Unit 2 Fashion victims

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1 Unit 2 Fashion victims influence Thème : La soumission aux modes Le besoin de plaire ou de s affirmer peut conduire à se soumettre inconsidérément à l influence, voire aux diktats de la mode, dans l habillement, les accessoires, voire le remodelage du corps. La notion de «victime de la mode» englobe non seulement ces «consommateurs» de la mode, mais aussi les présentateurs de la mode (notamment les mannequins débutants soumis aux humeurs des couturiers) et les fabricants de la mode, notamment les ouvriers exploités dans les ateliers plus ou moins clandestins. Aspects du thème Documents du manuel manuel Workbook guide Les composantes de la mode : vêtements, accessoires, bijoux, cosmétiques. Adult doll clothes (picture) L éternel féminin et sa contrepartie masculine. Girls will be girls A. Munro, The Love of a Good Woman Les caractéristiques des victimes de la mode. How to spot a fashion victim... D. Pemberton-Sikes, L histoire du «blue jeans», vêtement emblématique, et de son créateur. Point de départ de la fabrication du «jeans», ville aux mille facettes. Faces & Places Levi Strauss San Francisco La mode peut mettre en jeu notre santé. Is nothing safe? The Guardian La chirurgie esthétique : jusqu où aller? My nose Philip Roth, Goodbye, Columbus The foot facelift Doc. audio Des positions différentes face à la mode. Have Your Say How do you feel about fashion? Les coulisses de la mode. Frock Horror The Sunday Telegraph L exploitation de certains ouvriers de la mode. The real fashion victims Katie Franklin, A.B.C. Dirty Secret The Independent Objectifs majeurs lexique visage, beauté, chirurgie esthétique, vêtements, accessoires, modes, souffrance, conditions de travail grammaire formes en -ing ; présent et prétérit simples ; will, would ; quantifieurs communication comparaison et contraste ; conseil ; reproche ; gap-fillers et tournures spécifiques à l oral phonologie lien graphie-phonie <o> ; accent des mots en <-ion> ; intonation dans les énumérations culture méthodologie définitions multiples de fashion victim ; l histoire du blue jeans ; le monde de Peanuts ; l Australie méthodes pour mémoriser du lexique ; analyse de B.D. et de publicités ; réalisations de Travaux Personnels Encadrés culturels ; grille transférable de compréhension orale 40

2 Workbook Lexique Approfondissement Grammaire Compréhension Méthodologie Phonologie des documents et expression 1 Key words 3 Q5 page 26 4 V-ing or infinitive 7 Writing about a comic strip (How to U1) 12B Writing about an ad (How to U10) 5 Lien graphiephonie <o> 2 Toiletries 13 Transparent words and false friends 9A Dérivation 9B Oral expression about fashion 15 How to memorize vocabulary 6 Accent des mots en <-ion> 11 Plastic surgery 10 Dos and don ts 16 Using etymology 8 Intonation & énumérations 12A The face 15 Ordre des adjectifs 14 Idioms with sweat 41

3 Key words, p. 24 Le thème général de l unité pourrait être abordé par une activité de brainstorming, qui trouverait son prolongement dans les activités proposées sur les Key words. Pistes proposées 1. Préparation : Livres fermés, et sans donner le titre de l unité, annoncer aux élèves une activité de brainstorming, en rappeler les principes, si nécessaire : travail personnel écrit en temps limité à une minute, on écrit tous les mots ou expressions qui viennent spontanément à l esprit à propos du sujet donné, langue française acceptée, pas de phrases, pas d auto-censure. Écrire au tableau le mot FASHION et laisser les élèves noter sur leur feuille, en une minute, tous les mots que cette expression leur inspire. Au bout d une minute, demander aux élèves de traduire sur leur feuille, éventuellement avec l aide de leur voisin, ceux des mots qu ils ont notés spontanément en français. 2. Mise en commun : Un élève volontaire vient écrire au tableau ses mots, qui seront classés par ses camarades en catégories (par exemple : attitudes, métiers, objets, liés à la mode). D autres élèves viendront compléter les catégories avec leurs propositions. Si le terme fashion victim apparaît, l accueillir mais ne pas le développer prématurément. 3. Écoute : Passer l enregistrement des Key words (CD du Workbook, piste 7) et faire cocher dans les mots issus du brainstorming ceux qui figurent dans la liste. Les faire répéter. Ne pas insister sur les autres, qui vont être travaillés dans les activités du Workbook. 4. Étude et classement des Key words : Activity 1 p. 15 A. F A D C R A Z E D E S I G N E R F L A S H Y O U T F I T W A R D R O B E T R E N D Y S M A R T F A B R I C S T Y L I S H G A R M E N T 1. enthusiastic but momentary interest 2. synonym of 1 3. person who draws fashion items 4. tasteless, unpleasantly bright 5. set of clothes 6. cupboard for clothes, or collection of clothes 7. fashionable 8. elegant 9. what clothes are made of 10. chic, classy 11. piece of clothing B. 4 contrasting pairs of adjectives 4 types of clothing 4 treatments of fabric up-to-date / out of date fashionable, trendy, in vogue / outmoded (be) in / (be) out off-the-peg / made-to-measure, custom-made casual wear evening dress* sports gear underwear dye (> dyed) pre-shrunk (< shrink) stone-washed bleach * On fera noter le double sens de evening dress : 1. a (generally long and elegant) woman s dress; 2. the formal clothes worn by people (male or female) at formal occasions that take place in the evening. C. 1. Granted, its colour suits the colour of your eyes perfectly, but this dress doesn t fit you. 2. How did people deal with their hair-styles before hair-spray and gel were invented? 42

4 3. Though she tried the best brands of make-up, she did not manage to look younger than her age. That s why she decided upon the more radical solution of having a facelift in the local clinic. La liste des Key words comporte aussi les termes catwalk, designer, model, non utilisés dans les activités précédentes, mais qui seront travaillés avec le texte Frock Horror, page 35 du manuel. Adult doll clothes, p. 25 Introduction Objectifs Pistes proposées Entrée dans le thème de la mode par les notions de profusion et de variété, qui sont illustrées dans le montage intitulé Adult doll clothes. Depuis très longtemps, les petites filles jouent à habiller et changer les poupées, que ce soient des Barbies avec des panoplies de véritables vêtements en miniature ou, plus anciennement, des dessins de vêtements sur planches cartonnées à découper. C est à ce jeu que le document iconographique Adult doll clothes fait allusion. lexique grammaire communication la «panoplie» de la mode : vêtements, accessoires, cosmétiques propositions relatives dans les définitions de termes faire des comparaisons Si possible, rétroprojeter l image seule et laisser réagir les élèves, puis poser les trois premières questions (étape 1). Ensuite, faire ouvrir le manuel, découvrir le titre de l unité Fashion victims et suivre cette nouvelle piste avec les questions 4 et 5 (étape 2). Étape 1 : Question 1 : premier contact avec l image The picture represents a boy and a girl, surrounded by clothes and accessories. What is unusual about this picture is the fact that those young people have neither faces nor arms. It is also strange that the outlines of nearly all the objects scattered around them are drawn with dotted lines, as if they were supposed to be cut-out figures. This illustration evokes the cut-out doll books that have been traditional playthings for little girls for quite a long time. Once cut out, the clothes were superimposed on the picture of the doll s body. Question 2 : classement du lexique girls clothes underwear accessories cosmetics pleated skirt ; red, singlebreasted jacket with satin flounces; dark sleeveless blouse; pair of thick stockings; fishnet stocking. brassiere / bra; onepiece swimsuit. red-haired wig; fancy sunglasses; white glove; fancy ear-ring; highheeled shoe and boot; black town shoes. richly decorated bottle of perfume; lipstick. boys clothes underwear accessories girls pair of clothes black and white checkedunderwear pair of white briefs / pants. accessories black bowler cosmetics hat; black trousers; woollen jumper; white wristwatch; town shoes; cowboy girls shirt; clothes pair of blue jeans; marbled underwear accessories boot; tartan sneaker; cosmetics leather belt. waistcoat. 43

