Actes des rencontres RIRL 2012 Proceedings

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1 Aces des recores RIRL 0 Proceedgs Geso des achas Supply maageme Jeud 6 aoû 0h00 à h00 A [Hélèe-Desmaras] Glles Paché 00 Key-par based lead me maageme a global supply cha JXg Jerry Xao Helx Medcal, Carpera Ued Saes XaoPg Yag Cocorda Uversy Caada Ak A. Bulgak Cocorda Uversy Caada 0 Susaable procureme emergg markes sourcg Frak Sraube Berl Uversy o echology Germay Oueld Ouyeder Berl Uversy o echology Germay 073 Équlbrer la relao ere commadares e oursseurs par l'oreao marché : le cas des Jeux olympques Mare-Per Héber HEC Moréal Caada Jea Nolle HEC Moréal Caada Laurece Beauleu HEC Moréal Caada 5 La geso des rsques lés au processus d approvsoeme : Eude exploraore des ereprses mporarces d'egras de la régo Souss Massa Darâa Jamal Elbaz Uversé Ib Zohr Maroc Lhoussae Ouabouch Uversé Ib Zohr Maroc

2 Key-par based lead me maageme a global supply cha JXg Jerry Xao Helx Medcal, Carpera, Calora, USA XaoPg Yag Cocorda Uversy, Moreal, Quebec, Caada AKIF A. Bulgak Cocorda Uversy, Moreal, Quebec, Caada Absrac he objecve o hs paper s o explore a robus purchase opmzao or compaes hch s appled a Make-o-Order produco sysem ad a global supply cha. Problems due o he early arrval o pars domae he oal acal losses, ad he lae arrval o pars ca resul produco delays ad a cusomer delvery pealy. I hs paper, a e mehod, ermed Key-Par Based Lead me Maageme KPBLM, s proposed. I s prove ha KPBLM ca coveely develop a opmal purchase schedule hch s robus o he varaos rom ay pus compared h he curre backard mehod. Key ords: Key-Par, Lead me Maageme, Global Supply Cha, Make-o-Order 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

3 : INRODUCION More ad more compaes are becomg a par o a global supply cha eork as a resul o he curre red oard globalzao. Oe o he major challeges a compay aces a global supply cha eork s ece maageme o he lead me ad hadlg s varably. Pars arrvg early crease produc cos hle pars arrvg lae ca resul delayed produc delvery ad hereore cusomer peales A commo ay o maage lead me s he backard mehod: sarg rom he al produc deadle ad usg he lead me or each par o calculae s order dae. he objecve o hs paper s o vesgae a ovel lead me maageme mehod, ermed Key-Par Based Lead me Maageme KPBLM, ha ca eecvely geerae he order me o each par, mmzg boh he holdg coss ad he acal losses rom a cusomer pealy. Compared h he xed-lead-me assumpo Mauacurg Resource Plag seres, hs mehod assumes ha each purchased par s lead me has a here varably ha relecs he shg realy o he suao. he mehod ca creae a relavely sable schedule o plaed order releases or each par by dampeg he sysem volaly. I addo, ca reduce he eed or repeve schedule adjusmes he orkloads o he projec plaers..: Lead me Maageme he Global Supply Cha Lee e al. 997 have demosraed ha he bullhp eec s posvely relaed o lead me. he acual magude ad varace o he lead me a he closer odes are loer ha he magude ad varace o he lead me a he urher odes. Moreover, as a supply cha exeds o a global level, he bullhp eec becomes more ad more obvous. Hopp ad Spearma 996 compled a se o he mahemacal prcples deermg lead me based o queug heory called Facory Physcs. Sur 994 & 998 smulaeously developed a mauacurg sraegy called Quck Respose Mauacurg ha addressed mplemeao o lead me reduco prcples mauacurg evromes. Frohlch ad Wesbrook 00 suggesed jus--me JI delvery reque, small los h a reduco o buer veores, reduco o he suppler base, evaluag supplers based o qualy ad delvery perormace, esablshg log-erm coracs h supplers, elmao o paperork, coordaed 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

4 plag, ad mproved logscs commucao. revlle e al. 004 proposed a rameork or prorzg lead me reduco a demad cha mproveme projec, usg a ypology o demad chas o dey ad recommed rajecores o acheve desrable levels o marke medao perormace..: Lead me Maageme Make-o-Order Produco Salk ad Hou 990 made a sascal survey shog ha he rue value-added me s ypcally oly % o he oal me he ere supply cha procedure. Amog hose o-value added mes, 54% o me asage s due o ag. Salk provded some maageral echques o reduce he lead me ad o mprove perormace. Hedry ad Kgsma 993 cosdered our ma eaures o produco schedulg: egrao beee he markeg ad produco deparmes he deermg order delvery daes; pu/oupu corol so ha pu s corolled erms o orders acceped or released hle oupu s corolled erms o he processg capacy o be avalable uure perods; 3 lead me maageme; ad 4 herarchcal produco plag. hs paper looks deal a ho lead me ca be maaged ad ho pu/oupu corol s mplemeed. Luhala 994 assered ha me volved mauacurg ad assembly processes s ypcally oly oe-hrd o he oal me Make-o-Order produco. A bg poro o he me he remag o-hrds s spe o-value added acves such as order processg, rasporao, sallao, ad especally ag or pars. Jahukae e al. 999 explored ays o reducg he lead me rom supplers. : KEY-PAR BASED LEAD IME MANAGEMEN.: Prelmares A e cocep proposed hs paper, ermed key-par, has bee adoped rom he area o uel egeerg ad appled o he area o lead me maageme. I cvl egeerg, Goodma ad Sh 985 have proposed a key-block heory ha had already bee used o aalyze reorceme processes uel egeerg. Oce a uel seco as excavaed by he exploso mehod, he looseed soe layers ould be 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 3

