1 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 1 French Vocabulary Course Hélène Lewis Hodder Arnold A MEMBER OF THE HODDER HEADLINE GROUP
2 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 2 Michel Thomas, Michel Thomas, the internationally renowned linguist and language teacher, who was recently awarded the Silver Star by the US Army for his bravery in the Second World War, died of heart failure at his home in New York on 8th January. He was 90. To find out more, please get in touch with us For general enquiries and for information about Michel Thomas: Call: Fax: To place an order: Call: Fax: You can write to us at: Hodder Arnold, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH Visit our forum at: Unauthorized copying of this booklet or the accompanying audio material is prohibited, and may amount to a criminal offence punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment. First published in UK 2007 by Hodder Headline, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH. Copyright 2007, in the methodology, Thomas Keymaster Languages LLC, all rights reserved; in the series template, Dr Rose Lee Hayden; in the content, Hélène Lewis All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Further details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited, Saffron House, 6 10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS, UK. Typeset by Transet Limited, Coventry, England. Printed in Great Britain Impression Year ISBN
3 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 3 Contents 3 Introduction 5 Course contents 15 Course segment 1: Cognates 15 Course segment 2: Verbs 19 Course segment 3: Everyday expressions 21 English French glossary 23
4 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 4
5 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 5 Introduction Bienvenue! Welcome, to those of you who have completed the Michel Thomas French courses and Language Builder and to those of you who are about to experience a uniquely exciting way to learn and improve your French! 5 My name is Rose Lee Hayden, and I had the distinct privilege of working closely with Michel Thomas for several decades, in particular, teaching what he referred to as his second phase language courses. This second phase built upon the structural knowledge of the language that Michel Thomas so brilliantly provided in his foundation courses. As Michel Thomas himself often said, I built the house, but it is up to you to decorate it! And decorate it we shall in this Michel Thomas Method: French Vocabulary Course that reinforces and expands on what you have already learned having completed the Michel Thomas French courses. And for those of you who have not done these courses, I urge you to do so. You will be surprised at how painlessly they will teach or reinforce your French and will introduce you to a unique method of language learning. At the outset, let me stress what this course does not attempt to do and how it may differ a little from your previous experiences with the Michel Thomas French courses. First, this course does not and cannot re-teach the original courses, but rather builds directly on them. Therefore, you may wish to review and keep reviewing your Michel Thomas French courses and Language Builder to re-familiarize yourself with structural items and basic vocabulary previously introduced by Michel Thomas. Second, it is important to state that learning vocabulary is not the same as learning structure, even though this course teaches vocabulary the Michel Thomas way. You may find it helpful to review course content more frequently. But let me reassure you that this more frequent review is no reflection on your ability, but rather relates to the fact that you have moved on to another level of instruction with vocabulary acquisition as its basic goal. Throughout his second phase instruction, Michel Thomas frequently
6 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 6 6 asked his students to review and reinforce the basics before moving on. Because his methodology is cumulative, you must never rush ahead. Each building block in some way relates to previous content and uses it in a carefully constructed way. Third, those of you who expect drills of each and every word in a category family members, days of the week, and so on don t! Michel Thomas actively discouraged memorization, rote learning, writing out lists and any and all related activities of this type. He knew that we do not learn this way, and that the stress generated by these means actually impedes learning. And while we would have liked to have been able to include more words in a category, space on audio recordings is limited, and we had to make hard choices with respect to what we could and could not include. We did not want to waste valuable learning time at the expense of introducing more strategic content designed to help you create words, structures and habits of learning on your own. I dedicate this course to the memory of Michel Thomas and to all of you who have chosen to build your French vocabulary the Michel Thomas way. Dr Rose Lee Hayden Series Editor
