National Symposium 2009 New tools, technologies and strategies to maximize workshop learning effectiveness

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1 The C a n a d i a n Learning j o u r n a l The Official Publication of the Canadian Society for Training and Development volume 13, number 1 Spring 2009 Innovative Team Learning: Maximizing the value of learning and working together Page 9 Too Stressed to Learn? Helping managers achieve worklearningpersonal balance Staying Afloat: An interview with Dr. Margaret Driscoll Page 19 Is Training the Answer? Stories from the Investing in People project Page 14 Page 6 National Symposium 2009 New tools, technologies and strategies to maximize workshop learning effectiveness May 20-22, 2009 Special Feature Page 29-30

2 INVEST IN YOUR MOST VALUABLE RESOURCE. YOUR PEOPLE. Michael H. Nexient Alumni > Leadership & business solutions business process improvement information technology YOUR ORGANIZATION S MOST VALUABLE RESOURCE deserves CANAdA S BEST IN SkILLS development Nexient provides the springboard from which Canada s greatest achievers take off. We equip your people with the knowledge and capacity to compete and grow with intelligently designed and expertly instructed learning experiences. We offer the most instructors, locations, and courses of any corporate training company nationwide: LEAdERSHIP & BUSINESS SOLUTIONS Get the essential leadership and business tools to optimize your organization. BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT Raise efficiency and improve productivity to increase your bottom line. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Get the broadest, most advanced selection of software training and authorized certification programs available anywhere in Canada. With over 125 classrooms across the country, we are Canada s only national provider of high-quality training in all three categories as well as the CSTd 2008 Canadian Award Winner for Training Excellence. Contact us now to invest in the future of your most important resource. Call or visit us at CANAdA S LEAdER IN SkILLS development

3 The Canadian Learning Journal Volume 13 Number 1 Spring 2009 CSTD ADVISORY BOARD Lynette Gillis, ctdp, Learning Designs Online Robert Hedley, ctdp, Maple Leaf Foods Hugh MacDonald, ctdp, HR MacDonald Training and Development Inc. David Weiss, ctdp, Weiss International Ltd. editors Lynn Johnston, CSTD Lee Weisser, Lee Weisser Communications CSTD Board of Directors Hugh MacDonald, ctdp, Chair HR MacDonald Training and Development Inc. David Connal, ctdp, Treasurer (ex-officio) Atomic Energy of Canada Mohamed Ally, ctdp Athabasca University Shaun Belding The Belding Group of Companies Inc. Saul Carliner, ctdp Concordia University Isabel Feher-Watters, ctdp Pink Elephant Inc. Regan Legassie, ctdp Canadian Forces Training Development Centre Ramona Materi, ctdp INGENIA Consulting Ajay Pangarkar, ctdp CentralKnowledge.com Robert Pearson, ctdp Maritz Sheri Phillips, ctdp Novopharm Ltd. Murray Richmond, ctdp e-training Group CSTD staff Lynn Johnston, President Danielle Lamothe, Manager, Marketing and Events Jane MacDonald, Manager, Marketing and Events (maternity leave) Debra Bellamy, ctdp, Manager, Certification and Chapter Relations Elsa Lee, Financial Coordinator Janel Matheson, Events and Marketing Coordinator Lindsay Munro, Membership and Awards Coordinator Published by: C A N A D I A N S o c i e t y f o r Training and Development 720 Spadina Avenue, Suite 315 Toronto, Ontario M5S 2T9 Tel Toll-free: Fax: Web: Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the Canadian Learning Journal are those of the writers themselves and do not necessarily reflect those of the journal s advisory board, its editors or the Canadian Society for Training and Development (CSTD). For marketing opportunities, contact Danielle Lamothe , ext CSTD contents Features 6 Too Stressed to Learn? By Dr. Carolin Rekar Munro and Chris Duff 9 Innovative Team Learning By Dr. David Weiss and Claude Legrand 11 L apprentissage en équipe novateur Par Dr. David Weiss et Claude Legrand 14 Is Training the Answer? By Lee Weisser, Investing in People Project 16 La solution passe-t-elle par la formation? Par Lee Weisser, Investir dans les gens 19 Staying Afloat An interview with Dr. Margaret Driscoll Tools By David Ferguson Departments 4 Message from the CSTD Chair / Message du président du conseil de la CSTD 5 Message from the CSTD President / Message de la présidente de la CSTD 23 CSTD National Symposium: Program Details 26 Pursuing a career in workplace learning and performance 27 CTDP Update A profile of Vaughan Kitson, CTDP 28 Canadian Awards for Training Excellence: Submission Guidelines Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

4 MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR One of the most valuable assets of CSTD is the Training Competency Architecture (TCA), our body of knowledge for the training professional. It is the core of our certification program and a benchmark used by member companies, consultants and professionals across Canada. As good as it is, it is deficient in one respect. It does not reflect what we ve learned over the years about managing training and development. If it did, I would expect to see less yo-yo training. You know what yo-yo training is. It s when organizations and institutions expand and contract employee training over the business cycle. I m not saying that training budgets shouldn t reflect economic reality. The first job of a business is to survive. Training managers aren t much use to their companies, or clients, if they have no business acumen and can t provide quality training within a reasonable spending envelope. But the phenomenon that we all know so well what I ve called yo-yo training occurs when training and development are seen as luxury goods. And, like other luxuries, are bought and sold only when times are good. Over and over again, however, we learn that the best organizations, certainly the wisest ones, see training and development not as luxuries but as necessary goods and services. When times are tough, steady if not increased investment in training keeps us competitive, differentiates us when we need it most, keeps morale up, and sends the signal that we are going to survive and weather the storm. Training underscores that we see, and have, a future. There is no doubt that 2009 will be a challenging year. It is also a year of opportunity. As professionals we need to help our clients understand that while this is certainly a time to spend training and development money carefully and wisely, it is also the right time to spend money on customer service training, on training for productivity and on developing people to meet today s challenges and tomorrow s promise. Not because we say so...but because it is one of the lessons we ve learned, often at great cost, over the last fifty years. Let s not forget it now. As time goes by, I encourage you to participate in CSTD events and meetings, sign on to the CSTD website, and share your success stories with others. Impart your learning and help your peers and colleagues with your ideas and experiences. Hugh MacDonald, CTDP is Chair of the Board of Directors of CSTD. He can be reached at MESSAGE DU PRÉSIDENT DU CONSEIL L une des ressources les plus utiles de la CSTD est l Architecture des compétences en formation (ACF), notre bloc de connaissances destiné aux professionnels de la formation. Il s agit du noyau de notre programme d agrément et d un instrument de référence qu utilisent des entreprises membres, des consultants et des professionnels du Canada tout entier. Cet excellent outil comporte toutefois une lacune : il ne reflète pas ce que nous avons appris au fil des ans au sujet de la formation et du perfectionnement en gestion. S il le faisait, je m attendrais à voir moins de «formation yo-yo». La «formation yo-yo» : vous savez ce que c est. C est le résultat que l on obtient quand les organisations et les institutions augmentent et diminuent les activités de formation de leurs employés au cours du cycle conjoncturel. Loin de moi l idée que les budgets de formation ne devraient pas refléter la réalité économique. Au contraire, la mission première d une entreprise est de survivre, et les gestionnaires de la formation ne sont pas d une grande utilité pour leurs employeurs, ou leurs clients, s ils n ont pas le sens des affaires et sont incapables d offrir une formation de qualité dans les limites d une enveloppe de dépense raisonnable. Mais le phénomène que nous connaissons tous si bien ce que j appelle la «formation yo-yo» survient lorsqu on perçoit la formation et le perfectionnement comme des articles de luxe, des biens qui, à l instar d autres objets luxueux, ne s achètent et ne se vendent que quand les temps sont favorables. Toutefois, nous apprenons sans cesse que les organisations les plus efficaces, et sûrement les plus avisées, considèrent la formation et le perfectionnement non pas comme un luxe, mais comme des biens et des services nécessaires. Quand les temps sont difficiles, un investissement constant sinon intensifié dans le domaine de la formation nous garde compétitifs, nous différencie quand nous en avons le plus besoin, maintient le moral élevé et transmet le message que nous allons survivre et réchapper à la tempête. La formation fait ressortir que nous avons un avenir, et que nous le voyons sera sans aucun doute une année difficile. Mais il s agira aussi d une année de possibilités à exploiter. En tant que professionnels, nous devons aider nos clients à saisir que même si nous sommes dans une période où il convient de dépenser prudemment et sagement l argent destiné aux activités de formation et de perfectionnement, il s agit aussi d un moment propice pour consacrer de l argent à la formation relative aux services à la clientèle et à la productivité, ainsi qu au perfectionnement des ressources humaines, suite à la page 27 4 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

