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1 published by the canadian institute of planners publié par l institut canadien des urbanistes spring/printemps 2014 vol. 54 no.1 publication agreement From U R B A N FARMING to CANADIAN RAILWAYS D e L AGRICULTURE URBAINE aux CHEMINS DE FER CANADIENS

2 GET PUBLISHED IN PLAN CANADA! VISIt cip S WEbSItE For FULL AUthorS GUIDELINES Plan Canada would love to feature your article! we are looking for: > engaging articles, case studies and essays on contemporary Canadian and international planning practice > summaries of innovative research > book, film or website reviews with a planning theme > letters to the editor article deadlines for 2014 ISSUE DEADLINE Fall 2014 June 20th 2014 Winter 2014 September 19th 2014 Spring 2015 December 12th 2014 NEW! Pitch a Story Skype chats with the chair Pitch a Story sessions give you the opportunity to interact directly with the editorial Board chair, Barbara Myers, to pitch themes, story ideas or interesting topics for future editions of Plan Canada. authors are encouraged to submit unsolicited proposals either as outlines for papers, or completed drafts, with accompanying graphics, via to: Michelle Garneau, the next date is MoNDAy MAy 5, 2014 FroM 6 pm to 7:30 pm cst contact to confirm your participation.

3 CONTENTS SOMMAIRE FROM URBAN FARMING TO CANADIAN RAILWAYS/ COLUMNS 2 A Word from the President / Le mot du Président 4 cip news / échos de l icu 7 From the Editorial Board Chair / Le mot de la présidente du Comité de redaction 42 the learning curve / l acquisition du savoir CAPS-ACÉAU Conference Transformations!/Conférence 2013 CAPS-ACÉAU Transformations! By/par Jamie Unwin 44 Planning Notes From Home and Abroad / L Urbanisme Chez Nous et à L étranger 46 FELLOWS CORNER / du côté des fellows The Challenges and Opportunities of International Activity/Les défis et les débouchés de la pratique internationale By/par Walter Jamieson FCIP 49 Research You Can Use from Canadian Planning and Policy / Aménagement et politique au Canada: la recherche qui mérite d être utilisée By/par David Gordon, MCIP, RPP 52 Planners Bookshelf Planning Canadian Communities - An Introduction to the Principles, Practice, and Participants, Sixth Edition By Gerald Hodge and David L.A. Gordon Reviewed by Ian Wight, PhD, MCIP DE L AGRICULTURE URBAINE AUX CHEMINS DE FER CANADIENS PlAn CAnAdA SPring PrintemPS 2014 vol. 54 no. 1 ARTICLES 10 URBAN FARMS IN CANADA By Emilie K. Adin, MCIP, RPP and Alexander F. Kurnicki, MBCSLA, MUP 16 CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES IN SOCIAL PLANNING refereed ArtiCle Lessons from Comprehensive Social Plan Development By Leonora C. Angeles, Olga Shcherbyna, and John Foster, mcip, rpp 24 PLANNING IN PROXIMITY TO RAILWAYS / L AMÉNAGEMENT À PROXIMITÉ DES INSTALLATIONS FERROVIAIRES By / par Raymond Beshro MICU, OUQ 30 HOW MANY PLANETS? Measuring Environmental Sustainability in Plans By Les Kuzyk and Matt Rockley 36 PLANNING FOR SOCIAL DIVERSITY IN THE CANADIAN SUBURBS By Leah Perrin BA, MPlan and Jill Grant, FCIP

4 2 Plan Canada is the official publication of the Canadian Institute of Planners Plan Canada est le journal officiel de L Institut canadien des urbanistes 141 avenue Laurier Avenue West/ouest Suite/Bureau 1112 Ottawa, on K1P 5J3 Tel/Tél. : (800) (613) Fax/Téléc. : (613) Plan Canada is published quarterly: March, June, September, November. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without the expressed permission of CiP is strictly forbidden. Articles contained herein do not necessarily represent the views of the Canadian Institute of Planners. Plan Canada paraît quatre fois par année, en mars, en juin, en septembre et en novembre. Tous droits réservés. La reproduction en tout ou en partie de cette publication sans le consentement écrit de l icu est strictement interdite. Les articles publiés dans ce journal ne reflètent pas nécessairement le point de vue de l Institut canadien des urbanistes. Editorial Board/Comité de rédaction Barbara A. Myers, mcip, mppi, rpp Chair/Présidente Sandeep Agrawal, mcip, rpp Richard Borbridge, mcip, rpp Steven Brasier, CAe, CiP Executive Director/ Directeur général icu ( e x - o ffi c i o ) Dawn Seetaram, mcip, rpp Sasha Tsenkova, mcip, rpp Managing Editor/Directrice de la rédaction Michelle Garneau Copy Editor/Révision Patricia Brown Graphic Design/Conception graphique Ingrid Paulson, Michel Vrána Production Manager/Directrice de la production Kathleen Makenbach Translation/Traduction Véronique Frenette, Mady Virgona Plan Canada is published for The Canadian Institute of Planners by: Plan Canada est publié au nom de l Institut canadien des urbanistes par : McCormick & Associates 9 5th Avenue Chateauguay, QC J6K 3l5 Tel/Tél. : (450) Fax/Téléc. : (450) /courriel: Advertising/Publicité Michelle Garneau McCormick & Associates Publications Mail/Registration #/no de publication/distribution postale : CiP national CoUnCil ConSeil national de l icu Michael Gordon, mcip, rpp President/Président Robert Lehman, FCiP, rpp Vice President and Fellows Representative/ Vice-président et Représentant des fellows Kate Greene, mcip, lpp Atlantic Planners Institute/Institut des urbanistes de l Atlantique Claude Beaulac, micu, ouq Ordre des urbanistes du Québec Andrea Bourrie, mcip, rpp Ontario Professional Planners Institute/ Institut des planificateurs de l Ontario Valdene Lawson, mcip Manitoba Professional Planners Institute William Delainey, mcip, rpp Saskatchewan Professional Planners Institute Beth Sanders, mcip, rpp Alberta Professional Planners Institute Joan Chess-Woollacott, mcip, rpp Planning Institute of British Columbia Jamie Unwin, Student Representative/ Représentante des étudiants Mark Seasons, FCiP, rpp ACUPP (Association of Canadian University Planning Programs) Representative / Représentant d AUCPUA (Association universitaire canadienne des programmes en urbanisme et aménagement) CiP national office/bureau national de l icu Steven Brasier, CAe Executive Director/ Directeur général (ex-officio) Laura-Lee Elliott-Chassé, Manager, Corporate Resources/Gestionnaire, Ressources Christine Helm, Manager, Member Services/Gestionnaire, Services aux membres Andrew Sacret, mcip, rpp, Director, Policy and Public Affairs/Directeur, Politiques et affaires publiques Élizabeth Millaire, Coordinator, Communications/Coordonnatrice, Communications Anissia Nasr, Coordinator, Partnerships and Outreach/Coordonnatrice, Partenariats et sensibilisation Jacklyn Nielsen, Coordinator, Member Recognition Programs/Coordonnatrice, Programmes de reconnaissance aux membres Chantal Leduc, Chantal Leduc, Coordinator, Member Programs and Services/ Coordonnatrice, Programmes et services aux membres Stephanie Dorval, Administrative Assistant/Adjointe administrative Mail undeliverable to Canadian addresses should be returned to Plan Canada and subscriptions & back issues or members who have not received their copy of Plan Canada should contact: Prière de retourner le courrier non livrable à Plan Canada. Pour les abonnements, les numéros antérieurs ou en cas de nonréception d un numéro de Plan Canada, prière de s adresser à : Canadian Institute of Planners/ Institut canadien des urbanistes 141 avenue Laurier Avenue West/ouest Suite/Bureau 1112 Ottawa, on K1P 5J3 Canadian Institute of Planners Abstracted in the Journal of Planning Literature. Institut canadien des urbanistes abrégé dans le Journal of Planning Literature. Subscription Rates/Abonnement annuel (2014) Canada : $ applicable taxes* US & Foreign/États-Unis et étranger : $89.25 CAd + applicable taxes * nt, nu, YK, AB, SK, mb, Pei, QC = 5% gst; BC = 12% HSt; nl, nb, on = 13% HSt; ns = 15% HSt Legal Deposit/Dépôt légal National Library of Canada Bibliothèque nationale du Canada Bibliothèque nationale du Québec issn A WORD FROM THE PRESIDENT AMONG MY FAVOURITE conferences that I attend each year are those organized by the Canadian Association of Planning Students (CAPS). This year it was in Toronto and organized by planning students attending York University, the University of Toronto and Ryerson University. It was the 30th annual CAPS conference. I believe this has been my 10th or 11th CAPS conference. The theme was Transformations and the programme consisted of an impressive array of speakers including Jennifer Keesmaat, Paul Bedford, Hazel McCallion, Kevin Stolarick, Ken Greenberg, John Moser, Paul Stagl, Beth Sanders and Antonio Gomez-Palacio. There were also many excellent student presentations highlighting their research work as well as excellent walking tours. I was honoured to be invited to join Jennifer Keesmaat in a joint opening keynote Imagine and Engage, where we both spoke to ways of innovatively engaging citizens in imagining a better future. On the second day of the conference, I spoke to the topic of climate change and strategies for adaptation along with CiP s Director of Policy & Public Affairs, Andrew Sacret. PARMI LES CONGRÈS ET CONFÉRENCES auxquels je participe chaque année, mes préférés sont ceux organisés par l Association canadienne des étudiants en aménagement et en urbanisme (ACÉAU). Organisée cette année par des étudiants en urbanisme de l Université York, l Université Ryerson et l Université de Toronto, la conférence annuelle de l ACÉAU s est tenue à Toronto. Il s agissait de la 30e édition et je crois que j en suis rendu à ma 10e ou 11e participation. Sous le thème «Transformations», le programme a réuni un éventail impressionnant de conférenciers, y compris Jennifer Keesmaat, Paul Bedford, Hazel McCallion, Kevin Stolarick, Ken Greenberg, John Moser, Paul Stagl, Beth Sanders et Antonio Gomez-Palacio, en plus d un grand nombre de présentations étudiantes portant sur les travaux de recherche en cours et d excellentes visites guidées à pied. J ai eu l honneur d être invité à participer avec Jennifer Keesmaat au discours principal d ouverture «Imaginer et participer» où nous avons conjointement parlé des façons novatrices de faire participer les citoyens à imaginer un avenir meilleur. Au deuxième jour de la conférence, j ai abordé le sujet du changement climatique et des stratégies d adaptation en compagnie du directeur, Politiques et affaires publiques de l icu, Andrew Sacret. Si vous faites une recherche dans Google en entrant les mots clés «icu changement

