1 LA SOCIETE DE L INFORMATION. PERSPECTIVE EUROPEENNE ET GLOBALE L ESPACE EUROPEEN DE L INFORMATION
2 Studia Ekonomiczne ZESZYTY NAUKOWE WYDZIAŁOWE UNIWERSYTETU EKONOMICZNEGO W KATOWICACH
3 LA SOCIETE DE L INFORMATION. PERSPECTIVE EUROPEENNE ET GLOBALE L ESPACE EUROPEEN DE L INFORMATION Redaktorzy naukowi Claude Martin Grzegorz Maciejewski Katowice 2013
4 Praca naukowa dofinansowana ze środków Narodowego Centrum Nauki w ramach projektu nr 2011/01/B/HS4/01097 Komitet redakcyjny Krystyna Lisiecka (przewodnicząca), Anna Lebda-Wyborna (sekretarz), Florian Kuźnik, Maria Michałowska, Antoni Niederliński, Irena Pyka, Stanisław Swadźba, Tadeusz Trzaskalik, Janusz Wywiał, Teresa Żabińska Komitet Redakcyjny Wydziału Ekonomii Stanisław Swadźba (redaktor naczelny), Magdalena Tusińska (sekretarz), Teresa Kraśnicka, Maria Michałowska, Celina Olszak Rada Programowa Lorenzo Fattorini, Mario Glowik, Gwo-Hsiu Tzeng, Miloš Král, Bronisław Micherda, Zdeněk Mikolaš, Marian Noga Korektor Magdalena Pazura Skład Grzegorz Bociek Copyright by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach 2013 ISSN Wersją pierwotną Studiów Ekonomicznych jest wersja papierowa Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone. Każda reprodukcja lub adaptacja całości bądź części niniejszej publikacji, niezależnie od zastosowanej techniki reprodukcji, wymaga pisemnej zgody Wydawcy WYDAWNICTWO UNIWERSYTETU EKONOMICZNEGO W KATOWICACH ul. 1 Maja 50, Katowice, tel , fax
5 SOMMAIRE CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 9 Marian Šuplata THE FUTURE OF EUROPE IN INFORMATION SOCIETY. SELECTED CHALLENGES AHEAD OF DECISION MAKERS 11 Summary 20 Adia Chermeleu DE LA TECHNOCULTURE VERS LES MUTATIONS DE L ANTHROPOLOGIE DIGITALE 21 Résumé 31 Carlo Ottone, Mario G.R. Pagliacci, Giorgio Capoccia, Stefano Tirinzi FUTURE IS T-SMART 32 Summary 42 Alessia Melasecche Germini, Matteo Martini L EUROPE 2020: SOMMES-NOUS TOUS PRÊTS À DEVENIR SMART? 43 Résumé 52 Abdenour Mouloud, Matouk Belattaf LA SOCIÉTÉ DE L INFORMATION DANS LE MONDE: ETAT DES LIEUX ET PERSPECTIVES 53 Résumé 63 Matouk Belattaf, Nacera Nasroun L UNION EUROPÉENNE ET LA SOCIÉTÉ DE L INFORMATION: ÉTAT DES LIEUX ET PERSPECTIVES 64 Résumé 75
6 Cristina Montesi UNDERSTANDING THE TRAGICOMEDY OF THE NEW COMMONS 76 Summary 88 Magdaléna Přívarová, Andrej Přívara LA GESTION DE LA MIGRATION QUALIFIÉE: LES CAS DE LA SLOVAQUIE 90 Résumé 98 Sylvie Avignon LA COMPLEXITÉ DES RÈGLES DE DROIT APPLICABLES AU TRANSPORT ROUTIER DE MARCHANDISES EN EUROPE INDUIT-ELLE UNE MAUVAISE INFORMATION DES ENTREPRISES DU SECTEUR? 99 Résumé 110 Maria Horehajova, Jana Marasova SUR QUELLES CONNAISSANCES REPOSE UNE ÉCONOMIE DE LA CONNAISSANCE? 111 Résumé 121 Adina Barbulescu (Popovici) CONSIDÉRATIONS SUR L ÉDUCATION DANS L UNION EUROPÉENNE DANS LE CADRE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ DE L INFORMATION 122 Résumé 131 Muriel Bourdon LE WEB 2.O: UNE MINE D OR POUR L ENSEIGNEMENT DES LANGUES DE SPÉCIALITÉ? 132 Résumé 142 Marcela Maftoul, Ewa Bogalska-Martin GÉNÉRATION NUMÉRIQUE DES ÉTUDIANTS ET PRATIQUES UNIVERSITAIRES TICE DANS L UNIVERSITÉ 143 Résumé 155
7 Emilia Munteanu LA FORMATION INITIALE EN FLE DU CYBERCHRONOTOPE À L AUTHENTICITÉ SITUATIONNELLE 156 Résumé 165 Beata Reformat THE IDEA OF SMART SHOPPING THE GENERATION OF SMART CONSUMERS 166 Summary 174 Justyna Matysiewicz, Sławomir Smyczek KNOWLEDGE CREATION IN INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC NETWORKS IN UE. CASE STUDY OF IP NETAWARE KATOWICE 176 Summary 187 Aleksandra Jewtuchowicz INDUSTRIES CRÉATIVES UNE OPPORTUNITÉ POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT DE ŁÓDŹ MÉTROPOLITAINE? 188 Résumé 199 Jolanta Tkaczyk, Marcin Awdziej E-WOM FINDINGS FROM THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN POLAND 200 Summary 211 Monika Słupińska PLACE-BASED APPROACH IN NEW COHESION POLICY 212 Summary 222 Eduardo de Sousa Ferreira THE NECESSITY TO FIND A NEW CODE FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WEALTH OF NATIONS 223 Summary 231
8 Dante Alpi, Elisabetta Calvo INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM 232 Summary 244 André Boyer ANALYSE EXPLORATOIRE DES UNIVERS VIRTUELS 245 Résumé 254 Mariusz E. Sokołowicz IS THE COMMUNITY OF ŁÓDŹ INFORMED ABOUT LIVING IN CREATIVE CITY? CITY OF ŁÓDŹ BRANDING STRATEGY AND ITS PERCEPTION 256 Summary 267 LE RÉSEAU PGV 268 PGV Network 269
