Assessment of Remittances Policies and Programs in Haiti

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1 Assessment of Remittances Policies and Programs in Haiti DRAFT REPORT Study commissioned by the International Migrants Remittances Observatory (IMRO) Pilot Project under the supervision of the LDCs Coordination Bureau in New-York. IMRO 02 BP 2766 COTONOU Tél / /

2 Port au Prince, January 28 th 2013 Table of contents 1 Executive summary Context of the study Migration from Haiti Key data on migrant remittances Remittances policies Current Money Transfer Operators Banking infrastructure A Telco environment dominated by Digicel Migration & development: Impact of Remittances on the Haitian Economy The local survey Semi-structured questionnaire & matrix of results (questions and answers translated in the next paragraph) Remittance experts interviewed Answers analysis The National Working Group Annex : Circulaire # 98 du 20 mai 2011 de la BRH concernant les conditions d'exécution des transferts de fonds internationaux sur Haïti Bibliography Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 2

3 1 Executive summary In a Haitian perspective, the specificities of migrant remittances are: - A recent and strong migration flow to Miami and NY area feeding ¼ of the country ( remittances monthly to families of 4/5 people) - A large number of undocumented migrants facing day-to-day issues (mobilizing their savings is a way to protect their return when deported) - A large amount of aid with no significant impact on growth (only 2.5 % after the earthquake) and reduction of poverty (still many people living in tents ) - A strong nationalism, with issues on governance and violence - A bad climate for business despite government efforts Key recommendations for transfer cost reduction, financial inclusion - Restore confidence for migrant investors with the help of donors - Invest in tangible assets through an investment vehicle mixing public and private funding to face educational(school), medical(hospitals) and infrastructure (road, water & electricity) issues - Group/ungroup monthly transfers at reduced price - Promote an alternative to Tcho Tcho mobile for financial inclusion, competition and transparency - Draw on a A4 format sheet in Creole all the alternatives to send and receive remittances from/to Haiti - Leverage women efforts to pay scholar fees with automatic co funding - Launch a diaspora fund with a governance structure shared between migrants and a foreign cofounder (multilateral/public donor) Policy interventions which facilitate the inflows of remittances through regular channels - Electronic money regulation - Encourage competition - Waive remittances taxes for migrant donations to infrastructure projects Promote positive impacts of remittances Support solutions linking rural/poor suburban recipients with Mbanking/branchless acces, Microfinance institutions Support solutions to help the undocumented migrant to save periodically in Haiti to avoid to loose everything when arrested Link transfer delivery with a microcredit for women Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 3

4 2 Context of the study In accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding signed in Istanbul on 12 May 2011 between the Government of Benin and the Chairman of the LDCs Coordination Bureau, the International Migrants Remittances Observatory commissioned and coordinated a study on policies and programs enhancing remittances flows to four pilot LDCs, namely Bangladesh, Nepal, Haiti and Lesotho. The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the type and volume of remittances inflows and how their development impact can be enhanced through policy support, mainstreaming remittances into development planning in Haiti. More specifically, the study s aims are: - to monitor, gather, analyze and disseminate recent information and date on the flows of remittances in the four pilot countries, on mechanisms and transfer costs, on models of use and the impact at national, regional and community levels; - provide a comparative analysis between the pilot countries of remittances trends and parameters for decision making; - assist the Governments of Haiti and their institutional partners to identify, develop policies and initiatives related to the fund transfers in order to improve transfer services in terms of reliability, costs, time and security; - strengthen the capacities of Ministries and central banks of the selected LDCs in order to improve the quality and the quantity of data on remittances collected through collection methods which are more efficient and more comprehensive. The research study consisted of: - a series of 31 key interviews during the second half of January a desk review of existing information, policies and literature from September 2012 to January a National Working Group (NWG) launched and held at IADB in Port au Prince on the 28 th of January, a list of key recommendations from the NWG proposing a short and long-term policy strategy which could facilitate the potential multiplier effects of remittances. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 4