5 Question 3 : entrée dans le thème de la mode The profusion of items for boys and girls tends to indicate that both genders are concerned by fashion. Boys as well as girls buy different types of clothes and accessories to wear according to the circumstances and to match their style or their mood. The only empty box / space in the chart is cosmetics for boys, though the trend has started to develop. Étape 2 : On peut soit donner maintenant le titre de l unité et laisser la classe le développer par des échanges oraux, soit (pour une classe plus timide à l oral) faire ouvrir les manuels page 25 et découvrir le titre, que l on explicitera avec la question 4. Dans les deux cas, on affinera les productions des élèves à l aide de l enregistrement et de la question 5. Question 4 : représentations de la notion de fashion victims par les élèves Wanting to look smart, or younger (for adults), or older (for teenagers) and following the trends seem to be normal attitudes. It is only excess in those attitudes that turns you into a fashion victim, especially if looking trendy becomes more important than looking good, or if you adopt clothes and accessories just for the sake of their trademark or of showing that you can afford them. Définitions personnelles de la notion de fashion victim : on veillera à une formulation rigoureuse avec emploi de subordonnées relatives. On pourra renvoyer à la Grammar File 28. Exemples : A fashion victim is a person who... / whose attitude consists in doing... / whom you can see doing... Question 5 : représentations de la notion de fashion victims obtenues dans un micro-trottoir Écoute de l enregistrement, chacun des cinq témoignages étant étudié séparément et permettant aux élèves qui avaient exprimé la même idée de la reformuler avec du vocabulaire enrichi. On sera alors exigeant sur l expression de la comparaison : just like (Alice) ; this is the same idea as mine / what I suggested; this is very similar to my position ; in much the same way ; along the same lines, etc. Script du document sonore INTERVIEWER: How would you define a fashion victim? ALICE: Though it is often used, the expression fashion victim is not very easy to define. Er... Can it be someone who is left out of fashion, someone who hasn t kept up with fashion and is regarded as a dinosaur or a freak? Or isn t it rather a follower of fashion, someone who has caught the bug? Er, the word victim sounds negative, it conveys the idea of an exaggerated or inadequate attitude... BRANDON: Yes, I would say that a fashion victim is a person who wants or feels compelled to show that he or she knows the latest trends and can afford them... and will follow them whatever the result... CONNIE: There is also this idea of being the first in a group of friends or colleagues to wear trendy clothes before they are easily available in shops, just to show that you know better... DAVID: I think that we should make a difference between two types of people: those who follow fashion when it shows them off to advantage... in a flattering light, and those who would wear anything, regardless of the result, as long as it s stamped fashionable. These people are like addicts who ve lost their common sense, that s why I d call them victims. EMILY: Remembering my own experience, I must not forget another type of victims: those who would be rejected by the groups they belong to if they behaved differently from them. For instance, when I was a teenager, everybody wore ragged jeans, and I hated that, because I thought that spending a lot of money on ragged clothes was disrespectful to poor people, but I wore some all the same, because all my friends did. 44

6 Éléments à repérer : Alice: gives contradictory definitions ( someone left out of fashion / someone who s caught the bug ); underlines the negative aspect of the expression fashion victims ( freak, dinosaur, exaggerated or inadequate attitude ) Brandon: notion of victim expressed by feels compelled... ; negative aspect: whatever the result. Connie: Keeping up with fashion allows people to show off, to look better informed than ordinary people. David: negative expressions: regardless of the results, addicts, have lost their common sense. Emily: expresses a new concept: some people are victims because they feel compelled to be like sheep for fear of being rejected. Girls will be girls, p. 26 Introduction Texte littéraire sur l éternel féminin et ses accessoires, sur le besoin de plaire aux autres et à soi-même, vus par les yeux d un jeune garçon. La richesse de ce texte provient d un mélange complexe d analyse quasi-ethnographique des jeunes filles, d observation naïve et d humour. Objectifs lexique les accessoires de la beauté ; les activités pour s embellir grammaire les formes en -ing ; will de prévisibilité / would dit «fréquentatif» culture méthodologie phonologie pence and pennies; seamless stockings définir le ton d un texte lien graphie-phonie <o> ; accent des mots en <-ion> ; intonation dans les énumérations Background On page 168 of the Student s book: Biography of Alice Munro Biography of Norman Rockwell. The illustration by Norman Rockwell, entitled Before the date (1949), is composed like a diptych (a pair of pictures as folding-tablets), so that we can see both sides (male and female) of the same story: getting ready for a date. Pistes proposées on your marks... Livres fermés, rétroprojeter seulement l image de la jeune fille, la faire décrire et dater approximativement, puis l associer au titre, rétroprojeté ou écrit au tableau. 45

