UNIMONDE FEBRUARY 2003 FÉVRIER 2003 AFFAIRES INTERNATIONALES

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1 FEBRUARY 2003 FÉVRIER 2003 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AFFAIRES INTERNATIONALES Urban gardening in Cuba: farmers pick up seedlings grown in compost at a Havana cooperative. The greening of Havana by Moira Farr Composting and urban farms probably aren t the first things that come to mind when you conjure up images of Cuba s capital, but in the last decade much of the city s green space has been used by agricultural cooperatives, which produce a reported 70,000 tonnes of compost annually. Thanks to the Environmental Capacity Enhancement Project (ECEP), a joint program of the University of Guelph s School of Engineering and its School of Environmental Design and Rural Development and Havana s Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría (ISPJAE), the city of 2.2 million is using new, environmentally friendly ways to provide fresh produce for its citizens (including, in one case, enough produce to feed thousands of school children daily), deal with solid wastes and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions represent a growing problem in a country rapidly increasing its rate of development and struggling to get its agricultural industry back up to speed after the massive blow caused by the 1991 economic pullout by the Soviet Union and a North American blockade. Environmental sustainability is a key concern for the country, especially now that its tourism industry is booming and likely to grow even further over the next several years. Ironically, says Lambert Otten, director of Guelph s School of Engineering, who is collaborating with José Ameneiros of the ISPJAE in directing the ECEP program, it is Cuba s prior knowledge of old agricultural ways that is helping the country move toward building healthier communities and greater environmental sustainability in the 21st century. They have gone full circle, from old agricultural methods with oxen and other animals to levelling their fields for the modern production of sugar cane and then back to the old ways overnight, when the Soviet bloc pulled out and they had no source continued on next page Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada Association des universités et collèges du Canada

2 The greening continued from previous page of energy or fertilizer, Dr. Otten explains. What they have done is unbelievable.we [in Canada] wouldn t survive it.we don t have the infrastructure.they parked their tractors and divvied up their oxen and were successfully producing other food crops within a couple of years.they use compost from manures and plant waste as fertilizer and biotechnology instead of pesticides natural predators, bacteria and fungi.they re highly educated and are very eager to get into new methods of municipal solid waste management. The urban cooperatives are highly economical, growing food and selling it at markets in areas where cafeterias are ready customers, and reducing the need for transportation of produce from rural areas. ECEP participants hope that Havana s innovative composting project will serve as a model that can be adopted in other cities throughout Cuba.The pilot program is just one of a number of initiatives within the ECEP project, which has an overall mandate of providing postgraduate education for Cuban environmental engineers; offering several short environmental-management courses to scientists, community planners and government managers; and upgrading ISPJAE s library and laboratory facilities.three ISPJAE faculty members will go to the University of Guelph to do PhDs in environmental engineering over the next five years. Joint research among Canadian and Cuban faculty will provide greater international exposure for Cuban scholars, and a conference fund will allow Cuban scholars and practitioners from across the country to network internationally. As well, 12 Cuban students studying at the master s and PhD levels in Havana will do fieldwork, and the Havana workshop series, open to anyone in industry or government, will include 10 week-long courses covering a wide range of environmental topics from hazardouswaste handling and wastewater processing to geographic information systems.the Havana training institute s labs are being upgraded using surplus equipment from Guelph s School of Engineering (including computers, woodchipping and analytical equipment), and a $115,000 UPCD Tier 2 grant to allow scientists there to do analytical work on water, solids and air samples. My university will be stronger in analysing environmental problems because of the new doctors we will have, and also because of the new equipment we will buy for our lab, says program co-director Dr. Ameneiros, a chemical engineer who began collaborating with Dr. Otten after they met in Havana in Since then, Dr. Ameneiros has been to the University of Guelph to present papers at an international composting symposium, and to work at the School of Engineering, gaining knowledge of new environmental technologies still not available in Cuba. It was in 2000 that Dr. Otten and Dr. Ameneiros began talking with Nonita Yap of Guelph s School of Environmental Design and Rural Development about the possibilities for further environmental training in Cuba. Canadian cooperation is a vehicle for introducing the ideas of Cuban specialists in daily life, says Dr. Ameneiros. It s the best of two worlds, says Dr. Otten, pointing to the advantages of Canadians being exposed to Cuban ways of doing things as well. They gain expertise and we expose Canadian students to international issues and promote development education at the University of Guelph. Editorial It is an exciting time for AUCC to be organizing a Canadian university mission to Cuba. The stars have been aligning themselves toward such an event since the mid- 70s, when Prime Minister Trudeau established friendly relations with Cuba, as AUCC s President Robert Giroux points out in his comments on page 17. Since then, we have seen the development of small, individual initiatives between Canadian and Cuban universities.they started to mushroom in the mid- 90s with the financial support of the Canadian International Development Agency through the University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program, which has funded one Tier 1 and eight Tier 2 projects for a total of approximately $10 million. In addition to their ongoing interest in Canadian official development assistance activity in Cuba, universities have branched out more recently into international collaboration that builds on advanced research in such fields as biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering. The meeting of Canadian and Cuban rectors and presidents, to be held in Havana in early February, followed by a joint meeting of rectors, project directors and international liaison officers and a UPCD workshop stems from these many years of collaboration, which culminated with Robert Giroux s visit to Cuba last year. During that visit it became apparent that a more strategic-level collaboration between key Canadian and Cuban players in the field of higher education would be useful. The Cuban context is particularly interesting for Canada. Partly this is because the absence of Americans allows more space and opportunities for Canada. But it s also because of the sophistication of our Cuban partners, as suggested in several articles in this issue of Uniworld. Their high level of education is unusual in developing countries and is one factor that has contributed to this meaningful and mature partnership between Canadian and Cuban universities.that idea is discussed by Fred Keenan of the University of Western Ontario in his commentary on the many benefits to Canadians of academic partnerships with Cuba. This kind of partnership of equals is not always the case in North-South relations. However, the lack of resources remains a challenge. In Cuba, this translates into a creative approach to current and local problems, as illustrated in our lead story The greening of Havana. This kind of innovative approach can serve as a model for Canadian researchers. Cubans have capitalized remarkably well on Canadian development assistance and transformed Canadian support into meaningful results that are having a significant impact on Cuban society, in such areas as medicine, coastal zone management or national economic and social policy. Through its continued efforts and resourcefulness, Cuba will not be held back from development. Margaux Béland Director Partnership Programs 2 UNIWORLD February 2003

