Director Journal. The Cowboys Who Manage Risk. After the great flood, Calgary Stampede organizers are ready for almost anything.

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1 Journal A publication of the Institute of Corporate s September/October 2014 icd.ca The Cowboys Who Manage Risk After the great flood, Calgary Stampede organizers are ready for almost anything 8 Louise Roy Champion of Diversity 18 Capital Markets The Aequitas Proposal 30 Crowd Control Regulating Funding From the Masses

2 Journal Contents Journal is published by the ICD six times per year as a benefit to its members. Electronic issues can be viewed and downloaded from members accounts at in the News & Publications section found under the Resource Centre heading. 14 EDITORIAL Editor Simon Avery Contributors Cameron French Virginia Galt Gordon Pitts Production Manager Maliha Aqeel, Communication Graphic Design Alexis Loney, Art Loney Designs INSTITUTE OF CORPORATE DIRECTORS Stan Magidson, LL.M, ICD.D President & CEO Christian Buhagiar Vice President, Education Matthew Fortier Vice President, Policy Vicki Jordan Vice President, Marketing & Member Services PLEASE NOTE OUR NEW ADDRESS: FEATURE Calgary Stampede organizers have shown resilience and an ability to learn from the unexpected following the great flood of For this summer s event, organizers had a new, and much thicker, risk management playbook Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2L7 Tel: (416) Fax: (416) The Cowboys Who Manage Risk by Cameron French The ICD welcomes a diversity of opinion for inclusion in Journal. The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the ICD, its partners, its sponsors, or its advertisers. Readers are encouraged to consider seeking professional advice and other views. To request reprints of articles, please contact CORRECTION The feature in the last issue about ICD Fellow Dale Parker incorrectly referred to his role at the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board as chair. In fact, Mr. Parker served as of the CPPIB s Governance Committee. The story also misstated his role at BC s Workers Compensation Board. He served as CEO, not chair.

3 Issue / Numéro 175 September/October ICD Fellowship Award 8 Louise Roy, the Chancellor and of the University of Montreal, has a record of fixing embattled organizations by Virginia Galt 39 Lousie Roy, la chancelière et présidente du conseil de l Université de Montréal, prêche par l exemple par Virginia Galt HR & Compensation Who Will Be Your Next CEO? Succession planning should be a regular discussion by Dora Koop 33 Aligning Executive and Shareholder Interests with Career Shares by Ming Young Securities and Capital Markets 18 A Stock Exchange Built on Good Governance by Gordon Pitts 21 Know Your Shareholders and what they are thinking by Chris Makuch First Nations DEPARTMENTS Editor s Note 4 Broad Demand for Good Governance President s Desk 5 Back to Work, Back to Business 38 Retour au travail, retour aux affaires News Brief 6 One up on Europe; 30 per cent in five years; Quebec s discretion Policy Update 13 How the ICD is Affecting Policy SpencerStuart ICD s On The Move 45 Appointments: June and July An Appeal for Education and Governance by Roslyn Kunin Entrepreneurs and Start-ups 28 Atlantic Canada s Entrepreneurial Ecosystem by Jim Lutes 30 Tapping the Wisdom and Wealth of Crowds by Lori O Neill Poison Pills 36 Keeping Head Offices Requires New Policies by Fabrice Tremblay 43 Le maintien des sièges sociaux passe par de nouvelles politiques par Fabrice Tremblay