5 3 Migration from Haiti Port au Prince could be or should be the capital of the Caribbean concentrating half of the urban population of Haiti while the rural areas are representing half of the 10 million total population (the Western region is 10 times less populated than the North Eastern region). 85% of Haitians are living below the line of poverty (54% in extreme poverty); 2 million people have food security issues. 2/3 of adults are jobless. Deforestation, 4 tornados in 2008 and the 2010 earthquake and cholera have deteriorated living conditions for poor people. Haiti has a strong diaspora (2 million people) with a contrast between US and Canada and the Caribbean where they are often exploited as undocumented who can be deported overnight. Bahamas (25% pop.) Martinique Guadeloupe Guyane Dominican Republic Around Other For instance, the number of migrant in Dominican Republic is a sensitive issue and any estimate is very controversial and hazardous. The first wave of migration started with the US occupation beginning in 1915 during World War I and ending in the middle of the 1930s. The second wave was a direct consequence of the dictatorship Duvallier (with a first boat people in 1963 and a second one in 1973 only) reaching 10% of the total population. These millions of people living in North America have a strong influence on the Haitian economy (most of the USD 2 billion of remittances) because they are feeding one fourth of the country as long as we are still in the first generation. Their children could never travel to Haiti and mix in the US melting pot forgetting their roots. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 5

6 In this map Haitians around the World, George Anglade highlighted these 2 major migration waves and However new trends can be observed recently since the earthquake(12 Jan. 2010) with a third wave targeting Latin America 1. After the earthquake, French Guyana was the main destination but the decision from the French government (sept. 2010) to close the border pushed them to other Latin American countries like Brazil (6000), Ecuador (2000), the same in Chili and more than one thousand in Mexico among other countries. This third wave could be estimated at ( in 2009 according to G. Anglade estimates). The top destinations remain today the United States, the Dominican Republic, Canada, France, The Bahamas, Netherlands Antilles, Belgium, Venezuela, Switzerland and the Netherlands. US Migrants (Miami Herald ) Among the more than half million Haitians living in the U.S.(2 to 3 million if you include Haitians with US citizenship), Florida has the largest Haitian population : 46.4 percent of Haitians in the United States live in Florida; 24.1 percent live in New York; 7.6 percent live in New Jersey, and 7.1 percent live in Massachusetts. The World Bank found that 55 percent of remittance-receiving households do not have any other income. Remittances sent to Haiti are largely spent on the provision of basic needs: housing, food, clothing and medicine. The United States has a positive trade balance with Haiti, indicating that Haiti purchases more imports from the United States than it exports here. Between 1990 and 2009, between percent of imports into Haiti originated in the United States. Rice, wheat and meat products comprise the largest dollar amounts in terms of exported goods. Florida has both the largest Haitian-born population in the United States and the largest share of Haiti's export market. In 2008, nearly 24 percent of Haiti's exports from the United States came from Florida. Haiti was Florida's 37th largest export market in 2008, ranging in value from 34th to 37th between 2000 and 2008, with the 2004 dollar value of these exports reaching $223,241,000. New York ranks sixth in total U.S. state exports to Haiti, realizing $34,677,000 in exports there in 2008 while New Jersey is the 10th-largest state exporter to Haiti, with $22,157,000 in export revenues. 1 Haiti-Migration : Zoom sur la récente vague migratoire haïtienne vers l Amérique Latine Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 6

7 4 Key data on migrant remittances USD330 million in 1997, USD 1 billion in 2006, USD 2 billion, the remittances are representing a growing part of GDP (up to one third today). 800,000 people receive about 125 USD per month on average (the lowest amount of the region), which partially feed half of the Haitian population (4/5 beneficiaries per household) 2 The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) released a report in September 2012 on remittances from the Diaspora to the Latin American region including Haiti. The region received in 2011 more than 61 billion U.S. dollars in terms of remittances from emigrants. Among the $ 61 billion sent, Mexico has received about 37% while Haiti attracted less than 4%, i.e $ 2 billion exceeding other finacial flows such as FDI ($200m), ODA($600m) and exports. The Bank of the Republic of Haiti (BRH) is monitoring differently private transfers from the diaspora with a slightly higher result than the billion dollars recorded by the IDB. BRH s Department of International Affairs (DAI), regularly collects, transfers from companies recognized monthly data on remittances from the Haitian diaspora to Haiti. Informal mechanisms used by the diaspora arrive in Haiti, prevents BRH to have information on the actual total flow of remittances entering the economy in a given period. Therefore, to take account of private trancould even show higher figures than the ones of BRH and the central bank estimated non institutionnal channels accounted for 27% of the total flow of money transfers sent to Haiti. Registered MTO (money transfer operators) are serving 73% of the total flow only. The major part of migrant remittances is intended for consumption : only 23% of the amounts of transfers have been used for investment (IADB study 2006) 2 Mr Franck LANOIX Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 7