3 A Canadian research director on the benefits of Cuban partnerships by Frederick J. Keenan Director, Office of International Research University of Western Ontario For many years, faculty members, students and administrators at University of Western Ontario have participated in cooperative activities with a number of Cuban partners: universities, research and medical institutes and the government. Our university has interacted with scholars in Cuba from a diverse range of disciplines, including sociology, demography, education, medicine, biotechnology, linguistics, film studies and business administration. We hope and believe that these collaborations have been beneficial to Cuba.We know they have been of great value to us in Canada to the richness of our learning environment, to the breadth of our research and to our service role in Canada and other countries. My colleagues have come to appreciate Cuba s achievements in many areas: health care (for instance, their inventiveness in the medicinal use of natural products), education at all levels and language-teaching skills, among others. I have particularly enjoyed working with senior officials of the Cuban government both in Cuba and in Canada and of our partner universities in Havana, Matanzas and Holguín. I have admired their vision and ideals, their strategic approaches to international cooperation and their seriousness and dependability in making things happen. We all agree that we have learned much from our Cuban partnerships. UWO is currently developing a strategic plan for internationalization.this has been a welcome opportunity to take a comprehensive look at our Cuban involvements.we invited UWO participants to comment on the impact of their work in Cuba on their academic activities.the responses have been overwhelmingly positive.the most frequent observation is that direct contact with Cuban counterparts and institutions provides a glimpse into a rich culture and a fascinating social experiment of considerable importance to Canada and worthy of study at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Many professors find the ideological underpinnings of the Cuban state a source of enduring interest and debate, and the achievements From left: Akash Kapoor, MBA student, UWO s Richard Ivey School of Business; Luis Felipe Alvarez, associate dean of the Faculty of Economics and Industrial Engineering at the Universidad de Holguin; Juillerma Ronda, PhD student at the Universidad de Holguin; Kathy Engle, MBA student, Richard Ivey School of Business, who presented courses in business management at three Cuban universities in summer of the Cuban people in the face of adversity commendable. An enhanced understanding of Cuban history and its present realities positive and negative (the human rights and democratization debates cannot be ignored) contributes to the comprehensiveness of UWO courses, notably those in the social sciences and humanities. Faculty members also appreciate the intellectual challenges and rewards involved in gaining greater insight into Cuban society. Professor Jeff Tennant, associate dean of arts at UWO, whose interest in Cuba goes back to 1959, is typical in his comments: One project involves my collaborating with a colleague from my department, David Heap, in the training of Universidad de Holguín instructors in French linguistics.this will allow me to adapt a course I have taught numerous times at UWO and at our Trois-Pistoles summer school to a different, and I suspect very highly motivated, group of students. Dr.Tennant says he hopes to become a more well-rounded university teacher by collaborating with Cubans working on developing their language-instruction programs, adding that his Cuban contacts have shown that they have a lot to share about effective teaching methods. The benefits of partnership, Dr.Tennant goes on, extend to research. I gave a paper on second-language acquisition at the Universidad de Holguín in April 2002.While this field of research has been my secondary area, I have been gradually increasing the work I do in it. I see my Cuba work as a means of stimulating further projects and of exchanging ideas on the results with researchers who may hitherto have had limited access to bibliographical resources, but who are nonetheless doing high-quality work in the area. Engagement with Cuba is widespread and growing on our campus.we are now exploring the feasibility of a multidisciplinary research group, or even a multidisciplinary research centre, focusing on Cuba. Proximity will generate imaginative new directions for research.with the critical mass of scholars at UWO who are interested in the language, sociology, demographics, history, environment and health system of Cuba, we are optimistic about the vigour of Cuban scholarship on our campus and about our ability to attract bright new faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students and international collaborators. Clearly, our partnerships with Cuban institutions are important to us, and we look forward to increasing them in the future, in collaboration with other Canadian research institutes, and quite possibly the private sector. Photo courtesy of Kathy Engle Février

4 SCANNING What are Canadian universities doing? In this regular section, we scan the Canadian university scene for new activities in international development. Dalhousie University The university s Canada-Ukraine- Baltic Economic Management Training Program is now in its third year.the project builds on the experience and success of the Baltic Economic Training Program, which ended in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have joined with Dalhousie University in the delivery of the program to Ukrainian public servants. It aims to help middle- to senior-level public policy officials understand economics and economic policy analysis. Ukrainians may receive an internship or a practicum in one of the Baltic countries as well as in Canada. Lecturers from Canada, the Baltic countries and the Ukraine participate in courses in Kiev.The project has a major publication program, which produces Ukraine-based teaching materials for use in the project s own courses (in Ukrainian); these are also available to other projects and educational institutions. Barry Lesser, chair of Dalhousie University s economics department and director of both projects, has had a long-standing relationship with the region.the project is sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency, with contributions from a