5 Message FROM THE PRESIDENT All Hands on Deck! That s the title of CSTD s National Symposium in Halifax, Nova Scotia, May 20th to 22nd, Join us for two days of learning, networking and discovery on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. You ll hear about new tools, technologies and strategies to maximize workplace learning effectiveness, and you ll meet speakers and experts from across the country. The members of the Nova Scotia Chapter are keen to share the exciting educational program they have created for you. Dr. Margaret Driscoll of IBM Global Services will be headlining the program with a keynote address on navigating changes in workplace learning. She will share new trends and recent research in learning and development that you ll want to take back to your organization. Then there will be two days of case studies and sessions that answer our challenges as workplace learning professionals, such as: Selecting the best technology solutions Integrating technology into existing learning programs Optimizing the use of mobile phones, MP3 players, wikis, free content and tools, and virtual worlds for learning that transfers back to the job Designing content for use in interactive online environments Blending synchronous with asynchronous learning formats Leveraging technology for the most effective learning strategies And there s more! The Symposium offers an array of opportunities for you to connect with your peers. Activities include a welcome reception, dining out at local restaurants, a cocktail reception followed by a formal dinner with entertainment, and a chance to explore Halifax. You won t want to miss this chance for fun and learning on Canada s east coast. My appreciation goes out to the hardworking members of the Nova Scotia Chapter for hosting this event for all of us. We look forward to being part of your world in Halifax in May. All Hands on Deck! Lynn Johnston, CAE President MESSAGE DE LA PRÉSIDENTE Tout le monde sur le pont! Voilà le thème du Symposium national de la CSTD qui se déroulera à Halifax, en Nouvelle-Écosse, du 20 au 22 mai Joignez-vous à nous sur les rives de l Atlantique à l occasion de ces deux journées consacrées à la formation, au réseautage et à la découverte. Vous entendrez parler de technologies, de même que de stratégies et d outils nouveaux et propres à maximiser l efficacité de l apprentissage en milieu de travail, tout en rencontrant des conférenciers et des experts de partout au pays. Les membres de la section de la Nouvelle-Écosse se réjouissent à l idée de vous présenter le programme de formation passionnant qu ils ont formulé à votre intention. Mme Margaret Driscoll, Ph. D., des Services mondiaux IBM, prononcera l allocution principale qui portera sur l orientation du changement en matière d apprentissage au sein d une entreprise et, par la même occasion, passera en revue ce programme. Elle traitera des nouvelles tendances et des résultats des recherches les plus récentes aux chapitres de la formation et du perfectionnement, notions que vous jugerez sans doute fort utiles de retour au travail. Les deux jours suivants seront consacrés à des études de cas et à des séances sur certains des défis que nous devons relever en qualité de professionnels de la formation en milieu de travail, notamment : l e choix des meilleures solutions technologiques; l intégration de la technologie aux programmes de formation déjà établis; l optimisation des téléphones cellulaires, des lecteurs MP3, des sites Web wikis, des documents et des outils gratuits ainsi que des univers virtuels de formation pratique; la conception de documents destinés à un environnement interactif en direct; la coordination des formats d apprentissage synchrones et asynchrones; et les moyens de tirer parti de la technologie pour appuyer les stratégies de formation les plus efficaces qui soient. Et ça ne s arrête pas là! Le symposium offre une foule d occasions de rencontrer vos pairs dont une réception d accueil, des soupers dans les restaurants environnants, un cocktail qui précédera un souper officiel avec animation et le privilège d explorer Halifax. Vous vous en voudriez de rater cette occasion de vous amuser et de parfaire vos connaissances sur la côte est du Canada. Je remercie les membres de la section de la Nouvelle-Écosse qui n ont ménagé aucun effort pour nous accueillir à l occasion du symposium. Nous espérons avoir le plaisir de vous côtoyer, à Halifax, en mai. Tout le monde sur le pont! Lynn Johnston, caé Présidente Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

6 Too Stressed to Learn? Helping managers achieve work-learning-personal balance by Dr. Carolin Rekar Munro and Chris Duff Dr. Carolin Rekar Munro, CHRP, CTDP, is Associate Professor, Faculty of Management at Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC serving as intellectual lead for Leadership in the MBA program. Carolin is also an adjunct professor for Central Michigan University teaching in the MA program. Since 1994, Carolin has managed a successful practice specializing in change management and sustainability, strategic planning and implementation, performance management, team building, and organizational renewal. Chris Duff, MBA, CA is Professor, Faculty of Management at Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC. Chris is an intellectual lead for both Accounting and Finance. He is especially interested in the Canadian health care system and has a research project underway at a BC Health Authority. The 21st century marks the advent of a proliferation of management development programs grooming business managers and executives to lead during unprecedented economic volatility. The old order is over and boards, executives and managers await the rise of a new order from the ashes of the old. In this new world of unparalleled uncertainty, training and development practitioners are seeking programs that promise to set participants apart from mainstream leaders. To satisfy executives anxious need for effective tools and techniques of their trade delivered with minimal disruption to their already busy lives designers of management development programs scramble to bring to market programs that have mass appeal by virtue of alternative delivery modes. Noted for their intensity and sharp learning curves in a short retention timeframe, options include: intensive leadership retreats, blended approaches integrating residencies and online learning, satellite campuses delivering training close to home, and virtual learning events. With a focus on constructing programs that build leadership competencies and that offer convenient scheduling, a fundamental consideration has been overlooked: work-learning-personal balance is rarely if ever considered in program design. Wellness management traditionally takes a backseat to competency development in management training settings when in reality it should be placed at the forefront. The purpose of this article is three-fold: 1. to understand the need for integrating work-learning-personal balance into the design and delivery of management development programs 2. to propose a framework for curriculum design and delivery that honours worklearning-personal balance 3. to describe how Royal Roads 1 is integrating work-learning-personal balance into its MBA program. Training and development practitioners are encouraged to experiment with this framework in their own practice. The consequences of stress on learning Executives-turned-learners typically face the stark reality of juggling multiple, disparate demands from high pressure careers and unpredictable personal lives, with the weight of academic schedules, team accountabilities, and assignments. An added stressor is adapting to the learning environment after a prolonged hiatus dedicated to establishing their signature presence in the C-Suite. While there are no reliable statistics on stress effects arising from the transition to a university program, the research shows that the need to establish new friendships and relationships is a significant stressor (Radcliffe & Lester, 2003). Without intentionally giving voice to and creating space for executives to manage these complexities, work-learningpersonal balance is predestined to collapse, with notable implications for learners and the legacy of management development programs. Unfortunately the majority of Canada s largest employers don t measure up as best practice organizations. In this group, 33% of employees report high job stress. The effects of stress are not trivial; time lost as a result of absenteeism-related stress amounts to 19 million days per year with the direct and indirect annual cost estimated at $4.5 to $6 billion (Duxbury & Higgins, 2003). Long hours, fatiguing workloads, multitasking, and shrinking deadlines 6 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

