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3 8 -,"~2. 11.j LINKING: TODAY'S LIBRARIES, TOMORROW'S TECHNOLOGIES REPORT OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK PilOT PROJECT 1+ Natinal Library f Canada Biblitheque natinale du Canada Ottawa March 1984

4 Canadian Catalguing in Publicatin Data Main entry under title: Linking: tday's libraries, tmrrw's technlgies (Canadian netwrk papers ; n. 7) Text in English and French with French text n inverted pages. Title n additinal t.p.: Le Lien entre les biblitheques d'aujurd'hui et les technlgies de demain. ISBN DSS cat. n. SN12-1/ Library infrmatin netwrks--canada. 2. Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Pilt Prject. I. Natinal Library f Canada II. Title: Le Lien entre les biblitheques d'aujurd'hui et les technlgies de demain. III. Series. Z C3L '5'0971 C E Additinal cpies available frm the Publicatins Sectin f the Public Relatins Office, Natinal Library f Canada, 395, Wellingtn Street, Ottawa, Canada KIA f Supply and Services Canada 1984 Cat. N. SN12-1I ISBN

5 CONTENTS Page 1. Preamble and highlights 5 Part 1 - The Prject and its Findings 2. Backgrund 2.1 Cntext f the pilt prject 2.2 The inet field trial Design f the pilt prject 3.1 Objective and principal cmpnents 3.2 Phases 3.3 Administratin and crdinatin 3.4 Funding and csts 3.5 Legal aspects Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup activities within the inet field trial 4.1 General 4.2 Hardware, sftware, and data base resurces 4.3 Netwrk interfaces 4.4 Directries 4.5 Bibligraphic data derivatin 4.6 Interlibrary lan 4.7 Videtex 4.8 File transfer 4.9 Use f infrmatin services and data bases Other prject wrk 5.1 The Task Grup n Cmputer/Cmmunicatin Prtcls fr Bibligraphic Data Interchange 5.2 Netwrk plicy issues 5.3 Videgraphy subprject 5.4 Netwrk cntract guidelines 5.5 Interlibrary lan and dcument delivery 6. Overview f findings 6.1 General 6.2 Field trial subprject findings 6.3 Plicy aspects: crdinatin f the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup 6.4 Wider plicy aspects

6 Page Part 2 - Prspective Envirnment and Recmmendatins 7. Prspective envirnment 7.1 General 7.2 Plicy aspects 7.3 Netwrk interfaces 7.4 Netwrk directries 7.5 Bibligraphic data derivatin and file transfer 7.6 Interlibrary lan (ILL) 7.7 Videtex 7.8 Use f infrmatin service prviders 7.9 Videgraphy 7.10 Recapitulatin f the features f the prspective envirnment 8. Recmmendat ins 8.1 The need fr cntinued initiatives in Canadian library and infrmatin netwrk develpment 8.2 Cmputer/cmmunicatin prtcls fr interchange within a natinwide library and infrmatin netwrk 8.3 brary and infrmatin netwrk crdinatin 8.4 Access t bibligraphic data bases within a Canadian library and infrmatin netwrk 8.5 Value-added services and gateway functins 8.6 Assessment f library/infrmatin appl icatins f new technlgies 8.7 Natinal Library f Canada resurces Appendix: Abbreviatins and acrnyms 63

7 1. PREAMBLE AND HIGHLIGHTS This reprt f the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Pilt Prject marks the cmpletin f a fur-year effrt undertaken by the Natinal Library Canadian f Canada institutins in cperatin and Telecm with Canada. many This initiative was t investigate fr building a natinwide, ptins available decentralized and vluntary 1 ibrary and infrmatin netwrk as a vehicle t facil itate resurce sharing. The netwrk will be fr the use f libraries large and small, and fr the partici patin f the wi de range include f institutins. thse utilizing These institutins large clsed multiple user netwrks, thse with institutin-specific systems and thse wi th 1 ittl e r n autmated supprt. The netwrk must al s be pen t interactin between 1 ibraries and ther i nfrmatin sectrs, e.g., publishers, cmmercial infrmatin data base prviders, etc. As is nted in this reprt the term "bibligraphic and cmmunicatins netwrk" will be replaced in future by "1 ibrary and infrmatin netwrk." This reflects the feeling f thse invlved in the pil t prj ect that the frmer term was t restrictive a descriptin fr the netwrk being created. Cntext f the Reprt In publishing this reprt we realize that it is nt easy t digest, incrprating as it des a great deal f infrmatin, sme f it inescapably technical in nature. Part 1 f the reprt deals with the pilt prject itself, and Part 2 is cncerned with the prspect i ve env irnment and recmmendatins fr develpment within that future envirnment. Therefre it seems apprpri ate here t pl ace the reprt in the cntext in which it was written. Abut 20 years ag cmputers began t be used in 1ibraries. The 1ibrary functins perfrmed n cmputers at that time were rudimentary fr several reasns: machines were large, expensive, slw, nt very pwerful; they cul d nt supprt n-line input and utput; prgramming techniques were nt sphisticated; and librarians were still 1earning hw t util i ze autmatin in their libraries. Since that time we have seen majr technlgical advances, such as the widespread use f the silicn chip, which have revlutinized the cmputer cmmunicatins fiel d by all wi ng cmputers t becme simultaneusly smaller, mre pwerful, and cheaper, and which have allwed large numbers f terminals t interact in an n-l i ne mde with a hst cmputer. Prg rammi ng 1anguages and techn i ques have becme much mre sphisticated, as have 1 ibrarians' understanding f the pprtunities and cnstraints f autmatin. Cincident tw decades with these develpments were develpments in ver the past telecmmunicatins, such as packet-switched netwrks and satellite transmissin, prviding ecnmical data transmissin ver lng distances. These develpments prvided in thery the pprtunity fr 1 ibraries acrss the cuntry t share the infrmatin in their respective data bases with each ther. Hwever, in practice, there were severe technical impediments t resurce sharing. Cmputers were incmpatible: different makes culd ther, and all nt easily types f cmmunicate term ina 1 s with each cul d nt cmmuni cate with all cmputers. Differi ng frmats fr data were an additinal cnstraint. An electrnic twer f Babel has existed fr sme time. In the late 1970s, internatinal standards bdies achieved a majr breakthrugh by devising a cnceptual mdel fr a series f standards, s-called prtcls, which, when develped and implemented, wuld allw mst makes f cmputers r terminal s t cmmunicate with ther cmputers. Thi s cnceptual mdel is call ed the Open Systems Intercnnectin (r OSI) mdel, and is the mdel adpted in principle by the Natinal Library f Canada in 1979, as the mst 1 ikely strategy by which the decentral ized natinwide 1ibrary and infrmatin netwrk, s much needed by the Canadian library cmmunity, culd be achieved. Thi s reprt, then, represents the resul ts f fur years f research, develpment, cperative experimentatin, and evaluatin t determine if this OSI mdel which held such theretical prmise wuld wrk in practice t achieve a decentralized library and infrmatin netwrk. It marks a milestne in library netwrk develpment in Canada: in the pinin f the large and diverse grup wh wrked n the prject in varius capacities, we have prven that an pen, decentralized, vluntary library and infrmatin netwrk, perating natinwide, is technically feasible. Much remains t be dne befre that netwrk will becme a reality, but the determinatin f the prject participants t wrk tward that end as quickly as pssible is marked. The recmmendatins in Chapter 8 f thi s reprt embdy the frward pl an endrsed by the varius grups and cmmittees invlved; the Bibligraphic Cmmn 'Interest Grup, which participated in the inet field trial, the Natinal Library's Task Grup n Cmputer/ Cmmunicatins Prtcls fr Bibligraphic Data Interchange, and the Natinal Library Advisry Bard and its three cmmittees: the Bi bl igraphi c and Cmmuni cat ins Netw rk Cmmittee, the Resurce Netwrk Cmmittee, and the Cmmittee n Bibligraphy and Infrmatin Services fr the Scial Sciences and Humanities. 5