9 INTRODUCTION L expression de «société de l information» n est pas nouvelle. Elle remonte à l émergence des technologies d information et de communication (TIC) dans les années La révolution informationnelle des TIC a influencé une partie importante des activités politiques et socioéconomiques de nos sociétés. Elle a modifié la gouvernance des états et de l Union européenne, celle des régions et des entreprises. Elle a modifié les comportements des citoyens et des consommateurs. L Union européenne a adopté le terme de «société de la connaissance» dans le cadre de ses politiques institutionnelles. Dans ce contexte, le fonctionnement des TIC a occasionné des changements dans la gouvernance de l Union et des États-membres dans leurs relations avec les citoyens et les administrés, dans de nombreux domaines: éducation, pratiques culturelles, relations sociales, santé etc. Les investissements dans la connaissance et l innovation sont destinés à stimuler la compétitivité, la croissance et l emploi, contribuer au développement durable et améliorer les conditions de vie. En réalité, la crise actuelle affecte le fonctionnement de tous les espaces de l économie, bien que la force de ses impacts varie selon les zones géographiques et selon les secteurs d industrie, ce qui provoque des réactions différentes de la part des opérateurs intervenant sur les marchés. L économie de l information est une opportunité de plus en plus importante permettant de surmonter les effets négatifs de la crise. Elle peut être considérée comme source de compétitivité dans chaque pays, dans chaque région, mais aussi pour les villes et pour les entreprises. La compétitivité ne dépend pas seulement de la possession de ressources matérielles et de capitaux, mais aussi des modèles de décision, c est-à-dire de la gestion des connaissances implicites (expérience, croyances, perception de la réalité, visions de l avenir). Le but de cette publication est de tenter de répondre à certaines questions: Comment une économie fondée sur l information et la connaissance peut-elle accroître la compétitivité des Etats et des territoires? S agit-il d une opportunité majeure pour sortir un pays ou un territoire de la crise? Dans quels domaines permet-elle aux Etats et aux territoires de se développer plus rapidement? Est-elle compatible avec les concepts de développement durable, de mobilité ou de responsabilité sociale? N est-elle pas à l origine de nouvelles exclusions sociales? Les articles présentés dans cette publication s adressent à des universitaires ainsi qu aux professionnels, notamment, commerciaux. Nous espérons qu ils sauront répondre à leurs attentes. Claude Martin Grzegorz Maciejewski
10 INTRODUCTION The word information society has been coined for a long time. It dates back to the rising of information technology and communication (ICT) in the 1970s. The information revolution of ICT has influenced an important part of political and socioeconomic activities in our societies. It has changed the governance of the states, the European Union and the regions and of companies. The European Union has adopted the word knowledge society as part of its institutional policies. In this context, the operation of ICT has resulted in changes in the governance of the Union and the Member States in their relationships towards citizens in many areas such as education, cultural habits, social relations, health, etc. Investment in knowledge and innovation are nowadays intended to boost competitiveness, growth and employment. They also aim at contributing to sustainable development and at improving living conditions. Actually, the current crisis affects operations from all sectors of the economy, although its effects vary among geographic areas and industrial sectors, causing market operators to react differently and purposely. Knowledge economy proves to be a wonderful opportunity to overcome the negative effects of the crisis by being a source of competitiveness for countries, regions, but also for cities and businesses. Competitiveness not only depends on material and capital assets, but also on strategic thinking based on the management of implicit knowledge. It is linked to