5 ormed aroud he opeg o maa sablzao. I hs emporary srucure, here s a mpora block called he key block, hch esures he saey o he hole srucure. A sasacory reorceme process should sar rom he key block ad he exed o he res o he locao. Ulmaely, ha process yelds a sasacory soluo he cosruco, ad produces sae, ecoomcal, ad rapd resuls. Oe ca observe ha here s a logcal smlary beee he reorceme procedures uel egeerg ad he purchase schedules lead me maageme rom a operaos research vepo. I hs paper, he key par s deed as a par o specal sgcace: he purchase polcy s based o he lead me o he key par, he he oal acal cos s reduced o a approxmae mmum value. Whle recevg orders rom cusomers, a Make-o-Order compay purchases all pars rom a global supply cha eork. he oal acal loss s esmaed by deermg he sum o he holdg coss a he arehouse ad ay cusomer pealy resulg rom a overdue delvery. he oal acal loss s mmzed oher pars are requred o arrve a he arehouse a he same dae as he key par..: Produc Srucure Demosrao As basc elemes produc composo, pars are deed as desged objecs ha have o assembly operaos ul hey arrve a he al assembly le Pol, 00. I he prese paper, all pars are cosdered o be purchased rom a global supply cha eork ad are he assembled o al producs by he mauacurg sysems. o smply he problem, a assembly s a seres o pars pu ogeher a produc realzao process, ad e are assumg here here are o subassembles he compay s produco. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 4

6 Loer Level Cos = C C C C Par Par Par Par Iveory o Had: Quay Key Par k Par Produco Dae Lead me = L L L L k Days Hgh Level A Fshed Produc k max k a b Fgure : a Produc Srucure, b Char o Key-Par Cocep he geeral produc srucure Fgure a cosss o pars, coss ad lead mes descrbed as ollos: Pars { Par, Par,.., Par,.. Par } Coss { Cos, Cos,.., Cos,.. Cos} Lead me { L, L,.., L,.. L} KPBLM ca be arculaed as ollos: suppose ha e choose he lead me o par k o gude he arrvals o all pars. hose pars hose lead mes are less ha ha o par k are requred o arrve smulaeously as sho Fgure b. A he mome o her arrval, he value o he oal acal loss s ermed he Par K -Based Facal Loss. As e ko, by subsug par k rom par o par, e ca oba a se o he acal losses or each par ad he deerme he key par h he se ha has a mmum o acal loss assocaed h..3: Assumpos I he developme ad mplemeao o he KPBLM sysem, he ollog assumpos have bee made: For each par, he values o he par coss ad he par lead mes are arbrary. he produco assembly cao be sared ul all pars have arrved. 3 he assemblg me ad shppg me o cusomers are gored. 4 he lead me olerace s zero days. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 5

7 5 Par coss C are calculaed o par prces P. Par cos reers o he oal spe or oe kd o par ad s obaed byc s P, here s deoes he umbers o oe kd o par a al produc. 6 he uco o holdg cos ad he uco o he cusomer pealy x are regressed rom he hsory daa. x 7 he acal loss s he sum o he holdg coss h he arehouse ad he cusomer pealy rom a overdue delvery..4: Mahemacal Model I order o smply he model, oly o losses have bee cosdered o compose he oal acal loss; oe s he holdg cos caused by he dere par arrvals a he arehouse, aoher s he cusomer pealy caused by a overdue delvery. he mahemacal model he ollog s used o deerme a sasacory praccal soluo ha accepably approxmaes he mmal oal acal loss. oal Facal loss = Holdg Cos + Cusomer Pealy Objecve Fuco: k h [ Where: M Loss, h, P e,, C = k C + C ]+[ k ] Pe k k k h : Holdg cos. hs reers o he moey spe o keep ad o maa a sock o goods sorage calculaed accordg o he u o he holdg cos. I s desgaed as dollars per day. C : Par cos. Calculao usgc s P, here P s he par prce, s deoes he umbers o par he al produc. : Lead me o par 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 6

8 k : Lead me o dummy key par k max : he greaes lead me amog all he pars : he ag me or par a he arehouse. = max k : he ag me or he dummy key par a he arehouse. k = max k k : he poso o he dummy key par. I s locaed a creased sequece. h k he par blls o he k : he uco o he probably o he early delvery me or he par. I he case here he lead me o par s smaller ha he lead me o he dummy key par k, he arrval dae o he par should be alged o ha o he dummy key par k. : he uco o he probably o he early delvery me or he par. I he case here he lead me o he par s equal o or greaer ha he lead me o he dummy key par, hose pars arrve a he arehouse accordg o her o schedules. k : he uco o he probably o delay me or compleo o assembly o he al produc corbued by he varao rom he par. I he case here he lead me o he par s smaller ha he lead me o he dummy key par k, he arrval dae o he par should be alged o ha o he dummy key par k. : he uco o he probably o he delay me or al producs corbued by he varao rom he par. I he case here he lead me o he par s equal o or greaer ha he lead me o he dummy key par, hose pars arrve a he arehouse accordg o her o schedules. P e : Cusomer pealy or each delay day..5: Idecao o he Key Par he locao o he key par ca also be demosraed hrough a char o he oal acal loss per each dvdual dummy key par. Suppose ha e have already obaed a se o he oal acal losses by subsug each par as he dummy key par Formula. I 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 7

9 cosrucg he char, a horzoal coordae s chose o represe he locao o he dummy key par, ad a vercal coordae s chose o deoe he oal acal loss o ha dummy key par. Ay po x, y he char shos ha he he dummy key par s locaed a par x, he oal acal loss ca be deermed as y. Fgure llusraes hs by shog he locao o he rue key par as a sold po. Oe excepo s ha, aer he calculao, more ha oe par has bee deed as he key par, he he preerred key par s seleced lgh o he specc suao o he compay. For example, labor-esve compaes volved mass produco, because he value o he al produc s relavely lo, he compaes are more cocered abou he cusomer pealy caused by he par lead me ha abou he loss caused by he par holdg cos. Hece, he preerred key par s chose erms o he par h he shores lead me. Hoever, capal-esve compaes, sce he pars are relavely expesve, hose compaes are more cocered abou he holdg cos. Hece, he choce o he preerred key par s based o he par h he hghes cos. oal Iveory Losses Char o Objecve Fuco Key Par Locao Locaos o Dummy Key Par Fgure : Idecao o he Locao o he Key Par.6: A Marx Calculao o Fd he Key Par I order o apply KPBLM coveely he real orld, s ecessary o deerme he key par by usg a praccal mehodology based o marx calculao. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 8

