TRAINING FACILITIES FOR AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN EAST AFRICA AND THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

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1 FAO SmartFish Publication 21 TRAINING FACILITIES FOR AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN EAST AFRICA AND THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Tanzania, Reunion and Uganda

2 Cover photograph courtesy of FAO SmartFish

3 REPORT/RAPPORT: SF-FAO/2013/21 Training facilities for aquaculture and fisheries management in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean a regional perspective Les centres de formation pour la gestion de l'aquaculture et de la pêche en Afrique orientale et dans l océan Indien occidental une perspective régionale Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Tanzania, La Réunion and Uganda GCP/RAF/466/EC SmartFish Project

4 De San Michel Report on Training facilities for aquaculture and fisheries management in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean - a regional perspective. Report/Rapport: SF-FAO/2013/21. FAO-SmartFish Programme of the Indian Ocean Commission, Ebene, Mauritius. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of FAO. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union FAO 2013 FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product. Except where otherwise indicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printed for private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use in non-commercial products or services, provided that appropriate acknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder is given and that FAO s endorsement of users views, products or services is not implied in any way. All requests for translation and adaptation rights, and for resale and other commercial use rights should be made via or addressed to FAO information products are available on the FAO website (www.fao.org/publications) and can be purchased through For more information, please contact

5 3 Acknowledgements The consultant would like to thank everyone met over the course of his visits to the major training facilities in the six participating countries (Madagascar, Reunion, Mauritius, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda). All six countries hosted the consultant with patient courtesy and were eager to present their activities and share relevant documents. They are doing a magnificent job, preparing the next generation and supporting the development of aquaculture and much-needed fisheries management. The consultant was very impressed with the way that the Professors try to respond to the needs of their respective countries and the private sector. It should also be mentioned that it is very important for them to secure good jobs for their students. Remerciements Le consultant tient à remercier toutes les personnes rencontrées pendant les visites des centres de formation dans les six pays (Madagascar, La Réunion, Maurice, Kenya, Tanzanie et Ouganda). Elles ont reçu le consultant avec patience et courtoisie et ont résumé leurs activités et partagés des documents avec enthousiasme. Ces personnes réalisent un travail magnifique en préparant la future génération et en supportant le développement de l aquaculture avec l enthousiasme nécessaire à la gestion des pêches dans leur pays respectif. Le consultant a été impressionné par la manière dont les professeurs essaient de répondre aux besoins de leur pays et du secteur privé. Il faut également souligner l importance pour eux d assurer un emploi à leurs étudiants.

6 4 Author s note Following visits to various training centers in the six different countries, it appears that: 1. It is easier and more economical to undertake initial training in one s own country as links have been developed between universities for quality curriculum and therefore knowledge levels are quite similar. It is also relatively easy to complete any training gaps through online research. 2. In the modern world, additional training for a degree is important and professionally rewarding. For further studies, it is easier and cheaper to register with an international university for distance learning via the Internet (Canada, South Africa, Australia, France/Reunion, and England) and to undertake the training whilst working. 3. One recognized weakness is practical training (extended internship) to meet the needs of the private sector (hands-on training). One possible remedy would be to enter into agreements with the private sector, such as for aquaculture. Note de l auteur Suite à la visite dans les pays des différents centres de formations, il apparait que : 1. Il est plus facile et plus économique de faire sa première formation dans son pays car les liens se sont développés entre les universités pour des curricula de qualités et donc les niveaux du «savoir» sont assez semblables, d autant plus qu il est facile de compléter sa formation par de la recherche internet 2. Cependant dans le monde moderne une deuxième formation diplômante est importante et professionnellement valorisante. Pour cela, il est, également, plus facile et moins couteux de s inscrire pour une formation à distance par internet auprès d une université internationale (Canada, Afrique du sud, Australie, France/Réunion, Royaume-Uni) et de faire cette formation tout en travaillant. 3. Une des faiblesses reconnue est la formation pratique (stage de longue durée) pour répondre aux besoins du secteur privé («on hand training»). Une des possibilités pour y remédier serait de passer des accords avec le secteur privé, par exemple en aquaculture.