7 Question 1 : illustration de l éternel féminin This is the picture of a young lady, probably a housemaid or a nurse, getting ready for a date. She has carefully hung her pink and white outfit on a coat-hanger and is going to put on the black and white dress that she has prepared on her bed, beside a pair of yellow sandals. At present, she is only wearing a silk or satin slip and a pair of stockings. She is either arranging her hair into a bun or trying to tie a ribbon around her hair. She has a hairpin sticking out of her mouth, which is frequently the case when a girl is putting her hair into a bun. From the style of the wallpaper, the design and length of the slip and the seams at the back of the stockings, we can deduce that the scene takes place before 1955, probably in the decade following World War Two. (After 1955, seamless nylon stockings were more and more easily available). Question 2 : justification par le titre de la notion «d éternel féminin» Though the picture was painted over half a century ago, the situation is still common nowadays: a young lady is doing her hair in order to look her best to go out. Girls have always cared about their beauty, and it will probably be so forever. This is what the title means, through the use of the modal will. More common is the saying Boys will be boys, which also means that boys have specific characteristics that are not likely to change in the future. Si les élèves n ont pas spontanément trouvé la valeur spécifique de ce will, on renverra à la Grammar File 15, page 205 du manuel, et on la fera sélectionner parmi les trois valeurs proposées dans cette fiche. À la fin de l étude du texte, à titre de consolidation, on fera faire les exercices d entraînement de la page 205, qui sont contextualisés par ce texte. get set... Livres toujours fermés, rétroprojeter ou écrire au tableau la première phrase du texte : Bud Salter had two older sisters who never did anything useful unless his mother made them. En faire déduire de qui et sur quoi le texte va parler et qui en sera le narrateur. Question 3 : anticipation des informations essentielles a. The focus is the two girls we learn more about them than about Bud in this sentence. b. It is most probably Bud s viewpoint that will be expressed 1. His name appears first; 2. The three characters are mentioned through their link to Bud: older sisters ; his mother. c. His appreciation sounds more like criticism than like praise: never did anything useful. c. We can expect to find in the text a young boy s critical / censorious point of view about his two older sisters, concerning their activities at home. go... Faire ouvrir les manuels et lire le premier paragraphe pour valider les hypothèses. Inviter les élèves à ne pas se laisser bloquer par les mots inconnus, qui seront analysés dans les activités du Workbook, page 16, et à ne pas commenter dès maintenant le volet masculin du diptyque, qui sera proposé en activité d écriture après l étude du texte. Question 4 : confirmation des hypothèses Bud describes his sisters as threatening ( screamed at you, l. 6) ) invaders ( they never confined... to their bedrooms or the bathroom, ll They spread... all over the house, l. 5). Question 5 : objets et activités liés à la beauté L activité 2 page 16 du Workbook permet de nommer (et ultérieurement de mémoriser) divers objets de toilette dont la plupart sont mentionnés dans les deux paragraphes du texte. On pourra se contenter de ne mentionner que ceux qui figurent dans le premier paragraphe pour répondre aux activités 2 et 3. On associera, dans l activité 3, le nom de ces objets aux verbes du texte, pour aider à répondre à la question 5 du manuel. 46

8 Activity 2 p. 16 1: safety pins ( 2) 2: curlers ( 1) 3: comb ( 1) 4: face powder ( 1) 5 : mirror ( 2) 6 : nail-polish ( 1) 7 : bobby pins ( 2) 8 : toothbrush 9 : toothpaste 10 : hair-brush 11 : towel ( 1) Activity 3 p. 16 hair-arranging nail-polishing shoe-cleaning making-up dressing activities objects combs, curlers nail-polish (shoe-polish not mentioned in the text) face-powder dresses, blouses, sweaters The words in bold type indicate objects or activities which are more commonly associated with girls than with boys. Question 6 : attitudes routinières des deux sœurs Faire «scanner» le deuxième paragraphe à la recherche de mots récurrents. In the second paragraph, the word mirror is repeated six times, the modal would is repeated three times, and they are associated with adverbs like always and all over again which indicate habits. Voir «valeur dite fréquentative» page 205, où cet exemple est traité. Question 7 : rôle du vide-poches On fera d abord reprendre le dessin du Workbook, page 16, et compléter à l aide des termes figurant dans le deuxième paragraphe (safety pins, bobby pins). Si possible, on montrera aux élèves des pièces de 1 penny et on expliquera la différence entre pennies (several one-penny coins) et pence (associated with a figure in the plural two pence, five pence...). On fera montrer par les élèves buttons et bits of pencils, afin que tout le vocabulaire soit clarifié. The shelf beside the kitchen door was used as a tidy (= vide-poches). Obviously, the sisters were not keen on tidying up, that s why they needed a place where they could just get rid of things they were not using any more. By leaving all these various small items in the same place, they knew they would find them easily in case of emergency. That s what tidies are for. Desk tidies and kitchen tidies are quite common in most houses. Question 8 : définir le ton du texte Faire d abord définir les trois adjectifs contenus dans la question, et qui pourront être réutilisés dans d autres études de document. Sarcastic: using expressions which clearly mean the opposite of what they seem to mean, in order to mock or insult. Compassionate: feeling pity or sympathy for the sufferings of others. Humorous: amusing. The tone is neither sarcastic nor compassionate, but the text contains several traces of humour: the fact that Bud has observed his sisters just as an entomologist observes insects, or an ethnographer observes strange types of behaviour in humans; the fact that he does not understand what the point is in spending so much time and energy doing the same things over and over again; the naïve and colourful expression as if she had been delivered a new head, l. 13, which is also full of common sense. On invitera les élèves à parler de leur propre expérience (les filles pourront dire si elles se retrouvent dans le portrait des deux sœurs, les garçons pourront évoquer leur propre sœur, ou leur mère, ou leur copine). On rebrassera alors les expressions de la comparaison revues lors de l étude du document Adult doll clothes. 47

9 ACTIVITÉ COMPLÉMENTAIRE 1 : analyse iconographique Il serait bon maintenant de terminer l étude du diptyque, en étudiant l image «côté garçon». On pourra en justifier le titre Before the date, et envisager le contexte. On pourra aussi évaluer l aisance des élèves à utiliser les expressions de la comparaison mises en œuvre auparavant, et indispensables ici. What we have in the second part of the diptych is a reflection of the left-hand picture, but focusing this time on the boy s attitude. Both characters are seen from behind, while they are doing their hair in their bedrooms. The approximate date attributed to the picture when studying the girl s side can be confirmed on the boy s side by the presence of the blue enamel washbowl, the soap and towel on the dresser. The fact that they have a date together is confirmed by the picture of the boy on the girl s side and that of the girl on the boy s side. They are going to a square dance together (the ticket is ready, slipped inside the band of the boy s stetson). The boy is even going to play some music at the dance: his harmonica is sticking out of his back-pocket. (Taking it for a mobile phone would be an anachronism!). So, the boy s situation is exactly the same as the girl s. Just like her, he wants to look his best for the dance, that s why he too is combing his hair carefully. Travail personnel d écriture à faire à la maison. Les élèves les moins productifs seront invités à suivre le texte de très près, comme dans l exemple ci-dessous. Les autres pourront reformuler davantage et prendre un plus grand degré de liberté. Patsy Cornwell had an elder brother who never did anything unless her father made him. And he never confined his hair arranging, face washing, shaving, shoe cleaning or even dressing activities to his bedroom or the bathroom... He spread his combs, shaving soap and razor blades all over the house. Also he loaded every chair with his newly-ironed shirts or his music scores (and he screamed at you if you touched them). Etc. ACTIVITÉ COMPLÉMENTAIRE 2 : Grammaire : les formes en -ing Le texte regorge de formes en -ing et justifie donc révision et mise au point sur ce sujet. Après avoir guidé la réflexion des élèves dans la partie Grammar and Meaning (page 38 du manuel, commentée en page 77 de ce guide) qui utilise des exemples tirés de ce texte, on se reportera à la synthèse proposée par la Grammar File 30, ainsi qu à l exercice d entraînement qui l accompagne (voir corrigé page 000). Puis on passera à l activité 4 page 17 du Workbook, qui permettra de faire une synthèse à la fois lexicale et grammaticale. Cette activité peut aussi servir de support d évaluation pour le devoir sur le texte. Activity 4 p Making up, doing their hair, polishing their nails were Bud s sisters favourite activities. 2. They couldn t help stationing themselves in front of all the mirrors in the house. 3. They spent a lot of time checking themselves from various angles, rather than doing something useful. 4. But they never forgot to polish their shoes before going out. 5. Bud will never forget them spreading their combs, bobby pins and curlers everywhere. ACTIVITÉ COMPLÉMENTAIRE 3 : Grammaire : will / would Les valeurs de will et would ayant été étudiées pour répondre à la question 6, on peut proposer les exercices A et B page 205 à titre d entraînement. (Voir corrigé page 000.) 48