8 Source : remittanceprices.worldbank.org 5 Remittances policies The central bank issued a number of directives targeting MTO; they are available online at : - Directive 94#40: Weekly reporting form - Directive 98 (20 May 2011) 1.5 USD tax and use of BRH payment platform - Directive 07: VAT (TCA) not applied on 1.5 USD tax, effect on 15/06/2011 in USA, Canada, Turks & Caicos Islands, Bahamas - Directive 08: transfers can be paid in HTG if the exchange rate is accepted by the beneficiary. Exchange rate to be displayed in all transfer payment locations The results of this policy are available on Conatel website : USD 40 million within 18 months to finance the National Fund for Education (FNE). However, everybody will be very careful about the use of funds. Among our remittance experts, several are suggesting to waive the tax for productive investments while attendees at MHAVE seminar were suggesting to invest in schools where the remittances were delivered. Less commented was the 5 cts tax on international calls since June 2011 which will also contribute to the FNE. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 8

9 6 Current Money Transfer Operators The World Bank remittances observatory gives a good overview of the alternatives for senders for 4 major corridors: Canada, Dominican Republic, France, United States. From Canada Dominican Republic France USA ScotiaBank Western Union MoneyGram Bank of Montreal Toronto Dominion Bank CIBC Royal Bank of Canada Caribe Express Western Union Girosol MoneyGram Ria La Poste via Western Union Western Union Moneybookers Credit Lyonnais La Poste BNP Paribas Societe Generale Banque Populaire Caisse D'Epargne d'ile de France Credit Agricole Unitransfer CAM MoneyGram Western Union Ria Average 3rd Q 2012: 12,31% Average 3rd Q 2012: 8,69% Average 3rd Q 2012: 15,63% Average 3rd Q 2012: 5,66% Money transfers from France are 3 times more expensive than the US ones which are also less expensive than the ones originated from the other side of the island. However, it is easier to have an exhaustive list of Money transfers Operators on the receiving side (also operating South South and South North) since the central bank is giving the full list on its website: and IADB 2011 (released sept 2012): Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 9

10 MTO Market share Payout locations* SOGEXPRESS/WESTERN 32% https://www.sogebank.com/index. 267 UNION php?c=entites&id=sogexpress Caribbean Air Mail (CAM) 24% 66 UNITRANSFER 20% 54 Others * Moneygram 24% Partners: BUH, UNIBANK, 84 RapidTransfer, Fonkoze VIGO & Capital Transfert CWT**/Rapid transfer RIA / Le levier *Inter American Dialogue Scorecard report ** Caribbean World Trading SA (10 Levier) Other money transfer actors: Apart from the 3 main operators which have a clear strategy (Sogebank with Western Union worldwide, CAM as a regional operator throughout the Caribbean, Unitransfer focusing on USA and Caribbean), the other actors are dominated by Moneygram and partnerships are often done and undone with also other large MTO networks like VIGO & RIA. It is important to mention the involvement of credit unions like Le Levier and microfinance institution like Fonkoze. Le Levier has built a partnership with Desjardins in Canada (Québec) to offer a service called Virement de Fonds International (VFI) and it also provides branch to branch transfer in Haiti. Fonkoze Remittance services started at FONKOZE in 1998 on a sliding fee of $10-50 (less than the competition). Remittance services have grown fast, with SFF(Fonkoze) becoming a payer for Moneygram and CAM. In 2008, Fonkoze introduced the OSC Visa Prepaid Debit Card that allows users to send up to $2,500 to Haiti for $6, with a monthly fee of $1. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 10

11 7 Banking infrastructure The empirical approach of the correspondent banking system is explaining the success of large MTO able to provide a quick and reliable service with more transparency, even if migrants are still complaining about the high fees of MTO. A bank money transfer is the only one that you are buying without knowing its price since sending banks are providing their fee but not the one of the receiving bank, and other hidden fees like foreign exchange rates. The current banking system has the following market shares (in%) (http://www.brh.net/bul83.pdf June 2012) Deposits Loans Unibank 34,88 38,02 Sogebank 31,37 28,62 BNC 13,17 11,26 Capital Bank 6,49 7,33 Citibank NA 4,01 2,96 Scotia Bank 3,46 3,83 BUH 2,73 2,36 SOGEBEL 2,71 3,69 BPH 1,18 1,93 100,00 100,00 SPIH The SPIH (Systeme de Paiements Interbancaires Haitien) is a real-time gross settlement i.e. each transfer is settled individually and on a bilateral basis, sending participant, beneficiary participant and instantly in HTG or USD. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 11