partner organization in each of the five participating countries and the Open Society Institute. Okanagan University College OUC has released a documentary video, So Good, So Far The Way Forward.Produced by OUC s fine arts department, in cooperation with CIDA s Development Information Program, it highlights the development issues and challenges encountered by OUC and its partner university in northern Ghana. Filmed on location at the University for Development Studies and in Ghanaian villages, it demonstrates the power of partnership and collaborative problem-solving to make a significant impact on the education and health of local people. AUCC project officer France Tremblay, along with OUC project director Don Sawyer and OUC staff, participated in delivering the second course of the West African Rural Development (WARD) Program in The Gambia.The WARD program provides professional training for community-development workers from government and non-government organizations. Twenty-five Gambian development workers participated in the program. OUC and its Canadian partner institution, Saint Mary s University, and their African partners will launch the third course in March.The program will include four courses that will lead to a Rural Community Development Practitioner diploma for all graduates. Université du Québec - Télé-université The environment belongs to the global community and responsibility for it does not fall on just one person or one country. Partners of the CÆRENAD (Centre d application, d étude et de ressources en apprentissage à distance) program are starting to offer an international graduate program in environmental science (natural-resource management).this unique program is structured around new courses produced by CÆRENAD S teams and a bank of existing environmental courses that will be translated and adapted under their supervision. Professors from the Télé-université, University of Mauritius, Universidade federal de Mato Grosso (Brazil), Université Cheikh Anta Diop (Senegal), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and Universidad Estatal a Distancia (Costa Rica) work together online. Started in 1998, the CÆRENAD program aims to create an international distance-learning development centre whose mission is to foster the pooling of expertise and distance-learning resources. CIDA is funding this program as part of Tier 1 within the University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program. Université du Québec à Montréal An ambitious initiative led by education professor Lucie Sauvé in cooperation with three universities in the Amazon has garnered UQAM an Award of Excellence from CIDA. Conferred every two years, these awards pay tribute to Canadian universities and colleges, as well as their partners in developing countries, that have created the best development projects. In this case, the selection committee was very impressed with the relevance of Dr. Sauvé s project, the quality of the partnerships created and the sustainability of its results, especially in the areas of poverty reduction and environmental protection.the Universidad Autonoma Gabriel René Moreno, the Universidad Federal de Mato Grosso and the Universidad de la Amazonia joined forces with UQAM in 1996 as part of the Education in the Amazon project designed to develop training, intervention and research activities so that local people could take responsibility for their own environment. Since then, some 250 professors, 11,500 children and 2,500 members of the community have answered the call, thus contributing to the success of this program. Queen s University A cooperative initiative between two Queen s research groups is helping government and nongovernmental organizations in southern Africa combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In the first phase of the pilot project, the Social Program Evaluation Group (SPEG) and Southern African Research Centre (SARC) at Queen s provided training in program evaluation for groups in South Africa implementing HIV/AIDS programs in migrant communities. Funded by CIDA, a one-week workshop was held last spring near Johannesburg. Kingston s HIV/AIDS Regional Services helped design eight relevant case studies, while the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in Johannesburg assisted in finding participants and making local arrangements for the workshop.the SPEG/SARC collaboration is now requesting funding to develop and expand the program, and incorporate local trainers. Established in 2001, SARC provides a focal point and base for Queen s projects such as the Southern African Migration Project, launched in 1996 and now in its second phase. The Canadian International Development Agency made a $1.5-million contribution to Queen's University to provide education, policy development and technical assistance to rehabilitation centres throughout the Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), in collaboration with the government of Japan.This initiative represents a unique new partnership in international cooperation between CIDA and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, which will fund facilities and provide vehicles and equipment to be used in the rehabilitation project. The International Centre for the Advancement of Community-Based Rehabilitation was established at Queen's University in May1991, as one of six CIDA centres of excellence. Saint Mary s University The International Learning and Students with Disabilities Project has recently been launched. 4 UNIWORLD February 2003

5 Funded by the Special Initiatives Program of Human Resources Development Canada, this project will compile research and build capacity that will in turn improve access to international learning by students with disabilities. Students with disabilities face multiple barriers that deny them access to international experience. One objective of this project is to build an international network of postsecondary education institutions interested in improving access for students with disabilities.this network will initiate discussions and promote exchanges of information and experience. It hopes to identify barriers to disabled students, and to compile a list of best practices used by universities to promote involvement of disabled students in international mobility programs. Saint Mary s will host a conference in March to bring together a number of participating postsecondary institutions. University of Toronto CIDA has funded a $2.1 million contribution agreement with the Institute for Environmental VELUT ÆVO ARBOR Studies, the department of geography and the faculty of forestry to apply Canadian modeling and remote sensing technology to understand the role of land-use change in China s carbon cycle.the goal of the project is to contribute to the global effort to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by enhancing China s capacity to sequester carbon in natural sinks.the Chinese partners are led by the Institute of Geography and Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Normal University and five research groups in Nanjing (southeast China) and Lanzhou (northwest China).The project kickoff was held in Beijing in July. University of Waterloo Engineers Without Borders recently won the Canadian Bureau for International Education Student Leadership Internationalization Award. Parker Mitchell and George Roter, originally students in the faculty of engineering, were the founding members of Engineers Without Borders, whose mission is to improve the quality of life of people in developing nations