10 Sounds OK, p. 27 Trois activités de phonologie sont basées sur le texte Girls will be girls. Ces activités peuvent être travaillées en toute autonomie par les élèves, qui disposent des enregistrements dans leur CD, et des corrections en page 93 du Workbook. Seules les conclusions, qui ne figurent pas expressément dans les corrigés, devront être traitées en classe. Activity 5 p. 17 On fera remarquer la très grande diversité phonologique de la graphie <o>, ainsi que le fait que le <o> n est jamais prononcé comme en français. Activity 6 p. 18 Conclusion : L accent des mots terminés en <-ion> ne dépend pas de la longueur du mot. Il se place sur la syllabe qui précède la finale en <-ion>, quel que soit le nombre de syllabes du mot. Activity 8 p. 19 Dans une énumération, l intonation est montante sur chaque terme. Seul le dernier terme porte une intonation descendante, si la liste est finie (ce qui est généralement indiqué par un point). Pour exprimer qu il y aurait encore d autre termes possibles dans la liste, on continue à donner une intonation montante au dernier terme et on le fait suivre de points de suspension à l écrit. Peanuts, pp. 27 et 29 + Workbook p. 18 Introduction La bande dessinée de la page 27, appelée Peanuts 1, pourra être étudiée en classe avec un guidage des élèves, à titre de révision du lexique de la B.D. vu dans le chapitre Ready to go places? du manuel de Seconde. Celle de la page 29 servira de situation de transfert, pour que les élèves s entraînent, et celle qui figure dans le Workbook (Activity 7, page 18) pourra être un support d évaluation, où les élèves mettront en œuvre les données acquises lors de l étude des deux premières B.D. Objectifs lexique grammaire communication culture méthodologie vocabulaire lié à la bande dessinée anaphores orales : sort of, kind of, kinda comparaison et contraste Charles M. Schultz et le petit monde de Peanuts ; caractéristiques des bandes dessinées analyse d une B.D ; inférences de sens 49

11 Background CHARLES M. SCHULZ Born in 1922, Charles Schultz is the most widely syndicated cartoonist in history, with his work appearing in over 2,300 newspapers. He has published more than 1,400 books, won Peabody and Emmy awards for his animated specials, and is responsible for the most-produced musical in the American theatre, entitled You re A Good Man, Charlie Brown. And all this diversity and recognition and continuous success began in 1950 when the United Feature Syndicate ran the first instalment of a comic strip it dubbed Peanuts. Peanuts is about children who talk like adults; the main characters are: Charlie Brown, a child who has bad luck with the important things in life, such as baseball, worries that his friends do not respect him and is too shy to speak to the girl he loves. Snoopy, Charlie Brown s dog, who sleeps on the roof of his kennel and has human thoughts and ideas. Snoopy tries to write novels and has imaginary adventures, such as being a World War I pilot who has battles with Germany s famous Red Baron. Lucy, Charlie Brown s aggressive friend. Linus, Lucy s nervous little brother. While his strip deals in psychology, social commentary and often bitter humour, its hallmark is its perspective: all these issues experienced, evaluated, and ultimately decided upon by children. There is a market for innocence says Schulz, whose discipline still drives him to his studio every day to get feelings of depth and roundness, and (to know) the pen line is the best pen line you can make... I don t think I m a true artist. I would love to be Andrew Wyeth or Picasso... But I can draw pretty well and I can write pretty well, and I think I m doing the best with whatever abilities I have been given. And what more can one ask? Pistes proposées PEANUTS ONE, page 27 Faire retrouver à partir de ce document les caractéristiques et le lexique essentiel de la bande dessinée qui ont été étudiés en Seconde, et faire ajouter quelques commentaires : A cartoon: 1. A drawing, usually in a newspaper or a magazine, and often with a comment or a caption underneath it, which is funny or makes a political point of criticism. 2. (British English) A series of drawn pictures, that show an amusing story or an adventure in the life of a particular character. 3. A film in which the characters and scenes are drawn rather than being real people and objects. A comic (British English), or comic book is a magazine, usually for children, that contains stories told in pictures. A strip, a comic strip or a strip cartoon, is a row of separate drawings which together tell a story often a funny or satirical one. The words spoken by each character are written in a speech balloon with a balloon pointer (which indicates who says what and allows you to read a conversation in the right order, whatever the layout of the balloons). It is to be noted that most of the time, in the western world, where people read from the left to the right, when two characters speak within the same frame, it is the character on the left of the frame who speaks first. The last frame of a cartoon strip often contains a punch-line, which makes the story or the conversation end in an original, unexpected or humorous way. When people think instead of speaking, their thoughts are written in a thought balloon, which is often drawn in the shape of a cloud. 50