5 3 LE MOT DU PRÉSIDENT If you google CiP Climate Change you can fi n dcip s Policy on Climate Change and resources and information to assist you in addressing this issue as a community planner. One noteworthy thing is the growing prominence of Twitter and tweeting in conferences. I received 100 tweets and it was particularly interesting to review what content (images and observations) resonated with the audience during the three presentations I gave at the conference. I am sure you are noticing that at many conferences, questions for the speaker are increasingly received through Twitter. You can follow While on the subject of young planners, I encourage all full members to consider mentoring a candidate for membership. For the past five months I have been mentoring a recent graduate of the planning school at the University of British Columbia. It is a rewarding experience as one has the opportunity to discuss questions of ethics and best practices in planning. We meet once a month and for our next meeting we will spend an evening discussing local government and land titles legislation. I will soon be taking on a second student as a mentor. Another reason I decided to put the time into mentoring a candidate member is to support our new approach to membership as the way forward for continuing to uphold professional and ethical standards for our profession. It benefits both our candidate members and those who have practiced planning for some time. Contemplating ethics, best practices in planning and planning legislation (I admit to being a bit of a planning nerd so I do enjoy poring over it) with a young planner makes for a good series of conversations. For candidate members, there are so many elements of our practice that are best learned from a practicing planner. Most important, let s notice that supporting our young planners benefits the profession and all of us as professional planners. Lastly, in January, your CiP staff and National Council hosted a summit in Winnipeg with the Presidents and staff of all the provincial and regional professional planners institutes across Canada to discuss the role and focus of CiP and how it should be governed. This was a unique opportunity to build a consensus on how best to move forward and work together as professional institutes. There shall be more information on this work during Please stay tuned. climatique», vous trouverez la «Politique de l icu concernant les changements climatiques», ainsi que des ressources et d autres renseignements qui vous aideront à aborder cet enjeu en tant que planificateur communautaire. L importance croissance de Twitter lors de ces conférences m a beaucoup frappé. J ai reçu 100 tweets pendant la conférence de l ACÉAU et j ai été particulièrement intéressé par le contenu (visuel et textuel) qui avait trouvé un écho chez les participants au cours de mes trois présentations. Je suis certain que vous avez remarqué qu à bien des congrès, les questions adressées au conférencier sont de plus en plus envoyées par Twitter. N hésitez donc pas à me suivre À propos des nouvelles tendances et des jeunes urbanistes, j encourage tous les membres à part entière à envisager d encadrer un futur candidat de l icu. Depuis les cinq dernières années, j encadre un jeune diplômé de l école d urbanisme de l Université de la Colombie-Britannique et je peux affirmer qu il s agit d une expérience stimulante qui favorise la discussion de questions d éthique et de pratiques exemplaires en urbanisme. Lors de notre prochaine rencontre mensuelle, nous aborderons l administration locale et la législation relative aux titres fonciers. J encadrerai très bientôt un deuxième étudiant. Si j ai décidé de prendre le temps d encadrer un membre et futur candidat de l icu, c est aussi pour appuyer notre nouvelle approche à l égard de nos membres comme moyen de continuer à maintenir des normes professionnelles et éthiques à l égard de notre profession. Cette façon de faire est avantageuse autant pour nos futurs candidats que pour ceux qui exercent leur profession depuis plusieurs années. Les questions sur l éthique, les pratiques exemplaires en urbanisme et la législation relative à la planification (j avoue que j adore la planification, alors je prends plaisir à considérer toutes ses facettes) sont aussi intéressantes pour un jeune urbaniste que pour moi. S il est vrai qu il y a beaucoup d éléments de notre profession qui ne MICHAEL GORDON MCIP, RPP CIP President / Président de l icu s apprennent qu au contact d un urbaniste chevronné, il est aussi essentiel de constater que l appui des futurs urbanistes favorise autant la profession que les urbanistes. J aimerais ajouter qu en janvier dernier, le personnel et les membres du conseil d administration de l icu ont organisé un sommet à Winnipeg avec les présidents et le personnel de tous les instituts d urbanisme provinciaux et régionaux du pays dans le but de discuter du rôle et de l orientation stratégique de l icu et la façon dont il devrait être administré. Cela a été une occasion unique d établir un consensus sur la meilleure manière d avancer et de travailler tous ensemble. Nous vous tiendrons informés de ces discussions tout au long de l année. Restez à l écoute!