10 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 9 Frsly, rere Formula o Formula : Loss k = h [ k k C + k C ]+ k e k k P ] [ Moreover, Formula s expaded o a marx expresso Formula 3:. Loss Loss Loss Loss = h C C C C. + P e h C C C C. = h C C C C. + e P....

11 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 0 Z p C Z h e 3 Where: p e h, : Cosa parameers Z... Z C C C C C.. As e ca see, he praccal mehodology reas he same accuracy as ha o KPBLM because s derved rom he orgal ormula. 3: AN ILLUSRAIVE CASE SUDY A Moreal-based eerprse, here aer reerred o as he compay, produces ceral vacuum cleaers uder Make-o-Order produco a global supply cha eork. he compay s a deal example here all he ecessary assumpos apply ad he KPBLM mehodology developed ca hereore be demosraed. For he Model HXX, a compleed produc s assembled rom 73 dvdual pars rom he compay s 49 par umbers. Follog he locaos o he supplers, he dsaces he

12 Nodes global supply cha eork are dvded o he ollog caegores: Europe, Cha, he USA, he Provce o Oaro, he Provce o Quebec, ad he cy o Moreal. he varably o he global supply cha s measured by he coece o varao: 7.89 CV = he ececy o he global supply cha s descrbed by he rao or he rage o he maxmum lead me o he mmum lead me or pars delvery. For example, ve o he case sudy, he maxmum legh o he lead me or a moor par s 90 days ad he mmum legh o he lead me or a shroud par s day. he ececy o he global lead me s descrbed by a rao o 90/ ad a rage o 89 days as sho Fgure 3. Varably Lead mes shroudcompay ScksMoreal Paper bagquebec 3 4 CoverOaro 7 Lead mes Shroud ma.usa 4 Elec. BoardCha 45 MoorEurope Lead mes: Days Fgure 3: Ececy o he Global Supply Cha I order o smply he queso our case sudy, le us suppose ha he compay seds all purchase orders o supplers mmedaely he receves cusomer orders. he sequece o par arrvals s sho Fgure 4 ad explaed as ollos: 53 pars he Moreal caegory ad he Quebec caegory arrve rs beee he s day ad he 7 h day; 8 pars he Oaro caegory ge o he arehouse beee he 7 h day ad he 0 h day; 5 pars he USA caegory come o he arehouse beee he 0 h day ad he 5 h day; 4 pars he Cha caegory arrve a he arehouse beee he 40 h day ad he 50 h day; ad 3 pars he Europe caegory ge o he arehouse beee he 70 h day 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

13 ad he 90 h day. Oce all he pre-ordered pars are gahered a he arehouse, hey are raserred o he produco deparme or assembly. Iveory o had: Quay 53 Pars Moreal, Quebec 8 Pars Oaro 5 Pars USA 4 Pars Cha 3 Pars Europe me: days Wag Perods Produco perods gure 4: Char o he Schedule o Par Arrvals he Case Sudy F I hs case sudy, KPBLM cosss o he cusomer pealy uco, he probable me delay uco, he holdg cos uco, ad he objecve uco. hese ucos are developed as ollos: 3.: Cusomer Pealy Fuco Cusomers mpose charges o ay compay ha als o comply h o-me delvery. he amou o he cusomer pealy s depede o boh he sale prce o he al producs ad he durao o delays ulllg he cusomer order. Suppose ha he amou o he cusomer pealy s charged as x-housadhs o he sale prce or each day o delay as sho Formula 4: P e = Psale x 000 delay 4 I hs case sudy, assume ha he sale prce o he ceral vacuum cleaer s $500 ad x equals o. So he uco o he cusomer pealy uco ca be speced as ollos: P e = 500 delay =.5 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

14 Where deoes he probably o he me delay or he al produc corbued by he varao rom dvdual par dealed as ollos: 3.: me Delay Fuco me delay uco cosss as ollos: : he lead me o par. he par lead me posvely aecs he probably o he al produc delays. : he ag me o par. hs reers o ho log par as a he arehouse. he par ag me egavely aecs he probably o he al produc delays. : hs reers o hose cases hch he lead me o par s greaer ha he lead me o he dummy key par. Par arrves a he arehouse ad mpacs o he delay me o he al produc. Accordg o he bullhp eec, he loger he lead me o par, he loger he ere supply cha eork max, ad he greaer he probably o he delay me o he al producs. So, he me delay uco o he al producs caused by he varao o he dvdual par delay s cosruced as ollos: = e Where: = max 3.3: Smulao o he Cusomer Pealy Fuco Based o he hsory daa, he uco o he probably o he delay me s speced as he expoeal dsrbuo as ollos Formula 7. P e = 0.5 j = 45. e For he specc corol board par, he cusomer pealy uco s demosraed Fgure 5 by meas o Formula 7: x 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 3