4 EDITOR S NOTE Broad Demand for Good Governance WHEN YOUR VENUE IS SUDDENLY submerged beneath 10 metres of water a few days before the big show, or your workers have taken the supervisors hostage, it helps to have good governance. Strong leadership and governance can resolve crises effectively, or prevent them happening in the first place. Our cover story about how the Calgary Stampede handled the flood of 2013 illustrates some of the realities of risk-management. The flood proved the greatest challenge in the event s long history, even though just a few years earlier organizers had beefed up flood precautions following another deluge. Last year s crisis wasn t the result of inaction; rather it came from miscalculating the sheer magnitude of the risk. This is a story of a not-for-profit, in full public view, learning on the fly and overcoming adversity. The show did indeed go on, and as executives tell the story, it s noteworthy that each lesson learned produced an actionable result. The second scenario comes from the profile of Louise Roy, whose governance skills are recognized this year with a Fellowship Award from the Institute of Corporate s. The piece paints a vivid image of her leadership style. She begins the process of bringing order back to Montreal s public transit system by walking through the depots and shaking the greasy hands of militant mechanics. Years later, she would stabilize the University of Montreal by adding students and faculty to a more transparent decision-making process. Throughout her career, Ms. Roy s successes have been marked by inclusiveness and the courage to bring different voices to the table. Good leadership and proper oversight foster trust, and one piece of the economy that could use an injection of trust is the capital markets. That has led Jos Schmitt and his colleagues at Aequitas Innovations to propose a new stock exchange that uses governance as its competitive advantage. Specifically, the ownership and board structure are designed to represent a balance of buyer, seller and issuer interests, stifling predatory trading techniques such as high-frequency trading in the process. As Gordon Pitts explains in A Stock Exchange Built on Good Governance, Aequitas is seeking regulatory approval and aiming for an ambitious slice of the Canadian market in the next few years. Roslyn Kunin, an economist who chairs the board of Haida Enterprise Corp., ties good governance to prosperity in her candid piece about the needs of First Nations. She makes an appeal for stronger governance for First Nations businesses that includes the flexibility to address local challenges and customs. The process, she adds, demands greater education: members of First Nations need to understand how economies and incorporated business operate, and the business community must learn the culture and constraints under which First Nations businesses operate. It s a process of mutual respect that will require some strong leadership. Simon Avery 4

5 From the President s Desk STAN MAGIDSON, LL.M, ICD.D President & CEO, The Institute of Corporate s Back to Work, Back to Business In Memoriam This past month saw the passing of Purdy Crawford, a visionary in the corporate governance space in Canada. Inaugurated as an ICD Fellow in 1999, Purdy will be remembered as a friend, a mentor, a wise confidante, and an exceptional leader in the boardroom. He will be missed by the ICD and Canada s director community. THE FALL IS A BUSY TIME FOR organizations across Canada. At the ICD, we are kicking off the fall season with the annual ICD National Conference and Fellowship Awards Gala in Montreal on September 18. The theme Transformational Governance: Embracing Change and Innovation Successfully truly speaks to the evolution that is taking place in corporate governance and in directorship. The speaker line-up includes Ian Bourne, Robert Parizeau, Kathleen Taylor and John Thompson, all of whom have experience as board chairs of organizations that have witnessed transformation. I would like to thank the conference co-chairs, Monique Leroux, Claude Mongeau and Michael Sabia for lending their insights and leadership. I would also like to acknowledge the organizing committee from the ICD Quebec Chapter who contributed their time and experience in shaping a thought-provoking conference agenda. It promises to be an exciting day of learning and networking, capped by the inauguration of the new ICD Fellows at the Fellowship Awards Gala in the evening. September is also a time for renewal across the ICD chapter network. The chapters do a great job of organizing timely and relevant director learning opportunities for their local communities across Canada. The chapter chairs and their executive committees play an important role in ensuring that our members are current on governance trends and issues. This year, I would like to welcome new chairs to our chapters in Ontario (Bryan Held), Ottawa (Coralie Lalonde), Southwestern Ontario (Kelly Butt), Calgary (Noralee Bradley) and Edmonton (Dave McInnes). You can learn more about them and upcoming events in your chapter at icd.ca/chapters. I would also like to thank outgoing chapter chairs Shauneen Bruder (Ontario), Lori O Neill and Grant Jameson (Ottawa), Heather Broadhead (Southwestern Ontario), Rory Tyler (Calgary) and Alex McPherson (Edmonton) for their commitment and dedication to the ICD community these past few years. Finally, fall is also the time for our Annual General Meeting, which will take place on October 29 in Toronto. More details about the AGM and proxy voting process will be released shortly. So please keep an eye out on your inbox and the ICD website for further information. September/October