12 SPIH opens at 8:30am and closes at 3 pm. It costs a maximum of 70 HTG for sender, and has no cost for the recipient 8 A Telco environment dominated by Digicel During 40 years, the state owned Téléco implemented landlines serving less than 10% of the population Digicel (an Irish based telco, 3.5+ million customers) took control last year of 80% of the market after the purchase of Voila (1 million custormers - Comcel, a subsidiary of US based Trilogy) while USAID was subsidizing its mobile payment service with millions of USD. The historical Natcom, now owned 60% by Viettel, the largest operator of Vietnam (40% Haitian government) was discouraged by the phone regulatory authority CONATEL to offer attractive prices to compete with Digicel. Viettel promised to offer Internet in all public schools in Haiti and it is now doing the same in Santo Domingo where the company would like to invest 300 million USD (announced sept. 2012) Haitel is bankrupt since the licence removal in To circumvent taxes and costs, poor people are using VOIP but CONATEL contracted Swiss based SGS to detect bypassing solutions. Mobile P2P transfers in Haiti: HIFIVE s Haiti Mobile Money Initiative (HMMI) June 2010: HMMI was funded by $10 million in awards plus additional funds for related activities from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, as well as $5 million in technical and management assistance from USAID. The Haiti Integrated Finance for Value Chains and Enterprises (HIFIVE), a USAID-funded project, manages and implements HMMI. HIFIVE offers technical and management assistance to a variety of institutions working to improve access to financial services in Haiti: First to Market Award (Digicel): $2.5 million Second to Market Award (Voilà): $1.5 million Scaling Awards (shared by Digicel and Voilà):$100,000 and $1 million Final award (5M transaction milestone and meeting the award program's requirements): $3.2 million Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 12

13 July 2012: Digicel and Voilà were supposed to share this final award from the HMMI; however, Voila was purchased a few months before by Digicel who ows 80% of the market. Tcho tcho mobile After launching in April 2011, TchoTcho grew to 20,000 users by June. By July, that number had more than doubled to 50,000 users, and in the last few weeks, the service rocketed to 110,000 mobile wallet carriers. Even more remarkable is the usage of TchoTcho. In June, there were just 54,000 recorded transactions. In the first 17 days of August, more than 925,000 transactions. Agent network YellowPepper is now in the process of expanding their mobile money network to Latin America, where they're already operating in nine countries, including pilot networks in Peru, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Currently, YellowPepper boasts more than 4.8 million active users, a number that has grown significantly over the past month, and processes about 20 million transactions throughout Latin America and the Caribbean with a staff of 203 people in 10 countries. IFC invested $3 million in the start-up technology firm Yellow Pepper in IFC also brought in a co-investor who put up an additional $2 million. Today Haiti has over 500,000 m-wallet users issued by Scotia Bank in association with YellowPepper and Digicel. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 13

14 9 Migration & development: Impact of Remittances on the Haitian Economy Although remittances are extremely important in the Haitian context, their effects on the economy are complex: while some of these effects are clearly positive, others may be less desirable. Unfortunately, data limitations hinder the precise measurement of the relative importance of these effects and do not allow for definitive conclusions. 9.1 Impact on Health and Education There is no state-sponsored health insurance program in Haiti even for vulnerable segments of the population such as the poor, children and the elderly. As a consequence, all health related expenses are borne by households. Haitian households do not fare much better when it comes to education. Although the exact percentage is not known with certainty (estimates vary between 70% and 90%), a large fraction of the supply of primary and secondary education is private and is not subsidized. The empirical evidence suggests that, similarly to Latin America, remittances allow poor recipient households in Haiti to spend more on education and health thereby improving children s health and educational outcomes. For instance, using a survey of 300 Haitian households conducted during the period , Amuedo-Dorantes find that remittances tend to increase the likelihood that children are schooled. The benefits of remittances are not necessarily gender neutral. For example, because in Haiti girls are less likely to attend school than boys, they may disproportionately benefit from an increase in the household s budget. Amuedo-Dorantes find some evidence of that effect in their sample. However, the importance of these positive effects of remittances is still poorly understood; in particular, it is still not clear that they are sufficient to counterbalance the negative effects that migration has on the household in the first place, such as the lost contribution of absent parents on children education. 9.2 Impact on the Financial System The penetration of commercial banks is low in Haiti even by developing world standards. According to the World Bank, in 2009 the banking system only had 339 depositors per 1000 adults. 3 This corresponded to a total number of 2,195,215 deposit 3 World Data Bank Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 14