experience, beliefs, and to the way actors see the present and the future. The aim of presented publication is to deliver some answers to the following questions: How may an economy based on knowledge increase the competitiveness of states and territories? Can knowledge society be seen as a major way out of the crisis for countries or regions? Where and how does it allow states and territories to develop faster? In which way can it help sustainable development, mobility and social responsibility? Does it contribute to a new form of social exclusion? Presented set of articles is addressed to both academics and business practice representatives. We believe that prepared publication will meet your interests. Claude Martin Grzegorz Maciejewski
11 Marian Šuplata University of Matej Bel in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia The future of Europe in information society. Selected challenges ahead of decision makers Motto The age of information Is now in your hand. But the more I know The less I understand 1. W. F. O Dell Introduction The post-modern society has moved to an era of information society. The aim of this article is to take a brief look on the impact of the information society concept on the contemporary and future Europe from trans-disciplinary point of view. We would like to reflect on selected challenges new information technologies mean to contemporary decision makers and reflect on what might be some consequences of their decisions in times of the global use of information means in the coming years. The purpose of this paper is also to offer some inspiration for European decision makers who are in a position to make the future of Europe better for the next generations. 1 W.F.O Dell: Effective Business Decision Making and the Educated Guess. Chicago, NTC Business Book, p. 118; Compare: A. Čestnejší: Manažérske rozhodovanie. UK Bratislava 2004, p. 156.
12 12 Marian Šuplata 1. Defining decision making and information society For the purpose of defining decision making we will use the Drucker s definition who perceives the decision making process as: process with the following stages 2 : 1. Problem identification. 2. Problem analysis. 3. Options creation. 4. Selecting an option. 5. Decision implementation. For the purpose of this paper the decision maker therefore could be any person taking a decision in private sector, in public sector or even in personal capacity. These decisions made have various degree of impact on the society. Decision makers are interconnected to the information society via information channels. Decision makers deal with information management therefore a collection and management of information from one or more sources to the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. There is no unified definition of information society. In 1997 IBM Community Development Foundation defined it as: A society characterised by a high level of information intensity in the everyday life of most citizens, in most organisations and workplaces; by the use of common or compatible technology for a wide range of personal, social, educational and business activities, and by the ability to transmit, receive and exchange digital data rapidly between places irrespective of distance 3. According to Rankov 4, this term was coined for the first time in 1963 in Japanese language by Tadao Umesao in an article of evolutionary development of mankind towards a society based on use of information (Bendyk; Fleissner; Rose). McLuhan calls the world Global village. Masuda introduced his own concept of information society, called Computopia. It means an invisible civilization out of physical space in virtual world of computers and media. Baudrillard argues that we are aiming towards cloning of real by hyper-real that will lead to exterminating the real by its double (by medial and computer simulations). Virtual space is not characters describing the reality, rather of their highest function is to cause disappearing of the reality 5. 2 P.F. Drucker: Making Decisions. South Western Publishing, Ohio Compare: J. Papula, Z. Papulová: Manažérske rozhodovanie. Vybrané problémy. Kart Print, Bratislava 2005, p See: 4 P. Rankov: Informačná spoločnosť. Perspektívy, problémy, paradoxy. LSA Publishers Group Ibidem, p. 22.
