1 11, Survey Uiversité d'agers Cotributors: Collee Cook McGill Uiversity Fred Heath Uiversity of Texas Bruce Thompso Texas A&M Uiversity Martha Kyrillidou Associatio of Research Libraries Gary Roebuck Associatio of Research Libraries Amy Yeager Associatio of Research Libraries Associatio of Research Libraries / Texas A&M Uiversity
2 Associatio of Research Libraries 21 Dupot Circle, Suite 800 Washigto, DC Phoe Fax Copyright 2014 Associatio of Research Libraries
3 Page 2 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers 1 Itroductio 1.1 Ackowledgemets This otebook cotais iformatio from the 2014 admiistratio of the LibQUAL+ protocol. The material o the followig pages is draw from the aalysis of resposes from the participatig istitutios collected i The LibQUAL+ project requires the skills of a dedicated group. We would like to thak several alumi members of the LibQUAL+ team for their key roles i the developmet of this service. From Texas A&M Uiversity, the qualitative leadership of Yvoa Licol has bee key to the project's itegrity. The behid-the-scees roles of Bill Chollet ad others from the library Systems ad Traiig uits were also formative i the early years. From the Associatio of Research Libraries, we are appreciative of cotributios made by Cosuella Askew, MaShaa Davis, David Gree, Richard Groves, Kayly Groves, Amy Hoseth, Kristia Justh, Mary Jackso, Joatha Sousa, ad Bey Yu. A New Measures iitiative of this scope is possible oly as the collaborative effort of may libraries. To the directors ad liaisos at all participatig libraries goes the largest measure of gratitude. Without your commitmet, the developmet of LibQUAL+ would ot have bee possible. We would like to exted a special thak you to all admiistrators at the participatig cosortia ad libraries that are makig this project happe effectively across various istitutios. We would like to ackowledge the role of the Fud for the Improvemet of Post-secodary Educatio (FIPSE), U.S. Departmet of Educatio, which provided grat fuds of $498,368 over a three-year period ( ). We would also like to ackowledge the support of the Natioal Sciece Foudatio (NSF) for its grat of $245,737 over a three-year period ( ) to adapt the LibQUAL+ istrumet for use i the sciece, math, egieerig, ad techology educatio digital library commuity, a project kow as DigiQUAL that produced valuable isights o the evolutio of our work. We would like to express our thaks for the fiacial support that has eabled the researchers egaged i this project to exceed all of our expectatios i stated goals ad objectives ad deliver a remarkable assessmet tool to the library commuity. Collee Cook McGill Uiversity Fred Heath Uiversity of Texas Bruce Thompso Texas A&M Uiversity Martha Kyrillidou Associatio of Research Libraries Gary Roebuck Associatio of Research Libraries Amy Yeager Associatio of Research Libraries
4 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 3 of LibQUAL+ : A Project from StatsQUAL I would persoally like to say a word about the developmet of LibQUAL+ over the last few years ad to thak the people that have bee ivolved i this effort. LibQUAL+ would ot have bee possible without the may people who have offered their time ad costructive feedback over the years for the cause of improvig library services. I a sese, LibQUAL+ has built three kids of parterships: oe betwee ARL ad Texas A&M Uiversity, a secod oe amog the participatig libraries ad their staff, ad a third oe comprisig the thousads of users who have provided their valuable survey resposes over the years. LibQUAL+ was iitiated i 2000 as a experimetal project for bechmarkig perceptios of library service quality across 13 ARL libraries uder the leadership of Fred Heath ad Collee Cook, the both at Texas A&M Uiversity Libraries. It matured quickly ito a stadard assessmet tool that has bee applied at more tha 1,000 libraries. Through 2013, we have had 2,663 istitutioal surveys implemeted across 1,295 istitutios i over 29 coutries, 21 laguage traslatios, ad over 1.8 millio respodets. About 42% of the users who respod to the survey provide rich commets about the ways they use their libraries. There have bee umerous advacemets over the years. I 2005, libraries were able to coduct LibQUAL+ over a two sessio period (Sessio I: Jauary to May ad Sessio II: July to December). The LibQUAL+ servers were moved from Texas A&M Uiversity to a exteral hostig facility uder the ARL brad kow as StatsQUAL. Through the StatsQUAL gateway we will cotiue to provide iovative tools for libraries to assess ad maage their eviromets i the comig years. I 2006, we added a experimetal versio of the LibQUAL+ Aalytics (for more iformatio, see Sectio 1.6). Betwee 2007 ad 2010 we icorporated additioal laguages icludig o-roma laguages like Chiese, Greek, Hebrew, ad Japaese. I 2012, we added Korea, ad i 2013 we tested Arabic with the group of libraries i the Gulf Regio. I 2008, we started experimetig with a ew techology platform that icorporates may desired ehacemets ad tested a shorter versio of the LibQUAL+ survey kow as LibQUAL+ Lite. I 2010, we lauched the ew platform i our operatioal eviromet after researchig extesively the LibQUAL+ Lite behavior [see: Kyrillidou, M. (2009). Item Samplig i Service Quality Assessmet Surveys to Improve Rates ad Reduce Respodet Burde: The 'LibQUAL+ Lite' Radomized CotrolTrial (RCT) (Doctoral dissertatio). Retrieved from <https://www.ideals.illiois.edu/bitstream/hadle/2142/14570/kyrillidou_martha.pdf?sequece=3>. I 2010, we itroduced a participatio fee that rewards systematic periodic participatio i LibQUAL+ i a way that the implemetatio fee gets reduced whe a library implemets the protocol o a aual or bieial basis. I 2011, we itroduced a Membership Subscriptio fee to support access to the data repository for those years that libraries do ot implemet a survey ad for future ehacemet of LibQUAL+ Aalytics. I 2013, we itroduced the customizatio feature for the Positio/User group categories, ad i 2014 we are itroducig a versio of the survey questioaire for mobile devices, as well as testig support for locally developed questios. LibQUAL+ fidigs have egaged thousads of librarias i discussios with colleagues ad ARL o what these fidigs mea for local libraries, for their regios, ad for the future of libraries across the globe. Cosortia have supported their members participatio i LibQUAL+ i order to offer a iformed uderstadig of the chages occurrig i their shared eviromet. Summary highlights have bee published o a aual basis showcasig the rich array of iformatio available through LibQUAL+ : LibQUAL Survey Highlights <https://www.libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/2013--_libqual_highlights.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <https://www.libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/2012_libqual_highlights.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/libqualhighlights2011_full.pdf> <http://www.libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/libqualhighlights2011_full_supplemet.pdf>