7 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 7 Who was Michel Thomas? Michel Thomas was head of the Michel Thomas Language Centers and taught languages for over 50 years, primarily in New York, Beverly Hills and London until his recent death, aged 90. A graduate of the Department of Philology at the University of Bordeaux and student of psychology at the Sorbonne, his harrowing wartime experiences escaping Hitler and fighting with the French Resistance made mastering languages a matter of survival for Michel Thomas. 7 Michel Thomas dedicated his long professional life to probing the learning process. He focused on the teaching and learning of foreign languages as a perfect test case for his revolutionary learning system, one that made him the world s foremost language teacher to the celebrities, diplomats, corporate executives as well as others seeking to acquire or enhance their proficiency in another language. What is the Michel Thomas Method? The Michel Thomas Method is unlike anything you have ever experienced, especially when you compare it with how languages are traditionally taught in schools or universities. It produces startling results within a remarkably short period of time, all without the need for books, drills, memorizing, or homework. Michel Thomas believed that anyone can learn another language having learned their own, and he developed his unique methodology that proved this to be true for many thousands of students. Learning a language the Michel Thomas way builds proficiency, selfconfidence and engages you right from the start. The Michel Thomas Method breaks a language down to its component parts and presents these structures in carefully planned sets of exercises that enable you to reconstruct the language yourself, to form your own sentences that say what you want, when you want. Almost without you realizing it, you will retain
8 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 8 8 and apply what you have learned and will be motivated to learn more. Without the stress of memorization, note taking and homework, you can relax and let language learning take place as nature intended. But you have to experience the Michel Thomas Method to believe it. Within hours you will be creating sophisticated sentences in a wide variety of situations, as those of you know who have completed the Michel Thomas language courses and Language Builders. These courses provided you with functional proficiency in your chosen language, be it French, Italian, Spanish or German, and are the foundation upon which this Michel Thomas Method: Vocabulary Course series builds, phrase by phrase, the Michel Thomas way. You already know a lot more French than you think you do! The Michel Thomas Method is, above all, based on the commonality of Western languages. French shares many thousands of words with English, everyday words that you already know. This Michel Thomas Method: French Vocabulary Course provides dozens of tips to help you unlock what it is that you already know, to expand your French vocabulary exponentially with easy transformations that convert thousands of English words into their French equivalents. You will also learn how to pronounce and spell these new words. As Michel Thomas told you, one can attain functional proficiency in most languages by mastering no more than 500 1,500 words. A working knowledge of most languages even your own does not require the use of every word in the dictionary. Literally hundreds of additional words and expressions will be on the tip of your tongue as you build your French vocabulary the Michel Thomas way. How did we come to develop this Michel Thomas Method: Vocabulary Course series? With nearly 1 million copies of Michel Thomas language courses sold in the UK alone, and with thousands of enthusiasts who never thought they could ever learn another language wanting more Michel, we at Hodder Arnold are particularly pleased to offer this new course series that preserves and extends the language teaching legacy of The Language Master, Michel Thomas. Working with us right up to the moment of his death aged 90,
9 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 9 Michel Thomas was in the process of creating a series of vocabulary courses building on his very successful language courses. Reflecting his prior input, this series is the product of a new team of authors and presenters who have either taught for Michel Thomas, or have utilized his methodology in their own classrooms and professional courses. 9 With this, our first post-michel Thomas series, we hope to provide what Michel Thomas and his ever-expanding number of students would expect of us, both as educational publishers and professionals who love languages, teaching them and learning them. We dedicate this series and others that we will be developing for schools, businesses and individuals from all walks of life to our much-esteemed and beloved Language Master, Michel Thomas. Who is this Michel Thomas Method: French Vocabulary Course for? People who have already learned French with Michel Thomas This Michel Thomas Method: French Vocabulary Course does just what its name suggests: builds on the content Michel Thomas presented in the Michel Thomas Foundation Course: French, Michel Thomas Advanced Course: French, and Michel Thomas French Language Builder. This course covers over 1,000 words and everyday phrases within the context of essential building blocks already presented by Michel Thomas, and includes dozens of useful tools for converting English words to their French equivalents. You can both reinforce what you have already learned from your Michel Thomas Foundation courses and substantially increase your French vocabulary the Michel Thomas way. People who have learned French using other methods You may have learned French before and want to brush up on it for a holiday or business trip. Perhaps you are looking for a new approach to help you with revision or to re-motivate you to dust off your French and improve your proficiency. Either way, the Michel Thomas Method: French Vocabulary Course will introduce you to a unique way of acquiring language proficiency that will provide dozens of helpful ways to unlock what it is you already know. Focusing on similarities between English and French, you will be able to increase your vocabulary exponentially, will