12 La B.D. contient trois expressions idiomatiques : getting on in years (frame 2), half-close my eyes (frame 3) et I get my laughs (frame 4). Les deux dernières sont rendues explicites par les dessins, mais celle de l image deux demandera un effort d inférence co-textuelle : Charlie Brown dit You ll have to admit, ce qui suppose qu il va lui annoncer quelque chose de désagréable ou de négatif : that you re getting on in years (= that you re growing old). Réponse possible The four-framed cartoon may be divided into three phases: question from Patty (frame 1), answer from Charlie Brown (frames 2 and 3), Patty s reaction and Charlie s conclusion (frame 4). (question a) First of all, Patty asks Charlie Brown if he finds her beautiful, a fairly natural question in a little girl s mouth. Of course, she expects him to give her a positive answer, or even to pay her a compliment. (question b) Charlie Brown gives his answer in two steps. Firstly, he tells her that she is definitely getting old. This is rather a rude statement, which he pretends to soften in the third frame by saying that if he looks at her with dim eyesight ( half-close my eyes )... and by suspending the rest of the sentence (to suggest that in this case, she may look OK). Patty, furious, reacts by chasing Charlie Brown. (question c) Their respective positions in frame four indicate that she s been chasing him for some time when he concludes that he finds it funny to make her wild with rage. These children have stereotyped attitudes, with the little girl fishing for compliments, and the little boy keen on teasing her. That s why we can say that they illustrate the sayings Boys will be boys and Girls will be girls. The funny aspect of the punch-line is that it is addressed not to Patty but directly to the reader, who becomes Charlie Brown s confidant and accomplice. On notera aussi l indication que cette B.D. est d origine américaine : présence de l expression sort of qui n apporte aucun sens à la phrase mais est utilisée par les Américains pour rythmer les phrases de manière anaphorique (de même que son équivalent kind of, souvent transcrit kinda dans les B.D.) PEANUTS TWO, page 29 Travail à préparer à la maison, le professeur ayant donné la consigne de recycler ici à la fois des expressions utilisées lors de l étude de Peanuts 1 (fishing for compliments, have his laughs, etc) et des expressions de la comparaison et du contraste, puisque la consigne utilise le mot compare. Le mot wither figure dans le Lexicon, page 169, mais son sens négatif est facile à inférer grâce à la présence du mot de liaison but. Réponse possible Just as in Peanuts 1, the strip cartoon starts with Patty asking Charlie Brown if he finds her beautiful. Charlie Brown s answer betrays a new strategy: contrary to the previous situation where he criticized her directly, here he makes fun of her desire to be complimented by using two proverbs as answers. The first one Real beauty lies within is commonly used to emphasize the moral qualities of a person who is not attractive and the second reinforces the idea by explaining that it is less important to be beautiful than to have a good heart. Though Charlie Brown uses a different way of speaking, his words boil down to the same conclusion as in Peanuts 1 that Patty is rather ugly. So he triggers off the same wild reaction in the little girl, who, in the same way as before, starts chasing him. In the last frame it is dubious whether he addresses the reader or Patty, but in both cases, he seems to have his laughs and to enjoy the stereotyped game of the naughty little boy nagging at girls, in reply to the stereotyped attitude of the little girl fishing for compliments. PEANUTS THREE, Workbook page 18 Support d évaluation des acquis sur la B.D. et sur Peanuts. Rappelons que le mot sarcastic, qui aurait pu poser problème, a été défini lors de l étude du texte d Alice Munro. Activity 7 p. 18 Réponse possible For the third time, the comic strip starts with a frame in which Patty is asking her friend Charlie Brown whether he thinks she is beautiful. This question seems to be a leitmotiv in her life, which betrays her girlish need for compliments. This time Charlie Brown s attitude is totally in contrast with the rude reaction he had the first time. He provides her with the expected compliments, but in a very cheeky way he uses exaggerated expressions which seem to mean that she is unique ( the most beautiful girl I ve ever seen ) and exceptionally beautiful ( a rare picture of delight ). 51

13 Patty s reaction is instantaneous (it occurs in the third and not the fourth frame as usual) and more violent than the other times, which tends to prove that she is fed up with him not playing the game with her rules. The funny aspect of her reaction is the reason she gives: she finds him sarcastic, she is sure he means the opposite of what he is saying. This is very typical of the characters in Peanuts they act like children but talk like adults, as if they had a great experience of life. The punch-line You can t win can be considered as the general conclusion of the three situations however he addresses her, she gets angry because she knows he is just trying to make fun of her and of her female desire to get compliments. How to Spot a Fashion Victim..., p. 28 Introduction Ce document est un extrait d un «essai» diffusé sur le site career-intelligence.com qui permet de faire une première approche de la définition de fashion victim. Diana Pemberton-Sikes y définit cinq caractéristiques essentielles, qui permettent de repérer les fashion victims et d éviter aux lecteurs / lectrices de tomber dans les mêmes travers. Objectifs lexique grammaire communication culture les comportements face à la mode la dérivation ; les formes en -ing le conseil la série télévisée Absolutely Fabulous Background Pistes proposées Diana Pemberton-Sikes is a wardrobe and image consultant. She is the author of Wardrobe Magic, an e-book that shows women how to transform their unruly closets into workable, wearable wardrobes. She can be visited online at Absolutely Fabulous is a British television comedy series that was very popular in the early 1990s. It was written by Jennifer Saunders, who also acted in it. It is about two women, Patsy and Edina, who work in the fashion business. They spend most of their time drinking, smoking and taking drugs, and arguing with Edina s daughter, who is very serious and disapproves of them. On partira du titre et de l image pour anticiper que le contenu du texte va proposer des caractéristiques repérables chez les fashion victims et des conseils pour éviter ces erreurs. on your marks... Question 1 : découverte du titre From the first part of the title, we may expect to find in this passage a definition of the expression fashion victim and / or a description of people whom the author considers as fashion victims. We may suppose 52

14 from the second part of the title ( and Avoid Becoming One ) that the author will give her readers tips / hints to prevent them from making the same mistakes. Question 2 : analyse orientée de l image Laisser d abord les élèves réagir librement en découvrant l image, puis leur demander ce que leur évoque l expression absolutely fabulous qui se trouve dans la question. Récupérer et faire mettre en forme par le groupe-classe les informations connues sur cette série, puis compléter si nécessaire avec les informations de la rubrique Background. The two characters in the series Absolutely Fabulous are always wearing trendy clothes, but with a result which is not always to their advantage. In the same way, the two women in the picture seem to spend a lot of money on designer clothes, and they even match all their accessories and their dogs accessories with their clothes, in order to look stylish. But the result is questionable... get set... Question 3 : lien texte-illustration Proposer un va-et-vient entre le texte du paragraphe d introduction, page 28 et l illustration, page 29. The following expressions, taken from the first paragraph, undoubtedly apply to the two women in the picture : take a fashion trend, regardless of how it looks, wearing it in excess, unwittingly become little more than mannequins, mindlessly following the dictates of the fashion world. go... Question 4 : aspects négatifs The terms victim, regardless, in excess, unwittingly, mindlessly, dictates have a negative meaning. They indicate that the people described do not deal with fashion in a sensible way, that they are not really in control of their look, but under the influence of designers and manufacturers. The last sentence of the page expresses the same risk of behaving like sheep: Otherwise, you become a clothing mannequin *. * a (clothing) mannequin = a 3-D model of a human body, used when making clothes or for displaying them in shops. Question 5 : caractéristiques des cinq catégories de fashion victims On fera lire le reste du texte et repérer les mots les plus caractéristiques de chaque type de «victime» pour justifier les choix dans l activité d appariement proposée. The five categories are about the visible signs indicating that a person is a fashion victim: a. Your dress is totally outdated = 3. Wearing a Has-Been Trend b. Wait until you are forty to wear that = 5. Wearing Age-Inappropriate Trends c. You definitely look like a Christmas tree = 2. Going Overboard on a Trend d. You ll kill yourself, perched on those heels = 4. Following Trends regardless of Anything Else e. This colour is trendy, but it doesn t suit you = 1. Wearing Unflattering Trends Question 6 : conclusion Faire repérer et expliquer le terme bottom line, qui introduit la conclusion : the fundamental or deciding factor ; the essential point in an argument. This text advises us to make choices, not to let trends control us, otherwise we may lose our personality and become just an object covered with clothes. ACTIVITÉ COMPLÉMENTAIRE 1 : l expression du conseil Ce texte a pour ambition de conseiller tous ceux qui pourraient tomber dans les excès de la mode. Il faut donc faire rechercher les différentes façons d exprimer des conseils qui ont été utilisées : Wearing too much of one thing is never a good idea (l. 12) If you like to follow trends, you need to take note of when... (l. 17) Buy cheap, wear often,... (l. 18) (imperatives)... you shouldn t wear it (l. 26) On notera ces différentes expressions, qui viendront en complément des expressions de la rubrique Everyday English pour effectuer l activité 10 à la page 12 du Workbook, à proposer de préférence après avoir étudié les documents de la page 32 du manuel. 53