5 Page 4 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/libqualhighlights2010_full.pdf> <http://www.libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/libqualhighlights2010_full_supplemet.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/libqualhighlights2009_full.pdf> <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/libqualhighlights2009_full_supplemet.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/libqualhighlights2008_full1.pdf> <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/libqualhighlights2008_full_supplemet1.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/libqualhighlights2007_full1.pdf> <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/2007_highlights_supplemetal.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/libqualhighlights2006.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/libqualhighlights20051.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/execsummary%201.3.pdf> LibQUAL Survey Highlights <http://www.libqual.org/documets/admi/execsummary1.1_locked.pdf> Summary published reports have also bee made available: <http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/libqualpubs/idex.shtml> The socio-ecoomic ad techological chages that are takig place aroud us are affectig the ways users iteract with libraries. We used to thik that libraries could provide reliable ad reasoably complete access to published ad scholarly output, yet we ow kow from LibQUAL+ that users have a isatiable appetite for cotet. No library ca ever have sufficiet iformatio cotet that would come close to satisfyig this appetite. Furthermore, our websites, access techologies ad discovery tools are ot quite maximizig the value libraries ca deliver. There is a lot of room for improvemet i this area! The team at ARL ad beyod is proud to develop ad urture the commuity that has bee built aroud LibQUAL+. We believe that closer collaboratio ad sharig of resources will brig libraries earer to meetig the ever-chagig eeds of their demadig users. It is this spirit of collaboratio ad a willigess to view the world of libraries as a orgaic, itegrated, collaborative, complemetary ad cohesive eviromet that ca brig forth scalable iovatios ad break ew groud. Iovatio, demostratig value ad marketig services effectively are key activities cotributig to stroger libraries with better services ad improved learig ad research outcomes for our users. I a example of collaboratio, LibQUAL+ participats are sharig their results withi the LibQUAL+ commuity with a opeess that evertheless respects the cofidetiality of each istitutio ad its users. LibQUAL+ participats are actively shapig our Share Fair gatherigs, our i-perso evets, ad our uderstadig of how the collected data ca be used. LibQUAL+ offers a rich resource that ca be viewed usig may leses, should be iterpreted i multiple ways, ad is a powerful tool libraries ca use to uderstad their eviromet. Furthermore, we recogize that this tool is oe of the strategic elemets of the evolvig assessmet ifrastructure libraries are buildig, as ca be see from the Library Assessmet Coferece gatherigs. LibQUAL+ is a commuity mechaism for improvig libraries ad I hope we see a icreasig umber of libraries utilizig it successfully i the years to come. I look forward to your cotiuig active ivolvemet i helpig us uderstad the may ways we ca improve library services.
6 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 5 of 82 With warm regards, Martha Kyrillidou, PhD Seior Director, ARL Statistics ad Service Quality Programs Associatio of Research Libraries
7 Page 6 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers 1.3 LibQUAL+ : Defiig ad Promotig Library Service Quality What is LibQUAL+? LibQUAL+ is a suite of services that libraries use to solicit, track, uderstad, ad act upo users opiios of service quality. These services are offered to the library commuity by the Associatio of Research Libraries (ARL).The program s ceterpiece is a rigorously tested Web-based survey paired with traiig that helps libraries assess ad improve library services, chage orgaizatioal culture, ad market the library. The survey istrumet measures library users miimum, perceived, ad desired service levels of service quality across three dimesios: Affect of Service, Iformatio Cotrol, ad Library as Place. The goals of LibQUAL+ are to: Foster a culture of excellece i providig library service Help libraries better uderstad user perceptios of library service quality Collect ad iterpret library user feedback systematically over time Provide comparable assessmet iformatio from peer istitutios Idetify best practices i library service Ehace library staff members aalytical skills for iterpretig, ad actig o data Sice 2000, more tha 1,295 libraries have participated i LibQUAL+, icludig college ad uiversity libraries, commuity college libraries, health scieces libraries, academic law libraries, ad public libraries---some through various cosortia, others as idepedet participats. LibQUAL+ has expaded iteratioally, with participatig istitutios i Africa, Asia, Australia ad Europe. It has bee traslated ito a umber of laguages, icludig Arabic, Afrikaas, Chiese (Traditioal), Daish, Dutch, Fiish, Frech, Germa, Greek, Hebrew, Japaese, Korea, Norwegia, Spaish, Swedish, ad Welsh. The growig LibQUAL+ commuity of participats ad its extesive dataset are rich resources for improvig library services. How will LibQUAL+ beefit your library? Library admiistrators have successfully used LibQUAL+ survey data to idetify best practices, aalyze deficits, ad effectively allocate resources. Beefits to participatig istitutios iclude: Istitutioal data ad reports that eable you to assess whether your library services are meetig user expectatios Aggregate data ad reports that allow you to compare your library s performace with that of peer istitutios Workshops desiged for LibQUAL+ participats Access to a olie library of LibQUAL+ research articles The opportuity to become part of a commuity iterested i developig excellece i library services LibQUAL+ gives your library users a chace to tell you where your services eed improvemet so you ca respod to ad better maage their expectatios. You ca develop services that better meet your users expectatios by comparig your library s data with that of peer istitutios ad examiig the practices of those libraries that are evaluated highly by their users. How is the LibQUAL+ survey coducted? Coductig the LibQUAL+ survey requires little techical expertise o your part. Use our olie Maagemet Ceter to set up ad track the progress of your survey. You ivite your users to take the survey by distributig the URL for your library s Web form via or postig a lik to your survey o the library s Web site. Respodets complete the survey form ad their aswers are set to the LibQUAL+ database. The data are aalyzed ad preseted to you i reports describig your users desired, perceived, ad miimum expectatios of service. What are the origis of the LibQUAL+ survey? The LibQUAL+ survey evolved from a coceptual model based o the SERVQUAL istrumet, a popular tool for
8 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 7 of 82 assessig service quality i the private sector. The Texas A&M Uiversity Libraries ad other libraries used modified SERVQUAL istrumets for several years; those applicatios revealed the eed for a ewly adapted tool that would serve the particular requiremets of libraries. ARL, represetig the largest research libraries i North America, partered with Texas A&M Uiversity Libraries to develop, test, ad refie LibQUAL+. This effort was supported i part by a three-year grat from the U.S. Departmet of Educatio s Fud for the Improvemet of Post-Secodary Educatio (FIPSE).