and communities by helping find appropriate technical solutions to their challenges. The group focuses on increasing awareness of the technical problems facing the developing world, and research and design projects that aim to solve these problems and provide internship opportunities for Canadian engineering students. Undergraduates have completed assignments in South America, Africa, and South Asia to work on such problems as safe potable water supply, access to affordable energy and housing.the first chapter of Engineers Without Borders was created at The University of Waterloo with strong support from the faculty of engineering and senior university administration.there are now 17 chapters at Canadian universities and more than 2000 members. Private-sector sponsors complement other Canadian university support. The faculty of environmental studies has a newly established CIDA UPCD Tier 1 project, Eco-Planning and Environmental Management in Coastal Communities of China (ECOPLAN China) directed by Geoffrey Wall. ECOPLAN China is a five-year project that will assist in the development of effective eco-planning and management processes that contribute to livelihoods and social welfare. These objectives are expected to be met through a coordinated program of institution-strengthening and capacity-building, education and training, and policy and program initiatives in regions experiencing development pressure.this project builds on a successful Canada-China Higher Education Program (CCHEP) initiative on integrated coastal zone management in Hainan, undertaken by the University of Waterloo, Nanjing University and the Hainan Department of Lands, Environment and Resources. ECOPLAN China will extend this work on capacitybuilding by directly contributing to the Hainan eco-province initiative, incorporating new partners, including Qiongzhou University, and working with individual municipalities and enterprises in Hainan.The inclusion of the Dalian University of Technology as a partner institution significantly extends the institutional and regional impact of the program by focusing on a region that is undergoing substantial industrial restructuring.two management committee meetings took place in Haikou in February 2002 and in Dalian in June of the same year as well as a curriculum development workshop, and related needs assessments. Upcoming events include a Canadian technical mission to China scheduled for April or May of this year. The University of Western Ontario The UWO has two new student-exchange agreements, one with the City University of Hong Kong and the other with Slovenia s University of Maribor. The new agreement with City University of Hong Kong was signed last September in Hong Kong by Greg Moran, UWO s provost and vice-president, academic. Each year, three students in the faculties of arts, engineering, science, and social science at UWO will have the opportunity to study for one academic year in Hong Kong.Two students from City University are attending UWO this year as part of the program. Up to 25 graduate and undergraduate students currently move between UWO and its partner universities in Hong Kong.The Executive MBA program is offered separately through the Richard Ivey School of Business.The new agreement with City University of Hong Kong will increase the total to near 30 annually. The agreement with the University of Maribor is the first the Slovenian institution has had with a Canadian university.the faculty of organizational sciences is eager to develop positive international relations. Another goal of this partnership is to develop a researchcollaboration program independent but parallel to the exchange program. University of Windsor Over the past year, the University of Windsor has signed articulation agreements with the following institutions, all of which allow students to transfer to Windsor with advanced standing to complete degrees: Anshan University of Science and Technology (PR China) for transfer into a BSc in economics; Overseas Family College (Singapore) into BA or BSc programs; Hong Kong Baptist University (PR China) into appropriate bachelor s degree programs; KDU College (Malaysia) into an appropriate bachelor s degree programs; and University of Brunei Darussalum into a BSc program in biotechnology. The University of Windsor has signed agreements to facilitate collaborative research and graduate-student/faculty exchanges with: the N.M. Emanuel Institute for Biochemical Physics at the Russian Academy of Science; the National Centre for Environmental Research at the University of Chile; the engineering faculty at the University of Jean Monnet, France; and the physics department at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia. York University The international development studies program offers students a challenging undergraduate VERITAS UTILITAS ET degree with promising career opportunities.the curriculum deals with theories of development and explores the ways in which different development organizations attempt to reach the poor and needy. Given the focus of the program on development practices, students also read documents of the international donor community, including the World Bank, and learn how to put together and implement a development research or delivery proposal. Graduates should be attractive candidates for employment in non-governmental organizations, research institutes, international development organizations, labour unions and various civil groups that deal with development issues. Current enrolment in the program is approximately 70 students. Février

6 COUP D ŒIL Ce que font les universités? Dans cette rubrique, nous jetons un coup d œil sur les nouvelles initiatives entreprises par les universités canadiennes au chapitre du développement international Dalhousie University Le programme de formation en gestion économique Canada-Ukraine-pays baltes de l université en est à sa troisième année. Il fait suite au programme de formation économique aux pays baltes qui a pris fin en 2001 et avait connu un franc succès. L Estonie, la Lettonie et la Lituanie ont joint leurs efforts à la Dalhousie University pour offrir le programme aux employés de l État ukrainien. Le programme vise à améliorer la compréhension de l économie et de l analyse des politiques économiques chez les cadres intermédiaires et supérieurs oeuvrant dans le domaine des politiques publiques. Les Ukrainiens peuvent faire un stage dans l un des pays baltes ou au Canada, et des conférenciers du Canada, des pays baltes et de l Ukraine donnent des cours à Kiev. Le projet comporte un important programme de publication, qui doit donner le jour à du matériel pédagogique ukrainien que l on utilisera dans les cours du programme (en ukrainien); d autres projets ou établissements d enseignement peuvent aussi utiliser les documents ainsi produits. Barry Lesser, directeur du département d économie de la Dalhousie University et directeur des deux programmes, maintient une relation privilégiée depuis longtemps avec cette région. Le programme est subventionné par l Agence canadienne de développement international et bénéficie du soutien de l organisme partenaire de chacun des cinq pays participants, ainsi que du Open Society Institute. Okanagan University College Le Okanagan University College (OUC) a réalisé un documentaire intitulé So Good, So Far The Way Forward.Produit par le département des beaux-arts du OUC, en collaboration avec le Programme d'information sur le développement de l ACDI, ce film porte sur les obstacles au développement qu ont rencontrés le OUC et son