6 4 CIP NEWS ÉCHOS DE L ICU NEW STAFF AT CIP CiP is pleased to announce that the staff team in Ottawa has grown again, further expanding CiP s capacity to serve the needs of planners and the planning profession. Recent staff additions include LAURA-LEE ELLIOTT-CHASSÉ as the Manager of Corporate Resources, and ELIZABETH MILLAIRE as Coordinator of Communications. ANISSIA NASR has also returned to the position of Coordinator of Partnerships and Outreach, following a period of leave. Visit the CiP website for a glimpse of the new staff structure and contact information. GREAT PLACES IN CANADA Do you want to tell fellow Canadians about your favourite street, neighbourhood or public space in Canada? Submit these places for nomination during the 4th edition of the Great Places in Canada contest, NOUVEAUX EMPLOYÉS À L ICU L icu est heureux d annoncer le recrutement de nouveaux membres du personnel à Ottawa, qui lui permettront d améliorer sa capacité à répondre aux besoins des urbanistes et de la profession. Parmi les nouveaux venus, mentionnons LAURA-LEE ELLIOTT-CHASSÉ, gestionnaire, Ressources corporatives et ELIZABETH MILLAIRE, coordonnatrice, Communications. ANISSIA NASR a également retrouvé son poste de coordonnatrice, Partenariats et sensibilisation, après une période de congé. Accédez au site Web de l icu pour jeter un coup d œil à la nouvelle structure du personnel et aux coordonnées de chacun. CONCOURS AU CANADA, C EST MA PLACE! Voulez-vous faire connaître à vos compatriotes votre rue, votre quartier ou votre endroit public préféré au Canada? Soumettez-nous vos propositions à l occasion de la 4 e édition du concours Au Canada, c est ma place! qui sera lancé le 26 mai prochain. Le concours Au Canada, c est ma place! which is set to launch on May 26th, Great Places in Canada is an online contest designed to increase public awareness on the work done by professional planners, and to leverage Canadian pride in the many special places that exist in communities from coast to coast to coast. Canada s Great Places winners are selected by a jury of experts based on their planning merits. In addition to the grand prize winners chosen by the jury, there are three People s Choice Awards based solely on the number of votes garnered by the public. Visit for contest details and nomination guidelines. PEOPLE MATTER! CIP API CONFERENCE (JULY 9 TO 12, 2014) The theme for the 2014 CiP APi conference is PEOPLE MATTER! It is a call for action for planners to place more emphasis on the physical, social, health and economic elements of communities that enhance est un événement en ligne qui a pour but de sensibiliser le public au travail des urbanistes canadiens et de susciter la fierté à l égard des nombreux endroits spéciaux qui animent les collectivités d un bout à l autre du pays. Les lieux gagnants du concours sont choisis par un jury d experts en fonction de leur mérite sur le plan de l urbanisme. En plus des grands gagnants, le concours décerne trois prix du public à des endroits déterminés uniquement en fonction du nombre de votes recueillis. Visitez www. aucanadacestmaplace.ca pour obtenir des renseignements détaillés et les directives en matière de soumission des propositions. CONGRÈS ICU IUA LES GENS COMPTENT! (DU 9 AU 12 JUILLET 2014) Sous le thème LES GENS COMPTENT!, le congrès icu iua invite les urbanistes à mettre davantage l accent sur les éléments à caractère physique, social, environnemental, sanitaire et économique

7 quality of life. The conference will provide planners and other professionals with practical tools to create vibrant and healthy communities. The theme will explore how the work of planners has the potential to positively impact health by influencing how people live, work, play and eat. The conference will feature inspiring keynote speakers, including: > Hal Johnson and Joanne McLeod of Body Break; > Dr. Karen Lee, Senior Advisor on Built Environment and Healthy Housing at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; and > Gordon Price, Director of the City Program at Simon Fraser University. The PEOPLE MATTER! conference also represents a key opportunity for CiP, through its Healthy Community Subcommittee, to showcase the work that has been done through the multi-year Healthy Canada by Design ClASP initiative. In the conference program, look for the following panel sessions and workshops sponsored by CiP and the Healthy Canada by Design ClASP partnership: > CiP s National Planning and Health Agenda for Action; > The Role of Health Impact Assessments - Successful Collaborations Between Public Health and Planners; > Incubating Inter-Sectoral Collaboration to Create Healthy Communities in Urban and Rural Contexts; > The Role of Education in Fostering Health/Planning Partnerships; and > International Perspectives on Health and Urbanization. Visit the People Matter! website at www. peoplematter.ca to register online, and to obtain additional program details and information on sponsorship and exhibitor opportunities. CIP TRANSFORMATION: UPCOMING VOTES In recent months, a series of in-depth conversations between CiP Council and its affiliated professional planning institutes have led to a BOLD NEW PROPOSAL to redefine CiP s relationships with individual professional planners, as well as each of the professional planning institutes across Canada. Overall, the proposed changes will serve to strengthen the planning profession, and better serve the needs of planners. ALL MEMBERS of the Canadian Institute of Planners will need to CON- SIDER THE CHANGES and CAST VOTES in JULY and SEPTEMBER Please visit the CiP website to find out more about these changes, and the details of the upcoming membership votes. qui ont pour effet d améliorer la qualité de vie des communautés. En explorant la capacité du travail des urbanistes à avoir un impact positif sur la santé en influençant la façon dont les gens vivent, travaillent, s amusent et mangent, ce congrès offre aux urbanistes et à d autres professionnels des outils pratiques pour créer des collectivités dynamiques et saines. Le congrès met en vedette des conférenciers d honneur inspirants, notamment : > Hal Johnson et Joanne McLeod de Body Break; > Dre Karen Lee, conseillère supérieure sur l environnement bâti et les maisons saines au New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; > Gordon Price, directeur du programme urbain de l Université Simon-Fraser. Le congrès LES GENS COMPTENT! représente aussi une occasion clé pour l icu, par le biais de son sous-comité national chargé des collectivités saines, de mettre en valeur le travail réalisé grâce au programme pluriannuel CoAlition de Canada en santé par l aménagement. Ne manquez pas les réunions d experts et les ateliers commandités conjointement par l icu et le programme CoAlition de Canada en santé par l aménagement suivants : Le plan d action de l icu en matière de planification et de santé à l échelle nationale; Le rôle des études d impact sur la santé Collaborations fructueuses entre la santé publique et les urbanistes; Incuber la collaboration intersectorielle pour créer des collectivités saines en milieu urbain et rural; Le rôle de l éducation pour favoriser les partenariats entre la santé et l urbanisme; Perspectives internationales sur la santé et l urbanisation. Rendez-vous sur le site Les gens comptent! à l adresse lesgenscomptent2014. ca pour vous inscrire en ligne et obtenir des renseignements complémentaires sur le programme et sur les occasions de commandite et d exposition. TRANSFORMATIN DE L ICU : REFERENDUMS À VENIR Au cours des derniers mois, le conseil d administration de l icu et les responsables de ses organismes professionnels affiliés ont entamé des discussions approfondies qui ont mené à une AUDACIEUSE NOUVELLE PROPOSITION de redéfinition des liens entre l icu, les urbanistes et chaque société professionnelle affiliée au pays. Dans l ensemble, les modifications qui ont été proposées serviront à renforcer la profession et à mieux répondre aux besoins des urbanistes. TOUS LES MEMBRES de l Institut canadien des urbanistes DEVRONT PASSER EN REVUE LES CHANGEMENTS PROPOSÉS, puis VOTER À L OCCASION en JUILLET et en SEPTEMBRE Nous vous invitons à consulter le site Web de l icu afin d en apprendre davantage sur ces modifications et sur la procédure de vote des membres. cip news échos de l icu 5