9 Page 8 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers 1.4 Web Access to Data Data summaries from the 2014 iteratio of the LibQUAL+ survey will be available to project participats olie i the Data Repository via the LibQUAL+ survey maagemet site: <http://www.libqual.org/repository>
10 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 9 of Explaatio of Charts ad Tables A workig kowledge of how to read ad derive relevat iformatio from the tables ad charts used i your LibQUAL+ results otebook is essetial. I additio to the explaatory text below, you ca fid a self-paced tutorial o the project web site at: <http://www.libqual.org/about/about_survey/tools> Both the olie tutorial ad the text below are desiged to help you uderstad your survey results ad preset ad explai those results to others at your library. Radar Charts Radar charts are commoly used throughout the followig pages to display both aggregate results ad results from idividual istitutios. Basic iformatio about radar charts is outlied below, ad additioal descriptive iformatio is icluded throughout this otebook. What is a radar chart? Radar charts are useful whe you wat to look at several differet factors all related to oe item. Sometimes called spider charts or polar charts, radar charts feature multiple axes or spokes alog which data ca be plotted. Variatios i the data are show by distace from the ceter of the chart. Lies coect the data poits for each series, formig a spiral aroud the ceter. I the case of the LibQUAL+ survey results, each axis represets a differet survey questio. Questios are idetified by a code at the ed of each axis. The three dimesios measured by the survey are grouped together o the radar charts, ad each dimesio is labeled: Affect of Service (AS), Iformatio Cotrol (IC), ad Library as Place (LP). Radar charts are used i this otebook to preset the item summaries (the results from the 22 core survey questios). How to read a radar chart Radar charts are a effective way to show stregths ad weakesses graphically by eablig you to observe symmetry or uiformity of data. Poits close to the ceter idicate a low value, while poits ear the edge idicate a high value. Whe iterpretig a radar chart, it is importat to check each idividual axis as well as the chart s overall shape i order to gai a complete uderstadig of its meaig. You ca see how much data fluctuates by observig whether the spiral is smooth or has spikes of variability. Respodets miimum, desired, ad perceived levels of service quality are plotted o each axis of your LibQUAL+ radar charts. The resultig gaps betwee the three levels are shaded i blue, yellow, gree, ad red. Geerally, a radar graph shaded blue ad yellow idicates that users perceptios of service fall withi the zoe of tolerace ; the distace betwee miimum expectatios ad perceptios of service quality is shaded i blue, ad the distace betwee their desired ad perceived levels of service quality is show i yellow. Whe users perceptios fall outside the zoe of tolerace, the graph will iclude areas of red ad gree shadig. If the distace betwee users miimum expectatios ad perceptios of service delivery is represeted i red, that idicates a egative service adequacy gap score. If the distace betwee the desired level of service ad perceptios of service delivery is represeted i gree, that idicates a positive service superiority gap score. s The mea of a collectio of umbers is their arithmetic average, computed by addig them up ad dividig by their total umber. I this otebook, meas are provided for users miimum, desired, ad perceived levels of service quality for each
11 Page 10 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers item o the LibQUAL+ survey. s are also provided for the geeral satisfactio ad iformatio literacy outcomes questios. Stadard Deviatio Stadard deviatio is a measure of the spread of data aroud their mea. The stadard deviatio () depeds o calculatig the average distace of each score from the mea. If all users rated a item idetically, the would be zero. Larger s idicate more disparate opiios of the users about library service quality. I this otebook, stadard deviatios are provided for every mea preseted i the tables. I a very real sese, the idicates how well a give umerical mea does at represetig all the data. If the of the scores about a give mea was zero, the mea perfectly represets everyoe s scores, ad all the scores ad the mea are all idetical! Service Adequacy The service adequacy gap score is calculated by subtractig the miimum score from the perceived score o ay give questio, for each user. Both meas ad stadard deviatios are provided for service adequacy gap scores o each item of the survey, as well as for each of the three dimesios of library service quality. I geeral, service adequacy is a idicator of the extet to which you are meetig the miimum expectatios of your users. A egative service adequacy gap score idicates that your users perceived level of service quality is below their miimum level of service quality ad is prited i red. Service Superiority The service superiority gap score is calculated by subtractig the desired score from the perceived score o ay give questio, for each user. Both meas ad stadard deviatios are provided for service superiority gap scores o each item of the survey, as well as for each of the three dimesios of library service quality. I geeral, service superiority is a idicator of the extet to which you are exceedig the desired expectatios of your users. A positive service superiority gap score idicates that your users perceived level of service quality is above their desired level of service quality ad is prited i gree. Sectios with charts ad tables are omitted from the followig pages whe there are three or fewer idividuals i a specific group. I cosortia otebooks, istitutio type summaries are ot show if there is oly oe library for a istitutio type. Idividual library otebooks are produced separately for each participat.