10 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page learn or review over 1,000 words and everyday expressions, and will significantly boost your confidence in your ability to speak, listen to, read and understand French. You may find that it takes a while to get used to the Michel Thomas way of teaching. It is innovative and quite unlike any other method you will have come across. But once you have experienced the excitement of painless learning the Michel Thomas way, you will be hooked! What does this pack contain? The pack comprises over six hours of recorded material on CD, plus this User Guide that contains all the concepts, words and phrases presented in the course. In these recordings, a narrator experienced in teaching the Michel Thomas way will introduce concepts that you will be learning, one by one, and will present helpful hints and handy tools that you can then use to create your own phrases and increase your French proficiency. The narrator will guide you through three distinct course segments: 1) Cognates vocabulary building using similarities between English and French; 2) Verbs; and 3) Everyday expressions to top off your new vocabulary and help you avoid making common mistakes in French. Two native speakers, one female, one male, will repeat all words and phrases after a pause designed to allow you to come up with your own response based on prompts from the narrator. The correct response will then be repeated by the narrator to help set it in your mind. This User Guide contains a detailed listing of all the content on the CDs, track by track, to help you locate and review what it is you wish to reinforce. It also features a detailed English French glossary listing the 1,000 words covered in this course, words that were carefully chosen to increase your communication skills in French, as well as to improve your ability to listen and read for gist. How are the recordings best used? Relax! Make yourself comfortable before playing the recordings and try to let go of the tensions and anxieties traditionally associated with language learning.
11 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 11 Do not write or take any notes. Remove notebooks, pens, dictionaries and anything else associated with traditional, school-based language learning. Do not try to remember. While participating in the recording and afterwards, it is important that you do not try to memorize specific words or expressions. It is a basic principle of the Michel Thomas Method that the responsibility for the student s learning lies with the teacher. Your learning is based on understanding, and what you understand you don t forget. Interact fully with the recordings. Use the pause button and respond out loud (or in a whisper, or in your head if you are in a public place) before hearing the correct response. This is essential. You do not learn by repetition but by thinking out the answers to each question; it is by your own thought process that you truly learn and retain structure and vocabulary. Give yourself time to think. You have all the time you need to think through your response. Your pause button is the key to your learning! Be sure to use it. We have inserted standard-length pauses for your responses. When you use the recordings for the first time, these pauses may not be long enough for you to work out your responses. But rather than waste valuable recording time with long silences, we suggest you use the pause button when you listen to the course for the first time, in a place and at a time when it is convenient and safe for you to do so. On subsequent hearings you will need less time to work out your response, and the pauses we have left should be long enough. Start at the beginning of the course. Whatever your existing knowledge of French, it is important that you follow the way the Michel Thomas Method builds up your knowledge of the language. The methodology is cumulative and recursive so you must not rush ahead before you feel comfortable that you have mastered a concept, phrase or word. This vocabulary course also encourages you to take additional time to create similar examples of your own to reinforce what is being presented. Do not get annoyed with yourself if you make a mistake. Mistakes are part of the learning process; as long as you understand why you made the mistake and you have the aha reaction Yes, of course, 11
12 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page I understand now you are doing just fine. If you made a mistake and you do not understand why, you may have been daydreaming for a few seconds. As noted, the course is structured so that you cannot go on unless you fully understand everything. So just go back a little and pick up where you left off. Stop the recording whenever it suits you. Breaks in the CD recordings reflect the numbering and content listings in this User Guide. This will help you locate items you wish to review and will enable you to locate where you left off and where you wish to begin once again. What can I expect to achieve? The Michel Thomas French courses provided you with a practical and functional use of the spoken language. Using the Michel Thomas Method, this French Vocabulary Course introduces everyday conversational language that will improve your communication skills in a wide variety of situations, empowered by the ability to create your own sentences and use the language naturally. With this additional practice and review, plus over 1,000 words covered and the tools to create hundreds more, your proficiency in French will be reinforced and strengthened as will your self-confidence and desire to use your newly acquired French. How can I go on to improve further? Obviously, nothing compares with first-hand contact with native French speakers. And while you may not think that this is possible for you, think again. There are most likely many French speakers, French language clubs and associations in your local area. You need not go to Paris or to Marseille to find them. A simple advert in the local newspaper or on a relevant website offering to exchange English for French instruction may locate someone you will enjoy knowing and practising with but do think about your own safety before giving away any personal details. As Michel Thomas noted, we learn a lot more about our own language when we learn another. Michel Thomas also recommended a little daily practice ten minutes at least and knew that this was worth more than several hours of cramming after a period of time has gone by. He encouraged you to start reading, especially newspaper and magazine interviews that reflect French as it is actually being