6 GOVERNANCE NEWS IN BRIEF Compiled by Heather Wilson, ICD s of Research Services Court ruling a cautionary tale for directors THE ONTARIO COURT OF APPEAL has ruled in favour of the shareholders of Unique Broadband Systems Inc. and against the company s CEO and director Gerald McGoey in a case that may have implications for corporate governance practices in Canada. The court found that the directors had breached their fiduciary duty to the corporation by awarding themselves and consultants $20-million before the company went bankrupt. The ruling highlights the need for directors to act in good faith when making decisions about their own compensation. Source: McCarthy Tétrault, Globe & Mail Canadian boards better governed than Europe, study finds A RECENT STUDY BY INSEAD AND THE ROTMAN SCHOOL OF Management concludes that Canadian firms have superior corporate governance regimes compared with their European counterparts. Canadian board members are more likely to conduct performance evaluations, hold sessions independently from management and recognize the value of director education. recruitment in Canada is also becoming more formalized, relying less on personal networks and including more formal processes, such as the use of skill matrices. Source: Globe & Mail Two more provinces join national securities regulator SASKATCHEWAN AND NEW BRUNSWICK HAVE SIGNED ON to the federal government s plan to create a national securities regulator, the Cooperative Capital Markets Regulatory System. After the announcement, both Alberta and Quebec remained committed to maintaining their own regulators, citing worries that a central body would be too Ontario-centric. The national regulator is expected to begin operation in late Source: Globe & Mail Proxy advisors under the microscope A GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF proxy advisory firms by institutional investors has been issued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The SEC is seeking to address a concern by critics that proxy advisors wield too much power in corporate elections. The proposal includes recommendations on monitoring voting advice as well as on the disclosure of conflicts of interest by proxy advisory firms. In Canada, the Canadian Securities Administrators are also examining the role of proxy advisory firms in Canadian capital markets and recently closed the comment period for recommendations. Source: Reuters News, Globe & Mail Digital natives? Not on boards ACCORDING TO A NEW SURVEY from McKinsey & Co., boards are not paying sufficient attention to the digital strategies of their companies. Whereas senior executive support for digital projects has grown significantly over the last three years, board support for digital initiatives has increased only marginally - to 27 per cent in 2014, up from 24 per cent in Source: Harvard Business Review Photo: Greg H, Flickr 6

7 Women on boards: 30 in 5 A FEDERAL ADVISORY PANEL HAS RECOMMENDED THAT publicly-traded Canadian companies have a 30 per cent target for the representation of women on their boards by The panel stopped short of proposing regulations or quotas but recommended that boards annually disclose their gender diversity targets as well as report on their progress. In other developments, securities regulators in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have published for comment the Ontario Securities Commission s proposed disclosure requirements for women on boards. Source: Globe & Mail Quebec less hostile to takeovers NEW QUEBEC PREMIER Philippe Couillard is discarding plans to invest provincial money from its Generations Fund into companies targeted by unwanted takeover bids. The Liberal government says that it will act to protect a company from an unwanted takeover bid when warranted but also notes that not all companies are worth protecting. Source: National Post ICD FELLOWSHIP AWARDS 2015 Call for Nominations KNOW AN OUTSTANDING DIRECTOR? Nominate a director who exemplifies excellence in governance leadership. THE DEADLINE IS NOVEMBER 7, To learn more, visit September/October

8 This is the final profile in a series spotlighting this year s four recipients of ICD s Fellowship Awards. The Fellows are nominated by their peers and selected by an independent committee based on several criteria, including leadership and contributions to governance. This issue features Louise Roy who has a skill for transforming broken or ineffective organizations. In the fields of transportation, education and culture, she has repeatedly shown there is a better way of doing things. The Chancellor and of the Board at the University of Montreal tells Virginia Galt that championing inclusiveness, openness and diversity has proven key to her success. Leading By Example AS A SOCIOLOGIST AND URBAN PLANNER, Louise Roy had no preconceived ideas of how to run a business when she was recruited to head the notoriously dysfunctional Montreal Urban Community Transit Commission in There had been complaints from the public about racism, gruff service, late buses and frequent work stoppages. Just a few months prior to Roy s appointment, the riot squad had been called to rescue supervisors taken hostage by employees in a bus repair shop. The workers were out of jail and back on the job by the time Roy, then 37, was named president and chief executive officer. To the consternation of her new management team, Roy decided to make the bus repair shop the first of many site visits so she could hear directly from employees about how the place operated. I didn t know anybody to guide me in the way of doing things. I just went with my sense of the way things should go, she says. Roy spent her first three months on the job learning everything she could about the organization before embarking on the long, complicated process of instilling a more customer-friendly culture and establishing a new board of directors making inclusiveness, open communication and enlightened human resources management central to the mission. She pioneered a diversity initiative and, for the first time, women were Photo: Benoit Desjardins 8

