1 Une approche économique de l'intégration des dimensions socio-économiques et techniques dans les programmes de recherche en chimie doublement verte Projet interdisciplinaire impliquant trois équipes de l'université de Reims (48 mois, début oct. 2009) Orga. Marchandes et Institutions (EA 2067) aujourd hui Regards (EA 6292) Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Reims (UMR 7312 CNRS) Fractionnement des Agroressources et Environnement (UMR 614 INRA) Coordinateur : M. Nieddu
3 Transition in chemistry? Greening chemistry? An evidence : There is no other solution to replace Fossil carbon in chemistry, than using biobased carbon. Development of a biobased chemistry. A problem : biobased chemistry can be very non environmentally friendly and very unsustainable. Chemistry must therefore be doubly green The background of our ANR project : Testing a Dougly Green Chemistry concept (DGC) Which transition to a new DGC sociotechnical regime?
4 DGC in the context of Knowledge Based Bio- Economy Institutional Construction Scientist considered as productive force to create new inter-sectorial linking to bridge agriculture and chemistry Scientist must have a multidimensional approach an holistic view dealing with technological complementarities, economic patterns, and social acceptability a multi-level view from the molecular level to the macrosocial level
5 Our methodology Observations at the scientific programms level Exploitation of Review of literature, and Laboratories Projects Analysis in an Interdisciplinary, long term, Focus Group ( ): economists, biochemists, physicochemists, microbiologists and chemists) Exploring the diversity of scientists s multilevel visions «L'analyse montre que la notion de régime de production des savoirs en société nécessite de prendre en compte la diversité des modes de régulation qui peuvent se manifester pour une même technologie... L'enjeu est alors de penser non seulement la diversité des configurations mais aussi et surtout, les tensions entre ces configurations...» (Gaudillière et Joly, 2006, p. 347, In Sociologie du Travail, Volume 48, Issue 3, July-September 2006, Pages In search of Biomass Traitement s Philosophies
7 Main Results In theoretical field of sustainability transition management research Discussion of the model [Exploration of variety vs Exploitation of a dominant design] An alternative: Studying Born and Development of Niches in Productive Collective Patrimonies of Specific Communities In the empirical field of Green Chem A Community? But technological expectations and disappointments The turning point from Green Chem. to sustainable DGC In the empirical field of DGC Two main philosophies of biomass transformation Testing the hypothesis of diversity Into strategies of fractionation/purification/reforming Into laboratories projects families Into Industrial roadmaps
8 In theoretical field of Sustainability Transition Management Research Discussion of the model of Dominant Design
9 Theorizing Sustainability Transition Management
10 Towards a dominant design? à partir des niches Exploitation Exploration
11 The cycle of exploration exists, but
12 Our reinterpretation of MultiLevel Perspective Theory Strategic management of collective niches protected as patrimony, BackCasting from diverse visions of the future to the present Entrenched Actors (into their patrimonies of knowledge and economic assets) The necessity to conduct empirical studies and identify the limited diversity of Entrenched Actors Communities
13 In empirical field of Green Chem New Unified Paradigm or Diversity of approaches
14 Mapping Community of Green Chemistry
15 Top 10 Scientific Journals where the GC community published its achievements. These results show that the scientific knowledge generated by the GC community is highly concentrated in the Green Chem Journal But they also suggest that GC research has obtained a good visibility within the broader chemical community. We find some of the highest ranked and generalist journals in the chemical field
16 Methodology : Network of citations among GC publications, so that papers generated by the GC community correspond to the vertices of a network and are connected with each other by a number of arcs, which symbolize citational links among papers..
17 Capturing the dominant directions of knowledge accumulation vis à vis the twelve principles of GC Two main paths Researches on catalysis, to overpass locks in efficiency Researches on Ionic Liquids (Ils) But A cycle of expectations and disappointments. E.g. How turn green ILs? Not systemic approaches, but specific on one principle of GGC (when you utilize more of one GC principle, you are a green chem. Researcher ) What about the seventh principle : dispersion between a lot of papers devoted to biomass valorization
18 Diversity in the empirical field of DGC Into strategies of fractionation / purification/reforming:
19 From Green to Green (biobased) chemistry? Green chemistry of 1990s devoted to solve problems of toxicity Agriculture considered as one of the more polluting industries, and diffuser of toxic molecules in nature 2000s (consultation Scopus 16 December 2011) the seventh principle. Green Chem..57 of the 63 articles (forthcoming in 2012), while it would be hard to find one in the first issue of the journal. ChemSusChem, (first issues in 2008): no articles indexed with the keyword "biomass" in its first two issues and no with the term "renewable resources" before the 8th number. 103 on the first tag, on the second and 88, against 41 indexed with the keyword "green chemistry Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards: Of the 16 first awarded in 1996, 1997, 1998, only two attached to the seventh principle. Over the past three years, 11 Awards of 15 can be directly referred to biobased products as reactants or as substrates.