8 6 NEW MEMBERS/NOUVEAUX MEMBRES CiP welcomes the following new full members to the Institute: L icu souhaite la bienvenue au sein de l Institut aux nouveaux membres à part entière suivants : cip news échos de l icu Aderonke T. Akande, mcip, rpp Danae Balogun, mcip, rpp Marie-eve D. Belanger, mcip, rpp Adam P. Bentley, mcip, rpp Michael C. M. Blake, mcip, rpp Tony Boutassis, mcip, rpp Teaka Broughm, mcip, rpp Brad R. G. Clifton, mcip, rpp Sarah E. Coutu, mcip, rpp Tony Dakiv, mcip, rpp Leah Deveaux, mcip, rpp Laura B. Diotte, mcip, rpp Valerie Durant, mcip, rpp Michael W. Dwyer, mcip, rpp Sally Elford, mcip, rpp David Falletta, mcip, rpp Steven J. Farquharson, mcip, rpp James Genge, mcip, rpp Melanie Gervais, mcip, rpp Dayna A. Gilbert, mcip, rpp Rachel Gilbert, mcip Hardev Gill, mcip, rpp Andrea Gillman, mcip, rpp Alexandre Girard, mcip, rpp Steve W. Gitao, mcip, rpp Nandor Gortva, mcip, rpp Rylan R. Graham, mcip, rpp Dave R. Guyadeen, mcip, rpp Jennifer M. Haan, mcip, rpp Taryn Hayes, mcip, rpp Deborah M. Herbert, mcip, rpp John D. Hill, mcip, rpp Jackson W. C. Hui, mcip, rpp SPPi APPi APPi APi PiBC PiBC APPi APi PiBC PiBC APi APPi SPPi PiBC Erika A. Ivanic, mcip, rpp Alfiya Kakal, mcip, rpp Nick Kazilis, mcip, rpp Jeffrey W. Kenny, mcip, rpp Patrick S. Klassen, mcip, rpp Alex B. Kleiner, mcip, rpp Hanita Koblents, mcip Natasha Kuzmak, mcip, rpp James T. Lapointe, mcip, rpp Claudia M. La Rota, mcip, rpp Jonathan Lea, mcip, rpp Shannon S. Leblond, mcip, rpp Timothy T. H. Lee, mcip, rpp Xin Li, mcip, rpp Deborah Lightman, mcip, rpp Sandy S. Little, mcip, rpp Jason J. Malfara, mcip, rpp Bruce T. Mans, mcip Ben Mario, mcip, rpp Guy E. D. Matthew, mcip, rpp Michal Matyjewicz, mcip, rpp Annie Mauboules, mcip, rpp Celine Mauboules, mcip, rpp Andrea E. McCreery, mcip, rpp Julie McLean, mcip, rpp Henry D. McQueen, mcip, rpp Asher Mercer, mcip, rpp Gil J. Meslin, mcip, rpp Antonietta A. Minichillo, mcip, rpp Luciana Moraes, mcip, rpp Jason D. Mosdell, mcip, rpp Paul N. Mule, mcip, rpp Ann E. O Connor, mcip, rpp PiBC APi APPi APPi APi SPPi PiBC PiBC APPi PiBC Niall A. Oddie, mcip, rpp Amber Osadan-Ullman, mcip, rpp APPi Margaret Pak, mcip, rpp Minhee Park, mcip, rpp PiBC Michael J. L., Pease, mcip, rpp Krystal L. Perepeluk, mcip, rpp Denise Philippe, mcip, rpp PiBC Linda R. Pim, mcip, rpp Jenna L. Puletto, mcip, rpp Daniel G. Ridgway, mcip, rpp Susan L. Robertson, mcip, rpp Brendan T. Salakoh, mcip mppi Mara A. Samardzic, mcip, rpp Jenna A. Schroeder, mcip, rpp SPPi Christina L. Sgro, mcip, rpp Brittany Shewchuk, mcip mppi Melissa G. Shih, mcip, rpp Diane L. Silver, mcip, rpp Mélodie M. Simard, mcip, rpp Emily M. Sinclair, mcip, rpp PiBC Lisa L. Stern, mcip, rpp APPi Doug J. Stiles, mcip, rpp Michael J. Stone, mcip, rpp Ana M. Stuermer, mcip, rpp Joel R. Swagerman, mcip, rpp Silke Turner, mcip, rpp SPPi Rachel H. Vaillancourt, mcip, rpp Christian S. Ventresca, mcip, rpp Diana A. Vlasic, mcip, rpp J e ffwe i g h t m a n,mcip, rpp PiBC Leah S. Weller, mcip, rpp Lynsie J. Wilkinson, mcip, rpp Kyle Young, mcip, rpp PiBC