8 The inet Field Trial in the Cntext f the Overall Pilt Prject Althugh Canadian 1ibrary participatin in the inet field trial munted by Telecm Canada between July 1982 and July 1983 has received the mst pub1icity, it frms nly a part f the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Pilt Prject. Canada has traditinally been a leader in telecmmunicatins technlgy and Telecm Canada's inet Field Trial was ne f the first, if nt the first, attempts in the wrl d t implement the OSI cncept. As such, participating in the trial was an ideal pprtunity fr Canadian 1ibrarians t determine if prtcl s based n the OSI mdel culd be used t make it pssible fr the cmputers in Canadian libraries t cmmunicate with each ther and with ther infrmatin sectrs, and t share data in a way never befre pssible. The inet trial prved this technical feasibility. In the inet trial the OSI standards were implemented largely in ne central cmputer perated by Telecm Canada. This implementatin prvided the supprt services and the cnversin prgrams requi red t intercnnect the varius types f terminals and cmputers. Alternatively, it is pssibl e t implement standard interfaces n each individual cmputer, allwing it then t cmmunicate directly with any ther cmputer having the same standard interfaces. Therefre, the deve 1pment f standard prtcls (i.e., machine-readable messages, thei r frmats, and the. sequence in which they are applied) fr bibligraphic appl icatins has been anther majr thrust in the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Pilt Prject. This wrk has been undertaken by experts under cntract t the Natinal Library and wrking under the directin f its Task Grup n Cmputer/Cmmuni catins Prtcl s fr Bibligraphic Data Interchange. Test implementatins f these prtcls have been and are being undertaken by 1ibraries invlved in the verall pilt prject. This tw-prnged apprach t intercnnecting independent systems prmises t prvide libraries and ther infrmatin sectrs with a chice f buying services necessary t participatin in an pen netwrk frm a telecmmunicatins carrier, f implementing the standard interface packages n thei r wn equi pment, r, mre likely, f using a cmbinatin f bth implementatin methds. The third majr thrust f the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Pilt Prject was t identify plicy and management issues which surfaced as a result f a grup f libraries wrking tgether in this new envirnment f an pen netwrk. An example was the need t determine what type f crdinatin was required, hw it culd best be prvided, and wh culd best carry ut the functin. Achievements t Date and Future Requirements We can with cnfidence present a number f cnclusins, pse a number f questins t be answered in the future, and nte develpment wrk still t be undertaken. We have prven OSI t be a technically valid mdel fr the develpment f standards and prcedures fr a decentral ized 1ibrary and infrmatin netwrk. One can cnnect diverse systems thrugh standard interfaces. inet is a useful surrgate f an pen netwrk, but it is nly ne f several ptential cnfiguratins which can be used t intercnnect incmpatible systems. The OSI mdel prvides the basis fr standards that are independent f hardware, sftware, and technlgy, thereby enabling library services t be prvided using varius mixtures f manual and autmated supprt, amng large clsed netwrks, institutin specific systems, and institutins having little r n autmated supprt. The standard prtcls t effect transfer f data system-t-system were develped and test implemented n several systems. MARC recrds were successfully transferred between these systems. Based n successful use f electrnic mail fr interlibrary lan (ILL) messaging during the trial, a prtcl was develped t supprt the creatin, sending, receiving, and string f standardized ILL messages using micr-cmputers, and cnnect ins t Telecm Canada and CNCP messaging services. A similar prtcl fr bk rder messages was begun. Videtex is useful fr sme, but nt all, f the library applicatins tested, but the cst f creating and maintaining these data bases n cmmercial systems is high. In an pen netwrk, sphisticated directries f the services available n the netwrk are necessary. Bth analgue and digital vidediscs are expected t becme imprtant media fr the strage and retrieva1 f 1ibrary materi a1s and machine-readable data within the next few years. 6