7 characterize the current landscape in the workplace, which works at cross-purposes to corporate values, philosophies, and practices that advocate wellness (Rekar Munro, 2007). The authors have witnessed 2 first-hand the casualties of stress from the pressures and demands faced in learning, and the spillover effect of workplace stress that accompanies executives to the learning environment. Burnout symptoms manifest themselves in a range of domains: physical, intellectual, emotional, and social. Physically, learners experience tiredness and severe fatigue, and are more accident and illness prone. In some cases, physical ailments become so debilitating that studies are interrupted. In the intellectual domain, learners cite inability to concentrate and lucidly articulate thoughts, impaired creative abilities, apathy toward stretching one s thinking and abilities to new heights, lack of initiative, a tendency to be easily distracted, and inattention to detail. On the emotional side, there is a loss of meaning and purpose, feelings of despair and irritability, depression or general sadness, susceptibility to crying and outbursts of anger. Some report increased use of alcohol or other drugs. Socially, responses cascade from perceptions that no one can help or understand them, loss of faith leading to withdrawal from people and social situations, to perceptions of self as victims with no control over their lives. Stress is indisputably the silent killer, remaining a taboo topic in most professional circles. Data from the National Population Health Survey showed that men who had experienced high personal stress in 1994/95 had twice the probability of being diagnosed with migraine, ulcers or arthritis by 1998/99 compared with those not reporting high personal stress (Statistics Canada, 2001). The relationship between heart disease and emotional stress is well documented in the medical literature, for example in Ziegelstein (2007). Our North American culture espouses hyper-busyness as a measure of success in our personal and professional lives. Individuals often paint a picture of effortless self-management when tackling crises. References to personal struggle, the need for assistance, and anxieties associated with meeting expectations are buried as they suggest weakness and raise concerns about competency. Such territory is deemed off limits, requiring us to fend for ourselves with solitary interventions. Hence, we continue to manage stress in silence. Overdue is a paradigm shift lowering barriers that stigmatize attitudes and behaviours toward wellness. Advocacy of professional success contingent upon open dialogue about the causes of stress and managing health is needed. Integrating work-learning-personal balance into training curricula We invite training and development practitioners to play an integral role in championing the case for work-learningpersonal harmony. And we challenge practitioners charged with the design and delivery of not only management development programs, but also other Long hours, fatiguing workloads, multitasking, and shrinking deadlines characterize the current landscape in the workplace... training initiatives, to consider how worklearning-personal balance can be assimilated into curricula and lived as a core value in the learning environment. A paramount question is how, as training and development practitioners, can we foster an environment where discussing worklearning-personal balance is an accepted norm, and craft a curriculum blueprint that takes into consideration work-learningpersonal balance? Reclaiming work-learning-personal harmony or perhaps launching its inauguration is founded on acknowledging its centre stage importance. Ability to synthesize new learning, map it against one s personal repertoire of knowledge and experience, and to critically think about how to move learning into practice, comes from a place of peak performance rooted in personal wellness. Wellness becomes the energy source that fuels integration, creative problem solving, and decision making. It empowers full engagement in learning, and mobilizes learners to champion change based on new learning. World-class athletes already know about ideal performance state where ability to perform at high levels over long periods requires one to know how to recover and expend energy; if not, chronic stress and burnout are likely (Loehr & Schwartz, 2001). With wellness management weighted equally with competency development, learners can focus on retention and transfer of learning into practice without wrestling stressors that threaten to debilitate capacity to function. Realizing the need to weave worklearning-personal harmony into curriculum architecture, the authors embarked on co-creating personal wellness seminars for learners in the MBA program at Royal Roads University. This program is a comprehensive two-year program that combines Internet-based online learning with intensive three-week residencies and extensive use of team-based learning. These workshops delivered prior to learners commencing their studies set a new norm where personal wellness has a place on the learning journey. They provide a forum for discussing personal wellness challenges and charting new directions in wellness management. Putting personal wellness on their radar communicates the importance of managing daily stressors so learners do more than survive; they get the most out of their experiences. The agenda for the workshop includes: Living with Stress: The Silent Killer Exploring our Challenges Sharing our Collective Best Practices Domains of Wellness: Targeting Healthy Living Goal Setting: Where Do We Go From Here? Check-Out: Staying Connected Over the Next Few Weeks Using reflection and collaboration for learning The workshop begins with collaborative inquiry to conceptualize the vision of work-learningpersonal harmony and to hone signature goal statements that epitomize how they define and live work-learning-personal values in their learning. The framework for engaging and managing change in these workshops follows Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

8 Lewin s classic three-step model of the change process unfreezing the status quo, moving to a new state, and refreezing the new change to make it stick (Lewin, 1951). The agenda begins with unfreezing learners to the urgency for change by addressing implications of not having a wellness plan, referencing statistics illustrating the perils of stress, and the authors sharing symptoms they witnessed when stress derails learner capacity to function. In small table groups, learners have conversations about their personal wellness challenges and the roadblocks encountered when balancing work, learning, and personal accountabilities. The challenge is not to settle for surface analysis by only addressing symptoms, but to delve deep into root causes to explore that which impedes positive change. After sharing their challenges, conversations shift to best practices in maintaining healthy lifestyles. It is the opportunity to share their best practices that forms the backdrop for formulating their own repertoire and testing their effectiveness in practice. Domains of wellness are introduced inviting learners to critically examine their own wellness philosophies, assumptions, and practices, and to assess the extent of the gap between actual and desired behaviours. Assuming learners provide more than a cursory review of wellness, reflection has the potential to awaken new insights regarding one s philosophy and approach to health management. Subsequently, learners are more receptive to lifestyle changes in which they identify their work-learningpersonal challenges and formulate goals and supporting action plans to achieve alignment. Commitment to a cyclical process of reflection and collaboration is required to safeguard wellness as the nucleus from which learners draw energy to function at their best. As part of relapse prevention, learners in a buddy system arrangement are encouraged to check in with colleagues regarding progress toward building worklearning-personal symmetry. Goal statements become the landmarks to which learners periodically return and gauge whether they remain true to the original vision or if amendments in direction are warranted. The authors are also planning to facilitate brown-bag lunches to celebrate successes, collaboratively work toward minimizing impediments to work-learningpersonal balance, and offer support needed for learners to move forward with change initiatives. By bringing wellness to the forefront it becomes the bedrock upon which learners build commitment to wellness management alongside competency development both key elements to creating and sustaining professional excellence. Dialoguing with colleagues provides a rich forum for sharing insights, experiences and significant learning, formulating action plans for goal achievement, offering peer support and resources, and seeking input on how to manage difficult situations. Pooling collective wisdom empowers and equips learners with a battery of tools for leveraging work-learning-personal accountabilities. Collaborative inquiry is grounded in adult learning principles crediting peer groups with their mutual exchange of knowledge and experiences culminating in a climate of support and encouragement as the richest learning experience (Knowles, 1980). Seyler et al. (1998) concur, advising that peer support has a positive impact on transfer of learning by providing the necessary social support to move toward professional goals. Learners recognize the universality of their challenges which helps them to foster changes in approaches to wellness and facilitates supporting each other in pursuit of work-learning-personal harmony. Collaboration fuels momentum for transition and sustains the wellness priority as the class moves forward in learning, hopefully with implications for workplace practice. Conclusion Commitment to work-learning-personal harmony is an infinite and boundary-less journey, especially in light of fluctuating demands impinging on learners personal, professional, and educational lives. It compels them to continually re-examine priorities and approaches to work-learningpersonal balance. Given these mounting challenges, it is incumbent upon training and development practitioners to exercise leadership in asserting new norms around wellness in management development. That is the first step toward sharing challenges and best practices, setting personal goals, establishing new ways for keeping or regaining balance, and developing support systems. By doing so, wellness management does not become an isolating experience or get put on the back burner as learners plough through course content and deliverables. We need to convey the equal importance of competency development and commitment to work-learning-personal harmony. Handled properly this concept will earn its rightful place as one of the new criteria in the training architecture around designing and delivering training programs. A learning culture of knowledge management, skill development, and wellness should emerge as the hallmark of excellence as we groom leaders to tackle unprecedented challenges and to grasp opportunities in an ever changing turbulent world. 1 Royal Roads University is a special purpose public university located in Victoria, BC. 2 In the course of teaching at Royal Roads University and the University of Central Michigan References Duxbury, L. & Higgins, C. (2003) Work Life conflict in the New Millenium. Ottawa, Health Canada. Knowles, M. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education. New York: Cambridge. Lewin, K. (1951). Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper and Row. Loehr, J. & Schwartz, T. (2001). The making of a corporate athlete. Harvard Business Review. 79 (1), Radcliffe, C. & Lester, H. (2003) Perceived stress during undergraduate medical training: a qualitative study. Medical Education, 37, Rekar Munro, C. (2007). Work-Life harmony practices of human resources practitioners: Setting an example or in search of an example? HR Professional, 24(5), 52. Robotham, D. and Julian, C. (2006) Stress and the higher education student: a critical review of the literature. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 30, Seyler, D., Holton, E., Bates, R., Burnett, R., & Carvalho, M. (1998). Factors affecting motivation to transfer. International Journal of Training and Development. 2, Statistics Canada (2001) Stress and Well Being, Ottawa, Statistics Canada. Ziegelstein, R. (2007) Acute Emotional Stress and Cardiac Arrhythmias. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