15 accounts at the end of the year. 4 Given that the number of accounts is only slightly higher today (2,197,368 accounts as of June 30, 2012) 5 access to the banking system has likely not improved much. Even households that have bank accounts tend to limit the frequency of their transactions: the limited number of branches (many were destroyed in the January 2010 earthquake) as well as the bureaucratic nature of the process the time required to complete a transaction is significant (hours). It is not surprising therefore, that cash is the prevalent form of payment and store of value. The heavy reliance on cash creates the need for protection against inflation that in the recent past has rarely been under 10%. This increases demand for the American dollar that is perceived as more stable in terms of buying power. Indeed, the formal banking system itself has not been immune from dollarization and 65% of bank deposits are denominated in dollars. This preference for dollars and cash forces monetary authorities to import large quantities of actual dollar bills; the recent scarcity of these bills has prompted commercial banks to limit the amounts of cash that can be withdrawn from dollar denominated accounts in a day. To the extent that recipients prefer to collect part or all of the funds in the form of dollar bills, remittances contribute to these issues. The preference for cash also heightens the security risks that are associated with its storage and transportation. The recent introduction of mobile money, the transfer of funds through cellular phones, is meant to address some of the issues stemming from the restricted coverage and bureaucratic processes of the national network of commercial bank branches. The search for more efficient and less risky mechanisms for the distribution of cash payments is at least partially driven by the need to channel remittances to recipients that do not have access to banks. There is a definite connection between the international and domestic transfers of funds. 9.3 Impact on the economy In particular, they tend to reduce poverty and inequality in recipient countries, as well as increase aggregate investment and growth. Moreover, thanks to their countercyclical behavior, remittances significantly reduce growth volatility and help countries adjust to external and macroeconomic policy shocks. At the microeconomic level, remittances allow poor recipient households to increase their savings, spend more on consumer durables and human capital, and improve children s health and educational outcomes. 4 According to the central bank, Banque de la République d Haiti (BRH) 5 Ibid Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 15

16 Even though remittances have a positive impact on the development indicators of the recipient economies, the magnitude of the estimated changes tends to be modest. Countries experiencing a surge in remittances tend to also experience a real exchange rate appreciation. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 16

17 Migrants are the most loyal investors while the climate for investment is regularly downgraded by IFC Doing business report despite government efforts. Source: IFC and Zafen.org from Fonkoze After creating a KIVA like funding mechanism for small businesses in Haiti, Fonkoze found that migrants are the main donors (USD 1 million raised through 1500 online user within 2 years creating 760 new jobs in 110 businesses). Katleen Felix is the Diaspora liaison officer of Fonkoze and project director of Zafen. PADF LEAD Leveraging Effective Application of Direct Investments (LEAD) from the Pan American Development Foundation lead This new USAID project aims to attract investments in Haitian SMEs and to increase the development impact of remittances. LEAD will also work with the Haitian Diaspora in the United States and elsewhere to engage them in targeted philanthropic activities, social businesses, and innovative ways to use a portion of remittances to further the development impact of these resources at the local level. The project will also focus on encouraging job creation for women and those with disabilities. Up to 20 Semi-finalists s will be given: - Practical training in critical areas such as business planning, accounting, human resources, and marketing - Guidance in developing a bankable business plan - Individual consultations with business development experts to address the specific concerns of your enterprise - Networking with financial institutions and other entrepreneurs The finalists will be eligible for USAID grants, each of which could be up to US $200,000 that must be matched with private investments at a minimum ratio of 1:1. The program will be repeated and expanded in Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 17

18 10 The local survey 4 were recruited in Port au Prince to carry the interviews during the second half of January 2013 (the 3 letter code is used in the matrix of results): Woodjina STEPHON (WOO) Patricia CHARLES (PAT) Joseph JOHNSON (JON) Stephane DAUPHIN (STE) A large part of the 31 experts were attending the BID conference on the 12 th of September on remittances and consequently have a professional interest on Remittances. The same week, the Ministry of Haitians living abroad (MHAVE) organized a 3 day conference on migrants and their remittances with the participation of Randolph GIBERT, Haitian remittance expert from the regional office of CEPAL in Mexico and a delegation of Mexican representatives of the migrant remittances leverage program Tres per Uno. CEPAL, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, known as ECLAC, UNECLAC or in Spanish CEPAL, is a United Nations regional commission to encourage economic cooperation. Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 18