20 What s changing in philosophy of chemistry using biomass? Nothing? chemistry as petrochemistry of a top ten of intermediates (Bozell and Petersen, 2010) The entire supply chain? Alternatives strategies of biomass conversion (Gallezot, 2010)?
21 Philosophy of modern chemistry The modern chemistry paradigm rests on the idea of breakthrough and recomposition of links between chemical elements: the stages go from the fractionation of products into elementary units (with significant energy costs), their purification (within processes and using solvents which can be harmful to the environment) so as to isolate and control elementary reactions, (Next we come to key-intermediates), and then reforming operations towards complex products, via a cascade of multi-stage chemical reactions (which are also costly in terms of energy, and mobilize catalysers, the safety of which is hotly debated).
22 Two philosophies of chemistry The constant dilemma of chemists using renewable resources, as was remarked by A. Lattes, honorary chairman of the Fédération Française pour les sciences de la Chimie is to choose between two strategies: - the perfecting of the "destructuring" fractionation pathways that are typical of the oil industry, although conceptually well-mastered by the petrochemists, - the non-destructuring" pathways (i.e. : which preserve the functional properties contained in the complexity of living organisms).
23 This leads some of chemists to identify the fractionationmodification pathways so as to obtain functionalities without having to go through the full destructuring phases: "Rather than following current industrial practice, where macromolecules present in the biomass are broken into C1 building blocks first, which are next reassembled into the desired functional molecules, the synthesis power of nature should be used to the maximum possible extent. For this purpose, the rich molecular structure in the biomass has to be accessed without significant degradation" (Marquardt et alii, 2010, p.2229). The biomass conversion strategy under discussion in recent scientific critical reviews" (Sheldon, 2010, Gallezot, 2012,). Chemists in search of alternatives refer to heritages from agrofood and oleochemistry sectors: In the future the platform molecule value chain could become more and more successful to produce high tonnages of bioproducts, but in the meantime most of the high tonnage industrial bioproducts are produced by a different strategy which does not aim at producing pure isolated chemicals competing with those derived from petroleum. This strategy consists of converting biomass in minimum steps to functional products such as surfactants, lubricants, plasticisers, polymers,.. As practised in the food industry, it is not always needed to isolate pure chemicals to make marketable products. This value chain is more likely to be cost competitive because it reduces drastically the number of conversion, extraction and purification steps. (Gallezot, 2012, Chem Soc Review,)
24 The relation of scientists to Productive Heritages and Communities Four distinct productive heritages: PH1 Extensive thermal deconstruction to C 1 C 2 Thermo chemical transformation of biomass into syngas and reforming. PH2 - Biotechnological Extensive deconstruction to C 2 C 10 Enzymatic transformation of biomass into small molecules, synthons, building blocks (for chemiosynthetic polymers e.g. PLA PHA) PH3 - Limited chemical modification of extracted C 5 C 30 Use of naturally occurring synthons (e.g. modified fatty acids for polymers) PH4 - Limited deconstruction and transformations C x C n Use of plant components complexity using innovative technologies (e.g. reactive extrusion, modif. Starch, whole plant process)
25 Diversity in the empirical field of DGC Families of laboratories Projects
26 Monographies of a family of projects Two DGC laboratories, 34 projects) in the thesis of Estelle Garnier (2012 Projects : Hardly comparable analytical units Work of abstraction and classification using stylised facts (FS) FS 1, FS 2, FS 3, FS 4 Variabilité des prises de position Estelle Garnier : «Un résultat paradoxal : Il y a une diversité observable au sein même des laboratoires.» 26
27 FS 1 Process Des spécialisations proclamées au service d une exploration diversifiée Substrats Marchés Main result of Estelle Garnier: At the level of the most basic unit, the laboratory, there is 27 no specific logic of dominant design, but a reproduction of the variety of explored routes.