9 Large cmpsite data bases are necessary fr the ILL and cata 1gui ng supprt funct ins. Hwever, it wul d appear that althugh a given institutin can usefully search n mre than five t six data bases fr these functins, the data bases they search will prbably be ne t three lcal r reginal data bases plus systems prviding natinwide services, such as DOBIS, UTLAS and CAN/OLE. Participatin in the inet trial varied greatly frm institutin t institutin and was dependent n many factrs including size, vlume f wrk, functinal rganizatin, and service pririties. This indicates that participatin in a netwrk can differ cnsiderably frm ne institutin t the next depending n institutin-specific factrs, withut prejudice t the netwrk as a whle. Crdinatin f activity ina netwrk is an essential functin and must perate simul taneusly at several level s - netwrk as a whle, cnsrtia, individual institutin, cmmn carrier. Cnstant cmmunicatin amngst all f them is essential. The Cmmn Interest Grup cncept wrked well fr library crdinatin during the inet trial. Many f the plicy issues that surfaced during the trial are f cncern far beynd the 1ibrary and infrmatin netwrk. These include infrmatin service issues, such as charging fr services and wnership f data, issues pertaining t cntracts, and regulatry issues pertaining t prvisin f telecmmunicatin services t be reslved by bth federal and prvincial regul atry bdies. Because there are as many cst and benefit variables as there are institutins participating in a netwrk, and since netwrk partici patin wi 11 be vl untary and "pay as yu g," each institutin will presumably participate in sme r all f the services ffered within the netwrk t the degree that it perceives cst effectiveness fr its wn service prvisin. Therefre, it wuld seem that althugh csts f netwrk participatin can be established fr an individual institutin r shared system, thse csts cannt be assumed t be applicable t anther institutin r shared system, even ne f simil ar type and size. It will be imprtant in the future fr the Natinal Library, as part f its crdinatin functin, t assist institutins in establishing mechanisms fr analyzing the ptins available and their cst effectiveness fr an institutin's netwrk participatin. The Future The findings f the pilt prject indicate three majr challenges ahead fr Canadian librarians. The first challenge is t define the mst efficient and effective impl ementatin f the evlving OSI prtcls t fulfil the needs f a natinwide bibligraphic netwrk. The secnd challenge is t address ecnmic aspects f 1ibrary and infrmatin netwrk develpment and peratin and the ptimum bal ances f centralizatin/decentral izatin fr varius netwrk facilities and functins. It is widely accepted that access t netwrk resurces and services shuld be as decentralized as pssible and that lcal autnmy shul d be preserved. Oifferent bal ances f central izatin/decentral izatin are likely t be fund ptimum fr different netwrk facilities and functins, such as data bases, prcessing, administratin, and management. The third challenge is t agree n mechanisms by which the evlving netwrk can be crdinated, and thrugh which the plicy issues affecting the library/infrmatin cmmunity can be examined and addressed n an nging basis. Given the dynamic nature f high technlgy itself, and its changing impact n sciety as a whle, the prspective envirnment in which the netwrk will develp must be taken int cnsideratin in future plans. The prspective env irnment fr bth pl icy and techn lg ica1 issues is di scussed in Chapter 7, and it is within this envirnment that the nine recmmendatins in Chapter 8 need t be cnsidered. The recmmendatins centre arund the need fr further practical initiatives t build n the wrk f the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Pilt Prject. Specific recmmendatins rel ate t cmputer/cmmunicatin prtcl s fr interchange within a natinwide library and infrmatin netwrk; crdinatin f that netwrk; access t bibligraphic data bases within it; pen netwrk supprt functins and services; assessment f library applicatins f new technlgies; and resurces essential fr the Natinal Library f Canada t cntinue the initiatives begun during the pilt prject. Acknwledgements This reprt is the result f the cmbined cntributin f mre than 100 Canadian librarians, technical experts frm bth the public and private sectrs, and staff f the Canadian telecmmunicatins carriers, all f whm have invested time, mney, and expertise in supprt f the Natinal Library's netwrk develpment prgram ver an extended perid. 7

10 The individuals wh cntributed t this prject are unfrtunately t numerus t mentin separately here. Fi rst and fremst they incl ude the persnnel f the 1ibraries f the Canada Institute fr Infrmatin (CISTI), Scientific Carletn and Technical University, the University f Guelph, l'universite du Quebec, and the University f Waterl. These institutins made a significant investment in time, mney, and expertise in rder t participate in the i Net tri al bth as infrmatin service prviders services. t the trial and They als undertk as users f t crdinate trial the participatin f ther institutins during the trial. Institutins participating thrugh the auspices f ne f the abve include the Library f Parliament, Guelph Public Library, the Industrial Research Institute, Kitchener Public Library, Materials Research Institute at McMaster University, Natinal Research Cuncil's Natinal Aernautical Establishment, and the Ontari 0 Mid-Western Reginal Li brary Centre. The success f library participatin in the inet field trial was in great part due t the enthusiasm, cmmitment, and cperatin f the management and staff f these institutins thrughut the trial perid. Netwrk Cmmittee, and the Cmmittee n Bi bl igraphy and Infrmatin Services fr the Scial Sciences and Humanities, prvided plicy directin, advice, and encuragement thrughut the pilt prject perid. Prgress twards a natinwide 1ibrary and infrmatin netwrk has been greatly fstered by the enthusi asm and supprt f the 1arge number f individuals and institutins wh have invested their time, mney, and expertise in netw rk develpment t date inca nada. The desire f these individuals and institutins als t participate in the next phase f cperat i ve develpment prv i des the fi rm bas is n which a vluntary netwrk can be realized. With thi s ev idence ne can be cnfi dent that, given the necessary resurces, the Canadian library and infrmatin cmmunity will wrk tgether t realize a vluntary decentralized natinwide library and infrmatin netwrk. Cynthia J. Durance Directr Office fr Netwrk Develpment Natinal Library f Canada We wuld als like t thank Telecm Canada fr its cnduct f the inet field trial and its cnsiderable subsidy f library participatin in it. The staff f Tel ecm Canada's Natinal Systems Grup were unfai 1ingly hel pful and sensitive t ur requirements and cncerns. The resurces made av ai 1ab 1e t the Nat i na 1 Library f Canada by the federal gvernment ver a perid f three years made pssible the planning, crdinatin, and evaluatin f the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Pilt Prject. The primary peratinal respnsibility fr these functins fell t my staff in the Offi ce fr Netwrk Develpment, and thei r dedicatin, imaginatin, and teamwrk thrughut the planning, cnduct, and reprt writing phases f the pilt prject were instrumental t its success. The persnnel f the Natinal Library as a whle prvided invaluable supprt and willing acceptance f the inevitable additinal wrklad engendered by prject participatin and eval uatin. The cntributin f Guy Syl vestre, the frmer Natinal Librarian, was essential t the inceptin and realizatin f the pilt prject. Last, but nt least, the imprtant cntributin f members past and present f the several advisry bdies t the Natinal Library is acknwledged. The Task Grup n Cmputer/ Cmmunicatins Prtcls fr Bibligraphic Data Interchange prvided expert technlgical advice essential t prject pl anning and evaluatin. The Natinal Library Advisry Bard and its three cmmittees, the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Cmmittee, the Resurce 8