12 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 11 of A Few Words about LibQUAL Libraries today cofrot escalatig pressure to demostrate value ad impact. As Culle (2001) has oted, Academic libraries are curretly facig their greatest challege sice the explosio i tertiary educatio ad academic publishig which bega after World War II... [T]he emergece of the virtual uiversity, supported by the virtual library, calls ito questio may of our basic assumptios about the role of the academic library, ad the security of its future. Retaiig ad growig their customer base, ad focusig more eergy o meetig their customers' expectatios is the oly way for academic libraries to survive i this volatile eviromet. (pp ) Today, "A measure of library quality based solely o collectios has become obsolete" (Nitecki, 1996, p. 181). These cosideratios have prompted the Associatio of Research Libraries (ARL) to sposor a umber of "New Measures" iitiatives. The New Measures efforts represet a collective determiatio o the part of the ARL membership to augmet the collectio-cout ad fiscal iput measures that comprise the ARL Idex ad ARL Statistics, to date the most cosistetly collected statistics for research libraries, with outcome measures such as assessmets of service quality ad satisfactio. Oe New Measures Iitiative is the LibQUAL+ service (Cook, Heath & B. Thompso, 2002, 2003; Heath, Cook, Kyrillidou & Thompso, 2002; Kyrillidou & Cook, 2008; Kyrillidou, Cook, & Rao, 2008; Thompso, Cook & Heath, 2003; Thompso, Cook & Thompso, 2002; Thompso, Kyrillidou & Cook, 2007a, 2007b, 2008). Withi a service-quality assessmet model, "oly customers judge quality; all other judgmets are essetially irrelevat" (Zeithaml, Parasurama, Berry, 1990, p. 16). LibQUAL+ was modeled o the 22-item SERVQUAL tool developed by Parasurama, Berry ad Zeithaml (Parasurama, Berry & Zeithaml, 1991). However, SERVQUAL has bee show to measure some issues ot particularly relevat i libraries, ad to ot measure some issues of cosiderable iterest to library users. The fial 22 LibQUAL+ items were developed through several iteratios of studies ivolvig a larger pool of 56 items. The selectio of items employed i the LibQUAL+ survey has bee grouded i the users' perspective as revealed i a series of qualitative studies ivolvig a larger pool of items. The items were idetified followig qualitative research iterviews with studet ad faculty library users at several differet uiversities (Cook, 2002a; Cook & Heath, 2001). LibQUAL+ is ot just a list of 22 stadardized items. First, LibQUAL+ offers libraries the ability to select five optioal local service quality assessmet items. Secod, the survey icludes a commets box solicitig ope-eded user views. Almost half of the people respodig to the LibQUAL+ survey provide valuable feedback through the commets box. These ope-eded commets are helpful for ot oly (a) uderstadig why users provide certai ratigs, but also (b) uderstadig what policy chages users suggest, because may users feel the obligatio to be costructive. Participatig libraries are fidig the real-time access to user commets oe of the most useful devices i challegig library admiistrators to thik outside of the box ad develop iovative ways for improvig library services. LibQUAL+ is oe of 11 ways of listeig to users, called a total market survey. As Berry (1995) explaied, Whe well desiged ad executed, total market surveys provide a rage of iformatio umatched by ay other method... A critical facet of total market surveys (ad the reaso for usig the word 'total') is the measuremet of competitors' service quality. This [also] requires usig o-customers i the sample to rate the service of their suppliers. (p. 37) Although (a) measurig perceptios of both users ad o-users, ad (b) collectig perceptios data with regard to peer istitutios ca provide importat isights Berry recommeded usig multiple listeig methods ad emphasized that "Ogoig data collectio... is a ecessity. Trasactioal surveys, total market surveys, ad employee research should always be icluded" (Berry, 1995, p. 54).
13 Page 12 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers LibQUAL+ Lite I 2010, the LibQUAL+ Lite customizatio feature was itroduced: a shorter versio of the survey that takes less time to fill i. The Lite protocol uses item samplig methods to gather data o all 22 LibQUAL+ core items, while oly requirig a give sigle user to respod to a subset of the 22 core questios. Every Lite user respods to oe likig item from each of the subscales (Affect of Service, Iformatio Cotrol, ad Library as Place), ad to a radomly-selected subset of five items from the remaiig 19 core LibQUAL+ items. However, all 22 core items are completed by at least some users o a give campus. As a cosequece, because idividual Lite users oly complete a subset of the core items, survey respose times are roughly cut i half, while the library still receives data o every survey questio. Each participatig library sets a Lite-view Percetage to determie what percetage of idividuals will radomly receive the Lite versus the log versio of the survey. The mechaics of item samplig strategy ad results from pilot testig are described i Martha Kyrillidou s dissertatio. Fidigs idicate that LibQUAL+ Lite is the preferred ad improved alterative to the log form of 22 core items that has bee established sice The differece betwee the log ad the Lite versio of the survey is eough to result i higher participatio rates ragig from 3.1 to 10.6 percet more for surveys that reduce average respose times from 10 to 6 miutes (Kyrillidou, 2009, Thompso, Kyrillidou & Cook, 2009a; Thompso, Kyrillidou & Cook, 2009b). Score Scalig "Perceived" scores o the 22 LibQUAL+ core items, the three subscales, ad the total score, are all scaled 1 to 9, with 9 beig the most favorable. Both the gap scores ("Adequacy" = "Perceived" - "Miimum"; "Superiority" = "Perceived" - "Desired") are scaled such that higher scores are more favorable. Thus, a adequacy gap score of +1.2 o a item, subscale, or total score is better tha a adequacy gap score of A superiority gap score of -0.5 o a item, subscale, or total score is better tha a superiority gap score of Usig LibQUAL+ Data I some cases LibQUAL+ data may cofirm prior expectatios ad library staff will readily formulate actio plas to remedy perceived deficiecies. But i may cases library decisio-makers will seek additioal iformatio to corroborate iterpretatios or to better uderstad the dyamics uderlyig user perceptios. For example, oce a iterpretatio is formulated, library staff might review recet submissios of users to suggestio boxes to evaluate whether LibQUAL+ data are cosistet with iterpretatios, ad the suggestio box data perhaps also provide user suggestios for remedies. User focus groups also provide a powerful way to explore problems ad potetial solutios. A uiversity-wide retreat with a small-group facilitated discussio to solicit suggestios for improvemet is aother follow-up mechaism that has bee implemeted i several LibQUAL+ participatig libraries. Ideed, the ope-eded commets gathered as part of LibQUAL+ are themselves useful i fleshig out isights ito perceived library service quality. Respodets ofte use the commets box o the survey to make costructive suggestios o specific ways to address their cocers. Qualitative aalysis of these commets ca be very fruitful. I short, LibQUAL+ is ot 22 items. LibQUAL+ is 22 items plus a commets box! Cook (2002b) provided case study reports of how staff at various libraries have employed data from prior reditios of LibQUAL+. Heath, Kyrillidou, ad Askew edited a special issue of the Joural of Library Admiistratio (Vol. 40, No. 3/4) reportig additioal case studies o the use of LibQUAL+ data to aid the improvemet of library service quality. This special issue has also bee published by Hayworth Press as a moograph. Kyrillidou (2008) edited a compilatio of articles that complemets ad provides a updated perspective o these earlier special issues. These publicatios ca be ordered by sedig a to Numerous other articles have bee published i the literature ad a good umber of refereces ca be located o the LibQUAL+ publicatio page search egie uder Related articles.