15 Probably Cusomer Pealy: Dollars.6 Par: Corol Boards Wag me Warehouse: Days Fgure 5: Char o Cusomer Pealy vs. Wag me o he Corol Board Par 3.4: Holdg Coss a he Warehouse Due o loer prces ad small szes o pars, he uco o he probably o he early delvery me s smpled as he cosa. he value o each xed lead me o x dvdual pars s acqured rom he vedor s promsed delvery dae he purchase order. Suppose ha here s a omal eres rae o 0% per year, e ca have a holdg coss expresso as ollos: h = 0% 365 =$ : he Objecve Fuco /Day All parameers ad sub-ucos such as he cusomer pealy P e, holdg coss h, ad he me delay uco j are dealed he precedg paragraphs. he geeral objecve uco s speced Formula 8: M Loss, h, P e,, k C = [ C max k + C max ] k k max k max [ e + e ] k C ad : he daa o coss ad lead mes o all pars. For a quaave aalyss, a program based o Malab s developed. Fally, smulao resuls are ploed Fgure 6 a. I regard o he coordaes o X, Y, X represes 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 4

16 he locao o he dummy key par, ad Y represes he oal acal loss dollars correspodg o X. As e ca see, he smulao resuls coss o hree phases he prese case sudy. hose phases are ermed he la phase, he doard phase, ad he abrup upard phase. A dealed aalyss s as ollos: 3.5.: Fla Phase Isde he rs 40 pos, he curve o he oal acal loss looks la. her values are approxmaely equal o $8.93. hs pheomeo s explaed by recogzg ha he seleced dummy key par has a smaller lead me, he pars ll arrve a he arehouse advace ad lead o less possbly o cusomer pealy. Fally, he value o he oal acal loss s uder 0 dollars. 3.5.: Doard Phase Beee he 40 h o 49 h pos, he curve goes doard, ad he value o he mmum loss equals $6.58. hs pheomeo s explaed by recogzg ha sce he dummy key par has a greaer lead me, he holdg cos s reduced dramacally hle he possbly o he cusomer pealy sll remas a a lo level. he rue key par s locaed hs phase : Abrup Phase he curve goes upard sharply hs phase. hs pheomeo s explaed by recogzg ha as he delvery dae o he dummy key par s close o he delvery deadle o he cusomer, he holdg cos remas a he boom le, bu he probably o overdue delvery ad a cusomer pealy s cosderable. Ulmaely, he oal acal loss reaches $30.5 or each al produc. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 5

17 he Loss per Produc Dollar Iveory o Had: Quay he Number o he Pars he Produc a Key par locao 53 Iems Moreal, Quebec 3 Iems Europe 4 Iems Cha 8 Iems Oaro 5 Iems USA k Key Par Produco Po Days Fgure 6: a Char o he oal Facal Loss vs. Dummy Key Pars, b Ne Purchasg Schedules o KPBLM k b k Based o a aalyss o Fgure 6 a, e ko ha he value o he mmum oal acal loss s locaed a he 49 h po. So, he 49 h par s he rue key par he prese case sudy. he mmum acal loss occurs all pars excep he 50 h par he moor par are requred o arrve a he arehouse a he same dae as he 49 h par. Oce orders are receved rom cusomers, he rs sep s o deerme he locao o he key par based o our lead me maageme; he secod sep s o deerme he dvdual par purchase order ha desgaes he arrval dae. I hs case sudy, he moor pars arrve a he arehouse o he 90 h day ad all o he oher pars arrve a he arehouse exacly o he 70 h day as sho Fgure 6 b. he backard mehod s he doma meas o deal h ssues lead me maageme oday. From he perspecve o KPBLM, he backard mehod smply desgaes he key par by he loges lead me. Fgure 6 a dcaes he resul o applyg he backard mehod: s acal loss ould be he value a he 50 h po, a maxmum acal loss o $30.5 h he curve, resulg rom a cosderable cusomer pealy. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 6

18 4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 4.: Dscusso o he Opmal Soluo ad he Sasacory Soluo Based o he case sudy preseed, e ca make comparsos beee opmal soluos ad sasacory soluos lead me maageme. I hs coex, a opmal soluo reers o he mmum oal acal loss deed by he operaos research approach. he sasacory soluo reers o he alerave ou o hose derved rom KPBLM ha a compay selecs as preerable h s o geeral maageral operao. A opmal soluo ca be derved rom me-based lead me maageme, here he opmal purchasg schedules are obaed by deermg a specc dae he he correspodg oal acal loss equals he mmum value. he objecve uco o he opmal soluo s cosruced Formula 9 ad he correspodg purchase polcy sho Fgure 7: M Loss, h, P e,, C = k h [ C k max + C ]+ max [ k ] Pe 9 k k k he objecve uco o he sasacory soluo Formula s smlar o ha o he opmal soluo Formula 9. he oly derece s he paer o he cyclc varable, hch rages rom o sde o he par umbers he sasacory soluo ad hch rages rom o max sde o he leghs o he lead me he opmal soluo. Opmal Soluo Iveory o Had: Quay 53 Iems Moreal, Quebec 8 Iems Oaro K-h Day Par Produco Dae 3 Iem Europe 5 Iems USA 4 Iems Cha k Days k max k Fgure 7: Arrval Schedules or he Opmal Soluo 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 7

19 oal Iveory Losses per Produc: Dollars Aer rug he smulao programs he case sudy, a char comparg he opmal soluo ad he sasacory soluo s depced Fgure 8: 35 Opmal Soluo / Sased Soluo Sasyg Soluo Opmal Soluo Days Fgure 8: Comparso o he Opmal Soluo vs. he Sasacory Soluo he ollog cosderaos apply o Fgure 8: he horzoal axs s days. he char o KPBLM s a poro char o he opmal soluo. 3 he sasacory soluo developed by KPBLM s locaed a he 49 h par h a lead me o 70 days. Is oal acal loss equals $6.58; he opmal soluo s locaed a he 8 s day ad s oal acal loss equals $ I par lead mes are couous, he sasacory soluo mus deely cocde h he opmal soluo; he par lead mes are dscouous, s o ecessary or he o soluos o cocde. 4.: Coclusos KPBLM s easy o pu o pracce eve deermes oly he sasacory soluo. he advaages o KPBLM are lsed as ollos: 4..: Vsual hkg Key-Par Based Lead me Maageme harmozes ell h huma hkg. Vsual hkg helps us o see he bg pcure, capure complex deas quckly ad easly, ad 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 8