9 7 FROM THE EDITORIAL BOARD CHAIR LE MOT DE LA PRÉSIDENTE DU COMITÉ DE RÉDACTION MESSAGE OF INVITATION BY BARBARA MYERS BA, MCP, MCIP, MPPI, RPP I am very pleased to serve as the new Chair of the Editorial Board for Plan Canada. I come to this position at a time when there are many exceptional planning journals, magazines and websites to support our practice. Plan Canada shares a readership with an array of engaging publications that capture the attention of professionals and the general public. Cities are increasingly an interesting subject of attention and study and planners are looking at new approaches to public policy, land use and resource conservation across Canada. There are new public conversations on suburban planning, rural and town planning, neighbourhood revitalization, economic development, transportation and urbanism across Canada. Transition Towns and academic hubs like the Cities Centre, University of Toronto are showing leadership and innovation in planning thought and dialogue. Magazines such as Spacing, Good Magazine, Planning and Planners Network continue to move urban planning issues into the public realm. Journals including the Canadian Journal of Urban Research, Cities and the Journal of Architectural and Planning Research support our scholarly research. With this in mind, I invite planners to participate in the dialogue and exchange that Plan Canada offers at a national level. The 2014 Editorial Board intends to enable this participation by streamlining and facilitating the submission of articles as follows: 2014 SUBMISSION DATES: > The Spring issue will be distributed in late April > Fall issue: Submission date is June 20th > Winter: Submission date is Sept. 20th PITCH A STORY SKYPE CHATS WITH THE CHAIR I am pleased to arrange Skype discussions with authors who are interested in submitting an article but might appreciate a discussion on any number of points prior to the submission date. If you have an idea for a story, and would like to discuss what you have in mind, why the topic is UNE INVITATION BARBARA MYERS BA, MCP, MICU, MPPI, UPC Je suis très heureuse de commencer mon mandat à la présidence du Comité de rédaction de Plan Canada. J assume mes nouvelles fonctions à un moment où une foule de revues, de magazines et de sites Web de qualité exceptionnelle sur l urbanisme favorisent l exercice de nos activités. Plan Canada partage le même lectorat qu une série d autres publications intéressantes qui attirent l attention des professionnels comme du grand public. Les villes constituent un pôle et un sujet d étude de plus en plus attractifs, et les urbanistes envisagent de nouvelles approches à la politique publique, à l utilisation des terres et à la conservation de la ressource d un bout à l autre du Canada. Des conversations publiques portent maintenant sur la planification suburbaine, l aménagement urbain et rural, la revitalisation des quartiers, le développement économique, les transports et l urbanisme partout au pays. Le processus des villes en transition et les centres universitaires comme le Cities Centre de l Université de Toronto font preuve de leadership et d innovation dans leurs réflexions et leur dialogue sur l urbanisme. Des magazines comme Spacing, Good Magazine, Planning et Planners Network continuent d étendre au domaine public les questions d urbanisme, alors que les revues académiques, telles le Canadian Journal of Urban Research, Cities et le Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, soutiennent nos activités de recherche universitaire. Dans cette optique, j invite les urbanistes à participer au dialogue et aux échanges que Plan Canada favorise à l échelle nationale. Cette année, le Comité de rédaction prévoit d encourager cette participation en simplifiant et en facilitant le processus de soumission d articles comme suit : DATES DE SOUMISSION EN 2014 : > Numéro du printemps : la distribution sera effectuée à la fin du mois d avril > Numéro d automne : le 20 juin > Numéro d hiver : le 20 septembre PRÉSENTATION D UN SUJET ET CONVERSATIONS SUR SKYPE AVEC LA PRÉSIDENTE J ai le plaisir d organiser des discussions sur Skype avec les auteurs qui souhaitent soumettre un article, mais qui préfèrent aborder un certain nombre de points avant la date de soumission. Si vous avez un sujet d article en tête et voulez vous en entretenir afin d en expliquer l importance et la pertinence à l égard du lectorat de l icu notre public n hésitez pas à m envoyer un courriel à afin que nous puissions organiser une rencontre sur Skype.

10 from the editorial board chair le mot de la présidente du comité de rédaction 8 For your home and auto insurance, being in the right place has its benefits. Get your exclusive quote thepersonal.com/cip The right fit. Certain conditions apply. Auto insurance is not available in Manitoba, Saskatchewan or British Columbia due to government-run plans. CONSEILS PRATIQUES EN CE QUI A TRAIT À LA SOUMISSION D ARTICLES Plan Canada recherche des articles qui présentent un cadre et un contexte stratégiques solides, ainsi que des méthodologies claires relativement aux études et aux travaux de recherche. Ce sont des articles qui doivent conduire à une réflexion critique et offrir des enseignements sur l exercice de l urbanisme. Plan Canada publie des articles de fond, y compris des études de cas et des tendances, des textes courts sur des événements dignes d intérêt, des articles scientifiques, des critiques de livres ou de sites Web, des textes d opinion, des lettres, des descriptions d activités et de techniques de planification et des mises à jour sur les projets en préparation. Nous vous invitons aussi à présenter des ressources et des outils de planification, notamment les sites Web et YouTube qui motivent vos activités. Par exemple, Planetizen a récemment publié un article intéressant sur les applications mobiles pour les urbanistes (http://www.planetizen.com/node/66853). ARTICLES ÉVALUÉS PAR LES PAIRS Plan Canada s intéresse également aux articles évalués par les pairs, particulièrement les analyses novatrices sur les pratiques exemplaires de l urbanisme au Canada, les comptes-rendus pertinents des événements et activités d urbanisme à l échelle internationale, et les résultats de travaux de recherche originaux et récents d universitaires et de praticiens de l urbanisme. NOTRE RÉPONSE AUX AUTEURS Nous ferons de notre mieux pour vous envoyer une réponse dans les trois semaines après la date de soumission prévue. Nous croyons que pour tisser des Pour vos assurances auto et habitation, mieux vaut être à la bonne place. La bonne combinaison. DeMANDeZ votre soumission exclusive lapersonnelle.com/icu Certaines conditions s appliquent. L assurance automobile n est pas offerte au Manitoba, en Saskatchewan ni en Colombie-Britannique où il existe des régimes d assurance gouvernementaux. liens avec les auteurs et stimuler l intérêt à l égard de Plan Canada, il est essentiel de donner une réponse dans un délai raisonnable. QUESTIONS/COMMENTAIRES? Veuillez contacter le Comité de rédaction par courriel à cip-icu.ca. Nous voulons vous entendre, car nous sommes déterminés à soutenir les auteurs et les lecteurs de l icu. N hésitez donc pas à nous envoyer vos articles, vos réflexions et vos opinions. Je me réjouis de commencer mon mandat comme présidente et de travailler avec les membres dévoués du Comité de rédaction et les nouveaux membres dynamiques du personnel de l icu. BARBARA MYERS BA, MCP, MICU, MPPI, UPC, est urbaniste chez planningalliance/regionalarchitects à Toronto et Number TEN Architectural à Winnipeg. Elle possède 35 ans d expérience

11 important, and how it is relevant to our CiP readers, our audience, please contact to arrange a Skype meeting. HELPFUL SUBMISSION TIPS Please submit articles that have a strong policy framework and context and clear methodologies in the case of studies and research. Plan Canada is looking for articles that provide critical reflection and offer lessons for planning practice. Plan Canada runs full-length feature articles including case studies and trends, short stories about newsworthy events, scholarly articles, book/website reviews, viewpoint essays, letters, descriptions of planning practice and techniques and news of projects that are in the works. Please also submit planning resources and tools including websites and YouTube sites that inform your practice. Planetizen recently released an interesting article on mobile applications for planners (http:// PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES Plan Canada welcomes submissions of dans le domaine de l architecture et a réalisé des études de faisabilité, des programmes fonctionnels, des propositions et des plans opérationnels pour des clients du secteur public, principalement dans les domaines de la culture et de l environnement. À Toronto, Barbara a collaboré avec Museum Programs Collaborative; et à Winnipeg, avec Investors Group, LM Architectural Group et Number TEN Architectural Group. Pour favoriser le développement des collectivités, Barbara a présidé le comité de l environnement des Jeux panaméricains de 1999, à Winnipeg, et le comité des programmes de la section du Manitoba du Conseil du bâtiment durable du Canada. Elle a aussi siégé au Conseil manitobain de l environnement et, récemment, au Comité consultatif sur le contenu du Musée canadien des droits de la personne, dont l ouverture est prévue à Winnipeg, à l automne Elle peut être jointe à l adresse : peer-reviewed articles. We endeavour to publish innovative analyses of best practices in Canadian planning, and to draw attention to relevant international developments and planning activities. Plan Canada seeks to publish the results of original and contemporary research by planning academics and practitioners. OUR RESPONSE TO AUTHORS We will do our very best to reply to your submission within three weeks of the submission date. We believe the Board s timely response is key to building relationships with authors and confidence in Plan Canada. QUESTIONS/COMMENTS? Please communicate with the Board at We want to hear from you and are here to support CiP authors and readers. Send us your articles, thoughts and opinions. I look forward to my term as Chair and to working with a committed Editorial Board and the energetic new staff at CiP. Vancouver Victoria Calgary Edmonton bunteng.com BARBARA MYERS BA, MCP, MCIP, MPPI, RPP, is an urban planner with planningalliance/regionalarchitects in Toronto and Number TEN Architectural Group in Winnipeg. Barbara has 35 years of planning experience in the architectural field. She has conducted feasibility studies, functional programs, proposals and operational plans for public sector clients primarily in the cultural and environmental field. Barbara has worked with Museum Programs Collaborative in Toronto and Investors Group, LM Architectural Group and Number TEN Architectural Group in Winnipeg. Barbara s community contributions include serving as Chair of the Environment Committee for the 1999 Pan American Games in Winnipeg and Chair of the Program Committee for the Manitoba Chapter of the Canada Green Buildings Council. She has served on the Manitoba Environmental Council and recently on the Content Advisory Committee for the Canadian Museum for Human Rights, scheduled to open in Winnipeg in the fall of She can be reached at: NumberTEN.com from the editorial board chair le mot de la présidente du comité de rédaction 9