9 Innovative Team Learning Maximizing the value of learning and working together Dr. David Weiss is President and CEO of Weiss International Ltd. David and his team of organizational consultants lead strategy, leadership and HR consulting assignments in Canada, the USA and Europe. David is also an Affiliate Professor of the Rotman School of Management and a Senior Research Fellow of Queen s University. He has authored and co-authored four business books, including Leadership Solutions (Jossey-Bass, 2007), The Leadership Gap (Wiley, 2005) and High Performance HR (Wiley, 2000). Claude Legrand is the President of Ideaction Inc., which specializes in sustainable innovation and change management. Claude has extensive experience in innovation, strategic planning, marketing, interactive technologies and culture change, mostly for large organizations. He is the founding Program Director of the Centre of Excellence in Innovation Management at the Schulich Executive Education Centre. By Dr. David Weiss and Claude Legrand The concept that a team can generate new knowledge and value beyond the individual capability of its members is an important insight in our knowledge economy. We call the process innovative team learning and submit that organizations need this kind of team learning in order to survive and thrive in the current challenging competitive environment. We use the term learning as an outcome where the team learns something new rather than as the process of learning for a team. Before innovative team learning can be achieved, a team needs to meet certain minimum or baseline standards. Baseline team learning There are two minimum standards for team learning. Team members must learn what each team member knows: Teams must, as a baseline, commit to share knowledge so that everyone on the team knows all the relevant elements of what each individual team member knows. Unfortunately, many teams do not reach this baseline level. Often, individuals use knowledge as power rather than as a shared resource. Human competitiveness and individual resistance are frequently the difficulty. Team members need to be open to learning from expert resources: Teams grow together by exposure to new ideas, new processes or new approaches that experts external to the team can provide. While an expert may give new knowledge to individual team members, the team collectively may not learn. To gain maximum value from what they learn from an expert, teams need to explore how they can use and create value from the learning in their own specific context. These two forms of team learning are the fundamentals for the average team, but they are only the baseline that forms the preconditions for effective team performance. Innovative team learning Here is an example of a team that took the step beyond baseline learning to innovative team learning. After recognizing the need to solve a particular problem, they met for a full day to explore the issue in detail. They thought through the problem collectively, surfacing underlying assumptions and new insights by integrating a collective idea that no individual considered before the meeting. They then tested the idea through a joint process of assessing and mitigating risk to determine the direction with the greatest probability of success. By virtue of their innovative team learning, they actually created new value as a team. If they had relied on baseline team learning, the result would have only been the redistribution of existing knowledge. Innovative team learning occurs in three areas of team problem resolution. These are: 1. Issue Redefinition: When the team redefines an issue to ensure they have an accurate understanding of the issue Innovative team learning occurs when teams take a deep dive to explore a problem collectively. They pool their assumptions and generate new perspectives that are unique to the team experience. For example, a Canadian management team met to plan how to gain support from their global leadership operating in the US. The Canadian group believed their leadership undervalued them and, therefore, did not give them assignments that would maximize their capacity. Rather than starting with brainstorming solutions, the team took a deep dive, dissecting the problem and surfacing the real issue. They uncovered that their leadership viewed Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

10 them as very insular and knew very little about them. This understanding created focus for their teamwork in idea generation. Teams that take a deep dive are able to redefine issues by putting their collective ideas together and creating new interpretations. They also are able to challenge objectively the existing individual and collective assumptions, enabling the team to eliminate their faulty assumptions and replace them with a more accurate reflection of reality. 2. Idea Generation: When the team engages in expansive thinking to generate ideas that were not considered before To achieve expansive thinking, leaders need to ensure initially that everyone expresses their ideas openly because hidden agendas and unspoken objections can taint or even destroy the best potential solutions. Individuals need a safe and nonjudgmental environment to express their own idea to the group. However, many teams include individuals with either strong personalities or higher authority who tend to stifle the thoughts and contributions of others, which inhibits innovative team learning. No judgment or convergence should occur until the team hears the ideas of each of its members. This process, successfully accomplished, establishes the baseline team learning. Only after a team achieves baseline team learning does the team engage in expansive thinking to generate ideas that were not considered before. It does this through combining ideas, expanding thought, engaging in brainstorming, and diverging without judgment. 3. Risk Mitigation: When the team assesses risks associated with the preferred solution and determines how to mitigate the risks Teams must explore risks associated with a new direction. The team collectively forecasts probable and possible risks and then identifies how to mitigate those risks to an acceptable level. The process generates insights and leverages team potential. For example, in one organization a team met to consider how to launch a new product line that was similar to a line that a third-party contractor was providing. The team members believed they could generate new revenue by becoming a third-party contractor themselves for their own customers. However, in the team risk mitigation discussion, they realized that if they followed this path, they risked alienating their current third-party contractor and that other employees would perceive this idea as borderline unethical behaviour. Some on the team felt the risk was potentially too damaging for the team to recommend. Other team members wanted to take the risk anyway, while others thought they should abandon the idea. The leader encouraged the team to explore risk mitigation ideas and not to abandon the idea entirely. After they brainstormed and combined various insights, the team crafted a way to mitigate Innovative team learning occurs when teams take a deep dive to explore a problem collectively. the risk by partnering with the third-party contractor rather than going it alone. By tackling this issue jointly, the team maintained the internal trust, kept the service provided by the third-party contractor and delivered a credible product to the marketplace. Through innovative team learning, the team was able to expose the risks and to identify alternative solutions that no individual had identified before. Vulnerability of innovative team learning When innovative team learning is embedded within an organization, it becomes an invisible competitive advantage, creating new value for the organization. It enhances an organization s capability to redefine issues, generate new ideas, and identify and mitigate risks. However, innovative team learning is an outcome that can be elusive and difficult to achieve. It is also vulnerable once you have it, it can slip away easily. We have found five challenges to achieving innovative team learning: Time: Teams need to invest time to share ideas, think together and build trust. Many leaders and teams are not willing to invest the required time. Process: Teams need to follow a clear process. They simply cannot improvise to achieve innovative team learning. It requires a defined process to help people work through issues in order to have an outcome that creates new ideas. Ambiguity: Teams need to become comfortable with ambiguity and not rush to close down their discussions and resolve them too quickly. Commitment: Teams must commit to innovative team learning. Team members also must protect the team as they think collectively by stopping peers who attempt to block or limit the team s capability to become more than the totality of its parts. Sustainability: When teams are successful in innovative team learning, they often enjoy the experience and foster it. However, team learning may be difficult to sustain when there are urgent demands for quick solutions. Also, a change in the leader or team members alters the entire team experience. These teams need to sustain what they have and rebuild if necessary to ensure they can continue to achieve innovative team learning outcomes. The role of leadership Leadership has a crucial role to play to create, foster and sustain innovative team learning even in turbulent times. Leaders must become champions of innovative team learning and understand that as good as an individual idea may be, the team can achieve a better one with innovative team learning. Finally, leaders need to model a commitment to innovative team learning consistently, both as the leaders of their teams and also as participants of other teams. In this way, innovative team learning spreads throughout their organizations, contributes to generating new insights and ways of doing things beyond the capability of any individual, and creates new innovative advantages for their organizations. 10 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