20 dey relaoshps beee deas ad processes Arhem, 004. For maagers ad egeers, he sasacory soluo based o he key par cocep s much more ece ha he opmal soluo. 4..: Robusess o Varao he opmal soluo s very sesve o he varao o supply chas ad dvdual pars. I ay acor s chaged, he opmal soluo eeds o be recalculaed. Hoever, he key par mehod s robus o varao heher he varao comes rom he cusomer pealy, he holdg cos, he par cos, or he par lead me Xao, 007. Key-Par Based Lead me Maageme has bee esablshed sysemacally alhough brely. I sll eeds o be explored some drecos. More complex produc srucures volvg subassembly should be cosdered o buld he KPBLM ree ad classc mahemacal heory should be roduced o prove he suce ad ecessary codos o he exsece ad he robusess o he key par. REFERENCES: o Arhem, R. 004, Vsual hkg, Berkeley: Uversy o Calora Press, Berkeley, CA, USA. o Frohlch, M.., ad Wesbrook, R. 00, Demad cha maageme mauacurg ad servces: eb-based egrao, drvers, ad perormace. Joural o Operaos Maageme, Vol. 0, Issue 6, pp o Goodma, R. E., ad Sh, G. H. 985, Block heory ad Is Applcao o Rock Egeerg, Prece-Hall, Ne Jersey, USA. o Jahukae, J., ad Lah, M. 999, Ece purchasg Make-o-Order supply chas sraeges or ovaos ad lea supply, Ieraoal Joural o Produco Ecoomcs, Vol. 59, pp.03-. o Hopp, W. J., ad Spearma, M. L. 996, Facory Physcs, McGra-Hll, Boso, USA. o Hedry, L. C., ad Kgsma, B. G. 993, Cusomer equry maageme: Par o a herarchcal sysem o corol lead mes Make-o-Order compaes, Joural o he Operaoal Research Socey, Vol. 44, pp es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 9

21 o Lee, H. L., Padmaabba, V., ad Whag, S. 997, Iormao dsoro a supply cha: he bullhp eec, Maageme Scece, pp o Luhala, M., Klpe, E., ad Ala P. 994, LOGI maagg Make-o-Order supply chas. Repor No. 53/EA, Helsk Uversy o echology, Helsk, Flad. o Orlcky, J. 975, Maeral requremes plag: he e ay o le produco ad veory maageme, McGra-Hll, Ne York, USA. o Pol C. 00, Desg or mauacurg: a srucured approach, Buerorh- Heema, Wobur, MA, USA. o Rupp,. M., ad Rsc, M. 000, Fe plag or supply chas semcoducor mauacure, Joural o Maerals Processg echology, Vol. 07, pp o Schorr, J. E. 998, Purchasg he s ceury: a gude o sae-o-he ar echques ad sraeges, Wley, Ne York, USA. o Soderborg, N. R. 006, Desg or sx sgma produc developme a Ford Moor a case sudy o robus exhaus maold desg, Ieraoal Joural o Produc Developme, pp o Salk, G., Hou,. 990, Compeg agas me ho me-based compeo s reshapg global markes, Free Press, Ne York, USA. o Sur, R. 994, Commo mscocepos ad bluders mplemeg quck respose mauacurg, Proceedgs o he SME Auoac 94 Coerece, Dero, MI, USA. o Sur R. 998, Quck respose mauacurg, Producvy Press, Porlad, OR, USA. o revlle, S., Shapro, R. D., ad Hamer, A. P. 004, From supply cha o demad cha: he role o lead me reduco mprovg demad cha perormace, Joural o Operaos Maageme, Vol., pp o Xao, J.X. 007, Key-par based lead me maageme or he Make-o-Order produco sysem a global supply cha eork, Maser s hess, Cocorda Uversy, Moreal, Caada. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 0

22 Susaable procureme emergg markes sourcg Sraube, Frak Head o Logscs Deparme, Berl Uversy o echology, Germay Ouyeder, Oueld Research Assocae, Logscs Deparme, Berl Uversy o echology, Germay Absrac Procureme compaes ha are sourcg emergg markes realze grea opporues ad compeve advaages ad bee rom he specc compeeces o local rms. Hoever, procureme compaes ace challeges ad rsks emergg markes. hs research paper s based o a survey ad aalyses ho op Perormer compaes acheve success her arge emergg markes ad accomplsh a excelle perormace hrough sraegc decsos ad measures relaed o ovave suppler maageme as ell as he mplemeao o susaable procureme. op Perormer compaes successul sourcg s gog o be dscussed h regard o he resource depedecy heory. Key ords: Emergg markes, eraoal procureme, resource depedecy heory, suppler maageme, susaable procureme 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

23 Purpose he mporace o eraoal procureme emergg markes s couously creasg Sraube e al., 007. Due o he srog ecoomc developme o emergg markes, eraoal compaes are buyg producs o supply her global produco eorks, o ulll her local ad regoal eeds as ell as hey are more ad more cooperag ovao ad logscs h her supplers. Emergg markes are characerzed by a above-average groh gross domesc produc ad a creasg level o dusralzao Hosksso e al., 000. hereore compaes ha are sourcg emergg markes realze grea opporues ad compeve advaages ad hey bee rom he specc compeeces o local rms or her procureme acves Srezel, 005. Hoever, procureme compaes ace challeges ad rsks emergg markes. I s mpora or successul compaes o develop approprae sourcg ad logscs sraeges order o overcome hese challeges Akamp & Müller, 0. Bu oadays cos savg poeals emergg markes are o he oly leverage o he compay s compeve advaage. Susaable procureme as a e opc ecompassg ecoomc, evromeal ad socal aspecs s creasg mporace due o s mpac o successul emergg markes sourcg Dyllck & Hockers, 00; Rema, 009. I s val ha procureme maagers corporae susaably her procureme processes because o he grog mporace o clmae chage, lmed resources, he sesvy ad vglace o all sakeholders such as NGO as ell as he poeal o cos advaages Maga, 00; Porer & va der Lde, 995. hs research paper s based o a survey hch compares o groups o respodes. I aalyses ho op Perormer compaes compared o he Overall surveyed compaes acheve success her arge emergg markes ad accomplsh a excelle perormace hrough sraegc decsos ad measures relaed o he suppler maageme as ell as he mplemeao o susaable procureme. Cosderg he resource depedecy heory hs research vesgaes ho procureme compaes should search or supplers h regards o collaborao ad susaably order o be successul he log-erm perspecve. Sce hs research s based o he resuls o a emergg marke survey he ollog quesos are gog o be asered: 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