7 5 Executive summary The primary objective of this study was to undertake a rapid inventory of the training facilities available for fisheries management, aquaculture, and post-harvest management in the Eastern and Southern Africa - Indian Ocean region (ESA-IO). On the basis of this inventory, the second objective was to identify specific training solutions relevant to the region, with potential support for their implementation from the SmartFish programme (FAO/COI/EU). The third objective was to provide institutions, the private sector and other projects in the region with comprehensive information about available training initiatives to boost national and intra-regional use of such facilities and capacities in the region. The study focused on six countries of the ESA-IO region: Madagascar, Reunion (France), Mauritius, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Résumé exécutif L'objectif principal de cette étude était d'effectuer un rapide inventaire de la capacité de formation disponible pour la gestion de la pêche, de l'aquaculture et la gestion après capture dans la région de l Afrique Orientale et Australe et de l'océan Indien (AfOA-OI). Sur la base de cet inventaire, le deuxième objectif était d'identifier des solutions de formation spécifiques à la région avec, pour leur mise en œuvre, le soutien potentiel disponible du programme SmartFish (FAO/COI/UE). Le troisième objectif était de mettre à la disposition des institutions, du secteur privé et d'autres projets dans la région, des informations complètes sur les capacités de formation disponibles afin de stimuler une utilisation nationale et intra-régionale de ces structures et capacités dans la région. L'examen était axé sur six pays de la région AfOA-OI : Madagascar, île de la Réunion (France), Maurice, Kenya, Tanzanie et Ouganda.

8 6 Contents Acknowledgements 3 Remerciements 3 Author s note 4 Executive summary 5 Résumé exécutif 5 Contents 6 Acronyms and abbreviations 8 ENGLISH VERSION Background Note for the reader Overview per country Madagascar Reunion Mauritius Kenya Tanzania Uganda Results by key topic and species Detailed findings per country Madagascar Reunion (France) Mauritius Kenya Tanzania Uganda Other possible South-South support and aquaculture partners 40 VERSION FRANCAISE Interprétation pour les lecteurs Note aux lecteurs Résumé par pays Madagascar La Réunion Maurice Kenya Tanzanie Ouganda Tableau récapitulatif par sujet et par espèce 48

9 7 2. Résultats détaillés par pays Madagascar La Réunion (France) Maurice Kenya Tanzanie Ouganda Autre soutien et partenariat Sud-Sud en aquaculture 74 Annex A. Madagascar: Fisheries and aquaculture curriculum 76 Annex B. La Reunion (France) Filiere halieutique/fisheries - aquaculture and food-processing _ 81 Annex C. Mauritius 87 Annex D. Kenya 93 Annex E. Tanzania 98 Annex F. Uganda 104

10 8 Acronyms and abbreviations ARDA Association for the Development of Aquaculture, Reunion - Association Réunionnaise de Développement de l Aquaculture Association for Marine Research and Promotion - Association pour ARVAM la Recherche et la Valorisation Marines (La Réunion) BSc Bachelor of Science BMD Bachelors, Masters, Doctorate BMU Beach Management Units CBOs Community Based Organizations CCI Chamber of Commerce and Industry CIRAD Center for Agriculture Research for Development - Centre de coopération International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement COI Commission de l Océan Indien COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa CRAA Regional Center for the Application of Aquaculture CRITT Resource, Technical and Technological Innovation Center - Centre de Ressources et d'innovation Technique et Technologique DEA Post-graduate studies - Diplôme d études Approfondies DESS Diploma of Specialized Higher Education - Diplôme d Études Supérieures Spécialisées EASTA EASTA: School of applied Agricultural Sciences and Techniques - École d Application des Sciences et Techniques Agricole EIA Environment Impact Assessment EIE (Fr) Etude d impacts environnementaux ENSA National Institue of Agricultural Sciences - École Nationale des Sciences Agronomiques ESA-IO Eastern and Southern Africa - Indian Ocean ESPA Higher Polytechnic School of Antananarivo - École Supérieure Polytechnique d Antananarivo ESSA Higher Institute of Agricultural Sciences - Établissement Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques EU European Union FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FETA Fisheries Education and Training Centre FTI Fisheries Training Institute GRENE Natural Resources and Environmental Management - Gestion des Ressources Naturelles et Environnement HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points IBA Institute of Applied Biology IHSM Institute of Fisheries and Marine Science IFREMER French Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea - Institut Français pour la Recherche pour l Exploitation de la Mer IMS Institute of Marine Science IOC Indian Ocean Commission ISTE Institute of Science and Technology for the Environment IUT University Institute of Technology - Institut Universitaire Technologique KWSTI Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute MoU Memorandum of Understanding MPRH Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources MSc Master of Science