14 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 13 of 82 Data Screeig The 22 LibQUAL+ core items measure perceptios of total service quality, as well as three sub-dimesios of perceived library quality: (a) Service Affect (9 items, such as "willigess to help users"); (b) Iformatio Cotrol (8 items, such as "a library Web site eablig me to locate iformatio o my ow" ad "prit ad/or electroic joural collectios I require for my work"); ad (c) Library as Place (5 items, such as "a getaway for study, learig, or research"). However, as happes i ay survey, some users provided icomplete data, icosistet data, or both. I compilig the summary data reported here, several criteria were used to determie which respodets to omit from these aalyses. 1. Complete Data. The Web software that presets the core items moitors whether a give user has completed all items. O each of these items, i order to submit the survey successfully, users must provide a ratig of (a) miimally-acceptable service, (b) desired service, ad (c) perceived service or rate the item "ot applicable" ("N/A"). If these coditios are ot met, whe the user attempts to leave the Web page presetig the core items, the software shows the user where missig data are located, ad requests complete data. The user may of course abado the survey without completig all the items. Oly records with complete data o the preseted core items ad where respodets chose a "user group,"if applicable, were retaied i summary statistics. 2. Excessive "N/A" Resposes. Because some istitutios provided access to a lottery drawig for a icetive (e.g., a ipod) for completig the survey, some users might have selected "N/A" choices for all or most of the items rather tha reportig their actual perceptios. Or, some users may have views o such a arrow rage of quality issues that their data are ot very iformative. It was decided that records of the log versio of the survey cotaiig more tha 11 "N/A"resposes ad records of the Lite versio cotaiig more tha 4 N/A resposes should be elimiated from the summary statistics. 3. Excessive Icosistet Resposes. O the LibQUAL+ survey, user perceptios ca be iterpreted by locatig "perceived" results withi the "zoe of tolerace" defied by data from the "miimum" ad the "desired" ratigs. For example, a mea "perceived" ratig of 7.5 o the 1-to-9 (9 is highest) scale might be very good if the mea "desired" ratig is 6.0. But a 7.5 perceptio score is less satisfactory if the mea "desired" ratig is 8.6, or if the mea "miimum" ratig is 7.7. Oe appealig feature of such a "gap measuremet model" is that the ratig format provides a check for icosistecies (i.e., score iversios) i the respose data (Thompso, Cook & Heath, 2000). Logically, o a give item the "miimum" ratig should ot be higher tha the "desired" ratig o the same item. For each user a cout of such icosistecies was made. Records of the log versio of the survey cotaiig more tha 9 logical icosistecies ad records of the Lite versio cotaiig more tha 3 logical icosistecies were elimiated from the summary statistics. LibQUAL+ Norms A importat way to iterpret LibQUAL+ data is by examiig the zoes of tolerace for items, the three subscale scores, ad the total scores. However, the collectio of such a huge umber of user perceptios has afforded us with the uique opportuity to create orms tables that provide yet aother perspective o results. Norms tell us how scores "stack up" withi a particular user group. For example, o the 1-to-9 (9 is highest) scale, users might provide a mea "perceived" ratig of 6.5 o a item, "the prited library materials I eed for my work." The same users might provide a mea ratig o "miimum" for this item of 7.0, ad a mea service-adequacy "gap score" (i.e., "perceived" mius "miimum") of The zoe-of-tolerace perspective suggests that this library is ot doig well o this item, because "perceived" falls below "miimally acceptable." This is importat to kow. But there is also a secod way (i.e., ormatively) to iterpret the data. Both perspectives ca be valuable.