11 2. BACKGROUND PART 1: THE PROJECT AND ITS FINDINGS 2.1 Cntext f the pilt prject A number f imprtant develpments during the past five years have created new ptins and pprtunities fr access t services prvided by libraries and ther sectrs f Canada's infrmatin industry. Develpments include maj r imprvements in cst/perfrmance f cmputer/cmmunicatins systems, the intrductin f new technlgies r new blends f existing technlgies, and the intrductin f new and/r imprved services based n these new develpments. It was partially in recgnitin f this rapidly changing envirnment that the Natinal Librarian recmmended in his FUtupe f the Natinal Libmpy that Canadian libraries shuld adpt a pragmatic, vluntary apprach in wrking twards a mre effective natinwide bibligraphic netwrk 1 A particular cncern fr which a pragmatic apprach was desirable was the extent t which it was feasible and cst-effective t decentralize varius functins. While it was generally agreed that access functins shuld be decentralized, it was far less clear t what extent it was feasible and cst-effective t decentralize varius peratins, services, and data bases. Fllwing general acceptance by the library cmmunity f this recmmended apprach, the Natinal Library selected the Open Systems Intercnnectin (OSI) mde12 as the basis n which data culd be interchanged effectively amng autnmus hetergeneus systems. Investigatin and recmmendatin f specific prcedures, r prtcls, fr the interchange f bibl igraphic data within "the OSI framewrk t supprt the develpment f a mre effective natinwide bibligraphic netwrk, was delegated t the Task Grup n Cmputer/Cmmunicatins Prtcls fr Bibligraphic Data Interchange. T assist issues and in defining and prblems relating reslving plicy t bibligraphic cmmunicatin netwrk develpment, the Natinal Library Advisry Bard created the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Cmmittee. The Bard al s created the Resurce Netwrk Cmmittee t examine the mst cst-effective means f ensuring the bradest pssible util izatin f Canadian libraries' services and cllectins. At the same time, the Bard changed the name and extended the terms f reference f the frmer Cmmittee n Bi bl igraphical Services fr Canada. This -Bibl igraphy cmmittee was and Infrmatin renamed Cmmittee n Services fr the Scial Sciences and Humanities. The mandate f this cmmittee was enlarged t enable it t functin as the sci al sciences and humanities cunterpart t the Natinal Research Cuncil f Canada's Advisry Bard n Scientific and Technlgical Infrmatin. Cincident with these initiatives t further library and infrmatin netwrk develpment, the Cmputer Cmmunicatins Grup (CCG) f the TransCanada Telephne System (TCTS)3 had designed a suite f val ue-added data cmmuni cat ins serv ices t fac il itate data interchange between independent systems. Furthermre, t verify the need and util ity f these services, it had devised the intelligent netwrk (inet) Gateway Field Trial. Fllwing apprpriate cnsultatin and verificatin that the inet field trial wuld further the develpment bjectives f a natinwide bibligraphic netwrk, the Natinal Library undertk t crdinate the participatin f the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup (BCIG) in this trial, ne f the nine such grups representing varius Canadian industrial and science sectrs. The verall fi e 1d t ri ali s generally desc ri bed in Sectin 2.2 belw; the BCIG prtin f the field trial is reprted in detail in Sectin 4 belw. 2.2 The inet field trial The ne-year inet field trial cmmenced in July Its basic service cncept, as impl emented in the trial, was t prvide the business and infrmatin cmmunities with imprved facilities fr btaining and using cmputer-based infrmatin services. The principal bjective f 1. The FUtupe f the Natinal Canada (Ottawa: Natinal Canada, 1979), pp Libmpy Library f f 2. InfPmatin ppeessing Sustems Open Systems Intepenneetin - Basie Refepenee Mdel: ISO? (E) ([Geneva:] ISO, 1983). 3. As f September 13, 1983, TCTS was renamed Telecm Canada. Earl ier in 1983, CCG was renamed Natinal Systems Grup (NSG). The new names are used thrughut the reprt. 9