24 . Wha are he objecves ad challeges o procureme compaes emergg markes?. Whch suppler maageme sraeges ca be deed as beg used by procureme compaes? 3. Wha s he curre saus o susaable procureme emergg markes? 4. o ha exe ca he resource depedecy heory expla he procureme compaes success? 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 3

25 Leraure reve I leraure researchers suded eraoal procureme exesvely such as Spekma e al., 99; Brou & Face, 993; Herbg & O Hara, 996; Nellore e al., 00; Nassmbe & Saror, 007, Javalg e al. 009, Malz e al. 0 order o deerme he ma moves ad challeges regard o develop a procureme ad sourcg base eraoal evromes ad emergg markes. Emergg markes such as Cha ad Ida are coures a raso phase ad are characerzed by lo-come ad rapd-groh. hese coures pursue a ecoomc lberalzao as leverage o her ecoomc developme Hosksso e al Arold ad Quelch 998 use hree crera order o descrbe hese markes: he rs crero s he absolue level o ecoomc developme dcaed by he average GDP per capa. Secodly, he GDP groh rae speces he relave pace o ecoomc developme. Ad he hrd crero s relaed o he sysem o marke goverace cossg o he raso rom a commad ecoomy o ecoomc lberalzao ad he adopo o reemarke sysems Arold & Quelch, 998. Logscs ad he supply cha maageme SCM are emergg as he crcal success acors or compaes operag he eraoal area, as creasg complexy arses rom a der rage o producs, echologcal developme, marke groh ad he umber o supply cha acors Brahae & Chrsopher, 99. Cocerg hose challeges perormace evaluao o supplers seleco ad developme phase ll aclae procureme compaes o acheve her objecves ad say compeve Chag, 005. Suppler seleco ad moorg ecompass he aalyss o a se o supplers based o adequae crera Geovese e al., 00. hese crera deerme a eecve seleco process Lemke e al., 000. he objecve o suppler seleco s he reduco o rsks a buyer-suppler-relaoshp ad he choce o mos suable suppler ho s able o ulll he procureme compay s requremes Ndubs e al., 005. Krause ad Ellram 997 sae ha rus ad relace o procureme compaes o her supplers o delver echologcally advaced, deec-ree producs, a mely, cos- 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 4

26 eecve maer ecessaes suppler developme acves. he auhors dee suppler developme as ay eor o a buyg rm h s supplers o crease he perormace ad/or capables o he suppler ad mee he buyg rm s shor- ad/or log-erm supply eeds Krause & Ellram, 997. Based o he Brudlad Repor susaable developme s deed as developme ha mees he eeds o he prese hou compromsg he ably o uure geeraos o mee her o eeds WCED, 987. A sudy coduced by Harood ad Humby 008 shos ha 0% o he compaes veed susaably ssues as her larges supply cha rsk. Furhermore 5% o he surveyed compaes requred her supplers o coorm o socal ad ecologcal sadards order o mgae supply cha rsks Foersl e al. 00. Oe o he ma reasos hy compaes are cocered abou rsks s due o her publc repuao ad her marke share. ha meas hey ake he resposbly o her supplers ro o he publc opo. hereore egrag susaably aspecs e.g. evromeal ad socal aspecs supply process requres he deermao o e suppler seleco ad evaluao crera Kopl e al Recely researchers aalyse ho orgazaos ca procure producs ad servces a susaable ay. Walker e al. 009 dee susaable procureme as he pursu o susaable developme objecves hrough he purchasg ad supply process corporag socal, evromeal ad ecoomc aspecs. Kopl e al. 007 explaed he ma reds aecg he relaoshp beee susaably ad supply maageme as he creasg sraegc mporace o supply maageme ad he aareess o he coeco beee supply decsos ad a rm s evromeal ad socal perormace. Procureme compaes operag emergg markes ace specal challeges due o he raso o hese coures, especally erms o evromeal ad socal ssues. As a resul, cludg susaably procureme ad supply maageme processes o eraoal procureme compaes eables hem o reduce he evromeal harms ad socal problems. A same me leverages he ecoomc aspecs o he compaes alog he ere supply cha. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 5

27 heory he dgs regard o op Perormer compaes are gog o be compared h he sghs o he resource depedecy heory RD. hs heory as prevously derved rom socology ad polcal scece ad s par o he orgazao heory Carer ad Rogers, 008. he ma represeaves o he resource depedecy heory h regard o ecoomcs are Peer ad Salack, ho developed hs heory due o he backgroud o curre marke alures. he eo as o prese a approach o udersad he kd o erorgazaoal relaos ad o gve a alerave po o ve o exsg ecoomc heores Peer e al., 003. Is coes expla orgazaoal behavor cocerg crcal resources hch lead o relaoshps o depedece o compay evrome. he heory s ma objecve s o decrease uceraes relaoshps o a compay ad exeral sakeholders by usg argeed sraeges Bruer, 009. For example, compaes he supply cha should ork ogeher o acheve hgher perormace he log erm raher ha shor-erm pro advaages. I case o shorage o resources mgh be ecessary o esablsh parershps Sarks e al., 0. he RD mgh be appled amog oher hgs o supply cha maageme ad he secor o susaably. Mehodology hs research s based o a survey hch has bee addressed o mulaoal compaes rom small-, medum-szed eerprses as ell as global players. he research projec s cooperao parers ho are locaed Germay, USA, Brazl, urkey, Russa ad Cha provded coury-specc daabases. Due o he eedback o our Chese ad urksh parers he survey as raslaed rom Eglsh o her coury-specc laguage. A eedback erm o laguage barrers as o oed by oher parers. Fve expers rom dere dusry pracce areas suppored he desg phase o he sudy ad a prees o he quesoare. he quesoare as provded boh as a ole survey ad as a PDF orm. hs lexbly, alloed he quesoare o be compleed dere ays ad laguages, aclaed he compaes parcpao ad eabled he research eam o acheve a acve parcpao. 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 6