15 On conseillera aux élèves de ne pas mentionner les noms des personnes qu ils vont décrire, mais de se contenter de dire a neighbour of mine, one of my aunts, a famous actress that I saw in a magazine, etc. Cette production devra être rédigée, mais on pourra aussi demander aux élèves de prendre la parole en continu à partir de leur texte. Réponse possible, illustrant la rubrique 2, Going overboard on a trend One of my cousins is a jewel-addict. Every time she is asked what present she would like for Christmas or for her birthday, she says her favourite present would be a jewel. So she gets all sorts of jewels gold chains and pearl necklaces from her granny as well as fancy jewels from her cousins. The pity is that she wears several of them together, which create a sort of competition between them, with the result that none of them can really stand out. ACTIVITÉ COMPLÉMENTAIRE 2 : Exercice sur la dérivation Le texte, contenant plusieurs mots dérivés, fournit une bonne occasion de travailler ce point de grammaire. Une bonne connaissance du sens des préfixes et des suffixes permet d inférer le sens de nombreux mots inconnus. L Activité 9 (page 19 du Workbook) va permettre aux élèves de s entraîner. Activity 9 p. 19 A. Flatter flattering unflattering unflatteringly Care careful carefully careless carelessly uncaring Hope hopeless hopelessly hopeful hopefully Interest interesting uninteresting uninterestingly Power powerful powerfully powerless powerlessly Understand understanding misunderstanding B. Réponse possible Powerful interests run the world of fashion. The slightest misunderstanding of the needs or the tastes of rich clients may have important consequences, which cannot simply be compensated by flattering attitudes. Faces & Places, pp Incarnation du «rêve américain», le fils d émigré Loeb Strauss va devenir Levi Strauss, inventeur de l une des icônes de la culture américaine : le «blue jeans». Son sort est étroitement lié à San Francisco, ville aux multiples facettes et aux lieux tellement médiatisés qu ils sont immédiatement reconnus et peuvent susciter l envie d en savoir plus. Dans l esprit des T.P.E., trois projets principaux peuvent être proposés aux élèves à partir de cette double page : Project A: Levi Strauss, incarnation of the American dream Ce projet pourrait être réalisé sous la forme d une petite brochure, déposée ultérieurement au CDI, afin que tous les élèves du lycée puissent en profiter. Project B: A history of blue jeans La trame de ce projet est présentée dans le manuel sous forme d un questionnaire. Les élèves qui choisiront ce projet le présenteront sous forme d exposé, après avoir travaillé la prise de parole en continu et la prononciation des mots mal connus avec l assistant. Project C: San Francisco, beacon of the West Coast. La meilleure mise en forme possible de ce projet serait un ou plusieurs panneaux d exposition, avec photos et commentaires, mis à la disposition du CDI après avoir été validés par le professeur. Dans les trois cas, les sites proposés suffisent largement à la recherche des informations demandées. Le site 54

16 notamment, est remarquable, et mériterait sûrement de voir ses pages imprimées sur du papier de très bonne qualité et reliées en annexe de la brochure des élèves déposée au CDI. Cependant, les élèves qui aiment «surfer» de manière personnelle trouveront aussi d autres informations à partir de n importe quel mot clé (denim, Gold rush, Rainbow Flag, Hippy, etc.). Les avertir cependant du risque de perte de temps que peut occasionner la recherche de sites sur des grands sujets comme ceux-là. Pistes proposées Project A: Levi Strauss, incarnation of the American dream Les élèves devront d abord définir the American dream. Par exemple, selon la définition de The Oxford Guide to British and American Culture : The American dream is the belief of Americans that their country offers opportunities for a good and successful life. For minorities and people coming from abroad to live in America, the dream also includes freedom and equal rights. Les informations sélectionnées dans la biographie de Levi Strauss qui figure dans le manuel, éventuellement développées grâce à une visite du site permettront de faire la preuve que la vie de Levi Strauss est un exemple de réalisation du «rêve américain». Mais cette démonstration ne serait pas complète si l on oubliait de mentionner l héritage que Levi Strauss a laissé, sous forme de valeurs morales et humaines, et dont l extrait ci-dessous porte témoignage. On pourra revenir à cet aspect lorsque l on traitera des sweatshops à la fin de l unité. Extract from the internet site / About LS & CO. / values and vision Our values are fundamental to our success. They are the foundation of our company, define who we are and set us apart from the competition. They underlie our vision of the future, our business strategies and our decisions, actions and behavior. We live by them. They endure. Four core values are at the heart of Levi Strauss & Co.: Empathy, Originality, Integrity and Courage. These four values are linked. As we look at our history, we see a story of how our core values work together and are the source of our success. Empathy begins with listening... paying close attention to the world around us... understanding, appreciating and meeting the needs of those we serve, including consumers, retail customers, shareholders and each other as employees. Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis listened. Jacob was the tailor who in the 1870s first fashioned heavy cotton cloth, thread and metal rivets into sturdy waist overalls for miners seeking durable work pants. Levi in turn met Jacob s needs for patenting and mass production of the product, enthusiastically embracing the idea and bringing it to life. The rest is history: The two created what would become the most popular clothing in the world blue jeans. Our history is filled with relevant examples of paying attention to the world around us. We listened. We innovated. We responded. As early as 1926 in the United States, the company advertised in Spanish, Portuguese and Chinese, reaching out to specific groups of often-neglected consumers. In the 1930s, consumers complained that the metal rivets on the back pockets of our jeans tended to scratch furniture, saddles and car seats. So we redesigned the way the pockets were sewn, placing the rivets underneath the fabric. In 1982, a group of company employees asked senior management for help in increasing awareness of a new and deadly disease affecting their lives. We quickly became a business leader in promoting AIDS awareness and education. We believe in empathetic marketing, which means that we walk in our consumers shoes. In the company s early years, that meant making durable clothes for workers in the American West. Now, it means responding to the casual clothing needs of a broad range of consumers around the world. Understanding and appreciating needs consumer insight is central to our commercial success. As colleagues, we also are committed to helping one another succeed. We are sensitive to each other s goals and interests, and we strive to ensure our mutual success through exceptional leadership, career development and supportive workplace practices. Project B: A history of blue jeans À partir des réponses aux questions, l élève préparera un exposé de deux à trois minutes, au cours duquel il prendra la parole en continu à partir de ses notes. On exigera qu il ne lise pas des notes rédigées. Penser à faire «répéter» cet exposé devant l assistant, qui pourra apporter aide et conseils, sur le plan lexical, grammatical ou phonologique et qui permettra à l élève de parler ensuite devant ses camarades avec plus d assurance. 55

