number of interesting weblinks. The online version is available here: 29

17 State Secret by Ester Naomi Perquin Oversized bird scrubbed clean by bristles thrusting high up into the air and hidden on top the cable, spare, from which it must suspend this flight. Concert of unidentified powers, ruses of clandestine government. Those girls with their cute skirts and hats? Silence on board. Or else face the music. Once aloft, the pressure is so low all sense how clumsy, how heavy, how slow of gravity is lost. What is unknown won t fall. But who will pay the men whose job it is to pull the clouds past the wings? Who will wash their sky-blue overalls? From the poetry collection Servetten halfstok ( Napkins at Half Mast ) by Ester Naomi Perquin, winner of the Liegend Konijn Debut Prize Translated from Dutch by Paul Vincent. 31

18 Rainbow over senate building, Brasilia by Jeroen Goffings Jeroen Goffings Brussels 33

19 You cannot have Privacy without Transparency Jean Gonié is the Director for privacy, data protection and data governance issues and has a global position for Europe. Based in Brussels, he was previously Government Affairs Manager in Microsoft France (from 2005 to 2010). Prior to joining Microsoft, Mr. Gonié was a legal adviser to the French Data Protection Authority (CNIL) and worked in the legal department of the Internet Rights Forum (a semi-government Internet regulatory body in France). He lectured on Internet law & data protection issues for many years at University of Paris I Sorbonne and Sciences Po Paris. He also has worked as a political journalist for various French newspapers (L Express, Le Parisien) and played the violin for 12 years as a semi-professional in a youth orchestra. by Jean Gonié A popular maxim in IT circles states, you can have security without privacy, but you can t have privacy without security, I would add that you cannot have privacy without transparency as well... All the challenges that a company like Microsoft Corporation now faces as a worldwide company depend on users having confidence in our ability to responsibly manage and protect their data. To that end, we have worked hard to ensure that all of the company s products and services incorporate measures designed to help protect user privacy via an enhanced transparency. Transparency is all the more crucial when dealing with the new privacy challenges that have appeared with the proliferation of mobile devices & geolocation, the expansion of e-commerce or the growth of cloud computing. These technologies have fundamentally redefined how, where, and by whom data is collected, transmitted and used. A technology like cloud computing have the potential to drive down the cost of IT for the public and private sectors or to create a million new jobs and several hundred thousand new small and medium-enterprises (SMEs) in Europe. But these will only be realised if users have confidence that their data are safe in the cloud. The challenge that we thus face is how to best protect users privacy while enabling innovation and facilitating the productivity 35

20 and cost-efficiency offered by technologies like cloud computing. In such a new context, transparency and trust are keys and have to be everywhere: via a robust privacy by design approach or by providing clear and easy-tounderstand information about the way data are stored and managed, kept safe from loss or theft by third parties etc. To that regard, Microsoft Office 365 Trust Center shows a concrete implementation of the notion of Trust in an online world and is a good example of putting privacy principles into practice. To achieve these ends, transparency and trust are not enough without a meaningful offer of privacy choices to customers. These three tenets - transparency, trust and choice are the approach to privacy a responsible company needs to have. Any data protection legislation should be tested against these three fundamental criteria. In that regard, the revision of the 95/46 EU Data Protection Directive is a fantastic opportunity for any responsible company. These are unquestionably challenging times but also exciting ones for those concerned with the protection of data. 37

21 TRANSITIONS a photo series by Max Pinckers I ve always held a strong fascination for both the definition and interpretation of portraits. Classically speaking, portraits comprise a large degree of cooperation between photographer and subject, ideally (though not necessarily) revealing some connection between the two. Both are involved in a balanced and unbiased relationship to create a desired outcome. Many photographers and painters have explored the limits and possibilities of the two dimensional portrait, all contributing to what it has become today. The question still remains; are we able to capture a person s character, thoughts or emotions in a single image? With the series Transitions, I explore this idea by making an attempt to catch people as they are dissociated from the encompassing world, deeply entranced in their own thoughts and absorbed in whatever is going through their mind. Submerged into an absorptive mode, people s expressions depict themselves in an honest way unposed, unconcerned and unaware of either the photographer or the camera. The relation between the photographer and the subject has therefore been obscured, something which provokes us to ask ourselves if these really are portraits. The photos of Max Pinckers are the artistic contribution for the European Privacy Day The exhibition can be visited in Les Halles De Schaerbeek. 39

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eid Trends in french egovernment Liberty Alliance Workshop April, 20th 2007 French Ministry of Finance, DGME

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