28 he survey deals h he ollog hree ma opcs: challeges ad opporues emergg marke sourcg, suppler maageme ad susaable procureme. Survey dgs are gog o be preseed order o gve a overve abou eraoal procureme acves. 33 surveyed procureme compaes rom dere secors are locaed Germay, he USA, Brazl, urkey, Russa ad Cha. Resuls abou successul coceps ad sraeges have bee classed o o dere groups o respodes: Overall compaes hch represe average o oal resposes ad op Perormer compaes. I hs research, op Perormer compaes are deermed by a se o crera: O he oe had, hey are characerzed by her excelle perormace achevg bes cos savgs her emergg markes sourcg. O he oher had, hey are pursug sourcg objecves he area o logscs-relaed coss such as oal coss ad produc qualy, ovave suppler maageme as ell as susaable procureme. As a resul, % o parcpag compaes are deed as op Perormers. he reaso or a o deo o op Perormer compaes s due o he lack o a model hch s all aspecs aalyzed he sudy. For example, he IBM o demad supply cha maury model IBM model s a ool o evaluao cocerg cusomer oreao ad resposveess o supply chas. I preses possbles o classyg ad a poeal ay o compay developme by usg sages hch are buldg up o each oher or reachg o demad supply cha. Our sudy ocuses o he decao o curre reds ad sraeges eraoal procureme emergg markes ad provdes a checkls o recommeded acos hch ca allo a successul marke presece as op perormer uure. Alhough boh sudes se a specal prory o close cooperave, respecvely collaborao cocerg dere levels, here are several commoales ex o cooperao aspecs beee hose approaches. Compared o he IBM Model hs sudy cludes he cosderao o susaable procureme, agas he backgroud o logsc reds lke clmae chage or lmed resources. hs releva aspec s o cosdered by he dere sages o he IBM model. he evaluao o survey s maly based o sascal aalyses, bu a mulvarae daa aalyss such as correspodece aalyss has bee perormed or seleced opcs. For 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 7

29 example, susaable procureme mehods appled h he procureme compaes are aalyzed deal. Fdgs hs seco provdes he key dgs o he sudy based o he research quesos gve he rs seco. he ollog aspecs are dscussed: Wha are he objecves ad challeges o procureme compaes emergg markes? he procureme compaes ma objecve s o oly cos savgs as a success acor emergg markes sourcg, bu hey also cosder urher hgh prory objecves. As he gure oe belo dcaed 75% o procureme compaes are pursug cos savgs as her mos mpora objecve sourcg rom emergg markes. he share o maeral coss aec he oal procureme coss, ad a he same me reducos prce ad coss have a drec luece o he operag pro. Furhermore, 57% o procureme compaes deermed he esablshme o a local supply cha as he secod ma goal. O he oe had, hs s due o her sraegy ha hey ed o bee rom uure marke groh emergg markes. O he oher had, hey reduce her eors h local-coe regulaos. Sce he relevace o susaably busess operaos s creasg, 49% o he parcpas are pursug he mplemeao o a susaable procureme. I Fgure comparso : Objecves o o overall emergg respodes, marke sourcg cos savgs are dcaed by 83% o op Perormers as he mos mpora objecve. I order o acheve srog suppler 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 8

30 parershp, op Perormers pursue addoal objecves hch are relaed o produc developme cooperao 6%, susaable procureme 59% ad echcal koho 49%. op Perormer compaes pu much more eor ha overall respodes her suppler maageme acves order o acheve her se o objecves. her eor s based o suce resources ad a ocus o log-erm plag. he ma challeges are deed he areas o produc qualy 77%, logscs rasrucure 74% ad commucao 69%, as ell as lack o suppler qualcao 68%. Procureme compaes oe rae he challeges her emergg markes operaos, as beg easy o solve, bu sudy dgs sho ha, compared o op Perormer compaes, hey uderesmae hese challeges. Fdg o suable supplers s he key crero or successul procureme emergg markes, sce s a dcul process. hs s due o he lack o hose supplers h suce qualcaos as ell as o decs produco acles emergg markes. he logscs rasrucure ad processes are he secod ma challege hch has a grea luece o he logscs perormace. Furhermore, he culural acors ad he egoao mdse parcular complcae a smooh collaborao hose coures. Regardg he saeme o 58% o op Perormers, produc qualy challeges are sll amog he greaes mpora challeges emergg markes. Bu her eors suppler maageme, parcular suppler developme, have a posve eec o creasg he produc qualy delvered by supplers. hese eors clude supporg he supplers h rag ad koledge raser. Whch suppler maageme sraeges ca be deed as beg used by procureme compaes? hs research has deed dere approaches he suppler seleco process, sce dg suable suppler becomes creasgly mpora as a acor o suppler maageme: radoal seleco crera such as prce ad qualy are used by overall parcpas, hereas he deed op Perormer compaes der by applyg a sraegc ocus ad esablshg log-erm suppler relaoshps. 6% meas 6% o surveyed compaes, here dcaed by he group o overall 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 9