13 THE FUTURE OF EUROPE IN INFORMATION SOCIETY 13 Two scientific theories concerning the future of Europe 6 When speaking about the influence the decision makers in information society could have on the future of Europe we would like to mention two theories which provide focus. First is the biological theory of Oswald Spengler known from his book The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), published in 1918, which describes a cyclical theory of the rise and decline of civilisations. Spengler believes that great cultural creations are influenced by a kind of nature law : they have their moments of birth, development, maturity, downfall, old age and death. On his point of view Europe and the Western Civilisation came to its last stage of life, and is dying, despite of efforts to avoid it. Even if Spengler acknowledges that, Europe might hand-over the best of its cultural wealth to another, newly created culture, he is convinced that this will not change the fact Europe as an entity has come to its end of history 7. The second is the the voluntaristic theory of Arnold Toynbee which puts strong emphasis on conditionality. Toynbee describes the differences between the material and technical progress on the one hand and the real progress of spiritualization of a society on the other. Toynbee acknowledges the fact that Europe and the western world has been in a crisis. The main reason he sees is the growing apostasy (loss) of religion and its exchange for the cult of technology, cult of nationalism and cult of militarism. For Toynbee the term crisis means secularism. However, he is keeping hope that the future, rise and fall of a society is potentially driven by exceptional personalities and creative minorities those who find solutions to the challenges followed by others 8. The dispute between Spengler and Toynbee remains open-ended. Scientifically speaking, none of them is in a position to predict the future 9. We can notice here that both Spengler and Toynbee refer to crisis of Europe and Western world were between the years 1918 and Today, in times of boom of information society we speak about financial and economic crisis. However, it becomes more and more evident that the crisis is primarily neither about finance and economics, nor about the failure on stock markets, but rather about the principles guiding decision making which are dominating in the existing architecture 6 M. Šuplata: Citoyenneté et nationalités en Europe unie, les défis a relever. Bruylant, Bruxelles, 2012, pp O. Spengler: Der Untergang des Abendlandes. C.H. Beck, Münich A.J. Toynbee: Der Gang der Weltgeschichte II: Kulturen im Übergang. Europa-Verlag, Zürich Stuttgart Wien Toynbee argues two possibilities for the four remaining civilisations (Western, Islamic, Hindu and Far East) of the 21 st century: they might all merge with Western Civilisation, or Western civisation might develop a Universal State after its Time of Troubles, decay and die.
14 14 Marian Šuplata of finance and economics. The information society is both underlining and multiplying it. 2. Europe and selected challenges ahead of decision makers in information society In the final part we would like to identify some important challenges facing Europe, indicating some decision-making principles which might be of key importance to its future. We will take into consideration both Spengler s and Toynbee s theory as well as some own practical experiences from the decision making process. There was no ambition to name all challenges, rather to offer some inspiration for decision-makers in charge who might be able to influence the future of Europe. The initial serious question, before we proceed with further challenges, is: Does Europe want to survive or not? The era of ever deeper globalisation has brought Europeans a lot of opportunities as well as threats. The concept of information and of knowledge based society can be one of numerous examples. Figure 1. Internet access and broadband internet connections by households in Europe Source: Eurostat. As we can see from the both graphs, but also from our daily experience, Europe (as well as the whole globalized world) lives in times of unprecedented expansion of information technology infrastructure, which allows greater and faster spreading of information across the society (see Figure 1 and 2). This might be considered important for Europe to be able to compete to the outside world. When
15 THE FUTURE OF EUROPE IN INFORMATION SOCIETY 15 we speak about challenges, we would not like to reduce them to some qualitative indicators and strategy how to achieve them, rather to focus on a vision which would allow Europe to survive respecting its originality and initial identity. Figure 2. Internet access of households, 2010 and 2011 in Europe (% of all households) Source: Eurostat. In times of information society, the decision makers in all areas are facing numerous challenges which decide about the future of our civilisation and of the world. The main general question which will have decisive impact on the future of Europe and the world is: How shall the decision makers use the unprecedented quantity of information they possess? The history (two World Wars, invention and use of nuclear weapon, creative cloning etc.) teaches us that any decision making not subordinated to common values of higher order might lead to progress of a society or even to pathologic use of reason. Here are three examples (with open-ended questions) where information society could potentially lead to: 1. Can the concept of information society and the knowledge based society without simultaneous application of the concept of wisdom based society i.e. a set of supra-temporal values which has been well-tried through centuries? What will guarantee that pure knowledge separated from wisdom does not sink just into upbringing of even more intelligent, smart and skilled criminals with even more sophisticated instruments they will use in their decision making? Creativity in the information society is able to invent a medicament, which can cure mortal disease as well as to invent an atomic bomb for destruction. The current crisis might show the contribution of decision makers and intellectuals in it.