11 9 NaFIRRI NORAD PhD PRESUP REC RFB SADC SEA SIDS TRC TVET UEA UFP UNDP UoM WIO National Fisheries Resources Research Institute Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation Doctor of Philosophy Programme to Strengthen Higher Education - Programme de Renforcement de l Enseignement Supérieur Regional Economic Community Regional Fishery Body South African Development Community Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment Small Island Developing States Technology Resource Centre Technical and Vocational Education & Training University of East Africa Vocational Training Unit United Nations Development Programme University of Mauritius Western Indian Ocean region

12 10 ENGLISH VERSION

13 11 1. Background 1.1 Note for the reader The SmartFish programme offers an opportunity for participating countries of the Indian Ocean region and related Regional Economic Communities (REC), Regional Fishery Boards (RFB) and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to receive support from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for the implementation of a Regional Fishery Strategy for the Eastern and Southern Africa - Indian Ocean (ESA-IO) region. The programme assists participating countries to strengthen national and regional fishery/aquaculture policy and strategy frameworks and to acquire additional knowledge on fisheries management for use in planning and monitoring. The programme is managed by the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), funded by the European Union (EU) and coimplemented by the FAO. It supports participating countries to fulfil international commitments towards responsible fisheries and to improve food security. In this context, actions have been taken to strengthen long-term human capacity development in the region, including private sector staff and applied research in support of fisheries and aquaculture. The present report assesses the specificities and capacities of education and training centers specialized in fisheries and aquaculture in the ESA-IO region. Permanent, shortterm qualifications and initial education and training are assessed, with specific focus on the following areas: Fisheries management (including co-management economics and integrated management); Aquaculture (business plans, marine aquaculture, Tilapia and Catfish aquaculture, environmental impact assessments); Post-harvest (post-harvest loss reduction, marketing, added value). This report does not pretend to be exhaustive but aims to give an overview of the most relevant educational curriculum/training content and training centers for fisheries and aquaculture in the ESA-IO region. For the reader to easily access information of interest within this report, it has been split into two main sections: Overview per country; Results by key topic and species. The first section provides short country summaries that highlight the main findings, as well as a table that indicates where information can be found by topic or by species.

14 12 Training facilities for aquaculture and fisheries management in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean - a regional perspective 1.2 Overview per country Madagascar Responsibility for specialized training and education is shared between six universities in Madagascar, located in each of the six provinces. Colleges, schools and institutes are responsible for multidisciplinary education. An important general point to be noted is that the education sector in Madagascar has endured a chronic shortage of investment and operational funds for many years. University of Toliara: Institute of Fisheries and Marine Sciences The Institute of Fisheries and Marine Science (IHSM) provides a range of curricula for technicians, fisheries specialists and marine biologists at the Bachelor, Masters, and Doctorate level. The IHSM also offers tailor-made training courses for the private sector in a range of disciplines including aquaculture, production sanitation, waste management, environmental impact assessments, etc. Although the IHSM has not enjoyed a long-term investment programme for its infrastructure and accommodation facilities, the Institute has developed very productive relationships with a number of local, as well as overseas, partners. These relationships have yielded various ad hoc investment inputs, capacity-building opportunities for students and staff alike, as well as allowing the IHSM to fully participate in a wide range of research activities. Other universities Apart from the IHSM, there are a few other institutions that specialize in marine science courses; one example is Mahajunga University, where prawn-farming technicians have been trained. Other universities are reportedly engaged in developing new curricula and training modules in marine sciences, fisheries and aquaculture, environment and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). Regional interest The IHSM has established a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with two Belgian universities. These institutions are experienced in farming sea cucumber; The University of Antananarivo is linked with the Montesquieu Bordeaux IV University in France, which provides a co-diploma and a co-masters in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); Universities in Madagascar remain one of the best education solutions for Comorian students.