11 L apprentissage en équipe novateur Maximiser la valeur de l apprentissage et du travail collectifs M. David Weiss est président-directeur général de Weiss International Ltd. M. Weiss et son équipe de consultants organisationnels mènent des missions de consultation en matière de stratégie, de leadership et de ressources humaines au Canada, aux États-Unis et en Europe. Il est également professeur affilié auprès de la Rotman School of Management et chercheur supérieur rattaché à l Université Queen s. Il est l auteur et coauteur de quatre ouvrages professionnels, dont Leadership Solutions (Jossey-Bass, 2007), The Leadership Gap (Wiley, 2005) et High Performance HR (Wiley, 2000). M. Claude Legrand est le président d Ideaction Inc., qui se spécialise dans l innovation durable et la gestion du changement. M. Legrand a une vaste expérience de l innovation, de la planification stratégique, de la mise en marché, des techniques interactives et du changement culturel, principalement pour le compte de grandes organisations. Il est le directeur de programme fondateur du Centre of Excellence in Innovation Management, au Schulich Executive Education Centre. Par David Weiss, Ph.D et Claude Legrand Le concept selon lequel une équipe peut générer des connaissances et des valeurs nouvelles qui vont au-delà de la capacité individuelle de ses membres est une percée importante au sein de notre économie du savoir. Nous appelons ce processus l apprentissage en équipe novateur et soutenons que les organisations ont besoin de cette forme d apprentissage collectif pour survivre et prospérer dans le milieu concurrentiel et complexe dans lequel elles évoluent de nos jours. Nous employons le mot «apprentissage» comme un résultat dans le cadre duquel une équipe apprend quelque chose de neuf, plutôt que comme un processus d apprentissage auquel une équipe est soumise. Pour atteindre ce résultat qu est l apprentissage en équipe novateur, il faut qu une équipe réponde à certaines normes minimales ou de base. L apprentissage en équipe de base L apprentissage en équipe comporte deux normes minimales. Les membres de l équipe doivent apprendre ce que chacun d entre eux sait : les équipes doivent, fondamentalement, s engager à mettre en commun leurs connaissances de façon à ce que chacun des membres sache tous les éléments pertinents que savent tous les autres membres. Malheureusement, de nombreuses équipes n atteignent pas ce niveau de base. Souvent, les individus se servent du savoir comme d un élément de puissance plutôt que comme une ressource commune. C est souvent la compétitivité humaine et la résistance individuelle qui est le problème. Les membres de l équipe doivent être ouverts à l idée d acquérir des connaissances de ressources spécialisées : les équipes croissent ensemble en étant exposées à de nouvelles idées, à de nouveaux procédés ou à de nouvelles démarches que des experts externes peuvent leur fournir. Il est possible qu un expert inculque de nouvelles connaissances à des membres particuliers d une équipe, mais, collectivement, l équipe ne les acquiert peut-être pas. Pour tirer le maximum de valeur de ce qu elles apprennent d un expert, les équipes doivent approfondir la manière d utiliser ce qu elles apprennent et de s en servir pour créer de la valeur, dans le contexte particulier qui est le leur.t. Ces deux formes d apprentissage en équipe sont les éléments fondamentaux de l équipe moyenne, mais elles ne constituent que le niveau de base qui représente les conditions préalables à une performance en équipe efficace. L apprentissage en équipe novateur Voici l exemple d une équipe qui est passée du stade de l apprentissage de base au stade de l apprentissage en équipe novateur. Après avoir pris conscience de la nécessité de régler un problème particulier, les membres de l équipe se sont réunis pendant une journée complète pour analyser la situation en détail. Ils ont mûrement réfléchi au problème collectivement, faisant ressortir les hypothèses sous-jacentes et de nouvelles perspectives en intégrant une idée collective à laquelle aucun membre particulier n avait songé avant la réunion. Ils ont ensuite mis cette idée à l essai en recourant à un processus conjoint d évaluation et d atténuation de risques en vue de déterminer l orientation qui aurait les plus grandes chances de succès. Grâce à leur apprentissage en équipe novateur, ils ont en fait créé une nouvelle valeur en tant qu équipe. S ils s étaient fondés sur l apprentissage en équipe de base, l issue de leur travail n aurait été que la redistribution de connaissances existantes. Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

12 L apprentissage en équipe novateur a lieu à trois stades du processus de règlement d un problème en équipe. Ces stades sont les suivants : 1. Redéfinir le problème : stade où l équipe redéfinit un problème pour s assurer qu elle le comprend bien L apprentissage en équipe novateur a lieu lorsqu une équipe se plonge dans l étude collective d un problème. Ses membres mettent en commun leurs hypothèses et génèrent de nouvelles perspectives qui sont uniques par rapport à l expérience collective. Par exemple, les membres d une équipe de gestion canadienne se sont réunis pour planifier la façon d obtenir l appui de leur équipe de direction mondiale, installée aux États-Unis. Le groupe canadien croyait que ses dirigeants le sous-évaluait et qu à cause de cela, ils ne lui confiaient pas de tâches qui pouvaient maximiser leur capacité. Plutôt que de commencer par trouver des solutions dans le cadre d une séance de remue-méninges, l équipe s est plongée dans l étude de la situation, en la disséquant et en faisant ressortir le problème véritable. Les membres de l équipe ont découvert que leurs dirigeants les considéraient comme des gens très «insulaires» et qu ils savaient fort peu de choses sur eux. Cette prise de conscience a permis de cibler leur travail d équipe sur la production d idées. Les équipes qui se plongent ainsi dans l étude d une situation sont capables de redéfinir les problèmes en mettant en commun leurs idées collectives et en créant des interprétations nouvelles. Elles sont également capables de contester objectivement les hypothèses individuelles et collectives existantes, ce qui leur permet d éliminer leurs hypothèses erronées et d y substituer un reflet plus juste de la réalité. 2. Produire des idées : stade où l équipe se lance dans une réflexion expansive de façon à faire naître des idées qui n ont pas été prises en considération auparavant Pour réaliser cette réflexion expansive, les leaders doivent s assurer au départ que chacun exprime ouvertement ses idées, car les visées cachées et les objections muettes peuvent entacher, voire détruire, les meilleures solutions possibles. Les individus ont besoin d un milieu sûr et exempt de critiques pour faire part au groupe de leur idée personnelle. Bien des équipes comportent toutefois des membres qui ont soit une forte personnalité soit une autorité supérieure et qui ont tendance à réprimer les pensées et les contributions des autres, ce qui entrave la formule de l apprentissage en équipe novateur. Il ne devrait y avoir aucun jugement ou aucune convergence, tant que l équipe n a pas entendu les idées de chacun. Ce processus, s il est réalisé avec succès, établit l apprentissage en équipe de base. Ce n est qu après avoir atteint le stade de l apprentissage en équipe de base que l équipe procède à une réflexion expansive pour produire des idées qui n ont pas été prises en considération auparavant. Cela se fait en combinant des idées, en développant la pensée, en lançant des idées et en suscitant des divergences sans porter de jugement. «L apprentissage en équipe novateur a lieu lorsqu une équipe se plonge dans l étude collective d un problème.» 3. Atténuer les risques : stade où l équipe évalue les risques associés à la solution privilégiée et détermine de quelle façon les atténuer L équipe doit examiner les risques qui sont associés à une nouvelle orientation. Elles anticipe collectivement les risques probables et possibles et détermine ensuite de quelle façon les atténuer jusqu à un niveau acceptable. Le processus génère des perspectives et amplifie le potentiel de l équipe. Par exemple, au sein d une organisation particulière, les membres d une équipe se sont réunis pour examiner comment lancer une nouvelle gamme de produits qui était semblable à une gamme qu offrait déjà un entrepreneur tiers. Ils croyaient qu ils pouvaient générer de nouveaux revenus en devenant eux-mêmes un entrepreneur tiers pour leurs propres clients. Toutefois, lors des discussions portant sur l atténuation des risques, ils ont pris conscience que s ils suivaient cette voie ils risquaient de se mettre à dos l entrepreneur tiers avec lequel ils faisaient affaire et les autres employés pourraient considérer l idée comme un cas limite de comportement contraire à l éthique. Certains membres de l équipe ont jugé que le risque était potentiellement trop dommageable pour que l équipe recommande cette option. D autres voulaient que l on prenne le risque de toute façon, tandis que d autres encore pensaient qu il fallait abandonner complètement l idée. Le leader a encouragé l équipe à trouver des idées d atténuation des risques et à ne pas renoncer entièrement à l idée. Après avoir lancé des suggestions et combiné diverses perspectives, l équipe a conçu un moyen d atténuer le risque en s associant à l entrepreneur tiers plutôt qu en agissant seule. En s attaquant conjointement à ce problème, l équipe a préservé la confiance interne, elle a conservé le service que fournissait l entrepreneur tiers et elle a mis sur le marché un produit crédible. Grâce à la formule de l apprentissage en équipe novateur, l équipe est parvenue à exposer les risques en cause et à trouver des solutions de rechange auxquelles personne n avait songé auparavant. La vulnérabilité de l apprentissage en équipe novateur L apprentissage en équipe novateur, lorsqu il fait partie intégrante d une organisation, devient un avantage concurrentiel invisible, qui crée une valeur nouvelle pour cette organisation. Il rehausse la capacité de cette dernière à redéfinir les problèmes, à générer de nouvelles idées, ainsi qu à relever et à atténuer les risques. Cependant, il s agit d un produit qui peut être fugace et difficile à atteindre. Il est également vulnérable une fois qu on l a, il peut facilement disparaître. Il existe selon nous cinq obstacles à l apprentissage en équipe novateur : Le temps : les équipes doivent investir du temps pour mettre en commun leurs idées, réfléchir à l unisson et acquérir de la confiance. Nombreux sont les leaders et les équipes qui ne sont pas disposés à investir le temps nécessaire. Le processus : les équipes doivent suivre un processus clair. Elles ne peuvent pas se permettre d improviser. Il importe d établir un processus bien défini pour aider à analyser les problèmes et arriver 12 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