16 16 Marian Šuplata 2. In information society media are an important co-creator of the public opinion, capable to use the effect of virtual reality with serious impact on masses. Thanks to media and decision makers managing them we might (dis) believe someone/in something, (dis)like somebody/something. Decision makers in media might try to be balanced in their service but since their very creation hardly ever independent. Media in information society have the ability to spread encouraging or negative messages around the globe, to interfere into politics, to turn a criminal into a hero as well as to discredit honest people. 3. Will technology in information society serve man or will man be enslaved by technology? Technology can help people to cultivate the soil in a more efficient way as well as to spy on them practically anywhere on the Earth s surface. Today it is possible to see on-line what is happening in mountains, cities in bottom of the sea. The system Galileo is able to monitor the Earth s surface in detail with about 30 cm exactness. Employers have the means for controlling their employees where they are, what they are doing, with whom they are communicating. Mobile phones can be used as senders or intercept device even when switched off. People are losing their privacy. In times of industrial revolution workers were a part of a machine, today people are becoming part of information system. According to their access or no access to information technologies people on the Earth are digitally divided. Those out who are cut off of the information society are economically loosing. Those in the economically more developed space are connected via information channels. All their data or data about them (personal data, communication, bank transfers, contacts, relations, including sensitive information) is a part of one single information system. Centralisation of information often might pose questions regarding their eventual access by other person(s) and eventual misuse. Today, in times of skilled hackers and cult of capitalisation of information one can hardly seriously trust that this problem will be solved by a (commercial) offer of various IT security systems. Centralisation of data potentially brings questions on how and when they the data can be used by someone against somebody else. This might certainly become a part of a struggle in influence of power (for economic, political or other reasons). One of the most sensitive areas of scientific struggle in times of information society is the area of bioethics. Question to which extent the current state of play of EU legislation is able to deal with problems and risks the information society brings remains for discussion. From institutional point of view the adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon can be
17 THE FUTURE OF EUROPE IN INFORMATION SOCIETY 17 a signal that Europe is looking for its Soul therefore for application of the core supra-temporal values which could be called code for Europe. We realise that for defining ethos and its application in practice in the contemporary European Union, it would be difficult to find a scientific and political consensus. Founding Fathers of the European Communities were inspired by Christian heritage as the core value of European identity, of course, out of confessional borders. This seemed compatible with the great moral values of enlightenment which focused on rational dimension of Christian values. For zooming-in on what we consider of the key importance for vital development of Europe that could be influenced by decision makers at any level in information society we were inspired by the Polish writer Cyprian Norwid who in 18 th century states about the decadence of nations: it is not because of disrespect to power, especially of the King, some nations do exist and some do not. Because if that would be the case, Europe would have disintegrated. Norwid is convinced and his views are also shared by Czeslaw Stanislaw Bartnik 10, by Bogumil Gacka 11 and by Pavol Mačala 12 that there is only one ground for the development or the decadence of a nation which is the respect or disrespect to human person. They all share the view that it is human personalism that is the main element for building true human solidarity 13. And solidarity remains one of the key pillars on which the Common Europe is legally and culturally defined. This concept could be preserved only if it will be based on consistent concept of human rights and human dignity which can be respected only provided that decision makers will keep the principle of unconditionality and indefatigability. According to Hirsch, the fundamental human rights are neither created by a law maker nor are they given to citizens, but exist from the law itself, a law maker have to fully respect them, they are for him values of higher order 14. Freedom without applied justice is anarchy and leads to the destruction of freedom. Former Norwegian State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Janne Haaland Matlary is describing challenges for decision makers in practical application of Human rights in her book with significant title: Human rights endangered by power and by relativism. 10 C.S. Bartnik: Personalizm. Lublin B. Gacka: American Personalism. Lublin P. Mačala: Personalism of the Slavs. Personalism. Science Philosophy Theology 2005, 8, Warsaw Lublin Radom, pp J. Tischner: Medzi slobodou a porobou. Kaligram, Bratislava G. Hirsch: Ein Bekenntnis zu den Grundwerten. Frankfurter Algemeine Zeitung 12 October 2000.