15 Page 14 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers A total market survey admiistered to more tha 100,000 users, as was LibQUAL+ i 2004 ad 2005, affords the opportuity to ask ormative questios such as, "How does a mea 'perceived' score of 6.5 stack up amog all idividual users who completed the survey?", or "How does a mea service-adequacy gap score of -0.5 stack up amog the gap scores of all istitutios participatig i the survey?" If 70 percet of idividual users geerated "perceived" ratigs lower tha 6.5, 6.5 might ot be so bad. Ad if 90 percet of istitutios had service-adequacy gap scores lower tha -0.5 (e.g., -0.7, -1.1), a mea gap score of -0.5 might actually be quite good. Users simply may have quite high expectatios i this area. They may also commuicate their dissatisfactio by ratig both (a) "perceived" lower ad (b) "miimum" higher. This does ot mea that a service-adequacy gap score of -0.5 is ecessarily a cause for celebratio. But a service-adequacy gap score of -0.5 o a item for which 90 percet of istitutios have a lower gap score is a differet gap score tha the same -0.5 for a differet item i which 90 percet of istitutios have a higher service-adequacy gap score. Oly orms give us isight ito this comparative perspective. Ad a local user-satisfactio survey (as agaist a total market survey) ca ever provide this isight. Commo Miscoceptio Regardig Norms. A ufortuate ad icorrect miscoceptio is that orms make value statemets. Norms do ot make value statemets! Norms make fact statemets. If you are a forest rager, ad you make $25,000 a year, a orms table might iform you of the fact that you make less moey tha 85 percet of the adults i the Uited States. But if you love the outdoors, you do ot care very much about moey, ad you are very service-orieted, this fact statemet might ot be relevat to you. Or, i the cotext of your values, you might iterpret this fact as beig quite satisfactory. LibQUAL+ Norms Tables. Of course, the fact statemets made by the LibQUAL+ orms are oly valuable if you care about the dimesios beig evaluated by the measure. More backgroud o LibQUAL+ orms is provided by Cook ad Thompso (2001), ad Cook, Heath ad B. Thompso (2002). LibQUAL+ orms are available o the LibQUAL+ Web site at:: Respose Rates <http://www.libqual.org/resources/orms_tables> At the America Library Associatio (ALA) Midwiter Meetig i Sa Atoio i Jauary 2000, participats were cautioed that respose rates o the fial LibQUAL+ survey would probably rage from percet. Higher respose rates ca be realized (a) with shorter surveys that (b) are directly actio-orieted (Cook, Heath & R.L. Thompso, 2000). For example, a very high respose rate could be realized by a library director admiisterig the followig oe-item survey to users: Istructios. Please tell us what time to close the library every day. I the future we will close at whatever time receives the most votes. Should we close the library at? (A) 10 p.m. (B) 11 p.m. (C) midight (D) 2 p.m. Lower respose rates will be expected for total market surveys measurig geeral perceptios of users across istitutios, ad whe a itetioal effort is made to solicit perceptios of both users ad o-users. Two cosideratios should gover the evaluatio of LibQUAL+ respose rates. Miimum Respose Rates. Respose rates are computed by dividig the umber of completed surveys at a istitutio by the umber of persos asked to complete the survey. However, we do ot kow the actual respose rates o LibQUAL+, because we do ot kow the correct deomiators for these calculatios.
16 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 15 of 82 For example, give iadequacy i records at schools, we are ot sure how may addresses for users are accurate. Ad we do ot kow how may messages to ivite participatio were actually opeed. I other words, what we kow for LibQUAL+ is the "lower-boud estimate" of respose rates. For example, if 200 out of 800 solicitatios result i completed surveys, we kow that the respose rate is at least 25 percet. But because we are ot sure whether 800 addresses were correct or that 800 messages were opeed, we are ot sure that 800 is the correct deomiator. The respose rate ivolvig oly correct addresses might be 35 or 45 percet. We do't kow the exact respose rate. Represetativeess Versus Respose Rate. If 100 percet of the 800 people we radomly selected to complete our survey did so, the we ca be assured that the results are represetative of all users. But if oly 25 percet of the 800 users complete the survey, the represetativeess of the results is ot assured. Nor is urepresetativeess assured. Represetativeess is actually a matter of degree. Ad several istitutios each with 25 percet respose rates may have data with differet degrees of represetativeess. We ca ever be sure about how represetative our data are as log as ot everyoe completes the survey. But we ca at least address this cocer by comparig the demographic profiles of survey completers with the populatio (Thompso, 2000). At which uiversity below would oe feel more cofidet that LibQUAL+ results were reasoably represetative? Alpha Uiversity Completers (=200 / 800) Populatio (N=16,000) Geder Geder Studets 53% female Studets 51% female Faculty 45% female Faculty 41% female Disciplies Disciplies Liberal Arts 40% Liberal Arts 35% Sciece 15% Sciece 20% Other 45% Other 45% Omega Uiversity Completers (=200 / 800) Populatio (N=23,000) Geder Geder Studets 35% female Studets 59% female Faculty 65% female Faculty 43% female Disciplies Disciplies Liberal Arts 40% Liberal Arts 15% Sciece 20% Sciece 35% Other 40% Other 50% The persuasiveess of such aalyses is greater as the umber of variables used i the comparisos is greater. The LibQUAL+ software has bee expaded to automate these comparisos ad to output side-by-side graphs ad tables comparig sample ad populatio profiles for give istitutios. Show these to people who questio result represetativeess. However, oe cautio is i order regardig percetages. Whe total is small for a istitutio, or withi a particular subgroup, huge chages i percetages ca result from very small shifts i umbers. LibQUAL+ Aalytics The LibQUAL+ Aalytics is a tool that permits participats to dyamically create istitutio-specific tables ad charts for differet subgroups ad across years. The curret iterface grats access to statistical data ad uifies the aalysis withi a istitutio s data (formerly called istitutio explorer) ad across time (logitudial