15 Background Reunion There are a wide range of education and training institutions to be found in Reunion (e.g. ARDA, CCI, CRITT, CIRAD, the University of Reunion, IUT, ARVAM etc.). These institutions provide training in fisheries, aquaculture, post-harvest management, production sanitation issues, as well as undertaking a range of research activities. In Reunion there is a strong political will to reinforce linkages and cooperation between Reunion and other countries in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. In addition to the main academic education offered, all institutions have the capacity to offer tailor-made training modules by either local staff or by sourcing additional technical support from France. The language of the training modules is normally French but if the number of trainees is sufficient courses can be given in English. Regional interest Reunion has high-quality technical and scientific training facilities and academic certificates that are awarded are recognized across the European Union; A strong political will for better collaboration and cooperation across the WIO region, and tailor-made training courses for the private sector could be a viable solution for such cooperation; Multiple, short-term training courses aimed at the private sector for all fisheries and agro-industries including post-harvest, added value and production sanitation issues; The presence and support of large research and training institutions such as CIRAD (Centre for Agriculture Research for Development) and IFREMER (French Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea) Mauritius The University of Mauritius (UoM) is in the process of updating aspects of the general marine sciences curriculum, but they are also preparing new curricula. The new curricula are part of a targeted initiative by the Government to develop a skills base to support and develop marine resource-based aspects of the economy of Mauritius. Relevant to this regional inventory are: The University of Technology of Mauritius, which has established a new Faculty of Information Technology; The University of Mauritius (UoM) has a Faculty of Agriculture, Life and Ocean Sciences, which is geared towards developing skills in agro-industries and ocean science and; UoM s Faculty of Science, which is developing a new curriculum on aquaculture.

16 14 Training facilities for aquaculture and fisheries management in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean - a regional perspective Kenya Kenya has a long history of university-based education. Most Kenyan universities offer a traditional academic curriculum in fisheries and marine sciences and have only recently offered more specialised courses, such as aquaculture. This is largely in direct response to increased demand for fish to meet growing urbanconsumer demand, as well as due to proactive government policy towards the development of aquaculture solutions to local food security concerns, and to promote new livelihood opportunities in the country. For freshwater aquaculture, Kenya currently relies on research stations, such as Sagana, that are managed by the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture. However, Pwani University, which received the status of fully independent university (from 2007 to 2013 it was a college within Kenyatta University), intends to develop a range of freshwater and marine aquaculture courses. It should be noted that a few major factors have geared up fish farming development in Kenya: i) overfishing, ii) middle class development, iii) strong political will to supply substitution fish farmed and iv) the high cost of fish that allow commercial farming with fish feed to be profitable. Regional interest The National Aquaculture Development and Training Centre at Sagana could offer courses to student technicians from across the region; The wider status of aquaculture infrastructure and support related to the industrial production of fish feed in Kenya is also a valuable resource for the region; Pwani University to develop marine aquaculture courses; Other Kenyan universities and similar institutions are likely to further strengthen and develop their curricula and increase training capacity in marine sciences Tanzania Village-based, as well as semi-industrial, aquaculture is still nascent in Tanzania in terms of tonnage produced per year. However efforts are underway to develop it further, particularly for the brackish-water farming of Milkfish and Mullet, even though such efforts have faced difficulties in terms of establishing profitable operations. A similar problem has also been experienced with the fresh-water farming of Tilapia and Catfish.