31 As sho gure o, procureme compaes are usg produc qualy 9%, prce 90% as ell as supplers servce level 80% as her ma suppler seleco crera. Servce level corporaes shor lead me delvery ad he supplers lexbly. Compaes he caegory o overall respodes do o emphasze as much as op Perormer compaes he mporace o bees rom he suppler developme poeals 60% as a seleco crero. Fgure : Imporace o suppler seleco crera I coras o ha, op Perormer compaes cosder seleco crera, addo o prce ad qualy. hs s due o her approach hch begs h dg ad selecg suable suppler. hey ocus o busess processes ad maageme-relaed seleco crera her suppler maageme. op Perormer compaes are volvg sraegc seleco crera such as llgess o collaborae 95% ad produc developme capables 84%, order o acheve a hgher suppler perormace. he evromeal ad socal resposbly o a suppler s also requred by he majory o he op Perormer compaes. Furhermore, 70% o he op Perormer compaes emphasze he relevace o he supplers developme poeal. hs sraegc approach esures op Perormer compaes he successul, log-erm cooperao o hghly qualed supplers. hs decso s crucal or he ex sep, suppler developme. I hs sudy, he suppler developme sraeges ha procureme compaes are applyg are classed hree caegores, deermed as ollos: basc, arm s-legh ad 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 0

32 acve-eablg sraegy please reer o gure 3. A commo developme sraegy arm s-legh s o push he supplers o mprove her capables 5% areas lke produc qualy, delvery capables, coss or eve echcal ssues relaed o produc speccaos. Peales 5% are appled he suppler cao ulll hs oblgaos erms o servce ad produc qualy. op Perormer compaes addoally pursue a acve-eablg suppler developme process by provdg maeral ad persoel resources as ell as echcal ko-ho. Provdg rag 6% ad echology ko-ho raser 6% are mpora elemes o a acve-eablg sraegy. Based o hese acves, a average 6% o he op Perormer compaes eable her supplers o develop hemselves accordg o he compay s o requremes ad expecaos. hese developme eors suppor he compeveess o buyg compaes by achevg cos reduco, creased produc qualy ad mproved servce levels he log-erm. hs shos ha op Perormer compaes have recogzed he mporace o suppler maageme or successul procureme emergg markes. hey selec her supplers based o sraegc crera, hey develop hem by provdg resources ad hey seek o egrae hem her orgazao order o bee rom a hgher servce level a log-erm parershp. Reard/ Aard or Servce / Produc Improveme Overall op Perormer Provdg rag 40 6 Provdg echology Ko-Ho 38 6 Provdg Maeral 33 4 Provdg Equpme 3 50 Provdg Persoal 8 45 Acve-Eablg Sraegy Push or Capably Improvemes 5 6 Pealy or Mssg Servce/ Produc Qualy 5 5 Arm`s Legh Sraegy rackg Supplers Perormace Basc Sraegy % o surveyed compaes Fgure 3: Suppler developme emergg markes 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

33 Wha s he curre saus o susaable procureme emergg markes? 49 % o he surveyed compaes deed susaably as a objecve o pursue emergg markes. hey realzed ha susaably s a srume or developg procureme sraeges order o use resources, e.g. eergy ad maerals, more ecely. From he op Perormers perspecve, he ma movao or susaable procureme s cos reduco 85% order o acheve a ece resource maageme. Mmzg rsks relaed o deesve susaably sraegy 77% s aoher mpora movao order o avod loss o repuao ad compeveess, ad o mprove he brad/mage 67%. he op 3 susaable procureme movaos; cos reduco, rsk mmzao ad complace are bascally relaed o he radoal objecves o busess ecoomcs. hese objecves have bee sared o be egraed o operaos by op Perormer compaes her busess processes. I cocluso, susaable procureme does o oly help hem o acheve mproved cos ad perormace her acves, suppors hem her relaoshps ad cooperao h her supplers he log-erm perod. Sudy dgs sho ha he challeges hch compaes are acg he mplemeao o susaable procureme all o o caegores: ko-ho-relaed ad resourcerelaed challeges. he ormer reers o he group o overall parcpas, hle he laer apples o op Perormer compaes. Overall parcpas meo lack o experece susaable procureme 4%, lack o mercs 37% or coradcory objecves 36% as challeges. hs resul shos ha here s eed or clarcao as ell as koledge hese areas. he mplemeao o susaable procureme seems o be o-raspare ad complex or overall respodes. hs resul shos ha research suos eed o coue researchg susaably order o provde compaes h appled ad sadardzed praccal soluos. Mos o he op Perormers overcome ko-ho relaed challeges, such as lack o experece, ad are currely acg resource relaed challeges, e.g. ressace rom supplers 4% ad, lack o op-maageme Suppor 36%. Supplers ressace o mpleme susaable procureme s oe o he challeges relaed o a compay s exeral evrome. he lack o persoel ad acal suppor rom op maageme 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque

34 mus be overcome order o acheve a eecve mplemeao o susaable procureme mehods h he compay. Cosequely, he readess or susaably seems o rema lo, makg dcul o mpleme susaable procureme mehods pracce. I he ex sep, he resposes o mplemeed oday as ell as mplemeed ad plaed uure susaable procureme mehods have bee aalyzed. he egrao o poeal uure developmes ad reds s crucal or he compay s compeveess. I parcular, reds such as clmae chage ad lmed resources requre he egrao o crera he selecg supplers ho promoe ad suppor susaable procureme. hereore oly op perormers ho dcaed suppler seleco crera abou susaable procureme as a mpora or very mpora are cosdered or he ex resul. he ollog gure our shos a creasg degree o mplemeao o susaable procureme mehods he uure. he mehods are susaably crera egraed e-procureme ools, Carbo Foo Pr Check Produc/Process, Suppler selassessme ools, Gudeles ad polces or procureme eam, Suppler aud. Fgure 4: Implemeao level dcaed by op Perormers or susaable procureme 9 es Recores Ieraoales de la Recherche e Logsque 3

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