18 18 Marian Šuplata Finally, we would wish to conclude in open-ended way by words of Bob Moorehead (Moorehead 1995) which could serve as a compendious summary for a reflection on what the information society could mean to our lives today: The paradox of our time in history is that we have taller buildings, but shorter tempers; wider freeways, but narrower viewpoints; we spend more, but have less; we buy more, but enjoy it less. We have bigger houses and smaller families; more conveniences, but less time; we have more degrees, but less sense; more knowledge, but less judgment; more experts, but more problems; more medicine, but less wellness We have multiplied our possessions, but reduced our values. We talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often. We ve learned how to make a living, but not a life; we ve added years to life, not life to years. We ve been all the way to the moon and back, but have trouble crossing the street to meet the new neighbour. We ve conquered outer space, but not inner space; we ve done larger things, but not better things. We ve cleaned up the air, but polluted the soul; we ve split the atom, but not our prejudice. We write more, but learn less; we plan more, but accomplish less. We ve learned to rush, but not to wait; we have higher incomes, but lower morals; we have more food, but less appeasement; we build more computers to hold more information to produce more copies than ever, but have less communication; we ve become long on quantity, but short on quality. These are the times of fast foods and slow digestion; tall men, and short character; steep profits, and shallow relationships. These are the times of world peace, but domestic warfare; more leisure, but less fun; more kinds of food, but less nutrition. These are days of two incomes, but more divorce; of fancier houses, but broken homes. These are days of quick trips, disposable diapers, throw away morality, one-night stands, overweight bodies, and pills that do everything from cheer to quiet to kill. It is a time when there is much in the show window and nothing in the stockroom; a time when technology has brought this letter to you, and a time when you can choose either to make a difference, or to just hit delete 15. Conclusion The paper identified selected challenges ahead of decision makers in information society from the European point of view. Although we perceive concrete quantitative challenges the Europe is facing, for the purpose of this paper we did not reduce the term challenges for Europe in information society on quantitative 15 B. Moorehead: Words aptly spoken. Overlake Christian Press, Kirkland WA 1995, pp
19 THE FUTURE OF EUROPE IN INFORMATION SOCIETY 19 indicators and on strategy how to achieve them. We rather focused on the vision for decision makers in information society, which would allow Europe to stick to the values steaming from the heritage it was based upon. On our point of view, this is the only way if Europe in times of information society would like to stay whole and original as a part of precious world mosaic pieces. The alternative, certainly less attractive for its inhabitants, is become geopolitically and economically speaking just one the satellites of global melting pot, which would mean a victory of indifference especially in terms of culture and values. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is also to offer some inspiration for European decision makers who are in a position to make the future of Europe in times of information society better for the next generations. Bibliography Bartnik C.S.: Personalizm. Lublin Fobel P. et al.: Etika a informačná spoločnosť. Zb. KETE FHV UMB, Banská Bystrica Čestnější A.: Manažérske rozhodovanie. UK Bratislava Drucker P.F.: Making decisions. Ohio, South Western Publishing Drucker P.F.: The Effective Executive. Harper and Row, New York Drucker P.F.: Výzvy management pro 21. Století. Management Press, Praha Drucker P.F.: Was ist Management? München Gacka B.: American Personalism. Lublin Harrison E.F.: The Managerial Decision-Making Process. Houghton Mifflin, Boston Horehájová M.: Spravodlivosť v kontexte princípov sociálnej politiky. Iura Edition, Bratislava Liessmann K.P.: Theorie der Unbildung. Die Irrtümer der Wissensgesellschaft. Wien Mačala P.: Personalism of the Slavs. Personalism. Science Philosophy Theology 2005, 8, Warsaw Lublin Radom, pp Moorehead B.: Words Aptly Spoken. Overlake Christian Press, Kirkland WA Pawera R: Manažment európskej bezpečnosti. Eurounion, Bratislava Papula J., Papulová Z.: Manažérske rozhodovanie. Vybrané problémy. Kart Print, Bratislava 2005.
20 20 Marian Šuplata Rankov P.: Informačná spoločnosť. Perspektívy, problémy, paradoxy. LSA Publishers Group Spengler O.: Der Untergang des Abendlandes. C.H. Beck, Münich Šuplata M.: Citoyenneté et nationalités en Europe unie, les défis a relever. Bruylant, Bruxelles Tischner J.: Medzi slobodou a porobou. Kaligram, Bratislava Toynbee A.J.: Der Gang der Weltgeschichte II: Kulturen im Übergang. Europa- Verlag, Zürich Stuttgart Wien THE FUTURE OF EUROPE IN INFORMATION SOCIETY. SELECTED CHALLENGES AHEAD OF DECISION MAKERS Summary The post-modern society has moved to an era of information society. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of the information society concept on the contemporary society in Europe and in Global context. We would like to focus on selected benefits and threats the new information technologies mean to lives of contemporary people and reflect on what might be some consequences of the global use of information society in the coming years. Keywords: Europe, information society, decision making