12 Natinal Systems Grup (NSG) 1 in cnducting the t ri a 1 was t defi ne need sand requi rements as a step twards marketing tariffed services fllwing apprval by the Canadian Radi-Televisin and Telecmmunicatins Cmmissin (CRTC). Participants in the trial cnsisted f tw funct i na 11y d i st i net grups: cmmn interest grups and cmmercial infrmatin service prviders. Cmmn interest grups were cmprised f parts f a cmpany r rganizatin r were grups f rganizatins with cmmn infrmatin. messaging. and service requirements. Infrmatin service prviders were rganizatins making infrmatin available n a prfit. nn-prfit. r n-charge basi s. Sme cmmn interest grup members were als infrmatin service prviders. Nine cmmn interest grups participated in the trial: banking. bradcasting. bibligraphic. gvernment. legal. manufacturing. petrleum. real estate. and travel. The Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup had the largest number f participating institutins; it cnsisted f the Natinal Library f Canada (NLC). in the dual rle f grup crdinatr and prject participant. the Canada Institute fr Scientific and Technical Infrmatin (CIST!). and the 1 ibraries f Carl etn University. the Universite du Quebec. the University f Guelph. and the University f Waterl. T facil itate a meaningful eval uatin f bibl igraphic appl icatins f the technlgy available in the inet Trial. these participants agreed t prvide descriptins f the telecmmunicatins technlgy used. f the envirnment in which the technlgy perated. f the prcess f pilt implementatin. and f f effectiveness the results f and impact. the pilt in terms This descriptin and analysis wuld in turn prvide an infrmatin base fr develping cnclusins and recmmendatins at the cmpletin f the trial. The cnclusins and recmmendatins wuld address issues such as: the feasi bil ity f an OSI-like r "pen" netwrk. the applicability f existing and bibligraphic emerging applicatins technlgy. which ptential culd be effectively supprted by this technlgy. management and plicy implicatins f netwrk implementatin. and netwrk implementatin requi rements. Infrmatin service prviders included: BC Tel (Telidn); Bell Canada (Vista); Canada Systems Grup Ltd.; CIRPA/ ADISQ; Cncrd Publ i shi ng Ltd.; Inf Glbe (New Yrk Times and Marketscan); Infmart (Grassrts. Cantel and ORBIT); Infrmatech; I. P. Sharp Ltd.; Macl ean-hunter 1. See prev i us nte. Ltd. (Financial Pst Investment Databank); NB Tel (Datavisin); Official Ai rl ine Guide; QL Systems Ltd. This list is nt exhaustive since sme ther services nt listed in the inet public directry culd als be accessed by arrangement. The services f Dialg Infrmatin Services Inc. 'are an exampl e in thi s cntext. The data bases frm these cmpanies represented the very brad scpe f cmmercially available resurces accessible by the trial participants. NSG underwrte the cst s f user behav i ura 1 research. the cll ectin f data traffic and ther usage statistics. script develpment fr ENVOY100 messaging services. telecmmunicatin csts t and frm the netwrk. sftware and hardware fr the trial netwrk access nde. access t the Vista database. videtex user terminals. and strage and prcessing charges f videtex cntent prvided by the cmmn interest grups. All cntractual bl igatins undertaken by the participants and by NSG were slely fr the duratin f the trial and ceased at the end f the trial. The i Net tri al prvided a packet-switched interface fr three kinds f terminals: alphanumeric integrated terminals. videtex vice/data terminals. Displayphnes. ~~d Alphanumeric terminals included any asynchrnus ASCII terminal which culd interface t Datapac 3101 via Videtex private. terminals leased. had the r dial-up line~. fundamental capabilitietins detail ed in Tel idn the Department speci ficatin f Cm:runica- 699-E fr graphics and character cding. All videtex terminals were equipped with alphanumeric keybards fr accessing the netwrk-cnnected databases. Di spl ayphnes cmbined mst f the features f the alphanumeric and alphagemetric terminals including a built-in-mdem (1200/150 BPS). autdialer. data strage. sft keys. numeric keypad. full keybard. and parallel prt printer interface. The t ri a1 netw rk access nde (TNAN). the i Net service hst. facilitated access t infrmatin services thrugh directries which cntained user prfil es and hst system service descri p- tins. The TNANinterfaced with the trial hsts via the Datapac packet-switched netwrk. Similarly. the inet-cnnected hsts which prvided n-line services t trial participants al s supprted packet-swi tched data cmmunicatin by implementing CCITT X.25 Interactive 2. See H. G. Bwn et al., Pi~tur'e Des~r'iptin Instr'u~tins (PDI) fr' the Telidn videtex System (Ottawa: Department f Cmmunicatins. Cmmunicatins Research Centre. 1979) 10

13 Terminal Hst Interface supprt sftware. 1 The inet trial supprted apprximately 400 terminal s acrss Canada and terminal sin sme Canadian embassies arund the wrld. Fr practical reasns, all inet field trial hsts were in Nrth America, and the verwhelming majrity were lcated in the prvinces f Ontari and Quebec. Majr features f inet as tested in the trial included accessibility; terminal supprt; user authenticatin and administratin; n-line directries f services; aut-access t netwrk-cnnected infrmatin data bases; persnal and administrative messaging; system management; and security. These features are utlined in turn belw. The netwrk culd be entered frm virtually any lcatin in Canada via Datapac, direct distance dial ing, r via dedicated circuit service. Datapac prvides links t the United States and ther internatinal packet-switched netwrks. A wide range f terminals, as utlined abve, culd be used t access the netwrk. editing, multiple addressing with ptins (such as urgent, private, registered, return receipt, and timed del ivery), and an ptin which prvided prmpts t the user fr specific appl icatin-dependent infrmatin. Systems management invlved the mnitring and prvisin f diagnstics t inet-cnnected hsts, terminals, and ther facilities. Security measures were carried ut thrugh such functins as authenticatin and limitatins n access impsed by hst systems. Figure 1 illustrates the user access t infrmatin services which was prvided in the inet field trial. Users emplyed alf~anumeric, alpha-gemetric and Displayphne terminals t access varius infrmatin services. The terminals were als used fr messaging. Figure 2 illustrates hst and terminal intercnnectins in the field trial. User authenticatin identified each user and defined the user's interactin with the netwrk by specifying, fr example, what data bases the user was authenticated t access. User administratin included aspects such as inet perating instructins, "help" messages, and updating f directries. The inet directries cnsisted f three separate types f indexes f accessible data base services: the public directry, the rganizatin directry, and the persnal directry. The public directry prvided a cnslidated listing f all public infrmatin services available thrugh inet. The rgani zatin directry restricted data bases t certain users r user grups. The persnal directry permitted a user t access a selected service with a single keystrke after having lgged n t inet. Directry facil ities are described in mre detail in Sectin 4.4. Simpl Hied access t data bases prvided autmatic access t successive hsts, making the lg-n prcedures t these hsts transparent t the user. All accredited users al s had access t the ENVOY 100 messaging system, which permitted persnal and grup messaging, text 1. Cmite cnsultatif internatinal telegraphique et telephni que, Inter'faae Between Data Temtinal Equipment (DTE) and Data Cir'auit-temtinating Equipment (DCE) fr' Temtinals Oper>ating in the Paaket Mde n Publia Data Netwr'ks: Dr'aft Revised Reammendatin X.25 ([Geneva], ITU, 1980). 11

14 TERMINALS inet Gateway Trial d&ju {$ J~ DISPLAYPHONE INFO/SERVICE PROVIDERS COPMlN INTEREST GROUPS ALPHA-GEOMETRIC ~.. OTHE~ ALPHA-NUMERI C FIGURE 1: DIAGRAM SHOWING USER ACCESS TO INFORMATION SERVICES VIA ;Net 12