28 Diversity into DGC (alternative strategies) each strategy have his own specific trajectory to explore and enforce his own green chem principles Thesis of Estelle Garnier, mai 2012, and Nieddu, Garnier, Bliard,
29 A main result Why diversity will not disappear
30 Why diversity will not disappear Arguments in the environmental dimension Scientists in each trajectory seek to improve the sustainability of the trajectory : - e.g. New catalysts in thermochemistry - e.g. Solid-state fermentation processes in biochemistry to preserve water - e.g. Alternative solutions to Reach constraints (nonisocyanate polyurethane) - e.g. One pot processes in limited-breaking paradigm saving energy and waterr Each trajectory develops their own specific green reasoning 30
31 Why diversity will not disappear Arguments in the Economic dimension Scientists in each trajectory seek to improve the economic sustainability of the trajectory : Thermochemistry will be maintained because aircraft biofuels are very difficult to produce with biochemistry processes (water residues in aircraft fuels can be very dangerous) Biochemistry carries very strong technological promises (enzymes are the new workers of these processes) Easy polymerisation of agrofood products / by products to provide immediate substitution solutions to existing known polymers. Limited breaking processes can help economic actors to escape the existing supply chain of dominant actors in basic chemistry Each trajectory is in Technological and economic competition with the other trajectories but withholds its own niche on the markets 31
32 A territorial issue of diversity Rural biorefinery Harbour biorefinery
33 Must institutions enforce or reduce diversity? Competition laws promote technological convergence to higher productivity technologies and support traditional supply chains The changes can only happen in the beginning of the chemistry supply chain and do not create a new sociotechnical regime in the sense of transition management theory (changing in both consumption patterns and production solutions) Should diversity be promoted and developed? Or should institutions support technological convergence towards a single trajectory to help scaleup growth? 33
34 Thank you for your attention
35 Références NIEDDU M., VIVIEN F.-D., (2012) «La chimie verte : vers un ancrage sectoriel des questions de développement durable?», Economie appliquée, 2012/3 (numéro spécial Questions à Rio +20). GARNIER E., BLIARD C. NIEDDU M., (2012) The emergence of doubly green chemistry, a narrative approach, European Review of Industrial Economics and Policy (2012/1), réédition anglaise de Nieddu M., E. Garnier, C.. Bliard "L émergence d une chimie doublement verte" Revue d'eco. Industrielle, 132, 2010/4: DEBREF R. (2012), " The paradoxes of environmental innovation: the case of green chemistry ", Journal of Innovation Economics, n 9 (Innovation processes and institutions), p Nieddu M. (2011) Le vivant doit-il être (seulement) réduit à de grands intermédiaires chimiques? un point de vue d'économiste in Maxim, Laura (ed.), (2011) La chimie durable, au-delà des promesses, Paris, CNRS Editions. Nieddu M., Garnier E., Brulé-Gapihan E. (2012), Entrepreneuriat institutionel, programmes scientifiques, et chimie doublement verte, in Boutillier S. et alii, L'innovation verte, de la théorie aux bonnes pratiques, Peter Lang, Bruxelles, pp VIVIEN F.D., NIEDDU M., DEBREF R. (2012) "L innovation technique : un nouveau paradigmepour le développement soutenable?" In Brunet S. & Hamaide B. (dir.) L'analyse du développement durable et ses applications à des problématiques régionales, pp.37-61, Edition des Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis, Bruxelles, Belgique. EPICOCO Marianna, OLTRA Vanessa, SAINT JEAN Maïder (2012) Mapping the scientific knowledge of the Green Chemistry community, Cahiers du GREThA, n ,. Contributions de R. Debref, d Estelle Garnier, de E. Brulé Grapihan, de M Nieddu à R. Perez et B. Christophe, Eds (2012) Agro-ressources et écosystèmes: enjeux sociétaux et pratiques managériales, Septentrion, Villeneuve d Ascq Garnier E. (2012) «Une approche socio-économique de l orientation des projets de recherche en chimie doublement verte» Dir. : M. NIEDDU (économiste REGARDS, URCA) et B. KUREK (biochimiste, dir. UMR FARE, INRA/URCA), Jury : G. ALLAIRE (Dr INRA Toulouse), N. BUCLET (Professeur, dir UMR Pacte Grenoble), E. MONTAIGNE (Professeur, dir. UMR MOISA, Montpellier Supagro), F. QUIGNARD (DR CNRS à l ENat. Sup Chimie Montpellier), F.-D. VIVIEN (économiste URCA), Mention Très honorables avec les félicitations du jury Nieddu M., Garnier E. (2010) "Vers un modèle pluriel de bioraffinerie?" BIOFUTUR 312 Juil.aout 2010, Garnier E., Nieddu M., 2010, «La mutation génétique d un mythe rationnel : de la raffinerie du végétal à la révolution de la chimie doublement verte», in L'empreinte de la technique, L'Harmattan, coll. Colloques de Cerisy, p