université partenaire du Nord du Ghana. Filmé à la University for Development Studies et dans des villages ghanéens, il montre à quel point le partenariat et la collaboration contribuent à améliorer l éducation et la santé des populations. France Tremblay, agente de programme à l AUCC, en collaboration avec Don Sawyer, directeur du projet au OUC et son personnel, ont participé à la première mouture du deuxième cours du Programme de développement rural d Afrique occidentale (WARD) en Gambie. À ce jour, 25 Gambiens ont participé à ce programme axé sur le perfectionnement des agents de développement communautaire provenant d organismes gouvernementaux et non gouvernementaux (ONG). De concert avec leurs partenaires africains, le OUC et son partenaire canadien, Saint Mary s University, lanceront le troisième cours en mars. Après avoir suivi les quatre cours du programme, les participants obtiendront un diplôme d agent de développement des collectivités rurales. Université du Québec - Télé-université L environnement est un bien collectif qui préoccupe plus d une personne et plus d un pays. Les partenaires du programme CÆRENAD (Centre d application, d étude et de ressources en apprentissage à distance) offriront dorénavant un programme de 2 e cycle international en sciences de l environnement gestion des ressources naturelles. Ce programme original s articule autour de nouveaux cours produits par des équipes du CÆRENAD ainsi que d une banque de cours en environnement existants qui seront traduits et adaptés sous leur supervision. Des professeurs provenant de la Télé-université, la University of Mauritius, la Universidade federal de Mato Grosso (Brésil), l Université Cheikh Anta Diop (Sénégal), la Pontificia Universidad Católica du Chili et la Universidad Estatal a Distancia (Costa Rica) travaillent ensemble à distance. Le programme CÆRENAD, créé en 1998, vise la mise en place d un centre international de développement de formation à distance dont la mission est de favoriser la mise en commun de l expertise et des ressources en formation à distance. L ACDI subventionne ce programme dans le cadre du Volet I du programme de Partenariats universitaires en coopération et développement. Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) Une initiative d envergure dirigée par la professeure en éducation Lucie Sauvé, en collaboration avec trois universités de la région amazonienne, a valu à l UQAM d être lauréate d un Prix d excellence de l Agence canadienne de développement international. Décernés tous les deux ans, ces prix visent à rendre hommage aux universités et collèges canadiens, ainsi qu à leurs partenaires des pays en développement, qui ont réalisé les meilleurs projets de développement. Dans le cas présent, le comité de sélection s est dit impressionné par «la pertinence» du projet de Mme Sauvé, la «qualité» des partenariats établis et «le caractère durable de ses résultats», notamment en matière de réduction de la pauvreté et de protection de l environnement. Rappelons que c est en 1996 que la Universidad Autonoma Gabriel René Moreno, la Universidad Federal de Mato Grosso et la Universidad de la Amazonia se sont associées à l UQAM dans le cadre du projet Education in the Amazon visant à réaliser des activités de formation, d intervention et de recherche ayant pour but de permettre aux populations locales de prendre en charge leur propre environnement. Depuis, quelque 250 professeurs, étudiants et membres de collectivités ont répondu à l appel, contribuant ainsi au succès de l entreprise. Queen s University Un projet de coopération entre deux groupes de recherche de la Queen s University à Kingston aide les organismes gouvernementaux et les organismes non gouvernementaux de l Afrique australe à lutter contre la propagation du VIH et du SIDA. À la première étape du projet pilote, le groupe d évaluation des programmes sociaux et le Centre de recherche sur l Afrique australe (CRAS) de la Queen s University ont donné des cours d évaluation de programmes à des groupes sud-africains responsables de l application de programmes de lutte au VIH et au SIDA dans des collectivités migrantes. Financé par l ACDI, l atelier d une semaine s est déroulé au printemps dernier près de Johannesburg. Les services de lutte contre le VIH et le SIDA de la région de Kingston ont contribué à l élaboration de huit études de cas pertinentes, tandis que le conseil sud-africain de recherche scientifique et industrielle de Johannesburg s est chargé du recrutement des participants et de l organisation de l atelier. Le tandem groupe d évaluation/cras demande à présent du financement pour élargir le programme et y intégrer les formateurs locaux. Créé en 2001, le CRAS sert de centre de liaison pour les projets de la Queen s University à Kingston comme le projet de 6 UNIWORLD February 2003

7 migration sud-africaine, créé en 1996, qui en est à sa deuxième phase de réalisation. Grâce à une contribution de 1,5 million de dollars accordée par la l ACDI en collaboration avec le gouvernement du Japon, la Queen's University viendra en aide, sous forme de soutien à l éducation et à l élaboration de politiques et d assistance technique, à des centres de réadaptation de la République de Serbie (Bosnie-Herzégovine). Unique en son genre, ce nouveau partenariat de coopération internationale entre l ACDI et l Agence japonaise de coopération internationale financera les installations et fournira les véhicules et le matériel requis dans le cadre du projet de réadaptation. Fondé en mai 1991 à la Queen's University, le centre international pour l avancement de la réadaptation communautaire est l un des six centres d excellence de l ACDI. Saint Mary s University Le projet d apprentissage international pour les étudiants handicapés vient de voir le jour. Financé par le Programme des initiatives spéciales de Développement des ressources humaines Canada, ce projet visera à compiler les recherches et à renforcer la capacité des intervenants, ce qui facilitera en bout de ligne l accès aux études internationales pour les étudiants handicapés. De nombreux obstacles empêchent les étudiants handicapés d étudier à l étranger. L un des objectifs du projet consiste à établir un réseau international d établissements d enseignement postsecondaire intéressés à améliorer l accès aux études à l étranger pour les étudiants handicapés. Ce réseau permettra d amorcer la discussion et de favoriser le partage d information et d expérience. On espère ainsi cerner les obstacles et dresser une liste de pratiques exemplaires d universités qui facilitent la participation des étudiants handicapés aux programmes de mobilité internationale. En mars, Saint Mary s sera l hôte d un colloque qui réunira des établissements d enseignement postsecondaire participants. University of Toronto L ACDI a accordé une subvention de 2,1 millions de dollars à l Institute for Environmental Studies, du département de géographie et à la faculté de foresterie, pour un projet consistant à utiliser la technologie de modélisation et de télédétection canadienne dans le but de comprendre le rôle du changement d affectation des terres sur le cycle de vie du carbone en Chine. L objectif du projet est de contribuer à l effort mondial de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre en renforçant la capacité de la Chine à piéger le CO 2 dans des bassins naturels. Les partenaires chinois sont dirigés par l Institut de recherche en géographie et en ressources naturelles de l Académie des sciences de la Chine, l Université normale de Beijing et cinq groupes de recherche de Nanjing (Sud-Est