15 inet Hst X.25 BCIG HOSTS (1) HTH Electr- I \ Vide- " '\ X.25 ni c Mail I tex \ Hst " Public Hst (3 ) Data Netwrk \ X.25 \ (Datapac) X.25 \ " I I \ "- \ "- \ \ "- '- \ '- \ '\ " '\ Inf Servi ce Hsts (2) FIGURE 2: DIAGRAMSHOWINGHOST AND TERMINAL INTERCONNECTIONSIN THE inet FIELD TRIAL 1. Several hst systems f the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup (BCIG) had n internal X.25 supprt, and interacted with the Datapac netwrk via external custm PADs (packet assemblydisassembly) and the HTH (hst terminal handlers). 2. Infrmatin service prviders are listed abve in the text. They included Infmart (Grassrts, Cantel and ORBIT), Infrmatech, I.P. Sharp Ltd., and QL Systems Ltd., amng thers. 3. Each f the BCIG partici pants develped a videtex data base n the Busi ness Tel idn System prvided by NSG fr the trial. Other videtex infrmatin service prviders included BC Tel, Bell Canada (Vi sta), CIRPAjADISQ, and NB Tel (Datavisin). 4. The user terminal ppulatin cnsisted f 250 alphagemetric and 150 alphanumeric terminals. 13

16 3. DESIGN OF THE PILOT PROJECT 3.1 Objective and principal cmpnents The bjective f the prject was t test the applicatin f new telecmmunicatins technlgy t bibl igraphic data interchange. The federal gvernment allcated additinal resurces t the Natinal Library t act in the rles f prject crdinatr and prject participant. Resurces t supprt crdinatin were prvided fr the Natinal Library t cntinue its crdinating rle fr libraries in the develpment f a cperative natinwide decentral ized bibl igraphic netwrk. The principal cmpnents f the prject were: a) General prject administratin and crdinatin. b) Participatin f the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup in the inet Fie1d Tria1 cmprising seven technical subprjects value added netwrk interfaces. directries. bibligraphic data derivatin. interlibrary lan. videtex. file transfer. and use f infrmatin prviders. c) Develpment f cmputer/cmmunicatins prtcls fr bibligraphic data interchange. d) Netwrk plicy issues. e) Videgraphy subprject. f) Netwrk cntract guidelines. g) Interlibrary lan and dcument delivery plicies and practices in Canada. General prject administratin and crdinatin is described in Sectin 3.3 belw. The Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup's participatin in the inet Field Trial is described in Sectin 4. The remaining cmpnents are treated in Sectin Phases The prject had fur main phases: Initial planning phase: May June Preparatry phase: June July Operatinal phase: July July Reprting phase: July Nvember In the initial planning phase. the NLC Office fr Netwrk Develpment wrked clsely with staff frm Telecm Canada's Natinal Systems Grup t assess the ptential f the inet field trial fr bibl igraphic appl icatins. Satisfied that the trial had sufficient features f ptenti al util ity fr 1 ibraries t warrant participatin. the Natinal Librarian sent a letter f intent t the NSG in December stating the Natinal Library's intent t crdinate libraries' participatin in the field trial. Precnditins f participatin were that NLC btain gvernment funding fr participatin. and that members f the BCIG be agreed t jintly by NSG and NLC. In February 1981 five ptential participants were invited t meet with NLC and NSG t hear an explanatin f the prpsed trial features and t assess their interest in participatin. The criteria used in identifying the ptential participants are utlined in Sectin belw. During the perid February 1981 t July NLC and the five rgani zatins planned thei r partici patin in the trial. The preparatry phase f the prject cmmenced in June 1981 when NLC received funding apprval in principle fr the prject. This phase included detailed preparatins fr the inet field trial including design f the prjects t be undertaken by the BCIG during the trial. The peratinal phase f the prject cnsi sted f the ne year inet field trial. which cmmenced July Reprt writing fr varius aspects f the prject cmmenced cnsiderably befre July but nly became the majr prject activity after the end f the field trial in July Administratin and crdinatin General The Natinal Library crdinated the prject thrugh its Offi ce fr Netwrk Develpment. in cnsultatin with three advisry bdies. Techni ca1 aspects f the prject requi ring cnsultatin were referred t the Natinal Library's Task Grup n Cmputer/Cmmunicatins Prtcls fr Bibligraphic Data Interchange. Plicy aspects f the prject requiring cnsultati n were referred. as apprpri ate. t tw cmmittees f the Natinal Library Advi sry Bard. the Bibligraphic and Cmmunicatins Netwrk Cmmittee. and the Resurce Netwrk Cmmittee. The Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup's participatin 1n the inet Field Trial was crdinated by the Natinal Library in cperatin with the BCIG participants and with NSG. The cmpsitin f the BCIG. and the respective crdinating rles f the NLC Office fr Netwrk 14

17 Develpment, f the BCIG parti ci pants, and f NSG are utlined in Sectins belw. Peat, Marwick and Partners, cntracted by NLC as independent cnsultants, cntributed t develping evaluatin methdlgies, t data cllectin, and t data analysis and interpretatin Cmpsitin f the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup Specific criteria were used in identifying the ptential participants. Each participant had t reside within the gegraphic area f the trial (Mntreal, Ottawa, Trnt)1 and have a stand-alne, peratinal, and stable n-line system. The grup as a whle needed t remain small in rder t maximize crdinated research and develpment, but at the same time, in rder t test diverse systems interfaces, it needed t pssess hardware and sftware systems as varied as pssible. The diversity f types f data bases, in terms f scpe, 1anguage f cntent (English and French), and functin (infrmatin retrieval, catalguing, circulatin), was als a cnsideratin. Each participant needed t be in a psit in t devte the necessary human and financial resurces t participate in the trial and t agree t carry ut necessary data cllectin and evaluatin. In additin, preference was given t institutins that had expressed an urgent requi rement fr access t 1arge 1ibrary and infrmatin data bases. In additin t the Natinal Library and the Canada Institute fr Scientific and Technical Infrmatin (CIST!), the institutins which agreed t participate as bth users and infrmatin prviders were Carl etn University, Universite du Quebec, University f Guelph, and the University f Waterl. Althugh there were nly six direct, r cre, participants in the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup, abut 26 1ibraries tk part in the trial in varius capacities. Several f the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup participants subsequently prvided terminals t ther libraries: CISTI placed terminal s with the Natinal Research Cuncil Industrial Material s Research Institute in Mntreal, with the Natinal Research Cuncil Natinal Aernautical Establishment in Ottawa, and with McMaster University. NLC prvided a terminal fr the Library f Parliament. The 1. The gegraphic area f the trial was subsequently extended natinwide, but by that time the BCIG had been frmed and had wrked tgether fr mre than a year, and therefre was nt itself extended. University f Guel ph placed a terminal in the Guel ph Publ ic Library. The University f Waterl prvided terminals t the Kitchener Public Library and t the Mid-Western Reginal Library System. The Universite du Quebec had terminals in the libraries f five f its campuses. In additin, libraries in the Canadian Bradcasting Crpratin/Sciete Radi- Canada, Gul f Canada Limited, and the Ryal Bank f Canada tk part in the inet field trial, althugh nt as part f the Bibligraphic Cmmn Interest Grup. Therefre university, gvernment, public, and special libraries used the services that were available in the verall inet field trial Crdinating rle f the NLC Office fr Netwrk Develpment The Nat ina 1 Library undertk t rgan ize, hst, subsidize, and recrd the minutes f all BCIG meetings. Meetings were scheduled and held when the participants felt they were necessary. On average a meeting was held every tw mnths, but the meetings were mre frequent immediately befre trial start-up and as the trial was ending. Between February 1981 and September 1983, the BCIG met n 17 ccasins. Tpics cvered at these meetings included: Setting f bjectives fr BCIG participatin in the trial and fr each subprject. Detail ed desi gn f each subprj ect and identificatin f the institutins that wuld participate in each subprject, and cnstraints n this participatin. Details, difficulties and slutins pertinent t applicatin develpment and peratins. Evaluatin plans, prcedures and prblems. Exchange f infrmatin, bth general and detailed, between the institutins and NSG. Regular updates frm NSG cncerning the evlving technical capabilities and limitatins f the trial value-added services. Feedback frm the BCIG t NSG and between participating institutins cncerning evlving requirements, capabilities, and limitatins arising frm cntinued participatin. Administrative requirements, prcedures and deadlines fr trial start-up and peratin. Cntract prvisins. Public relatins. 15