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13 URBAN FARMS in CANADA BY EMILIE K. ADIN, MCIP, RPP AND ALEXANDER F. KURNICKI, MBCSLA, MUP SUMMARY Urban farming in Canada is explored in the context of urban agriculture, food security, social inclusion and entrepreneurism. Environmental and social co-benefits of urban farming are discussed, and Canadian planners are called upon to take a more active policy role in supporting urban agriculture. M unicipal planners have an important role to play in the creation of policies and programs that will take a broader view of food security, working to reduce social inequality and environmental impacts while increasing residents quality of life. Where appropriate, urban farms and intensive farming activities should be permitted, with guidelines that don t overregulate. As the Growto Urban Agriculture Action Plan for Toronto acknowledges, While policy discussions can sometimes seem far removed from on the ground action, policies are indeed the backbone and framework that either support or hinder urban agriculture. ¹ This is where local governments come in. Many North American cities now challenge the status quo of early 20th century zoning regulations that attempted to separate incompatible land uses, and allow chicken keeping in residential neighbourhoods. This is but one example of how planners are facilitating a changing societal attitude to growing food in the city. PC_2014_Q1_Book.indb pl an canada spring printemps 2014 RÉSUMÉ Le mouvement d agriculture urbaine au Canada est examiné dans le contexte d agriculture en milieu urbain, de la sécurité alimentaire, de l inclusion sociale et de l entrepreneuriat. Cet article propose une discussion des avantages environnementaux et sociaux indirects de l agriculture en milieu urbain et invite les urbanistes canadiens à y manifester leur appui dans l arène politique :56 PM

14 W hile large and productive private gardens are examples of wonderful bounty in an urban context, the modern definition of urban agriculture seems to point to some new trends. We would like to explore that thread in this article. A DEFINITION OF URBAN AGRICULTURE Urban agriculture is a term for food production occurring in or around urban areas. It encompasses both large and small food production, including backyard chickens and bee-keeping, community gardens, public orchards, edible landscaping, garden sharing, roof gardens and urban farming. This is more than just abundant backyard gardens. The weather vane of gardening in the city as a hobby or for subsistence has shifted to include the socially conscious gardener and their intensive agriculture of land not traditionally farmed. The principles of food security, biodiversity, locavorism, urban densification and small business are all supporting this new direction. WHAT IS URBAN FARMING? The term urban farming is generally used to describe intensive and revenue-generating urban food production. The concept encapsulates an element of entrepreneurial spirit, even as these farms might also achieve a variety of other co-benefits to the public. BENEFITS OF URBAN AGRICULTURE pl an canada spring printemps Reducing heat-island effects and greenhouse gas emissions related to transporting food while also supplying fresh produce is a universally accepted goal. However, once city governments consider adding animal husbandry, bee-keeping, collectivized composting, or more intensive farming activities to the urban landscape, they often hear concerns about noise, smells, the attraction of and general nuisance of pests. To counter these concerns, the benefits of urban agriculture must be brought to the forefront. First, urban farming offers employment opportunities green jobs often to lower income residents. For example, the Solefood Urban Farm (founded as an enterprising non-profit in Vancouver s Downtown Eastside) provides employment for this neighbourhood s residents. Other social benefits of urban agriculture include improved emotional well-being, community social life, physical health, nutritional understanding, and diet. Food literacy is often a direct result of urban farming. PC_2014_Q1_Book.indb 12 People are becoming aware of the use of pesticides, fertilizers and genetic engineering in conventional farming. Concerns about food safety lead residents to local, better known food sources and away from produce picked too early and shipped hundreds or thousands of miles. There are high energy costs for the transportation of foodstuffs, as well as high fossil fuel use and ghg emissions related to transportation of food. The average conventional produce item travels 1,500 miles (2,400 km),² using one gallon of fossil fuel per 100 pounds (45 kg) of produce. Urban farms also act as carbon sinks, while many community gardens and urban farms decontaminate the soils of vacant urban lots, covered landfills, and railway right-of-ways. Fresh Roots Urban Farm Society in Vancouver seeks to put healthy food in school cafeterias, harnessing the labour pool of high school students and socially conscious businesses. Food grown in school yards points to a trend in urban agriculture today: growing food organically on what was previously under-utilized institutional and even industrial land. Urban agriculture also reaps economic benefits. Studies have found that every $1 invested in community gardens yields $6 worth of vegetables.³ The average median yield for a community garden plot is $200 to $500.⁴ Urban farming entrepreneurs succeed. For example, within two years of start-up Montreal s Lufa Farms was running two rooftop farms with 30 staff. In large Canadian cities urban agriculture entrepreneurs are adept at convincing developers to let them turn their vacant lots into vegetable gardens. The developer gets goodwill from being community-minded and green (and sometimes the owners get tax reductions as well), while the entrepreneurs get free land for their urban farming ventures. Solefood has used this avenue to expand their operations. FOOD SECURIT Y, THE CIT Y OF VANCOUVER In 2012 Vancouver city council supported an ambitious 71-point food strategy⁵ with the primary purpose of integrating food security into neighbourhood planning. Vancouver went ahead to implement some of these proposed initiatives, but has been criticized for overregulation. For example, the City requires the registration :56 PM

15 pl an canada spring printemps PC_2014_Q1_Book.indb :56 PM U R B A N FA R M S I N C A N DA S