de la Chine) et de Lanzhou (Nord-Ouest du pays). Le projet a été lancé officiellement en juillet à Beijing. University of Waterloo L organisme Ingénieurs Sans Frontières (ISF) vient de remporter le Prix de leadership étudiant en internationalisation du Bureau canadien de l'éducation internationale. Parker Mitchell et George Roter, anciens étudiants de la faculté de génie, sont les membres fondateurs de l organisme, dont la mission est de «rehausser le niveau de vie des pays et des collectivités en développement en les aidant à trouver des solutions techniques appropriées à leurs problèmes». L organisme vise à accroître la sensibilisation aux problèmes techniques des pays en développement, à favoriser les projets de recherche et de conception qui offriraient des solutions à ces problèmes, et à trouver des stages pour les étudiants en génie du Canada. Des étudiants au premier cycle ont déjà fait des stages en Amérique du Sud, en Afrique et dans le Sud de l Asie, où ils se sont attachés notamment à résoudre des problèmes d accès à l eau potable ainsi qu à des sources d énergie et à des logements abordables. Le premier cercle d ISF a été fondé à la University of Waterloo. Les instigateurs du projet ont reçu un appui solide de la faculté de génie et de la haute direction de l université. On compte à présent 17 cercles dans des universités canadiennes regroupant plus de membres. En plus du financement provenant des universités du pays, l organisme bénéficie du soutien de commanditaires privés. La faculté des sciences de l environnement participe à un nouveau projet dans le cadre du Volet 1 du programme de Partenariats universitaires en coopération et développement (PUCD) de l ACDI : le projet de planification écologique et de gestion environnementale des collectivités côtières de Chine (ECOPLAN Chine), sous la direction de Geoffrey Wall. ECOPLAN Chine est un projet quinquennal dont l objectif est d aider la Chine à élaborer des pratiques efficaces de planification écologique et de gestion environnementale qui procurent des moyens de subsistance et favorisent le bien-être social. Pour répondre à ces besoins, on mettra en œuvre un programme concerté de renforcement des établissements et de leurs capacités, d éducation et de formation, ainsi que d élaboration de politiques et de programmes dans des régions à fort développement. Cette initiative fait suite à un projet réussi de gestion intégrée du littoral de la province de Hainan dans le cadre du Programme d'enseignement supérieur Canada- Chine (PESCC) mené par la University of Waterloo, l Université de Nanjing et le département des terres, de l'environnement et des ressources de la province de Hainan. Le projet ECOPLAN Chine poursuivra son œuvre de renforcement de la capacité chinoise en contribuant directement au projet d Éco-province de Hainan, en intégrant de nouveaux partenaires, dont l Université de Qiongzhou, et en travaillant individuellement avec les municipalités et les entreprises de la province de Hainan. Le recrutement d un partenaire comme l Université de technologie de Dalian accroît considérablement la portée du programme au sein des établissements et de la région, du fait que l on travaillera davantage dans une région où le secteur industriel est en profonde restructuration. Des rencontres du comité de gestion ont eu lieu à Haikou en février 2002 et à Dalian en juin de la même année. On a en outre tenu un atelier d élaboration de programme et une évaluation des besoins connexes. Au nombre des activités à venir, mentionnons une mission technique canadienne en Chine prévue pour avril ou mai de cette année. The University of Western Ontario La University of Western Ontario a conclu deux nouvelles ententes d échanges d étudiants, l une avec l Université de Hong Kong et l autre avec l Université de Maribor en Slovénie. L entente avec l Université de Hong Kong a été signée en septembre à Hong Kong par Greg Moran, vice-recteur à l enseignement et à la recherche de l université canadienne. Chaque année, trois étudiants des facultés des arts, de génie, des sciences ou des sciences sociales de la University of Western Ontario auront la chance d étudier pendant un an à Hong Kong. Cette année, la University of Western Ontario accueille deux étudiants de l Université de Hong Kong dans le cadre de cette entente. Jusqu à 25 étudiants de tous les cycles vont faire des séjours dans des universités hongkongaises avec lesquelles la University of Western Ontario a établi des partenariats. Le programme de MBA pour cadres est offert séparément par la Richard Ivey School of Business. La nouvelle entente avec l Université de Hong Kong fera passer le nombre de participants canadiens à presque 30 par année. Quant à l Université de Maribor, elle conclut sa première entente avec une université canadienne et la faculté des sciences organisationnelles a très hâte d établir des relations internationales. Ce partenariat vise aussi à faire ressortir l intérêt commun des deux parties d élaborer un suite à la page 12 Février

8 Mental health matters: Canada and Cuba in partnership Canadians suffering from clinical depression and other mental disorders are used to having ready access to drug treatment, but in Cuba, effective psychiatric medications are still largely unavailable to those experiencing mental illness. That has serious implications for any society: the World Health Organization reports that six of the top 10 disorders that result in the most years lived with disability are psychiatric illnesses. A new project involving Dalhousie University s Department of Psychiatry and Cuba s National Coordinating Centre for Clinical Trials in Cuba (CENCEC) is helping Cubans create an indigenous industry in the production and testing of psycho-pharmacological medication.this includes teaching those who run laboratories, for example, techniques for research, storage of samples, monitoring of compounds and data evaluation that meet international guidelines. We re helping Cubans develop their ability to conduct necessary research to international standards of therapeutics, and to build economic strength with their own vibrant and successful industry in psycho-pharmaceutical treatments, says Stan Kutcher, formerly head of psychiatry at Dalhousie, now associate dean of international medical development and research for the faculty of medicine. Dr. Kutcher and other colleagues have travelled to Cuba to meet the people they will work with, and value the personal relationships they are developing with researchers there tremendously. Medicine, he points out, is truly a uniquely international activity. Everybody gets sick the same way, but the specific environment has an impact on the types of illness people have, and the approach to treatment and intervention they will experience.the level of expertise goes up unbelievably when you have cross-cultural fertilization. Dr. Kutcher praises his Cuban colleagues for their ability to make the most of what limited resources they have. We in affluent societies can learn things from the Cubans, and have to appreciate their commitment to meeting the needs of patients in a resource-poor environment. Along with the joint development of a training program in clinical trials, the project includes administering training programs for CENCEC staff, psychiatrists and others throughout the country who conduct clinical trials; opportunities for Cuban professionals to come to Canada for specialized training in English; and joint development, support and implementation of clinical trials with Cuban national and international bodies. Cuba is