13 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 13 spoken rather than textbook versions of the language. You can also keep up and extend your language by reading items in subject areas of personal interest to you, or you can buy a French translation of your favourite mystery writer. Michel Thomas knew and told you that the more you read, the more things will fall into place. And as he warned, fight that temptation to use your dictionary first and think last. You will be glad you did. 13 One last suggestion here. For really authentic practice, try to listen to French radio and television programmes that you may be able to receive if you live in a city or have satellite TV options. Relax and listen for gist, not word by word. You can do it! And little by little, peu à peu, you will understand what is being said. As Michel Thomas told you upon the completion of his French courses, you have all the tools you need to express yourself and have acquired many more having completed this course. We know that you will find it both rewarding and exciting to practise your ever-improving French! What do Michel Thomas students have to say? Academy award winning director and actress, Emma Thompson (as quoted in The Guardian): The excitement of learning something new was overwhelming. Michel not only taught me Spanish, he opened my eyes to the possibilities of a completely different kind of learning. Michel takes the burden off the student and upon himself Learning Spanish with Michel was the most extraordinary learning experience of my life it was unforgettable. Irish dance and music sensation, Michael Flatley (as quoted in The Linguist): He [Michel Thomas] was a genius a born teacher and thinker.
14 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page Customer feedback on the Michel Thomas Method I am writing to congratulate you on the highly original and successful language courses by Michel Thomas; I am currently working on German and French, while my daughter, at my suggestion, has bought the Italian course. R. Harris I have now finished the eight cassette Italian course and would like to say how pleased I am with it. I am a scientist, with all my neurons in the side of my brain that deals with understanding, and next to none on the side that deals with memory. This has meant my ability to retain vocabulary and learn a language has been about as bad as it comes. Against all odds, the Michel Thomas course has left me with a real sense of achievement, and a tremendous basis for further progress in learning Italian. T. A. Whittingham He doesn t put words in your mouth, he makes you work out the words to say yourself. Angie Harper
15 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 15 Course contents Course segment 1: Cognates 1 (CD 1, track 1) Introduction 2 (CD 1, track 2) Adjectives ending in -ible: impossible; incompréhensible; accessible 3 (CD 1, track 3 4) Adjectives ending in -able: probable; acceptable; La voiture du professeur est réparable. Transformation of English adjectives Formation of adjectives ending in -able from -er verbs: négocier > négociable. Dans ce restaurant, la cuisine est tolérable, mais le bruit est insupportable. 4 (CD 1, track 5) Transformation of adjectives beginning with un- and in-: incassable; inévitable 5 (CD 1, track 6) Formation of adjectives ending in -able from -oir, -re and -ir verbs: concevable; vendable; croyable; faisable; indéfinissable 6 (CD 1, track 7) Further transformation of English nouns and adjectives Adjectives in -ant: Ce n est pas très important pour moi. Stéphane est tolérant, mais je dois dire que Stéphanie est vraiment intolérante. Nouns ending in -ant: un correspondant; un participant; un étudiant 7 (CD 1, track 8) Nouns and adjectives ending in -ent: urgent; différent; le président. C est évident que la situation internationale est urgente et que le président est incompétent. 15
16 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page (CD 1, track 9) Nouns ending in -tion: une réservation; la condition; une action intelligente; ma conviction profonde 9 (CD 2, track 1) Nouns ending in -sion: une dimension; une expression; La décision est urgente. 10 (CD 2, track 2) Nouns ending in -ance and -ence: l indépendance; une alliance; Il y a ici une différence que je ne peux pas comprendre. 11 (CD 2, track 3) Professions: transformation of English nouns ending in -er and -or: un danseur; un directeur 12 (CD 2, track 4) Further transformation of nouns ending in -ance: l importance; l élégance; les distances 13 (CD 2, track 5) Transformation of adverbs in -ly: naturellement; automatiquement; absolument. Je suis totalement d accord avec vous. Eventuellement, je peux vous donner des directions. 14 (CD 2, track 6) Transformation of adjectives and nouns ending in -ary: contraire; militaire; secrétaire. Au contraire, c est absolument nécessaire. Transformation of adjectives and nouns ending in -ory: Ses suggestions sont tellement contradictoires que c est illusoire de penser que nous pouvons trouver une solution. 15 (CD 2, track 7) Transformation of adjectives ending in -ive: exclusif; négatif. Les opinions de ma sœur sont très négatives.