16 urban farms in candas 14 LEXICON OF URBAN AGRICULTURE Community garden: A single plot of land cultivated by a group of people. Community kitchen: A group of people (typically 6 to 8) cooking healthy meals together on a regular basis. Community supported agriculture: Consumers pay a set fee prior to growing season, sharing the risks of production and sharing the bounty of the harvest. Edible landscaping: Public produce on boulevards, medians, and other public lands, for which passersby are encouraged to taste and harvest, while excess foods are typically donated to food banks. Farmers markets: Common space where farmers can sell their products and crops directly to consumers. Food deserts: Urban areas with little or no access to fresh food. Food security: Access to fresh and healthy foods to mitigate poverty and to alleviate people s vulnerability to rising or fluctuating food prices. of each individual backyard chicken, despite the legalization of the use. Fortunately, these concerns didn t stop other municipalities from advancing food security goals. The City of North Vancouver has not only legalized hens and bee-keeping in urban residential areas, but has also loaned parkland for an urban farming initiative. LOUTET FARM, CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER In partnership with the North Shore Neighbourhood House, the City of North Vancouver has permitted under-utilized public parkland to operate as an urban farm within a residential area. The Loutet Farm proposal was presented to the City of North Vancouver in the summer of By 2011 work had commenced and by 2013 a full apiary was added. Loutet Farm is billed as a plant to plate food system for residents of Metro Vancouver s North Shore.⁶ Loutet Park has a flat landscape and lies in full sun for the entire day. Since it is located on public land, the Farm s agreement with the City stipulates that the farm, while fenced to keep dogs out of the growing area, must remain open to the community. As such, the gates are unlocked and residents freely stroll the rows of produce. Farm food is sold at the gate and at local farmers markets. To abide by the City s Parks Bylaw concerning economic activity in parks, the farm is administered by a not-for-profit society. Revenues pay for full-time farmers green-collared employment as well as other farming costs. Other benefits include community volunteering opportunities and networks, public education on food security, and better access to locally grown produce. Since the first seed was planted, the Farm has seen community involvment, market day sales and an increasing number of school group visits. Loutet Farm is demonstating the commercial viability of urban food production, while providing a year-round harvest of locally grown produce. The City of North Vancouver has learned that seemingly incompatible land uses, such as an urban farm, mountain biking, dog walking and sports fields can in fact happily co-exist. With the right kind of group overseeing the farm and a willingness on the part of the municipality to consider creative ideas, a community can welcome heterogeneous land uses in close proximity. The farm has transitioned from a curio or novelty in the landscape to a fully entrenched fixture of the community fabric. For example, Loutet Farm plays host to many community events and evening celebrations throughout the long, West Coast growing season.

17 URBAN AGRICULTURE ACROSS CANADA Loutet Farm is the tip of the iceberg. Local government involvement in shaping food policy is reaping rewards across Canada. Solefood Urban Farm in Vancouver now has five sites on brownfield sites, including an urban orchard in the False Creek Flats. All of their growing is done in raised beds set on pallettes, able to be readily relocated at any time. Victoria has a high ratio of locally grown produce, with about a third of all food production being organic (compared to about 7% of all farming across Canada).⁷ In 2008, Victoria s council agreed to permit urban agriculture as a home occupation use,⁸ paving the way for gate sales from these and other small operations across the region. Adjunct professor Eric Duchemin of the University du Québec à Montréal has found that fruit and vegetable production in Montreal s existing urban agriculture projects is worth an estimated $1.25 million per year, and fills about 25 hectares of land (or about 35 football fields) in aggregate.⁹ Further, eighty-five hundred urban households are participating in community-supported agriculture across Quebec.¹⁰ Beginning with encouragement of community gardens, there has been growing momentum for urban food production in Toronto since In 2002, Toronto partnered with the Toronto Region Conservation Authority to create the Toronto Urban Farm at Black Creek. Scarborough even has an aquaculture pilot project. Through Toronto s Food Policy Council, an ambitious action plan was recently released. CONCLUSIONS With Canada s urban population increasing and global climate change affecting us all, the need for fresh and safe local food is obvious. With Canada well behind the rest of the world in urban food production, there is a pressing need to catch up. Many cities have been driven to urban agriculture out of necessity. In Havana, balconies and rooftops were converted to grow food for sustenance and for sale after the fall of the Soviet Union, one of Cuba s primary trading partners. By 2002, after a 10-year transformation of the supply system, 90% of the city s fresh produce was coming from local urban farms and gardens. Historically, Canadians have also increased local food production in times of war and deprivation. Let s not wait for a disaster, many say; we should transform our cities to embrace locavorism in order to mitigate and adapt to climate change ahead of extreme necessity. Is climate change the call to arms of our times? Planning professionals need to step onto center stage and dig in! EMILIE K. ADIN is the Deputy Director of Community Development at the City of North Vancouver. Proudly overcoming a childhood aversion to gardening (viewed as time better spent reading, in her parents worldview), Emilie has been an avid though unskilled gardener for over 20 years. ALEXANDER F. KURNICKI is the Streetscape Planner for the City of North Vancouver. He became the City s go-to for all things Urban Agriculture when it was realized in his job interview that he was a bee and chicken keeper and avid gardener. That was not listed on his resumé. REFERENCES 1. GrowTO Urban Agriculture Action Plan. Available at: GrowTO_ActionPlan_Oct162.pdf 2. Pirog R, Benjamin A. Checking the food odometer: Comparing food miles for local versus conventional produce sales to Iowa institutions. Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture; Bellows AC, Brown K, Smit J. Health Benefits of Urban Agriculture. (Paper and research conducted by members of the Community Food Security Coalition s North American Initiative on Urban Agriculture). Available at: Foodsecurity.org 4. Sommers L, Butterfield B, as cited in: Blair D, Giesecke C, Sherman S. A Dietary, Social and Economic Evaluation of the Philadelphia Urban Gardening Project. Journal of Nutrition Education 1991;23(4): Vancouver Food Strategy. Available at: vancouver-food-strategy-final.pdf 6. Loutet Farm. Available at: 7. Statistics Canada. Available at: 8. Cleverley B. Revised bylaw will welcome urban farming: Farming will soon become a legitimate home occupation in Victoria. Times Colonist (Victoria); October 4, Beaudin M. Urban agriculture takes root in Montreal. The Montreal Gazette; April 3, McCracken K. Fresh, Local, and Financially Sound: Community Supported Agriculture in Canada; July 30, Available at: ActiveHistory.ca Garden sharing: A pairing of gardeners without access to soil with land owners that will allow others to harvest food in their yards. Locavorism: A movement supporting the consumption of food that is locally produced, not moved long distances to market. Rooftop gardens: Intensive green roofs that typically contain garden allotments and sometimes shared food production and resources. RELATED LINKS Halifax ecologyaction.ca Montreal agriculturemontreal.com sustainablemontreal.ca Ottawa Justfood.ca Toronto foodshare.net tfpc.to North Vancouver ediblegardenproject.com tablematters.ca Vancouver cityfarmer.info farmfolkcityfolk.ca solefoodfarms.com theurbanfarmer.ca freshrootsurbancsa.wordpress.com Victoria lifecyclesproject.ca urban farms in candas 15