13 ainsi à un résultat qui donne naissance à de nouvelles idées. L ambiguïté : les équipes doivent se sentir à l aise face à l ambiguïté et ne pas s empresser de conclure leurs discussions et de les régler trop rapidement. L engagement : les équipes doivent prendre un engagement vis-à-vis du concept de l apprentissage en équipe novateur. Les membres doivent aussi protéger leur équipe pendant qu ils réfléchissent collectivement, et ce, en arrêtant les pairs qui tentent de bloquer ou de limiter la capacité de l équipe à devenir plus que la somme de ses parties. La durabilité : les équipes qui appliquent avec succès le concept de l apprentissage en équipe novateur jouissent souvent de cette expérience et l encouragent. Cependant, cette forme d apprentissage peut être difficile à soutenir dans les cas où il est urgent de trouver une solution rapide. Par ailleurs, un changement de leader ou de membres d équipe change l expérience de l équipe toute entière. Cette dernière doit soutenir ce qu elle a et se rebâtir s il le faut pour pouvoir continuer d obtenir des résultats novateurs. Le rôle du leadership Le leadership a un rôle crucial à jouer pour ce qui est de créer, de favoriser et de soutenir un apprentissage en équipe novateur même en période de turbulences. Les leaders doivent devenir des «champions» de l apprentissage en équipe novateur et comprendre que, quelle que soit l excellence d une idée particulière, l équipe est capable d en trouver une meilleure en recourant à l apprentissage novateur. Enfin, les leaders doivent montrer de façon constante qu ils appuient le concept de l apprentissage en équipe novateur, tant à titre de leaders de leur équipe que de participants dans d autres équipes. C est de cette façon que l apprentissage en équipe novateur se répand dans toute leur organisation, qu il contribue à générer de nouvelles perspectives et de nouvelles façons de faire, allant au-delà des capacités de n importe quel individu, et qu il crée pour l organisation des avantages novateurs inédits. Spring into action and save money! For a limited time only, members can save 50% off the book that sets the standard for the training profession. Purchase the Training Competency Architecture (TCA) online for only $49* at Some of the uses for the TCA: Competency assessment Professional development planning Training for practitioners Recruitment and selection Training evaluation Performance support tools, resources and job aids Certification *Shipping Costs & GST not included. Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

14 Is Training the Answer? Project partners discover what s really important in measuring training initiatives By Lee Weisser, M.Ed., Project Manager, Investing in People With this project we are laying the foundation for global training across our whole organization. The lessons we are learning here will be invaluable to the other business units when they want to align their training with the business strategy of the company. Jonelle Butler Training & Curriculum Designer Logitech, Harmony Remote Controls Business Unit, Mississauga, Ontario Calling All Agents New customer service training program aims to deliver measurable results Before Jonelle Butler started working on the product training for Logitech s Harmony Remote Controls Business Unit, the company s call centres had no formal training plan for customer service agents. For the eight call centres located around the world, the focus had been strictly on capturing training content. The delivery method was classroom instruction and a huge deck of slides. No metrics were collected on the value of the training. A big part of Jonelle s job has been to educate her business unit about why it s important to create a training strategy, including methods to find out if the training is effective or not. She developed a new blended learning program to train support agents that combines e-learning with instructor-led sessions. The intention is that this new program will improve the support experience for customers. Now she needs to prove to her senior management that the money spent on this program is a good investment. That s where the Investing in People project comes in. The three goals for the design of the training are: engaging the learners, accuracy of content, and consistency of messaging. The data collected will speak to these goals. There have been two main challenges to implementing the training itself. The trainthe-trainer program had to be conducted by voice conference call instead of face to face due to budget constraints less than ideal because the trainers are content experts but do not have a training background. The second challenge was a technical one, ensuring that all the PCs and vendor call centres met the system requirements to run the new LMS licensed for this program. This required considerable follow-up by Jonelle. So, what kind of measurement is important to Logitech s call centre? There are three specific statistics that are being looked at: average handle time of a call, customer satisfaction rating, and first call resolution, that is, dealing with the customer s concerns during that first call with the agent without any other follow-up required. 14 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

15 Although the data are still being analyzed, Jonelle has already learned something of importance from the first survey given to trainees immediately after the training was completed. We don t have an incentive-based model to encourage agents to attain a higher level of performance, she reported. So, what s the next step? A focus group of six to eight agents in the Mississauga office will be conducted to further explore the impact of the training on the call centre agents. We feel confident that one of the benefits of this training will be that people will hold each other accountable for what goes on in company meetings. Donna Laitre Leadership Development Specialist WestJet Airlines, Calgary, Alberta Time Well Spent Measuring productivity as a result of smarter meetings Anecdotal evidence and gut feel told the organizational development team and leaders at WestJet that the program they were using to enhance productivity around meetings was having a beneficial effect. Smart Meetings by One Smart World had been used in various pockets of the organization and there was enthusiasm around its benefits. When the opportunity arose for partnering in Investing in People, WestJet jumped at the opportunity to collect and analyze hard data about how the training program was contributing to organizational effectiveness. The One Smart World program is designed to help people change the way they plan meetings specifically, to reduce the time spent in meetings and to increase the quality of the meetings. Previously at WestJet, some meetings lacked a clear agenda with an understandable outcome, and sometimes the right people were not in the room, that is, the decision makers were not at the table. One benefit that has already been realized is a greater awareness of how meeting time is spent. By creating a structured meeting agenda with a clear expectation of outcomes, ideas are generated and decisions are made more efficiently. The data collected and analyzed by Investing in People will demonstrate how the training has influenced the way meetings are planned and conducted, and show what support may be necessary to ensure meetings continue to be successful. As a non-profit organization, a challenge for us is to retain good employees as well as attracting volunteers to help us advance our mission. We need to know if our training programs are helping our managers become successful leaders and, in turn, doing their best to serve people living with cancer. Susan Cron Director Business Services and Organizational Performance (Member of Executive Team) Canadian Cancer Society of Alberta, Calgary, Alberta Driving Vision and Performance Measuring the impact of leadership development training It s hard to retain good people in the non-profit sector when private sector companies can pay employees so much more. And it s been a particular challenge in Alberta where people s salary expectations have been very high. So the Canadian Cancer Society of Alberta has recently embarked on a program of leadership development for its managers to see if training is the solution to enable the managers to have success in their leadership roles. Susan Cron was pleased to get involved in the Investing in People project. The evaluation model used in the project will help Canadian Cancer Society Alberta/ NWT Division find out what tangible and intangible benefits are resulting from targeted management training. Specifically, senior leaders are looking for hard facts that will indicate some or all of the following results: an increase in revenue, better utilization of their programs and services, and a shift in how managers lead their teams. Will the participants be more effective at managing people and tasks? Are teams coming together around the mission and vision? By measuring the results of the training, it will become clear what other factors, both internal and external, are influencing management effectiveness. Each training participant will create an individual action plan about how they will use the training. These plans should indicate some of the intended changes, and the data collected will tell the hard facts that the Canadian Cancer Society is looking for. Whatever the results, they will inform the organization s decision-making about what will drive performance and help their people be the best they can be. n Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