trying to get itself on the international stage, says Dr. Kutcher. They recognize that they have to develop at that level. The project s ultimate goal is to improve patient care in Cuba, with more training for healthcare workers and further economic development in psycho-pharmacological research.this could lead to the export of pharmaceutical products and might allow CENCEC to generate revenue by offering clinical research services to international organizations, such as pharmaceutical companies. Training Cuba s public health trainers An epidemic of dengue fever sweeping through the Americas recently spurred public health authorities in many countries to take preventative action.that is particularly the case in Cuba, where a Canadian International Development Agency-funded project involving a consortium of Canadian academics from the University of Manitoba and the University of British Columbia has been helping Cuban health workers learn how to deal more effectively with serious environmental health issues, such as insect-borne diseases, using state-of-the-art methods that meet international standards.these Cuban workers, in turn, are sharing their growing knowledge and expertise with their counterparts in other affected countries, such as Mexico, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, Chile and Ecuador. Cuba went on the alert last winter, says Jerry Spiegel, a professor at UBC s Liu Centre for the Study of Global Issues, who participated in a training workshop in Havana during the spring of The Cubans are highly mobilized to control the problem, he adds, pointing to such active and successful initiatives as a mosquito-habitat clean-up campaign in urban areas. At mid-term, says Dr. Spiegel, the project has surpassed all goals.through distance learning, it has reached huge numbers of students all over the country, who are now better equipped to prevent and control the environmental factors that underlie many diseases. Collaborating with Havana s Instituto Nacional de Hygiene Epidemiología y Microbiología and other health-education centres in Santa Clara and Santiago, Dr. Spiegel, project coordinator Annalee Yassi from UBC and others are helping to strengthen Cuba s capacity to upgrade its teaching programs in environmental health at the diploma, master s and PhD levels. Because of their relative isolation from new currents of thought until the early 1990s and an economic crisis in the country, Cubans needed the analytical tools to use the ecosystem-health approach that had become the standard in the international community.they also needed to develop skills in statistical methods and costbenefit analyses to deal successfully with crucial matters such as water purification. Their organizational capacity was strong, but there were gaps, says Dr. Spiegel. With CIDA s input, Canadians are helping to fill those gaps. Canadians have contributed in a major way internationally on issues of determinants of health, says Dr.Yassi, pointing to work done as far back as the 1970s, when the Lalonde report looked not just at how continued on page 18 8 UNIWORLD February 2003

9 Enhancing Cuban health care through biotechnology Health care in Cuba, including access to potentially expensive medical testing, extends to everyone in the country free of charge. Cubans value their public health care services greatly and recognize that, to maintain high quality and offer such services universally, they have to keep up with state-ofthe-art advances in biomedical engineering not an easy job for a small and economically isolated country. Currently, about 250 engineers work in the maintenance and repair of biomedical technology at hospitals; other professionals work in the research, development and design of new equipment and systems in research institutions, industry and universities, bringing the total working in the field of biotechnology to about 600. Cubans have made great strides in fields such as cardiology and are working on such innovative projects as the development of implantable defibrillators and signal processing through computers to help monitor the speech patterns of stroke victims and others who cannot speak clearly. They do extraordinarily well with extraordinarily little, says Ed Biden, professor of mechanical engineering at the University of New Brunswick s Institute of Biomedical Engineering and project director for two UPCD Tier 2 programs.these programs (one of which has been successfully completed with a partner institution in central Cuba) aim at preparing expert engineers and researchers to help maintain high standards of health care in Cuba. Technology transfer goes in both directions, says Dr. Biden, from Canada to Cuba and Cuba to Canada.There are incredible stories, he says in one instance, a small team of Cuban researchers, unable to purchase magnetic resonance imaging systems, built their own. Cuba puts a high value on providing firstworld health care and they know that means keeping technological development alive.they are committed to developing skill sets at a high level, so they can give a broader view of the world as they train the next generation, says Dr. Biden. The new project will provide an opportunity for partnering and further professional training between UNB and several Cuban institutions at three partner centres in Cuba: Universidad Central Marta Abreu de Las Villas There are incredible stories in one instance, a small team of Cuban researchers, unable to purchase MRI systems, built their own. (UCLV) in central Cuba; Universidad de Orient in the eastern city of Santiago de Cuba; and the Instituto Superior Politécnico José Echeverria in Havana. It will provide continuous education programs for biomedical engineers and other related professionals.the plan is to offer graduate programs in biomedical engineering to meet the demand for highly qualified professionals to do research and development within the Cuban health system and to develop a nationwide network of biomedical engineering programs. Cuban faculty and staff will receive support in PhD and postdoctoral studies; 30 trainees will have an opportunity to study at UNB. It s a source of great students for us, says Dr. Biden.The program places a particular emphasis on providing training at this level for women. Faculty with PhDs will undertake postdoctoral studies in Canadian institutions, including UNB, and will receive funding to attend recognized international scientific conferences in their field. Those students who have already come to UNB have added a dimension to the study experience of Canadians as well. When discussing various aspects of the Castro regime, it has been beneficial to have the point of view of someone who is from Cuba. There is a dialogue, people who can provide cogent arguments on many issues, says Dr. Biden. The project will also provide lab resources, scientific information, materials and supplies necessary for graduate-level studies. Another key factor, says Dr. Biden, is an improved Internet service. During the mid-90s, when talks began between Canadians and Cubans to develop the project, the Cuban system was very limited, as was phone access, so it was hard to get in touch with people and get things organized, says Dr. Biden. That is changing now, and much of the work has been driven from the Cuban end. He adds, It wasn t us [Canadians] trying to sell a program, they were very keen to get going. Goals also include improved management practices for laboratories and research institutions; expanded networks of contacts; and more efficient collaboration between Cuban partner institutions and the Ministry of Health, the Cuban Bio-engineering Society and the medical equipment industry. So far, the program has been enormously satisfying for those involved, says Dr. Biden, who is filled with praise for his Cuban co-director Juan Lorenzo-Ginori of the Centre for Studies in Electronics and Information Technologies at UCLV. He is my brother, just an amazing man. He made this project work.when I retire and look back on my career, I am sure I will say that these Cuban experiences have had more impact on human health and happiness than anything else I ve done. Février