17 Réponses possibles Question 1 : Serge de Nime is not the name of a person, but of a type of fabric. Most reference books say that denim is an English corruption of the French phrase serge de Nimes ; a serge fabric from the town of Nimes in France. However, some scholars have begun to question this explanation. Question 2 : Information from the internet site the history of denim There are a few schools of thought on the derivation of the word denim The serge de Nimes fabric traces back to France prior to the 17th century. At the same time, there was also a fabric known in France as nim. Both fabrics were composed partly of wool. Serge de Nimes was also known in England before the end of the 17th century. The question then arises: was this fabric imported from France or was it an English fabric bearing the same name? Fabrics which were named for a certain geographic location were often also made elsewhere; the name was used to lend a certain cachet to the fabric when it was offered for sale. Therefore a serge de Nimes purchased in England was very likely also made in England, and not in Nîmes, France. There still remains the question of how the word «denim» is thought to have descended from the word «serge de Nimes». Serge de Nimes was made of silk and wool, but denim has always been made of cotton. Again, this relation between fabrics is in name only, though both fabrics are a twill weave. Is the real origin of the word denim «serge de nim», meaning a fabric that resembled the part-wool fabric called nim? Was serge de Nimes more well-known than serge de nim and mis-translated when it crossed the English Channel? It s likely we will never really know. To confuse things even more, another fabric known as «jean» also existed at this same time. Research on this textile indicates that it was a fustian a cotton, linen and/or wool blend and that fustian from Genoa, Italy was called jean. This is evidence of a fabric being named for a place of origin. It was apparently quite popular and imported into England in large quantities during the 16th century. By the end of this period, jean was being produced in Lancashire. By the 18th century, jean cloth was made completely of cotton and used to make men s clothing, valued especially for its property of durability even after many washings. Denim s popularity was also on the rise. It was stronger and more expensive than jean, and though the two fabrics were very similar in some ways, they did have one major difference: denim was made of one colored thread and one white thread; jean was woven of two threads of the same color. In a nutshell, it can be said that the material jeans are made of has a European origin. Question 3 : Waist overalls is the old name for jeans. Originally they were men s pants and they were meant for work wear. Question 4 : Information from the internet site invention of Levi s 501 jeans The first jeans came in two styles, indigo blue and brown cotton duck. Unlike denim, the duck material never became soft and comfortable so it was eventually dropped from the line. Jacob Davis, a Reno, Nevada tailor, had come up with a great idea: to improve the strength of the pants he made for his customers, he added metal rivets, which proved to be a big success. He wanted to patent the idea, but didn t have the money he needed to file the papers. So he wrote to Levi, saying that if he would pay for the application, the two men could make riveted clothing together. As Levi knew a good business opportunity when he saw one, he agreed and in 1873 he and Davis received a patent for an Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings. That is when the name waist overalls was replaced by jeans. Question 5 : Information from the internet site about LS & CO / worldwide Levi s jeans for women were first featured in Vogue magazine in Designer jeans eventually became so popular that in the mid-1970s Calvin Klein jeans were garnering $12.5 million per week. Abroad, American jeans (especially Levi s jeans) were in such demand that in Eastern Bloc countries they became an underground standard of currency. What has become of the firm? The company is privately held by descendants of the family of Levi Strauss. The company employs a staff of approximately 12,400 people worldwide, including approximately 1,500 people at its San Francisco, California headquarters. Project C: San Francisco, beacon of the West Coast. Faire d abord établir le lien entre Levi Strauss et San Francisco : In 1853, the 24-year-old Strauss left New York for San Francisco, hoping to cash in on the Gold Rush that began in Along with his sister and brother-in-law, he opened a dry goods store that sold supplies to miners as well as fancy linens, etc., to the growing city. Vu l ampleur des recherches à effectuer, ce projet doit être envisagé comme un travail de groupe. On pourra laisser les élèves se répartir les tâches selon leur affinité pour les différents sujets. Les élèves devront fournir 56

18 un ou deux petits paragraphes explicatifs sur chacun des sujets proposés, saisis sur ordinateur en proposant une taille de caractère importante pour faciliter la lecture. On n omettra pas de mentionner ses sources. On ajoutera des cartes de géographie, des cartes postales ou photographies (par exemple découpées dans des catalogues de voyagistes) afin que les panneaux d exposition soient aussi attrayants que possible. Exemple : The San Francisco earthquake (+ map of the city) 1. (www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/ca/sfquake_1) (+black and white photos) On April 18, 1906, one of the strongest earthquakes ever recorded in North America struck San Francisco, California. The shaking of the earth was felt all the way from southern Oregon to Los Angeles and as far east as central Nevada. The quake formed a crack in the earth s surface around 290 miles long. The earthquake and the great fire that followed destroyed much of the city of San Francisco. An estimated 28,000 buildings were lost, about half the city s population was left homeless, and more than 3,000 people perished. There was not another huge earthquake in San Francisco until The damage in 1989 was not as severe, because the 1906 quake caused engineers to learn more about making buildings earthquake-proof. 2. Extract from Jack London s article The story of an eyewitness (+ Jack London s photo and signature, to be found on the website) By Wednesday afternoon, inside of twelve hours, half the heart of the city was gone. At that time I watched the vast conflagration from out on the bay. It was dead calm. Not a flicker of wind stirred. Yet from every side wind was pouring in upon the city. East, west, north and south, strong winds were blowing upon the doomed city. The heated air rising made an enormous suck. Thus did the fire of itself build its own colossal chimney through the atmosphere. Day and night this dead calm continued, and yet, near to the flames, the wind was often half a gale, so mighty was the suck. On procédera de même pour les autres points proposés : The Golden Gate Bridge, Alcatraz Island, The Rainbow Flag, the Hippy movement. Is nothing safe?, p. 32 Introduction Montage de deux documents, une publicité et un article informatif du Guardian, dont le lien est l évocation des risques encourus par certains porteurs de lentilles cornéennes très «tendance». Objectifs lexique la sécurité, le danger, la santé, le champ sémantique de la vision grammaire emploi des formes verbales (voir Q6) communication culture méthodologie le conseil presse quotidienne britannique : The Guardian, The Express analyse d une publicité 57