16 La solution passe-t-elle par la formation? Les partenaires d un projet découvrent ce qui compte vraiment dans la mesure des initiatives de formation. Par Lee Weisser, M. Éd., chef de projet, Investir dans les gens «Ce projet nous permet de jeter les bases de la formation mondiale à l échelle de notre société. Les leçons que nous apprenons revêtiront une valeur inestimable aux yeux des autres unités commerciales, lorsque ces dernières chercheront à harmoniser leur formation avec la stratégie d entreprise.» Jonelle Butler Conceptrice, Formation et Programme d études Logitech, Télécommandes Harmony, Mississauga, Ontario Appel à tous les agents Un nouveau programme de formation en matière de service à la clientèle vise à produire des résultats mesurables Avant que Jonelle Butler commence à travailler au programme de formation destiné à l unité Télécommandes Harmony de Logitech, les centres d appels de la société ne disposaient d aucun plan de formation officiel destiné aux agents de service à la clientèle. Dans les huit centres d appels disséminés autour du globe, l accent portait strictement sur l obtention de matériel de formation. La prestation reposait sur l enseignement en classe et une énorme pile de diapositives. Aucun paramètre sur la valeur de la formation n avait été collecté. Le travail de Jonelle a consisté, dans une large mesure, à sensibiliser son unité commerciale à l importance de la création d une stratégie comprenant des méthodes pour déterminer l efficacité de la formation. Elle a élaboré un nouveau programme d apprentissage polyvalent en vue de former des agents de soutien qui combine le cyberapprentissage à des séances que dirigent des instructeurs. Ce nouveau programme vise à améliorer le soutien apporté à la clientèle. Jonelle doit maintenant prouver à un membre de la haute direction que les sommes consacrées à ce programme constituent un bon investissement. Et c est là que le projet Investir dans les gens entre en jeu. Les trois objectifs de la conception de la formation sont les suivants : la mobilisation des apprenants, l exactitude du matériel et l uniformité du mode de communication du message. Les données recueillies s appliqueront à ces objectifs. La mise en œuvre de la formation a posé deux principaux défis. En raison de restrictions budgétaires, le programme de formation du formateur s est déroulé par conférence téléphonique plutôt qu en personne ce qui n est pas idéal, car les formateurs, experts en contenu, ne possèdent toutefois pas d expérience en formation. Le deuxième défi était de nature technique, puisqu il fallait s assurer que tous les PC et les centres d appels des fournisseurs répondent aux exigences informatiques pour exécuter le nouveau système de gestion de l apprentissage (SGA), autorisé sous licence, retenu pour ce programme. Jonelle a donc dû assurer un suivi considérable. Alors, quel type de mesures a de l importance dans le cas du centre d appels de Logitech? Trois statistiques spécifiques sont observées : la durée moyenne des appels, le taux de satisfaction de la clientèle et la résolution des problèmes au cours du premier appel, c est-à-dire que l agent dissipe les préoccupations du client au cours de ce premier appel pour ainsi éviter la 16 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

17 nécessité d un suivi. Si les données recueillies sont toujours en cours d analyse, Jonelle a déjà appris un élément important grâce au premier sondage auquel ont répondu les employés immédiatement à la suite de leur formation. «Nous ne recourons pas à un modèle axé sur des mesures d encouragement pour inciter les agents à atteindre des rendements plus élevés», a-t-elle précisé. Quelle sera donc la prochaine étape? Un groupe de consultation formé de six à huit agents du bureau sera formé pour explorer davantage les répercussions de la formation sur les agents du centre d appel. «Nous sommes persuadés que le partage de la responsabilité des initiatives prises au cours des réunions de l entreprise constituera un des avantages de cette formation.» Donna Laitre Spécialiste, Développement du leadership Lignes aériennes WestJet, Calgary, Alberta Du temps mis à profit L amélioration des réunions mène à la mesure de la productivité Des preuves étayées sur des faits et «le sixième sens» ont permis à l équipe de développement organisationnel et aux leaders de Westjet de constater que le programme mis en œuvre pour améliorer la productivité des réunions portait ses fruits. Le thème «Des réunions brillantes» mené par Un monde brillant a été exploité dans diverses «niches» de l entreprise et ses retombées ont suscité l enthousiasme. Lorsque Westjet a eu l occasion de s associer au projet Investir dans les gens, il l a saisie au vol, de sorte à collecter et analyser des données de base sur l apport du programme de formation en matière d efficacité des entreprises. Le programme Un monde brillant a pour but d aider le personnel à changer son mode de planification des réunions - notamment en vue de réduire le temps consacré à ces rencontres et à en améliorer la qualité. Auparavant, chez WestJet, la clarté du programme de certaines réunions faisait défaut, ce qui entraînait des résultats prévisibles, et, parfois, les intervenants nécessaires étaient absents, c est-à-dire que les preneurs de décisions ne siégeaient pas autour de la table. Au titre des avantages qui se sont déjà concrétisés, mentionnons la sensibilité accrue à l endroit de l utilisation du temps dans les réunions. En créant un programme de réunion structuré, doté d attentes claires, les idées s avivent et la prise de décision gagne en efficacité. Les données collectées et analysées dans le cadre du programme Investir dans les gens démontreront que la formation a influé sur la planification et le déroulement des réunions, et définiront la nature du soutien nécessaire en vue d assurer la réussite continuelle des réunions. «À titre d organisme sans but lucratif, nous devons notamment relever le défi de fidéliser les bons employés et d attirer des bénévoles qui nous aideront à faire progresser notre cause. Nous devons savoir si nos programmes de formation aident nos cadres à devenir des leaders couronnés de succès et si, de plus, ils consacrent toutes leurs ressources à l appui des patients atteints du cancer.» Susan Cron Directrice, Services d exploitation et Rendement organisationnel (membre de l équipe de direction) Société canadienne du cancer, Calgary, Alberta Stimuler la vision et le rendement Comment mesurer les répercussions du programme de développement du leadership Comme les sociétés du secteur privé peuvent offrir à leurs employés une rémunération tellement supérieure à ce qu offrent les organismes sans but lucratif, ces derniers ont de la difficulté à fidéliser leur personnel. Et cette inégalité a constitué un défi particulier en Alberta, où les attentes salariales sont très élevés. C est pourquoi la Division d Alberta/T.-N-.O de la Société canadienne du cancer a adhéré dernièrement à un programme de développement du leadership destiné à ses cadres pour tenter de déterminer si la formation est la solution qui leur permettra de réussir en matière de leadership. Susan Cron était heureuse de participer au projet Investir dans les gens. Le modèle d évaluation appliqué dans le projet aidera la Division d Alberta/T.-N-.O de la Société canadienne du cancer à découvrir les avantages concrets, et autres, attribuables à la formation ciblée de la direction. En fait, les membres de la haute direction sont en quête de données de base qui permettront de cerner certains ou tous les résultats suivants : hausse du revenu, amélioration de l utilisation de leurs programmes et de leurs services et changement dans la manière dont les cadres dirigent leurs équipes. Les participants gagneront-ils en efficacité aux chapitres de la gestion du personnel et du travail? Les équipes se mobilisent-elles autour de la mission et la vision de l organisme? En mesurant les résultats de la formation, les autres facteurs, internes et externes, qui influent sur l efficacité de la direction ressortiront clairement. Chaque participant à la formation créera un plan d action individuel sur la manière dont il mettra en pratique la formation reçue. Ces plans devront faire partie de certains des changements visés, et les données recueillies permettront de dégager les données de base que la Société canadienne du cancer cherche à connaître. Peu importe les résultats obtenus, les participants informeront les décideurs de l organisme sur les facteurs qui motiveront le rendement et aideront le personnel à donner leur pleine mesure. n Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