17 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page (CD 2, track 8) Transformation of adjectives ending in -ous: dangereux; courageux. Attention! La situation devient très dangereuse. 17 (CD 2, track 9) Transformation of adjectives ending in -ical and -ic: magique; logique; économique; patriotique; électronique Transformation of nouns ending in -ics and -ic: l électronique; la physique. C est ironique, mais ce film a un succès fantastique avec le public. 18 (CD 2, track 10) Transformation of nouns ending in -ure: La température n est pas fantastique pour l agriculture. 19 (CD 2, track 11) Transformation of nouns ending in -tude: une aptitude; une multitude. Pour moi, exprimer ma gratitude est difficile. 20 (CD 2, track 12) Transformation of nouns ending in -ity: la possibilité; la capacité; les opportunités 21 (CD 2, track 13) Transformation of nouns ending in -y: l économie; l astronomie 22 (CD 2, track 14) Transformation of nouns ending in -ine and -in: une routine; une aspirine. Nous sommes très satisfaits de la machine, donc nous en commanderons encore deux. 23 (CD 2, track 15) Transformation of adjectives ending in -id: solide; avide; timide. Vos billets ne sont pas valides. 17
18 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page (CD 3, track 1) Transformation of nouns ending in -ism: Le socialisme et le capitalisme sont des systèmes politiques. Son égoïsme est intolérable. Transformation of nouns ending in -ist: un pacifiste; une socialiste. Je vais voir l exposition des Impressionnistes. 25 (CD 3, track 2) Transformation of adjectives ending in -al: central; principal; les codes postaux; professionnel; individuel Conclusion
19 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 19 Course segment 2: Verbs 1 (CD 3, track 3) Introduction 2 (CD 3, track 4) Verbs in -er Present tense: éviter; tenter. Je dois éviter la tentation d utiliser mon dictionnaire. Au lieu de vérifier dans mon dictionnaire, je peux créer beaucoup de mots en français. 3 (CD 3, track 5) Imperfect and Conditional tenses: J aimais inventer les nouvelles formes. Votre frère et vous passiez vos vacances en France. J aimerais vraiment passer mes vacances à Nice. Si elle avait le temps, elle préparerait le dîner. 4 (CD 3, track 6) Verbs in -er Imperfect tense: Quand Stéphanie et ses parents passaient les vacances ensemble, ils préféraient toujours rester à l hôtel. 5 (CD 3, track 7) The Perfect tense with être and avoir: Vendredi, Stéphane et Stéphanie ont exploré le centre commercial et ils ont dépensé beaucoup d argent. Il est rentré en taxi. Elle a monté les documents au premier étage. 6 (CD 3, track 8) Etre en train de: Comme nous sommes en train de doubler nos ventes en France, nous devons augmenter notre personnel à Paris. Etre sur le point de: J étais sur le point de commander un taxi. Venir de: Entre dans la salle à manger, je viens de laver le sol dans la cuisine. 19
20 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page (CD 3, track 9) Verbs in -ir of the ouvrir, sortir and venir types: Je découvre seulement maintenant qu il a beaucoup de problèmes. J ai ouvert la porte pour laisser sortir le chat. Quand nous sommes entrés, il dormait devant la télévision. 8 (CD 4, track 1) Other verbs ending in -ir: finir; définir; établir; réfléchir en + present participle: en attendant; en finissant; en faisant 9 (CD 4, track 2) Verbs in -re: mettre; promettre; admettre etc. 10 (CD 4, track 3) Verbs in -uire: produire; détruire; construire etc. Verbs in -ire: suffire; lire etc. 11 (CD 4, track 4) Reflexive verbs: Maintenant qu Alex travaille, il se réveille tôt, c est-à-dire avant 7 heures. Je m aperçois que c est très facile d apprendre des mots français. Reciprocal verbs: Nous nous parlons tous les jours. Nous nous embrassons.