19 Background Pistes proposées L ordre des questions suit l ordre dans lequel les documents vont être regardés spontanément. On procédera donc d abord à l analyse du document publicitaire (questions 1 à 4), puis on anticipera le contenu de l article du Guardian à partir de son titre, et de la sensibilisation des élèves par le rédactionnel de la publicité (question 5). Enfin, on fera un va-et-vient entre les deux textes (question 6), qui débouchera tout naturellement sur des conseils d hygiène, répertoriés dans la rubrique Everyday English. Question 1 : première réaction à l image This picture of a very attractive young man is surrounded by a collection of circles containing pictures of eyes. What is striking is that none of the eyes (the boy s eyes included) looks natural or normal. In fact, each of them is covered with a decorated ( / designed) contact lens. Pour préparer les questions suivantes, on pourra réviser rapidement les termes spécifiques du document publicitaire (qui ont été enseignés en Seconde dans l unité Ready to go places?) et se reporter à la fiche méthodologique How to analyse and interpret an ad, page 165 du manuel. La méthode proposée consiste d abord à décrire le document de la manière la plus objective possible, en évoquant les différents éléments et leur répartition dans la publicité, puis à interpréter les intentions du publicitaire (ad-man), voire la symbolique des différents éléments. Si le terme mesmerize pose problème, le professeur peut le faire chercher dans le Lexicon, page 169, ou en donner les synonymes transparents fascinate, magnetize. Mais la meilleure solution est sans doute de laisser inférer le sens à partir du contexte en proposant un QCM. Par exemple : 1. joke, 2. frighten, 3. hypnotize. Question 2 : caractéristiques du document This document is an ad / advert / advertisement for a brand of contact lenses (CIBA Vision) and more specifically for their WildEyes Contacts (see the copy beneath the picture). The target is ( / It is aimed at) teenagers or young adults who are not satisfied with the colour of their eyes or who want to add a new factor to their power of seduction. Question 3 : description et interprétation de la publicité Description: As said before, the visual in this ad is composed of two elements: a good-looking young man, whose face is surrounded by circles representing eyes. The fact that it is an ad is made obvious by the presence of a catch-phrase: eyes that mesmerize, the name of the product advertised: wild-eyes, and a couple of yellow discs giving information and the price. Interpretation: The layout of the eyes around the boy s face evokes a row of pearls in a necklace, so we are unconsciously made to feel that it is beauty and attractiveness that is at stake. The letters of the word WILD in the name are written with flames, evoking the fire and passion that are supposed to be aroused thanks to the lenses. The rhyme Wild-Eyes / mesmerize also appeals to the unconscious. The focus of interest (the young man s eyes) is located right in the middle of the ad, so we can t miss it. We are automatically attracted by his eyes, so much so that we look very closely to see what the design on the lenses evokes. That s why we may be mesmerized. This power of attraction is not reserved to people with eyesight problems (you can use the lenses even if your vision is perfect ) nor to rich people ( it only costs $99 ). There is an internet site mentioned, in case the readers want more information (namely the addresses where you can buy the lenses). At the bottom of the ad there is also a paragraph devoted to hygiene. 58 Two British national daily newspapers: The Guardian When it started in 1821 in Manchester, it was only published once a week, but since 1855 it has been published every day except Sunday. Until 1959 it was called The Manchester Guardian. The paper s political views are left-wing and it is regarded as one of the quality newspapers. People sometimes joke about it because it used to contain a lot of printing errors. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as The Grauniad (i.e. Guardian with its letters in the wrong order). Oxford Guide to British and American Culture The Express Started in 1900, it is a tabloid, formerly called The Daily Express, and its political views are generally right-wing.

20 Question 4 : l importance des composantes de la publicité The face of the young man takes the lion s share (approximately three quarters of the surface), so he is meant to be the most important element. The arc / curve of lens-equipped eyes occupies nearly all the rest of the surface, giving an impression of profusion and variety. Compared to this, the informative part (price and tips) is extremely reduced. The very important part for the client, about the danger of mismanaging one s lenses is written in such tiny letters that it may never be read. We may imagine that all the makers of lenses are compelled by law to indicate what precautions should be taken by lens-users, but that the adman put it reluctantly in the smallest possible area at the bottom of the page, so as not to impair the beauty of his ad. We can conclude that the aim of the ad is to seduce readers rather than to inform them. Comme indiqué ci-dessus, la partie rédactionnelle de la publicité peut être difficile à lire. Voici donc un relevé des informations, à toutes fins utiles (par exemple, les élèves peuvent avoir envie de commenter les noms attribués aux différents motifs sur les lentilles) : Eyes that mesmerize Wild EYES zebra, black-out, white-out, cat eye, wildfire, red hot, icefire, hypnotica, knockout, zoomin See in-office pamphlet for our full line of WildEyes lenses! Don t share your WildEyes Contacts with anyone!! Contact lenses, even if worn for cosmetic reasons, are medical devices and should only be worn under the supervision of an eye care professional. Sharing contact lenses may spread micro-organisms which may result in serious eye health problems 2002 CIBA Vision. Design on lenses 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002 Question 5 : anticipation du contenu de l article du Guardian The fact that the title is written as a question suggests that the article will deal with possible problems rather than give veritable, indubitable information. The word safe evokes protection and security, hence the idea of risk, danger, harm. The word nothing (which is obviously to be stressed when the title is read orally) may suggest that the article deals with a point of safety concerning an activity or an object which is not normally (/ was not till recently) reputed as harmful. On fera alors repérer la date (Juillet 2003) et l origine de l article (The Guardian, quotidien de qualité si nécessaire, on complètera les connaissances des élèves à l aide de la rubrique Background) On lira le début de la première phrase : Yesterday, a report in The Daily Express featured the alarming headline: pour faire émerger le mot alarming qui permettra de valider déjà certaines hypothèses, et surtout pour noter que ce quotidien sérieux orienté politiquement à gauche écrit un article qui réfère expressément à un article d un tabloïd de droite. On peut y voir une ouverture d esprit, ou une trace d humour britannique. On fera reformuler le titre de l article du Daily Express : Dangerous trend may send youngsters blind : Young people who follow a certain new fashion may put their eyesight in danger. Puis on fera lire l article en entier, relever tous les termes du champ sémantique du danger : alarming, dangerous, warning, damage, without... knowing, concern, risking, so concerned, a crackdown, et de la vision : blind, opticians, eyesight, blindness, et en particulier contact lenses, to wear, to swap contact lenses, the bearer (of lenses). On fera ensuite repérer les termes qui peuvent s appliquer à l illustration qui figure à gauche : trendy colourful contact lenses, available from the internet. Question 6 : lien image-texte The article refers to the trendy, colourful contact lenses advertised in the ad. As they are available in gadget shops and on the internet, the bearers (mainly youngsters) may not benefit from the tips for use that could be provided by professionals if they bought them at an optician s, for instance, cleaning them properly and avoiding swapping them with friends. In fact these tips are present in the copy at the bottom of the ad (for example, there is some information about the risk of sharing contact lenses ), but written in such tiny letters that we may well imagine that nobody will read it. The problem is so serious that medical authorities are asking for severe measures to restrict the making and selling of this product ( calling for a crackdown on the trend ). La deuxième partie de la question a pour but de laisser les élèves s exprimer librement sur le sujet. On favorisera la communication authentique (certains ont peut-être des informations complémentaires sur ces 59

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