9 I have always pushed boards to make sure the CEO has a will to make the building of talent a major issue. hired to drive buses and work in the garages. Of course all the walls of the [bus repair] shop were covered with Playboy pictures, Roy says. The air was blue with cursing, and some of the men - taken aback by Roy s sudden appearance in their workplace - were reluctant to shake hands because they were dirty, she recalls of her first foray into the macho world of mechanics. I said that s okay, I don t mind [getting my hands dirty]. I just came to introduce myself and listen. What s going on here? says Roy, now chancellor and chair of the board at the University of Montreal, past president and chair of the Conseil des arts de Montréal and newly inducted fellow of the Institute of Corporate s. People were circling around me and we had discussions and I realized that nobody [from management] had ever done this before, there was such a lack of communication. She currently sits on the boards of Power Financial Corp. and Intact Financial Corp., and chairs the board of the Centre for Interuniversity Research and Analysis on Organizations (CIRA- NO), a Quebec-based research organization. Roy s innovative leadership style had transformed the transit agency by the time she left in 1992, with her reputation as a turnaround artist leading to a series of high-profile executive and board appointments over the years. (She served as an executive vice-president of Air France, president and chief executive officer of Telemedia Communications Inc. and senior vice-president of the International Air Transport Association, among other positions.) Louise Roy acquired an image as kind of a mythical heroine in the organizational transformation sector. It was an image that would remain in the collective memory and would become her trade mark, according to a 2011 case study of Roy s career, published by the University of Montreal s business school, HEC Montreal. It s been my privilege to have been asked to get involved in areas where I have a deep interest and to take responsibility in areas where, from the moment I arrived, the thread was, you need to transform the organization, or you need to step in and make a new culture arrive and manage change. So it makes it very intense and very interesting, Roy says. With each new appointment, Roy takes the same approach, consulting widely about what makes the organization tick and what could be done to make it better. I am a strong believer that in all organizations, people make the difference. If you don t have a committed, active HR management of your people and this is the responsibility of all managers you won t deliver results, you won t deliver returns and you really need to address that, Roy says. I have always pushed boards to make sure the CEO has a will to make the building of talent a major issue. For the past decade, her passion has been improving governance practices in Quebec s educational and cultural sectors - ground-breaking work that has won her wide acclaim. (In 2012, Roy was named an officer of the Order of Canada and she was co-winner of Korn/Ferry s prestigious 2011 Board of the Year award for state-of-the art governance practices at the Conseil des arts de Montréal.) During her tenure as chair and president at the Conseil, from 2006 to 2012, Roy invited artists to become part of the process of reviewing grant applications. In addition to this peer review, she encouraged small and medium-sized cultural organizations in Montreal to establish boards of directors - hosting something akin to speed-dating events where they could meet prospective candidates. At the end of the evening, each organization was leaving with three new directors: a lawyer, an accoun- September/October