17 Background Results by country 15 Technical aquaculture training facilities exist at the Fisheries Education and Training Centre (FETA) at Mbegani (Bagamoyo) and the Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute at Nyegezi (Mwanza). These campuses are under the supervision of the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. The University of Dar es Salaam s Faculty of Aquatic Science and Technology (FAST) already offers a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) course in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture. Tanzania is also seriously involved in fisheries management through communities (Beach Management Units) and this could be shared with other countries in the region. Regional interest The University of Dar es Salaam s Faculty of Aquatic Science and Technology (FAST) is proactive in further developing improved curriculum for aquaculture; In Zanzibar, the Institute of Marine Science (IMS) has a long-term programme underway to develop its capacity to train and undertake research in marine aquaculture Uganda In terms of tonnage produced per year aquaculture is also still nascent in Uganda. In fact, the potential to develop the aquaculture industry is currently constrained by the relative abundance of cheap, wild-caught fish coming from various lakes throughout the country. Because of low prices and the larger size of wild-caught fish, farmed fish under 500 grams (which are cheap to produce) are difficult to sell in large quantities on the domestic market and must be exported to make the business profitable. Uganda has a wide range of training capacity and across all levels, from academic (Makerere University) to technical at the Fisheries Training Institute in Entebbe. Research activities related to fisheries and aquaculture are undertaken by the National Fisheries Resources Research Institute (NaFIRRI) and other related national institutions. NaFiRRI manages a fish farm center, near Kampala, which includes a hatchery and a feed production unit which were constructed in partnership with China. Regional interest In terms of the management of Lake Victoria s fisheries, NaFIRRI will be always be a strong partner for riparian countries; As soon as the price of fish reaches ~US $3.00/kg in Uganda, allowing for profitable domestic markets to be developed, the Kajjansi Fish Farm Demonstration Center is likely to become the lead regional training facility for Tilapia and Catfish farming and in particular cage farming thanks to knowhow gained from their partnership with the Chinese.

18 16 Training facilities for aquaculture and fisheries management in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean - a regional perspective 1.3 Results by key topic and species The following table provides and overview of the information on key topics or species that can be found in this report. Its purpose is to facilitate direct access to specific information contained in the report. The different topics, species, countries concerned and the relevant pages of the report are given. Training related to fisheries management Country Page No. (Co-) management Uganda Pages Fishing techniques/technology Reunion Kenya Uganda Philippines Added value/marketing/business plans Reunion Mauritius Uganda Fisheries management research Kenya Aquaculture training (per species) Uganda Prawns Madagascar Philippines Pages Pages Pages Page 40 Page 14 Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Page 13 Pages Page 40 Sea cucumber Madagascar Page 13 Tilapia and Catfish Madagascar Tanzania Uganda Thailand Seaweed Madagascar Aquaculture training (per type) Uganda Philippines Industrial sea water aquaculture Kenya Reunion Fresh/brackish water aquaculture Tanzania Kenya Fish feed Kenya Other training related to aquaculture Tanzania Page 21 Page 15 Pages Page 40 Page 21 Pages Page 40 Page 15 Pages Page 28 Pages Page 15 Pages Pages Environment Impact Assessment Madagascar Page 13 Page 20 Research Kenya Page 15

19 Background Results by country 17 Reunion Page 14 Tanzania Page 15 Uganda Page 16 Philippines Pages Pages Pages Pages 37 Pages 40 General training Kenya Pages Tanzania Page 34 Uganda Page 37 Egypt Page 40 Training related to food security and trade Production sanitation, quality, consumer Madagascar Page 13 protection Reunion Page 14 Kenya Page 22 Tanzania Pages Uganda Page 37 China Page 41 Post-harvest loss/waste management Reunion Page 14 Tanzania Page 34 Research Uganda Page 37 Scientific training Agro-industry/agronomy Mauritius Page 14 Madagascar Page 20 Reunion Pages Pages Oceanography/biodiversity Mauritius Page 14 Madagascar Pages Reunion Page 23 Uganda Page 28 Tanzania Pages Page 37 (Fish) biology Madagascar Page 13 Uganda Page 37 China Page 41 Environment and resources Madagascar Page 22 management/stock assessment Mauritius Page 23 Reunion Page 28 Uganda Pages China Page 41 Marine Affairs Mauritius Page 28 Research Reunion Page 23 Kenya Pages Uganda Page 37 Halieutic Engineering Madagascar Pages 19-22