18 In retrspect, these meetings prved invaluable and cntributed in large measure t the success f the BCIG trial participatin. They prvided what the participants cnsidered t be an essential frum fr the exchange f infrmatin, prblem slving, the clearing f misunderstandings, and the creatin f an atmsphere f mutual supprt beneficial t all. In the interval between BCIG meetings, OND staff assumed respnsibility fr liaisn, trublesht ing, ass istance in deve 1pment and crdinatin f planning fr the participants befre, during, and after the trial. In general, OND carried ut functins r prcedures which were required by sme r all f the participants, and acted as a cntact in discussins with NSG. These functins included: Plicy cnsideratins as these emerged. Research int the uses f varius technlgies. Assistance in the develpment and implementatin f the varius subprjects at the varius institutins. Site visits when necessary. Liaisn with the crdinatrs at NSG n behalf f the BCIG. Disseminatin f infrmatin, bth general and detailed frm NSG t the BCIG. Crdinatin f the cntent f the directries pages and updates fr each BCIG hst. Assistance in translatin f directries pages; liaisn with BCIG t achieve a limited degree f unifrmity f presentatin in the directries. Cnsul tat in with Peat, Marwick and Partners t design the evaluatin methdlgy and data cllectin instruments; site visits t set up and explain data cllectin prcedures. Management f schedul es fr data cll ectin by trial participants and by NSG. Prvisin f assistance in trubleshting prblems assciated with BCIG hst cnnectins t inet. Planning and cnducting demnstratins bth at NLC and at cnferences. Respnding t general inquiries cncerning the trial and writing press releases, giving speeches, and publ ishing papers n the BCIG participatin in the trial. Negtiatin f trial plicies and prcedures with NSG n behalf f the BCIG. Preparatin f subprject eval uatin reprts and the final reprt f the trial. In additin, as is nted in ther sectins f this reprt, the Natinal Library prvided sme financial supprt t the grup, and assisted in the reslutin f legal prblems. Cnsultatin and jint prblem-slving with the participant rganizatin administratrs Crdinating rle f participants Crdinatin f the types f terminal sand telecmmunicatins lines that were installed at each 1cat in and changes in these installatins during the trial. Crdinatin f inet training fr BCIG at trial start-up. Crdinatin f the creatin and updating f interlibrary lan scripts n ENVOY 100. Disseminatin and eval uatin f infrmatin abut nn-bcig infrmatin service prviders t the BCIG, and crdinatin f training requirements. Analysis and distributin f mnthly statistics received frm NSG. Cnsultatin and advice regarding the creatin f videtex data bases, particul arly when the creatin was cntracted t the private sectr. The participants attended BCIG meetings, cntributed t the design f verall subprjects and f thse fr their respective institutins, develped and implemented the subprjects, handl ed all trub 1esht ing fr thei r wn hst system, crdinated data cllectin and training n bth inet and Infrmatin Service Prvider (ISP) systems, arranged demnstratins, gave speec~es, and/r wrte papers n the inet trial, negtl ated cntracts and agreements, funded their wn participatin as required, and negtiated plicy matters with NSG and the BCIG. An rganizati?n a~min~st[atr was ~esignated in each BCIG lnstltutln t asslst in the administratin f the inet Field Trial serving as the main link between the users in the 1. At NLC, OND inet crdinatrs als acted as the NLC rganizatin administratrs. 16