19 10.1 Semi-structured questionnaire & matrix of results (questions and answers translated in the next paragraph) Evaluation des politiques et des programmes en matière de transferts de fonds Questionnaire Haïti Bonjour, je suis consultant pour l Observatoire des Transferts de Fonds des Migrants du groupe des Pays les Moins Avancés aux Nations Unies. Cette institution basée à Cotonou organise une étude dans 4 pays pilotes : le Lesotho, le Népal, le Bangladesh et Haïti. Dans ce cadre, 30 experts ont été sélectionnés au niveau national pour recueillir vos avis et recommandations et les compiler pour notre groupe national de travail qui se tiendra à la BID le 28 Janvier Merci d avance pour votre coopération. Vos remarques n engagent pas votre institution et représententsimplement un avis personnel lié à votre expertise en matière de transferts. Question 1. Quel est votre rôle spécifique en matière de transfert? Pratiques et comportements des consommateurs 2. Quels sont les paramètres déterminants pour choisir un operateur de transfert (plusieurs réponses possibles) : 3. Constatez-vous des envois réguliers de type mensualisation chez une partie des migrants, par exemple pour le paiement d un loyer ou d une charge récurrente? 4. Notez-vous une part significative des transferts affectés à des investissements productifs (création d entreprise, construction de maison, commerce, paiement de fournisseurs ou de salaires, ) autre que l aide urgente à la famille (nourriture, santé, éducation)? 5. Les femmes ont-elles des pratiques différentes des hommes en matière de transfert? Si oui, lesquelles? 6. Comment mieux répondre aux besoins spécifiques des femmes? Informations données aux clients 7. Sur quel paramètre de couts le client manque-t-il d information? 8. Comment améliorer la transparence et la comparaison de prix? 9. Connaissez-vous un observatoire de comparaison de prix des transferts? Réponse a. Prix b. Rapidité c. Proximité d. Fiabilité/confiance e. Autre : préciser a. Non b. Oui Si Oui, dans quelle proportion : a. Non b. Oui Si Oui, dans quelle proportion : a. Non b. Oui :... a. Coût à l émission b. Coût à la réception (virement bancaire) c. Frais de change d. Autre : préciser. a. Non b. Oui Si Oui lequel: Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 19

20 Barrières et incidents 10. Quels sont les principaux obstacles aux transferts de fonds vers Haïti? 11. Quels sont les types d incidents qui affectent la réception de fonds en Haïti? Propositions d améliorations 12. Pensez-vous que les migrants doivent disposer d un compte au pays pour faciliter leurs opérations et si oui, comment devraient ils le gérer? 13. Pensez-vous que les autorités puissent influer la proportion des transferts destinés aux investissements productifs? Si Oui comment? 14. Quelles propositions feriez-vous aux autorités pour encourager les transferts via des politiques publiques : 15. Quelles sont les autres propositions que vous souhaiteriez faire pour améliorer l impact des transferts sur l économie haïtienne? 16. Pensez vous que les migrants investiraient dans un diaspora bond pour le développement d Haïti? a. Frais élevés b. Délai de réception c. Manque d information sur les alternatives d. Difficulté de communication e. Autre : préciser a. Problème lié à l identification b. Fonds reçus par un mauvais destinataire c. Problème lié a la réglementation d. Litige sur la commission e. Autre incident : préciser. a. Non b. Oui Si Oui : 1. Via une procuration à un proche 2.Par la gestion en ligne (Mobile ou ebanking) 3. Quand il vient au pays 4. Via une agence en Europe ou en Amérique 5. Autre : préciser. a. Non b. Si Oui :... a. Infrastructure nationale de paiement b. Inciter les transferts par des mesures fiscales c. Encourager les transferts par une contribution proportionnelle d. Autre : préciser a. à l envoi des fonds :.. b. à la réception des fonds :.. a. Non b. Oui Si Oui : 1. Obligation d Etat 2. Partenariat Public Privé 3. Initiative internationale 4. Uniquement si lié à un projet d infrastructure (ex : centrale électrique) Nom : Prénom : Organisation : Titre : Portable : Haiti: IMRO study on migrant remittances Page 20

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