21 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 21 Course segment 3: Everyday expressions 1 (CD 4, track 5) Common constructions Verbs with à: Je cherche à réorganiser mon département. Verbs with de: Je voudrais profiter de cette opportunité, mais ça dépend de vous. Verbs with sur: Ne comptez pas sur nous pour ça. 2 (CD 4, track 6) Vouloir dire: Elle a envoyé un texto pour dire que son taxi est en retard ça doit vouloir dire qu elle va manquer la réunion. 3 (CD 4, track 7) Expressions of time: depuis, pendant, il y a, en, dans, avant and après 4 (CD 4, track 8) Talking about days of the week, months and seasons 5 (CD 4, track 9) Telling the time: Il est deux heures; Il est deux heures et quart; deux heures et demie; trois heures moins le quart. 6 (CD 5, track 1) Expressions of place: ici and là: Il y a quelques imperfections ici et là, mais ce n est pas grave. loin and près: C est très loin; C est assez près. à gauche and à droite: A gauche vous pouvez admirer beaucoup d art classique, mais à droite l exposition est très moderne. devant and derrière: Il a toute sa vie devant lui. dessus and dessous: Son manteau est sur la chaise, donc si vous mettez les documents dessus, il va certainement les trouver. 21
22 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page (CD 5, track 2) Expressions of quantity: quelque; du; de la The pronoun en: J ai trois billets, mais j en veux cinq. assez; la plupart de 8 (CD 5, track 3) Talking about numbers: le nombre; le numéro; un chiffre 9 (CD 5, track 4) Il faut: Il faut que nous fermions la porte; Il faut que nous ouvrions la fenêtre. 10 (CD 5, track 5) The pronoun y: Il avait décidé d aller à la réception, mais il y est arrivé trop tôt. Vous devez y penser. 11 (CD 5, track 6) Avoir and semi-idiomatic expressions: J ai très faim. Il a très soif parce qu il a oublié sa bouteille d eau minérale. J ai peur des problèmes associés à l expansion du département. 12 (CD 5, track 7) Etre and semi-idiomatic expressions: Nous sommes le cinq janvier aujourd hui. Vous n y êtes pas du tout! 13 (CD 5, track 8) Negatives: ne pas; ne plus; ne rien 14. (CD 5, track 9) Negatives: ne jamais; ne personne; non plus; ni ni; ne que 15 (CD 5, track 10) Adjectives which change meaning depending on their position in relation to the noun described: ancien; certain; cher; propre Conclusion
23 MT FRENCH VOCAB COURSE (07) 25/9/07 10:44 am Page 23 English French glossary le (masc.) la (fem.) l (masc./fem.), les (pl.) (In brackets: plural e.g. ville, la (s) = les villes) - indicates no change in the plural ~ indicates past diving form. Example: ~abandonné * bonus words = further illustrate or fill in structural and word categories 23 a few quelques a kind of une espèce de ; *une sorte de a long time longtemps a lot (of) beaucoup (de) abandon, to abandonner ~abandonné about a hundred centaine, la (s) about a thousand millier, le (s) about *environ above dessus abroad à l étranger absolutely absolument accept, to accepter ~accepté acceptable acceptable; admissible accessible accessible accessory accessoire, l (masc.) (s) accident accident, l (masc.) (s) accompany, to accompagner ~accompagné accusation accusation, l (fem.) (s) accuse, to accuser ~accusé action action, l (fem.) (s) address adresse, l (fem.) (s) administration administration, l (fem.) administrative administratif/ administrative administrator administrateur, l (masc.) (s) admire, to admirer ~admiré admit, to admettre ~admis adopt, to adopter ~adopté adorable adorable adore, to adorer ~adoré advice *conseil, le (s) advise against, to déconseiller (de ) ~déconseillé advise (to do ), to conseiller (de ) ~conseillé affirm, to affirmer ~affirmé African africain/e after après afternoon après-midi, l (masc.) again encore against contre ago il y a agree, to accorder ~accordé agreement accord, l (masc.) (s) agriculture agriculture, l (fem.) aim but, le (s) air air, l (masc.) airport aéroport, l (masc.) (s) alarm, to alarmer ~alarmé alarming alarmant/e all alone tout/e seul/e all the time tout le temps all tout/e alliance alliance, l (fem.) (s) allow, to permettre ~permis