17 Page 16 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers aalysis). It provides a oe-stop dyamic shop to iteractively aalyze results ad bechmark with other istitutios. Participats ca refie the data by selectig specific years, user groups, ad disciplies, view ad save the selectio i various tables ad charts, ad dowload their datasets for further maipulatio i their preferred software. The curret versio of LibQUAL+ Aalytics is oly the begiig of our effort to provide more customized aalysis. More features are i developmet based o feedback we receive from our participats. For a subscriptio to LibQUAL+ Aalytics, Our future plas call for buildig a full-scale data warehouse with the ability to overlay differet data visualizatio tools o top of it. Survey Data I additio to the otebooks, the orms, ad the Aalytics, LibQUAL+ also makes available (a) raw survey data i SPSS ad (b) raw survey data i Excel for all participatig libraries. Additioal traiig usig the SPSS data file is available as a follow-up workshop ad through the Service Quality Evaluatio Academy (see below), which also offers traiig o aalyzig qualitative data. The survey commets are also dowloadable i various formats from the Web site. ARL Service Quality Evaluatio Academy LibQUAL+ is a importat tool i the New Measures toolbox that librarias ca use to improve service quality. But, eve more fudametally, the LibQUAL+ iitiative is more tha a sigle tool. LibQUAL+ is a effort to create a culture of data-drive service quality assessmet ad service quality improvemet withi libraries. Such a culture must be iformed by more tha oe tool, ad by more tha oly oe of the 11 ways of listeig to users. To facilitate a culture of service quality assessmet, ad to facilitate more iformed usage of LibQUAL+ data, the Associatio of Research Libraries has created the ARL Service Quality Evaluatio Academy. For more iformatio about the Academy, see the LibQUAL+ Evets page at <http://www.libqual.org/evets> The itesive, five-day Academy teaches both qualitative ad quatitative skills that library staff ca use to evaluate ad geerate service-quality assessmet iformatio. The Academy is oe more resource for library staff who would like to develop ehaced service-quality assessmet skills. Library Assessmet Coferece The growig commuity of practice related to library assessmet is coveig regularly i North America through the Library Assessmet Coferece. Gatherigs of this commuity have take place o a bieial basis sice The proceedigs ad recet iformatio are available at <http://www.libraryassessmet.org> For more iformatio, about LibQUAL+ or the Associatio of Research Libraries Statistics ad Assessmet program, see: <http://www.libqual.org/> <http://www.statsqual.org/> <http://www.arl.org/stats/> <http://www.arl.org/focus-areas/statistics-assessmet>
18 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 17 of 82 Refereces Begay, Wedy, Daiel R. Lee, Jim Marti, ad Michael Ray. Quatifyig Qualitative Data: Usig LibQUAL+(TM) Commets for Library-Wide Plaig Activities at the Uiversity of Arizoa. Joural of Library Admiistratio 40, o. 3/4 (2004): Berry, L.L. O Great Service: A Framework For Actio. New York: The Free Press, Bradford, Deis W. ad Tim Bower. Usig Cotet Aalysis Software to Aalyze Survey Commets. Portal: Libraries ad the Academy 8, o. 4 (2008): Cabrerizo, Fracisco J., Igacio J. Pérez, Javier López-Gijó, Erique Herrera-Viedma, A Exteded LibQUAL+ Model Based o Fuzzy Liguistic Iformatio. Modelig Decisios for Artificial Itelligece Lecture Notes i Computer Sciece 2012: Calvert, Philip, J. Assessig the Effectiveess ad Quality of Libraries. Ph.D. Thesis, Victoria Uiversity of Welligto, Cook, Collee C., Fred Heath, ad Bruce Thompso. LibQUAL+ from the UK Perspective. 5th Northumbria Iteratioal Coferece Proceedigs, Durham, UK, July, Cook, Collee C. (Guest Ed.). Library Decisio-Makers Speak to Their Uses of Their LibQUAL+ Data: Some LibQUAL+ Case Studies. Performace Measuremet ad Metrics, 3 (2002b). Cook, Collee C. A Mixed-Methods Approach to the Idetificatio ad Measuremet of Academic Library Service Quality Costructs: LibQUAL+. (PhD diss., Texas A&M Uiversity, 2001) Dissertatio Abstracts Iteratioal, 62 (2002A): 2295A (Uiversity Microfilms No. AAT ). Cook, Collee C., ad Fred Heath. Users' Perceptios of Library Service Quality: A LibQUAL+ Qualitative Study. Library Treds, 49 (2001): Cook, Collee C., Fred Heath, ad Bruce Thompso. Zoes of tolerace i Perceptios of Library Service Quality: A LibQUAL+ Study. portal: Libraries ad the Academy, 3 (2003): Cook, Collee C., Fred Heath ad Bruce Thompso.. Score Norms for Improvig Library Service Quality: A LibQUAL+ Study. portal: Libraries ad the Academy, 2 (2002): Cook, Collee C., Fred Heath, ad Russell L. Thompso. A Meta-Aalysis of Respose Rates i Web- or Iteret-based Surveys. Educatioal ad Psychological Measuremet, 60 (2000): Cook, Collee C., ad Bruce Thompso. Psychometric Properties of Scores from the Web-based LibQUAL+ Study of Perceptios of Library Service Quality. Library Treds, 49 (2001): Cook, C., Bruce Thompso, ad Martha Kyrillidou. (2010, May). Does usig item samplig methods i library service quality assessmet affect score orms?: A LibQUAL+ Lite study. <http://libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/lq_gr_3.pdf>. Paper preseted at the 2d Qualitative ad Quatitative Methods i Libraries (QQML 2010) Iteratioal Coferece, Chaia (Crete), Greece, May 27, Culle, Rowea. Perspectives o User Satisfactio Surveys. Library Treds, 49 (2002): Greewood, Judy T., Alex P. Watso, ad Melissa Deis. Te Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative ad Quatitative Survey Results at the Uiversity of Mississippi The Joural of Academic Librariaship 37, o. 4 (2011):