18 1 Immediate Impact Questionnaire (IIQ) How do you know if a training program has been successful in imparting knowledge and skills to participants? The Immediate Impact Questionnaire (IIQ) evaluates the impact of a training program immediately following its delivery based on participants reactions in five areas: Learning: Have participants acquired new knowledge, skills or attitudes in areas important to their jobs? Confidence in Applying Learning: Are they confident they will be able to apply their learning to their jobs? Motivation to Apply Learning: Are they motivated to apply their learning? Plans for Action: Do they have specific plans for application? Perceived Value: Do they value their learning from the program? Are your training programs measuring up? 2 Job Impact Questionnaire (JIQ) How do you know if a training program has been successful in changing job performance in areas of importance to the company s business? The Job Impact Questionnaire (JIQ) evaluates the impact of a training program on job performance a few months following the completion of training based on participants self-report of their activities in light of four key questions: 1. Are participants applying the knowledge, skills or attitudes acquired in training in their jobs? 2. Is the application of the learning improving job performance? 3. Is the improved performance impacting key business results? 4. What is helping or making it difficult for participants to apply their learning to their jobs? 3 Effective Practices Audit (EPA) How do you know what practices are contributing to or diminishing the impact of your training what s working and what s not? The Effective Practices Audit (EPA) diagnoses training and performance support practices that are effective and those that are not, allowing organizations to enhance and reinforce successful practices and change or improve ineffective practices. The EPA provides the framework for conducting a comprehensive analysis of a training program. As such, it is most useful: When a program is being piloted When a program is new or recently implemented When the results of the Immediate Impact Questionnaire or Job Impact Questionnaire indicate that the program is not performing well or is at risk of not delivering the desired impact on job performance When there is a need to understand what practices are contributing to or diminishing a program s return on investment When expansion of a training program is being considered to serve a new purpose or a new audience Once every two to three years with longrunning programs for quality assurance. Find out more at: Renseignez-vous à propos de ces outils à l adresse suivante : Investing in People Project Canadian Society for Training and Development 720 Spadina Avenue, Suite 315, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2T9 Tel: (416) , Fax: (416) Website 18 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

19 Staying Afloat An Interview with Dr. Margaret Driscoll Dr. Margaret Driscoll is a consultant in IBM Global Services, Client Enablement Services practice. She is the author of Web-Based Training, and co-author with Saul Carliner of Advanced Web-based Training Strategies (Jossey-Bass). She is a featured speaker at national and international training events. Her work has appeared in the Journal of Performance Improvement; Training and Development Magazine; Chief Learning Officer Magazine; and CommunicationsWeek. Margaret has taught at Teachers College Columbia University in New York City, University of Massachusetts in Boston and Suffolk University in Boston. She will be presenting at CSTD s National Symposium in Halifax, NS, May 20-22, CLJ: You ve titled your keynote presentation Navigating Changes in Workplace Learning. What are some of these changes? Driscoll: Training professionals are accustomed to being at the leading edge of downturns in the economy, but this downturn is a game changer. Being able to stay afloat in this storm will require training professionals to address five challenges: responding to short timelines, making use of the white space, leveraging existing tools, forming alliances, and focusing on what matters. The first challenge is shorter timelines. Most of us think we operate with short timelines today, but we will see even shorter timelines as organizations react to changes in the economy rather than plan for change. We need to factor the new zero-runway environment into our instructional strategies and our production values. The second challenge is finding delivery strategies that fit into small time slots. This means using the white space or short breaks in a learner s day to deliver instruction. Organizations need to ensure workers have top rate skills to reduce waste, increase customer satisfaction and close sales. The challenge is developing these skills without taking people away from their work. While there will still be some face-to-face classroom based learning, there will be even more opportunities to deliver short chunks of training. The dot.com boom gave us a wealth of e-learning tools, and Web 2.0 has piled on still more tools and technology. Not all of the tools have lived up to their hype but now is the time to revisit some of them. Consider revisiting things like e-learning classes, webinars, and online documentation that may have not met with success the first time. Think about technology and Th e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g

20 tools within the training organization and tools within the larger organization that can support formal or informal learning. This is not about buying more tools; it is about using the tools you have. Organizations are down-sizing and many trainers will find themselves to be an army of one. If you end up in this role, think about alliances and external support. You may need to use in-house resources like SMEs and experts to assume responsibility for content development or delivery. If you have a large project you may need to outsource the work. Knowing when to hire a vendor or bring in a partner will be an appropriate strategy for a oneperson department. As an army of one you will need a skill set that ranges from do-it-yourself on a shoe-string, to the skills of an executive project manager who can supervise a vendor and deliver a large project. Lastly, don t lose sight of what matters reducing costs, increasing profit or complying with mandates. Make sure the projects you work on are the ones that are really important to your organization. Look for the places where you can add value, and then sell that value. This will not be business as usual. CLJ: What about e-learning? Driscoll: I think e-learning is going to be a mixed bag. Look at Training Magazine s 2008 State of the Industry Report they found that online training fell for the first time ever, because companies are using less costly delivery methods like on-the-job training and coaching. On the other hand, organizations are increasing their use of e-learning for mandatory and compliance training, or using it as a way to reduce the number of days of live instructor-led training. The authoring tools are also making it much easier for SMEs and experts to author courses with minimal assistance from training professionals. E-learning in many organizations may not be elegant but it is cost effective, so I think we will see a lot more of it. What the reports are showing us may be that spending is down because there are fewer big-budget, high production value programs being created. educators, innovators, and business partners. Somewhere in the dust of the dot. com boom, training professionals lost sight of their core competency as skills educators. We need to market our own skills to design, develop and deliver programs that quickly and efficiently close the skill gap. In other words, let s start applying what we know about motivating learners, chunking information, designing authentic practices and a host of other learning principles. Good design, development and delivery save money. In this environment, innovating will also be critical for success. Innovation can be a radical or incremental change in thinking. Consider new ways of doing See and hear Dr. Margaret Driscoll at the upcoming CSTD National Symposium. May 20 22, 2009 Halifax, NS All Hands on Deck: New tools, technologies and strategies to maximize workplace learning effectiveness Keynote Presentation: Navigating Changes in Workplace Learning Managing training and development in a sea change requires organizations and practitioners to understand their options, and to apply the right mix of tools, technology, theory, and business insight. Dr. Margaret Driscoll will review trends in the training and development industry and highlight recent research from human capital management and education to identify these sea changes. The presentation will also look at examples of how some organizations are actually navigating these changes. After attending this session attendees will be able to: 1. Identify trends impacting organizations and learners 2. Use data and research findings to inform strategic planning 3. Reflect on the implications for practice and personal development Stop Me If You ve Heard This Before: A Whirlwind Tour of 5 Instructional Theories and Their Application As instructional designers, developers, consultants and strategists, it is often a full time job to keep up to date on technology, tools, and the domain in which we practice. Professional development and a grounding in educational principles, theories and research often gets neglected. This presentation will look at 5 instructional theories relevant to e-learning design. The goal of this presentation is to review the foundations of practice for senior practitioners and to introduce some seminal theories to those who are new to the field. 1. Discuss 3-5 instructional theories that are applicable to e-learning 2. Locate examples of principles of instructional design in action 3. Explain the benefits of applying theory to practice 4. Find additional resources for designing and developing sound educational materials To register, visit things like on-boarding employees, delivering compliance training, or launching a new initiative. Scan the literature for new ideas. Read the professional magazines and journals, but also look outside our field to innovations in other domains. Lastly well maybe it should have been first learn the skills needed to be a business partner. Become familiar with the industry in which you work. Understand what drives profit and loss for the organization you support. Read the annual report for your company, and learn about your competitors. Knowing the organization you support makes you a credible business partner. CLJ: What skill sets do trainers need in this changing environment? Driscoll: Training professionals need to be 20 T h e Ca n a d i a n Le a r n i n g Jo u r n a l Sp r i n g 2009

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