10 tant and a banker. Mentors were also joining to facilitate the functioning of the boards, relates corporate director and ICD fellow Robert Parizeau, who served with Roy on the Power Financial board and wrote a letter of support to the ICD for her nomination as a fellow. Roy says effective governance in the public and not-for-profit sectors is often more complicated than governance at private or publicly-traded companies. I am not saying the environment is not complex at publicly-traded companies. But at public organizations, you manage and you govern in an aquarium. Everybody knows what is going on and you need to be very conscious of that complexity. ICD s Quebec chapter, in nominating Roy for the distinction of fellow, wrote: She believes transparency and good governance are vital to any organization s success. Her experience on well-established corporate boards with impeccable and rigorous board practices is allowing her to adapt and introduce those best practices in a notfor-profit board environment. Roy says the fiduciary responsibilities of volunteer directors on not-forprofit boards are not nearly as well understood as they are in the private sector. Volunteer directors with extensive corporate experience can - and do - bring strong governance knowledge and discipline to not-for-profits, she says. However, it s essential that other board members who have valuable perspectives, but less governance knowledge are also equipped with the skills to be effective directors, particularly when the expenditure of public money is involved. This is where Roy shines, leading by example and conducting directors education sessions for both the public At the University of Montreal, she has greatly improved the effectiveness of the board and the collegiality of the decision-making process. and private sectors. She emphasizes the importance of human resources and talent development at all levels of an organization, from the board level to the front line (as she did at the Montreal transit agency and subsequently at Air France.) In 2012, at the Conseil des arts - in conjunction with HEC Montreal - Roy launched a project offering training workshops for the chairs, general managers and artistic directors of cultural organizations. Roy says she advocates for broader diversity on every board she sits on - diversity of point of view, as well as gender and cultural diversity. When she was appointed chancellor and chair of the board at the University of Montreal, the board s only two committees audit and governance had no faculty or student representation. Under her oversight, the board created three more committees real estate, technology and human resources and included faculty and student representatives on all five. There were training sessions for participants so they knew what was expected of them. This opened lines of communication, brought different perspectives to the table, enhanced understanding of others points of view and enriched the board s decision-making process, says Roy. That s not to say everyone always agrees far from it. But the working relationships formed as a result of this governance structure helped the University of Montreal regain an even keel after the student strikes that convulsed the entire province for six months in At the University of Montreal, she has greatly improved the effectiveness of the board and the collegiality of the decision-making process, says Michel Patry, director of HEC Montreal. The University of Montreal board is a challenging one, with a large number of directors representing many diverse stakeholders (management, students, unions, government), wrote Patry, another supporter of her ICD nomination. Louise has demonstrated superior skills in providing for a very open and constructive climate for discussions. She has also demonstrated a commitment to transparency and, in so doing, has created a climate of trust in the board (that has not always been the case in the past), Patry says. Roy firmly believes that differing backgrounds and opinions lead to better decisions, and she encourages boards to be open to greater diversity. I love the work I have done with the arts council of Montreal. I had artists around the table, I had political people from the municipality, I had business people... there was a lot of learning, and extraordinary creativity, Roy says. Virginia Galt spent more than two decades as a business and education reporter at The Globe and Mail. She now covers legal, education and management issues for a number of publications, including University Affairs and the Canadian Bar Association s National magazine. 10

11 Who Will Be Your Next CEO? Succession planning for senior staff needs to be part of an annual discussion DORA KOOP, ICD.D THE LONGEST-SERVING CEO on Wall Street put the issue of succession planning back into the corporate spotlight this summer when he announced that he had throat cancer. Jamie Dimon, who has led JPMorgan Chase since 2005, said his illness is treatable and that he plans to work through it. Nevertheless, stakeholders were shaken by the news. Creating succession plans can be difficult. But a board has a responsibility to ensure that one is in place so that the organization can continue to function without major disruption when the CEO, key executives or board directors leave their posts. This seems straightforward and yet a number of boards that I have sat on had not developed these plans and processes. Best practice says the search for a new CEO should begin immediately after the current CEO is named. Best practice says the search for a new CEO should begin immediately after the current CEO is named. However, the challenge is not the same for every board. For many not-for-profit boards, for example, the task of finding a new CEO is difficult, and the board may be so relieved to have a good person in place that succession planning is not on the agenda. This oversight places an organization at risk. At the very least, even for small organizations, the board must ensure that there is someone internal or external who could fill the role of the CEO on short notice. What should be the CEO s role in choosing his or her successor? Although the board employs the CEO, the sitting CEO must be part of the discussions about succession as they are the ones who know their staff and can give stretch goals to those who may next fill the leadership role. Succession planning should be on the board s annual agenda, as the needs of the organization will change over time and those identified as potential successors may leave the organization. The same processes that are in place for identifying the CEO should also be there for other senior staff. In most companies there is a senior executive, reporting to the board regularly, who ensures there is a succession plan in place for senior positions. I sit on a board where we have just added this regular reporting requirement to the mandate of the Human Resources Committee. The board will now receive annually the assurance that there are succession plans in place for key employees. September/October