19 Page 18 of 82 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Guidry, Julie Aa. L ibqual+(tm) sprig 2001 commets: a qualitative aalysis usig Atlas.ti. Performace Measuremet ad Metrics 3, o. 2 (2002): Heath, F., Martha Kyrillidou. ad Cosuella A. Askew (Guest Eds.). Libraries Report o Their LibQUAL+ Fidigs: From Data to Actio. Joural of Library Admiistratio 40 (3/4) (2004). Heath, F., Collee C. Cook, Martha Kyrillidou, ad Bruce Thompso. ARL Idex ad Other Validity Correlates of LibQUAL+ Scores. portal: Libraries ad the Academy, 2 (2002): Joes, Sherri ad Kayogo, Jessica. Idetifyig Studet ad Faculty Needs through LibQUAL+ : A Aalysis of Qualitative Survey Commets. College & Research Libraries 69, o. 6 (2008): Kieftebeld, Vicet ad Prathiba Natesa. Examiig the measuremet ad structural ivariace of LibQUAL+ across user groups. Library & Iformatio Sciece Research (2013, i press). Kyrillidou, M. The Globalizatio of Library Assessmet ad the Role of LibQUAL+. From Library Sciece to Iformatio Sciece: Studies i Hoor of G. Kakouri (Athes, Greece: Tipothito-Giorgos Dardaos, 2005). [I Greek] Kyrillidou, Martha. Library Assessmet As A Collaborative Eterprise. Resource Sharig ad Iformatio Networks, 18 ½ ( ): Kyrillidou, Martha. (2006). Measurig Library Service Quality: A Perceived Outcome for Libraries. This chapter appears i Revisitig Outcomes Assessmet i Higher Educatio. Edited by Peter Hero, Robert E. Duga, ad Cady Schwartz (Westport, CT: Library Ulimited, 2006): Kyrillidou, Martha. (Guest Ed.). LibQUAL+ ad Beyod: Library assessmet with a focus o library improvemet. Performace Measuremet ad Metrics, 9 (3) (2008). Kyrillidou, M. Item Samplig i Service Quality Assessmet Surveys to Improve Respose Rates ad Reduce Respodet Burde: The LibQUAL+ Lite Radomized Cotrol Trial (RCT) (PhD diss., Uiversity of Illiois at Urbaa-Champaig, 2009). <https://www.ideals.illiois.edu/bitstream/hadle/2142/14570/kyrillidou_martha.pdf?sequece=3> Kyrillidou, Martha ad Collee C. Cook. The evolutio of measuremet ad evaluatio of libraries: a perspective from the Associatio of Research Libraries. Library Treds 56 (4) (Sprig 2008): Kyrillidou, Martha ad Collee C. Cook ad S. Shyam Suder Rao. Measurig the Quality of Library Service through LibQUAL+. I Academic Library Research: Perspectives ad Curret Treds. Edited by Marie L. Radford ad Pamela Selso (Chicago, IL: ACRL/ALA, 2008): Kyrillidou, M., Terry Olshe, Fred Heath, Claude Boelly, ad Jea-Pierre Côte. Cross-Cultural Implemetatio of LibQUAL+ : the Frech Laguage Experiece. 5th Northumbria Iteratioal Coferece Proceedigs (Durham, UK, 2003): Kyrillidou, M., Collee Cook. ad Bruce Thompso. (2010, May). Does usig item samplig methods i library service quality assessmet affect zoe of tolerace boudaries?: A LibQUAL+ Lite study <http://libqual.org/documets/libqual/publicatios/lq_gr_2.pdf>. Paper preseted at the 2d Qualitative ad Quatitative Methods i Libraries (QQML 2010) Iteratioal Coferece, Chaia (Crete), Greece, May 27, Kyrillidou, M. ad Mark Youg. ARL Statistics Washigto, DC: Associatio of Research Libraries, Lae, Forrest C., Baaska Aderso, Hector F. Poce ad Prathiba Natesa. Factorial Ivariace of LibQUAL+
20 LibQUAL Survey Results - Uiversité d'agers Page 19 of 82 as a Measure of Library Service Quality Over Time. Library & Iformatio Sciece Research 34, o. 1 (2012): Miller, Kathlee. Service Quality i Academic Libraries: A Aalysis of LibQUAL+ Scores ad Istiutioal Characteristics. Ed.D. Dissertatio, Uiversity of Cetral Florida, Nitecki, D.A. Chagig the Cocept ad Measure of Service Quality i Academic Libraries. The Joural of Academic Librariaship, 22 (1996): Parasurama, A., Leoard Berry, ad Valerie Zeithaml. Refiemet ad Reassessmet of the SERVQUAL Scale Joural of Retailig, 67 (1991): Thompso, B. Represetativeess Versus Respose Rate: It Ai't the Respose Rate!. Paper preseted at the Associatio of Research Libraries (ARL) Measurig Service Quality Symposium o the New Culture of Assessmet: Measurig Service Quality, Washigto, DC, October Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Fred Heath. The LibQUAL+ Gap Measuremet Model: The Bad, he Ugly, ad the Good of Gap Measuremet. Performace Measuremet ad Metrics, 1 (2002): Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Fred Heath. Structure of Perceptios of Service Quality i Libraries: A LibQUAL+ Study. Structural Equatio Modelig, 10 (2003): Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Russell L. Thompso. Reliability ad Structure of LibQUAL+ Scores: Measurig Perceived Library Service Quality. portal: Libraries ad the Academy, 2 (2002): Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Martha Kyrillidou. (2005). Cocurret validity of LibQUAL+ scores: What do LibQUAL+ scores measure? Joural of Academic Librariaship, 31: Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Martha Kyrillidou. Usig Localized Survey Items to Augmet Stadardized Bechmarkig Measures: A LibQUAL+ Study. portal: Libraries ad the Academy, 6(2) (2006): Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Martha Kyrillidou. Stability of Library Service Quality Bechmarkig Norms Across Time ad Cohorts: A LibQUAL+ Study. Paper preseted at the Asia-Pacific Coferece of Library ad Iformatio Educatio ad Practice (A-LIEP), Sigapore, April Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Martha Kyrillidou. How Ca You Evaluate the Itegrity of Your Library Assessmet Data: Itercotietal LibQUAL+ Aalysis Used as Cocrete Heuristic Examples. Paper preseted at the Library Assessmet Coferece: Buildig Effective, Sustaiable, ad Practical Assessmet, Charlottesville, VA, August 4-6, Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Martha Kyrillidou. O-premises Library versus Google -Like Iformatio Gateway Usage Patters: A LibQUAL+ Study. portal: Libraries ad the Academy 7 (4) (Oct 2007a): Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Martha Kyrillidou. User library service expectatios i health sciece vs. other settigs: a LibQUAL+ Study. Health Iformatio ad Libraries Joural 24 (8) Supplemet 1, (Dec 2007b): Thompso, B., Collee C. Cook, ad Martha Kyrillidou. Library Users Service Desires: a LibQUAL+ Study. Library Quarterly 78 (1) (Ja 2008): Thompso, B., Martha Kyrillidou, ad Collee Cook. Item samplig i service quality assessmet surveys to improve respose rates ad reduce respodet burde: The "LibQUAL+ Lite" example. Performace Measuremet & Metrics, 10 (1) (2009): 6-16.
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