18 REFEREED ARTICLE CONTEMPORARY PRACTICES in SOCIAL PLANNING Lessons from Comprehensive Social Plan Development BY LEONORA C. ANGELES, OLGA SHCHERBYNA, AND JOHN FOSTER, MCIP, RPP SUMMARY Canadian municipalities have increasingly become responsible for social service delivery and infrastructure maintenance since the 1970s, as both federal and provincial governments gradually cut spending in social service provision and infrastructure. Social planning at the municipal level is a response to the growing needs of diverse population groups, as well as the pressures of urbanization, in-migration, ageing, family structure changes, and gentrification. Eleven Social Plans/Strategies in Canadian municipalities were identified for comparative analysis, alongside related policy documents such as the Official Community Plans, Growth Management Plans and Sustainability Charter. Document analysis was supplemented by interviews and interviews with three social planners. The comparative analysis revealed some common features and themes in the Pre- Planning, Plan Development, Plan Implementation, Monitoring and Reporting phases of social planning in Canadian municipalities. RÉSUMÉ En raison des coupures financières imposées par les gouvernements fédéral et provinciaux depuis les années 1970, les municipalités canadiennes se sont de plus en plus vues confier la responsabilité de la prestation des services sociaux et de l entretien des infrastructures. À l échelle municipale, la planification sociale répond aux besoins croissants de groupes de population divers, tout en contrant la pression exercée par l urbanisation, la migration, le vieillissement de la population, l évolution de la structure familiale et l élitisation. Cet article fait le compte-rendu de l analyse comparative des stratégies et plans sociaux de onze municipalités canadiennes, ainsi que de leurs documents stratégiques connexes, tels les plans communautaires, les plans de gestion de la croissance et les chartes de développement durable. Cette analyse des documents, étayée par des entretiens par courriel et des conversations avec trois planificateurs sociaux, a permis de mettre en évidence certains thèmes et caractéristiques communs aux différents aspects de la planification sociale des municipalités canadiennes à l étude, à savoir la planification préliminaire, l élaboration des plans, la mise en œuvre des plans et les étapes de suivi et de rapport.

19 INTRODUCTION Like other industrialized countries, Canada has experienced phenomenal economic growth over the last 60 years from the introduction of universal social welfare, medical and education advances since the 1940s¹ to deregulation, decentralization and other neoliberal policies since the 1980s. These changes helped spur the emergence of a knowledge-based economy, shifts in the Canadian employment structure, and a dramatic increase in child poverty rates and the number of low-income earners. As a result, we have witnessed the growth 2 (pg. 6 7) of the new working poor generation. Historically, Canadian municipalities had limited authority to address community social issues as they were considered subsidiaries of the provinces and had limited legislative authority or financial capacity to address social problems. Since the 1970s, both levels of Canadian senior government gradually cut social spending, creating major gaps in social service provision and infrastructure. As a result of federal and provincial governments downloading exercise, municipalities increasingly became responsible for social service delivery and infrastructure maintenance without adequate resources to do so.³ As municipalities struggle to accommodate the growing needs of diverse population groups, their policies and action responses become more placed-based, to address the pressures of urbanization, in-migration, ageing, family structure changes, and gentrification. Canada s ageing population, in particular, poses tremendous pressures on urban policy and community planning as seniors require more age-friendly transportation, outdoor spaces, building, and housing, in terms of design, construction and community support.⁴ Increasing social inequality, produced by trends mentioned above, puts additional demands on Canadian cities to provide more specialized social support, develop new physical infrastructures, or adapt older services. Indeed, cities need to be brought around the policy table, given this new reality: At a time when 80 percent of Canadians live in urban areas, and several Canadian cities are larger than several provinces and house a significant proportion of their provinces population, cities are now the places where many of the most pressing challenges are located and any new social architecture must recognize this (pg. 34) fact.² Cities are key actors in creating a new social architecture that can address new social risks,² as stressed by former Prime Minister Paul Martin when he argued for a new deal with Canadian cities in an effort to bring cities back to the policy agenda.⁵ The existing knowledge base is not short on macrolevel analysis and recommendations, particularly from the now-defunct Canadian Policy Research Network², ⁶, ⁷ and the still thriving Canadian Council for Policy Alternatives. However, less is known on the social planning front at the institutional level and municipal scale, and how social planners are responding to new social challenges. Our paper draws on interviews with three social planners and compares a sample of 11 Canadian municipalities to highlight some contemporary practices in social plan development. METHODOLOGY This study evolved out of an internship report submitted to the City of Richmond, BC, which is interested in learning from other Canadian cities experiences.⁸ Eleven Social Plans/Strategies in Canadian municipalities (7 in BC, 3 in Ontario, 1 in Alberta) were identified for comparative analysis. Related policy documents such as the Official Community Plans, Growth Management Plans and Sustainability Charter were also reviewed. We analyzed the content and format of 11 Social Strategy/Plan documents and social plan development and implementation processes, supplemented by interviews with three social planners from Burnaby, Edmonton, and Surrey who agreed to be identified in the report⁸ and correspondence with eight other anonymous social planning staff to validate preliminary research contemporary practices in social planning 17 plan plan canada canada spring winter printemps hiver

20 TABLE 1. SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CANADIAN MUNICIPALITIES INCLUDED IN THE STUDY, MUNICIPALITY SOCIAL PLANS AND STRATEGIES REVIEWED 8 Burnaby, BC Burnaby Social Sustainability Draft Strategy 2011 Campbell River, BC Supporting Our Social Mosaic: A Social Development Plan for the City of Campbell River 2010 Nanaimo, BC Social Development Strategy for Nanaimo 2004 North Vancouver, BC Social Plan 1998 contemporary practices in social planning Prince George, BC Social Development Strategy 2002 Surrey, BC Plan for the Social Well-Being of Surrey 2006 Vancouver, BC Social Development Plan for the City of Vancouver 2005, under revision Edmonton, AB The Way We Live: Edmonton s People Plan 2010 Hamilton, ON A Social Vision for the New City of Hamilton 2002; The Playbook: A Framework for Human Services Planning in Hamilton 2010 Ottawa, ON The Human Services Plan 2003; Choosing Our Future Initiative: a new plan is in the development Toronto, ON Social Development Strategy for the City of Toronto For a complete list of documents reviewed, see Appendix in Shcherbyna (2011). 10 Highlighted in bold red are the highest and lowest figures in the group. Source: Statistics Canada 2006, Community Profiles. Available at: 18 results. The processes and documents were reviewed using a four-phase social policy development framework: (1) pre-planning; (2) plan development; (3) plan implementation; and (4) monitoring and evaluation. Of the 10 policy documents reviewed, nine were final drafts of Social Plans/Strategies endorsed by their City Councils as of April 2011.⁹ The three municipalities (Burnaby, Edmonton and Surrey) were selected for in-depth analysis based on the preliminary review of their social development processes and ethnically-diverse demographic profiles. FINDINGS Table 1 provides a summary of the 11 municipalities demographic and other characteristics along with the social planning and policy documents reviewed. Some interesting comparisons among the 11 cases are noted in Table 1. For example, Burnaby has the lowest median after-tax income and the highest percentage of low-income population. Vancouver has the highest percentage of visible minority population and university graduates but the lowest percentage of children aged We learnt that Toronto has the most residents and highest percentage of immigrant population. In contrast, Campbell River has the lowest number of residents, and the lowest percentage share of visible minority population and university graduates. Nanaimo has the highest share of seniors and lowest labour force participation rate. In contrast, Prince George has the lowest share of seniors, highest labour force participation rate (shared with Edmonton), lowest percentage share of immigrant population, highest percentage share of Aboriginal population, and lowest percentage share of low-income residents. Finally, Ottawa has the distinction of having the highest median income among all eleven cities.¹⁰ While the 11 municipalities differed in their demographic, geographic, economic and social contexts, they were similar in crafting parallel policy documents in response to social plan development challenges in their respective jurisdictions. Based on our initial review and recommendations provided by the three social planners, the following policy document features were identified as promising practice attributes: (1) use of plain language; (2) a

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