12 Succession planning for the board itself can pose its own challenges, especially when it comes to replacing the chair. If there are no terms, it is difficult for board members to ask the chair to resign. They may be friends, their appointments may have come through the chair, or they may have become comfortable working with the chair. In these cases, the role of the chair of the governance committee can be crucial. This is the individual who can initiate the discussion about the role of the board chair as it relates to good governance and remove some of the personal aspects of the conversation. Replacing the directors on the board has received a fair amount of press lately, especially around the issue of diversity. The board should seek to ensure that its members represent an appropriate balance between directors with experience and knowledge of the organization and directors with specialist expertise or fresh perspective. s should also be considered on the additional qualities they possess, namely behavioral competencies, as these qualities will influence the relationships around the boardroom table. In summary, to fulfill its duties and responsibilities, the board must ensure there are plans in place to replace the CEO and key individuals within the organization. The plans must be in place as soon as someone is hired into one of the positions and the plans must be reviewed on an annual basis. And it is easier to have conversations about succession on the board if they are mandated to one of the board committees, in most cases the corporate governance committee. Dora Koop, ICD.D, is the of the Corporate Governance and Human Resources Committee of the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority. She serves as of the Nominations Committee of Ten Thousand Villages. In addition to running global leadership programs, Ms. Koop also teaches and consults on governance matters. We help clients get executive compensation right. Setting and managing executive pay has never been more complex. Towers Watson works with boards of directors, compensation committees and management to help organizations get executive pay right. Towers Watson. A global company with a singular focus on our clients. Benefits Risk and Financial Services Talent and Rewards Exchange Solutions towerswatson.com 12

13 POLICY UPDATE Shaping Policy with the Right Ideas and the Clearest Voice MATTHEW FORTIER THE RAPID PACE OF CHANGE IN THE Canadian and global business environments warrants greater policy input from strategic and long-term organizational leaders. As the voice of directors in Canada, the ICD is positioned to provide this insight to government officials and regulators and to help shape our governance and capital markets landscapes. The coming year provides significant opportunities for the ICD to contribute to effective policy making in Canada and internationally. To ensure our positions advance the agenda, we have developed an efficient and inclusive policy development process to leverage all of our thought leadership assets, including our chapter executives and our members. In recent months, we have been working with governments and regulators to help them to better understand the role of the ICD and to develop productive relationships with key decision makers. Already in 2014, we have taken strong and innovative positions on a number of critical governance issues and have consulted with our membership and subject matter experts through task forces, surveys and chapter executives. In March, the ICD responded to Industry Canada regarding its review of the Canada Business Corporations Act. We argued that Canada must maintain a strong corporate governance framework but that legislative changes should be made with the greatest caution and should not interfere with, or duplicate, the mandates and rules of provincial regulators, stock exchanges and other legislative bodies. In April, we submitted comments to the Ontario Securities Commission in response to its proposed amendments to disclosure practices with regards to gender diversity. We agreed with the comply or explain approach taken by the regulator and offered guidance and policy approaches regarding the concepts of targets and term limits. Most recently, the ICD responded to the Canadian Securities Administrators proposed guidance to proxy advisory firms. We recommended effective policies to address real and perceived conflicts of interest, the lack of training and standards within that industry and the problematic nature of communications between issuers and proxy advisory firms. We have also been working with our international counterparts to develop best global practices, as well as with partners, such as CPA Canada and the Canadian Public Accountability Board, to build instruments for directors. These include guidance and assessment tools to help audit committees enhance their oversight of the external auditor. In the coming months, the ICD will continue to be a proactive advocate on behalf of Canada s directors, guided by the knowledge that successfully influencing the debate will depend on the quality of our opinions, the consistency of our voice and the depth of our relationships. Matthew Fortier is Vice President, Policy at the Institute of Corporate s. September/October

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