20 18 Training facilities for aquaculture and fisheries management in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean - a regional perspective Communication and information systems Sensitization Reunion Page 23 Information systems Tanzania Page 34 Uganda Page 37 China Page 41

21 Background Detailed findings by country Detailed findings per country 2.1 Madagascar General analysis of the situation of higher education in the field of marine sciences in Madagascar In Madagascar, the responsibility for higher education is shared between six universities situated in six provinces where faculties, schools and institutes provide training in multiple disciplines. It should be noted that this level of education has been faced with various financial problems for many years. Despite progress made over the past decade, especially through the integration of modules related to environmental issues in general and the marine and coastal environment in particular, access to specific training in marine science and corollaries generally remains limited and is performed by a single institution, the Institut halieutique et des sciences marines (IHSM) of Toliara University. University of Toliara: the Fisheries and Marine Sciences Institute - Institut halieutique et des sciences marines (See Annex A1, training programme for Bachelor and Masters) The training course in marine sciences, fisheries and aquaculture at the IHSM is almost complete, allowing for various outputs (technicians and executives). However, the outdated infrastructure from the 1970s and a lack of material and equipment are obstacles to the success of the training. The low intake capacity, limited to only 30 students per class, explains the small number of specialized executives in marine sciences. By means of proactive policy, the IHSM has created and secured, over time, sustainable external partnerships that cover both specific training modules and research. IHSM s partners In order to achieve its objectives, the IHSM has diversified its partners according to its activities (training, research, and consulting): Reunion University (Marine ecology laboratory, or ECOMAR); IUFM: University Institute for the Training of Teachers; ARVAM Reunion (Association for Marine Research and Promotion); ENSA (Fisheries department), Rennes; ENSA (Fisheries department), Toulouse; Open University (Marine biology), Brussels; Mons University (Belgium); Aix-Marseille III University CERAM; Stavanger University (Norway); Brown University (USA).

22 20 Training facilities for aquaculture and fisheries management in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean - a regional perspective The IHSM is primarily responsible for the training of Senior Technicians, Fisheries Engineers and Oceanography Biologists (Masters, Post-graduate and Doctorate). In addition, it can provide courses for business agents according to their needs. Four types of training are offered: academic training, fisheries engineering, professionally oriented training (3 years higher education) and vocational training for business agents. Training activities are carried out by a permanent team of 17 staff (2 Professors, 13 Lecturers and 2 Assistants) and missionaries from other universities (Anonymous, 1995). a) Academic training: Masters in General Oceanography (4 years higher education) up to PhD in Applied Ocean Sciences Oceanography is still one of the specialist courses taught at the Institute. The curriculum is gradually changing according to scientific progress and more importantly to the country's needs in terms of marine and fisheries science. b) Fisheries engineering training: (6 years higher education) Training depends closely on the needs of the fishing/aquaculture industry and the marine and coastal environment sector. This multidisciplinary training is meant for Senior Officers of the government and private companies. Admission is by competitive examination for holders of an agricultural engineering degree or a master's degree in natural or marine sciences. The training is carried out according to the request of the fisheries administration. c) Professionally oriented training: (3 years higher education) The high-level sea and coastline technician scheme was established in early 1998 as part of the Programme to Strengthen Higher Education, Programme de Renforcement de l Enseignement Supérieur (PRESUP), financed by the French Cooperation and the Ministry of Higher Education. It is still possible to follow the Bachelors of Marine Science course. Options are mainly oriented towards fisheries, aquaculture, quality control of fishery products, and management of marine and coastal biodiversity. d) Vocational training This scheme has been set up following requests made by fisheries and aquaculture companies, after the identification of needs carried out by the IHSM team. Educational programmes are developed in conjunction with business executives. This type of training, although recent, takes on an increasingly important dimension and is rapidly evolving with the development of the Malagasy economy. Two specialties have emerged so far: biologists for shrimp farming and responsible people for quality control and hygiene in the production chain (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point - HACCP - standard). The training period varies from 1 to 5 months depending on the specialty and level of the trainees. The IHSM can organize other vocational training courses on request from either projects (seaweed and sea cucumber) or companies (shrimp farming and sanitary).

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