19 institutin and the ISPs, and as the principal cntact between the institutin and NSG. Organizatin administratrs prvided user supprt, acquired accunt cdes n ISPs' systems fr their users, arranged fr relcatin r remval f NSG-prvided lines and terminals, arranged fr changes t certain parts f user prfil es, and t persnal and rgani zatin directries, and interfaced with the NSG Truble Reprting Centre fr prblems relating t the use f inet and t the ISPs in the netwrk. All BCIG rganizatin administratrs dealt directly with NSG fr administrative arrangements cncerning the intercnnectin f their hst system with Datapac and the Netwrk Access Nde (NAN), including all ther institutin-specific arrangements fr tria1 sta rt-u p and pe rat in. In add itin, they kept and infrmed abut netwrk technical and management arrangements and difficulties, s that an peratinal verview f the BCIG trial participatin as a whle existed thrughut the trial. It is imprtant t nte that in mst cases BCIG participants tk the respnsibility f crdinating the participatin f satellite libraries within their area/institutin, and that in participating libraries, peratinal branches r units cntri buted sta ff, time, and effrt t supprt the prject Crdinating rle f NSG Since the NSG was cnducting the inet Field Trial, it bviusly had t crdinate all aspects f the trial. Hwever, in this reprt, cmments are cnfined t its rle in terms f the BCIG nly. A NSG staff member was designated as general cntact fr the BCIG, as well as t ther Cmmn Interest Grups. NSG staff were present at all BCIG meetings, at 1east part f the time. In additin, ther NSG staff were designated t handle specific functins, such as directries, systems interfaces, infrmatin service prviders, terminals and lines, cntracts, behaviural research studies, statistics, and plicy. During the trial the Truble Reprting Centre in Trnt handl ed all technical cmmunicatin prblems Public relatins The Natinal Library's Office fr Netwrk Develpment crdinated public relatins activities f the BCIG during the pre-trial and trial perids. Since the grup was privy t certain cnfidential infrmatin cncerning each institutin's participatin and t NSG technical infrmatin and develpment plans, this frm f crdinatin seemed necessary. there was a need t ensure that cmmunity wuld be prvided with up-t-date infrmatin abut the prgress f the trial. Furthermre, the 1ibrary accurate and cnduct and Therefre there was agreement amngst the BCIG that and wuld be cnsulted befre participants made pub1ic presentat ins, presented frmal demnstratins, r published articles r papers. Since interest in the trial was high within the bibligraphic cmmunity, the functins f the trial technlgy were cmplex, and participants' implementatins varied, it was imprtant t have crd inatrs with an verall perspect ive n the trial dynamics. Persnnel frm all BCIG institutins made numerus presentatins, gave demnstrat ins and wrte papers presenting either their wn institutins's view f the trial r the grup's as a whle, r bth. Hwever, the largest prtin f the public relatins activity fr the BCIG fell t the persnnel f the and, wh published several articles, gave many speeches, and rganized n-line demnstratins at fur majr cnferences, tw f them fr inter,natinal audiences. They al s prvided n-demand demnstratins t NLC visitrs bth frm Canada and abrad. NSG prvided cnsiderable technical assistance and equipment fr the majr demnstratins, and persnnel frm BCIG institutins assisted NLC in giving demnstratins. 3.4 Funding and csts BCIG participatin in the field trial was subsidized by bth NSG and the Natinal Library. The remainder f this subsectin details the types f resurces which NSG, NLC, and participants suppl ied. In a research and develpment prject f this nature it was pssible t simul ate peratinal use f the technlgy t the extent needed t determine whether the technlgy wul d supprt 1ibrary services. It was nt pssible t simulate a true-t-life peratinal envirnment in which all services and facilities used were charged fr n a pay-fr-use basis, and in which wrklads and transactin vlumes were at currently nrmal levels fr each institutin. In this situatin, which was freseen during the prject planning phase, it was nt pssible t make a rel iable evaluatin f the ecnmic aspects f the use f the technlgy fr library applicatins. During the inet Field Trial, the NSG suppl ied the BCIG with a ttal f 27 alphagemetric terminal sand 25 Di spl ayphnes, and underwrte all installatin and maintenance charges fr these terminals. NSG als absrbed the csts f all telecmmunicatins between the hst systems and the Netwrk Access Nde (NAN) and between 17

20 the terminal s and the NAN. There was al s n charge fr ENVOY messaging amngst the participants fr the duratin f the tri al nr "fr cnnect time t the value-added services. f inet. NSG als prvided mnthly statistics t all participants and infrmatin service prviders. In additin, NSG suppl ied assistance t the BCIG in munting demnstratins f inet in varius lcatins - Mntreal, Quebec City, Banff, and Winnipeg. The Natinal Library subsidized the travel expenses fr the BCIG meetings fr the six cre participants, i.e., thse that were bth users f inet and infrmatin service prviders t it. Other user participants were welcme t attend, but at their wn expense. NLC als let cntracts fr the design and impl ementatin f varius develpments in supprt f the seven subprjects, and munted inet demnstratins with the assistance f the NSG at varius library cnferences - IFLA, ASTED, CARL/ARL, and CLA. During the immediate pre-trial perid (mid-march t mid-july 1982), the Natinal Library paid ENVOY administrative messaging charges fr the BCIG trial crdinatrs. The Natinal Library cntracted wi th Peat, Marwi ck and Partners t cntribute t the technical evaluatin f inet fr the BeIG as a whle. In additin t the financial utlay assciated with applicatin develpment and design, the crdinatin f trial evaluatin, secretariat/truble-shting functins, public relatins and ther crdinatin verhead amunted t apprximately seven persn-years f effrt at NLC each year. This was prvided by NLC. The BCIG institutins participating as ISPs each funded the develpment f the necessary sftware t interface their system t the trial netwrk access nde, paid fr thei r wn al phanumeri c terminals and lines, and prvided staff time and partial funding fr the design and impl ementatin f the subprjects in which they participated. They als crdinated all the inet activities within their wn institutins, and cmpleted the necessary data cllectin fr bth the NSGI and the BCIG2 evaluatin effrts. The nn-inet csts f using inet-cnnected infrmatin service prviders were a participant respnsi bil ity, as were the csts f any training n ISP data bases 3 The use f inet services varied greatl y frm institutin t institutin during the trial. Therefre the csts f participatin varied als. Any cmparisn f use f inet services during the field trial with prpsed market trial rates is dangerus since it assumes that institutinal usage patterns wuld remain unchanged in a tariffed envirnment. 3.5 Legal aspects Letters f intent were participant and NSG prir nn-di sclsure agreement f passwrds, access IDs, hst systems. signed between each t the trial, as was a cvering the security and accunt numbers t Participants als signed inet Field Trial agreements between themsel ves and NSG, and a BCIG agreement between themsel ves and the Natinal Library pertaining t cperative arrangements and respnsibilities. T assi st the BCIG, OND staff wrked with NLC lawyers t negtiate cntentius clauses in the agreement with NSG. Each institutin was respnsible fr any cntracts required between itself and in.et-cnnected infrmat in serv ice prv iders. 1. NSG and its subsidiary, BNR, cnducted a number f surveys t determine user reactin t varius value-added services and t assess individual perceptins f these. 2. BCIG participants established individual and grup evaluatin bjectives fr the trial. In additin, each institutin plus its satellites cntributed t the design, data gathering, and interpretatin f results. 3. NSG rganized and subsidized ne meeting f ISPs t enable them t discuss their respective data bases and services. 18

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