10 Keeping the Cuban coast clear and clean by Anne Mullens Photo courtesy of Michael Beaton As tourism expands, Cubans seek to protect their coastal ecosystems. Tropical sun, azure waters dotted with coral reefs and long sandy beaches are among Cuba s greatest assets, attracting both tourists and foreign investment. But the risk of untrammeled resort development and a lack of environmental stewardship could threaten the health and sustainability of the very gifts that lure people to these coasts. Now, two Canadian programs involving academics at three Atlantic Canada universities working with colleagues at Cuban universities are helping Cubans create the human resources and expertise necessary to develop and maintain their precious marine and coastal environments. In many areas of Cuba the coastal zone is actually the interaction of three systems coral reefs, sea-grass dunes and mangroves, explains Aldo Chircop, a professor of marine and environmental law at Dalhousie University. Impact one of them such as building a hotel right down on the beach, he continues, and you can impact all three, increasing erosion, storm surge, impacting water quality and negatively affecting the fish, seabirds and health of all the systems. Dr. Chircop is Canadian director of a program to establish a national master s degree in integrated coastal zone management in Cuba that involves more than a dozen faculty from Dalhousie and St. Mary s University in Halifax and almost 30 faculty from three universities in Cuba. In planning since 1997, the program got underway in 1999 with support from AUCC s University Partnership for Cooperation in Development and a $750,000 grant from the Canadian International Development Agency.Activities have included developing curricula, holding teaching workshops, establishing core and elective courses for the program and exchanging faculty.the first 60 Cuban students enrolled in February 2002 and will graduate in the fall of 2003; they include the governor of the province of Cienfuegos. He understands that this issue is very important to the economy and health of his region, says Dr. Chircop. The courses include environmental and coastal law, coastal ecosystems, economy of the environment and research methodology, among others. Already the three Cuban universities Universidad de Cienfuegos, Universidad de la Habana and Universidad de Oriente are investigating expansion of enrolment to include students from other Latin American countries, because interest and demand for the program are so strong. This is not Canadian academics training Cubans to manage their resources not at all, stresses Dr. Chircop. Rather it is a partnership, he says, that combines the strengths of all faculty from the two countries to build resources and support Cubans in training their own experts. John Johnson, a professor of biology at the University of New Brunswick and the Canadian director of a second CIDA-funded program Human resource development in the Cuban marine sector makes the same observation. We are working as partners with excellent scientists one of whom even worked with Jacques Cousteau. It is a balanced partnership, not a hierarchy. In the years since the Soviet Union left Cuba, Dr. Johnson notes, Cuban academics have lacked the support and resources to develop curricula, evaluate programs, and produce their own experts. We are working with them to build their capacity and expand their network. The UNB-Universidad de la Habana program combines Canadian and Cuban expertise to develop and evaluate programs that promote the sustainable use of marine resources.the program has $1.3 million in funds and includes four UNB faculty Dr. Johnson, Deborah McLatchy, an expert in ecotoxicology,thierry Chopin, a seaweed expert, and Alan Login, a coral-reef expert. With their Cuban partners, they are designing short- and medium-term training programs for scientific staff, developing undergraduate and graduate curricula and stimulating research in marine sciences.the major focus is on the use of ecotoxicology to monitor and prevent pollution of the coastal ecosystem, which is under threat from rapid resort development. Another objective is to identify and develop potential integrated and sustainable aquaculture sites and biotechnology opportunities for such natural resources as seaweed. Activities have included bringing Cuban faculty to UNB for exchanges, training and symposia. Canadian academics and students have also traveled to Cuba for training and workshops. Dr. Johnson says that while they are building the capacity for scientific expertise, they are also building relationships and memorable friendships that will last lifetimes. One of my favourite memories is of watching Cuban marine scientists, who came to dinner at my house in Saint John, lie on the floor with my children, drawing marine animals. 10 UNIWORLD February 2003

11 Changing perceptions and lives of girls and women in the Filipino sex trade by Moira Farr Girls born into large, poor families in depressed areas of the Philippines don t have many choices in life.they often end up victims of an old and familiar pattern of exploitation, as domestic workers or prostitutes. Children as young as 12 are lured away from their isolated rural communities by recruiters who promise them good money as factory workers or waitresses in larger cities. Instead, they are deposited on the doorsteps of bars and set up immediately as prostitutes catering to tourists in Asia s thriving sex trade, where they will likely encounter violence, sexually transmitted diseases, teenage pregnancy, single motherhood and continued poverty. Meanwhile, pimps and club managers profit from their incomes and control their fates. Many continue in the job as the sole means of sending money back to impoverished families in the provinces; few have any hope of gaining an education or skills that could propel them or their families beyond the vicious prostitutionpoverty cycle. In Angeles City, with a population of 150,000, there are an estimated 3,000 bar girls, and always openings for more (they are considered old at 24). Although the nearby U.S. Clark army base, a primary source of sex-trade clientele, closed in 1992, the legacy of prostitution and related social ills in the city continues. Often, prostitutes are seen locally as criminals (even though bar girls are registered legally) who ply their trade out of choice, enjoying easy money and a corrupt lifestyle. A UPCD pilot project involving a unique partnership of Canadian academics, lawyers and judges with concerned Filipino counterparts and community organizations is hoping to make a difference in the girls lives by changing community attitudes and, ultimately, helping local efforts to provide opportunities for young women to move beyond prostitution into safer, more fulfilling and productive livelihoods. Canadian partners include Saint Mary s University and Mount Saint Vincent University in Halifax.They are collaborating with five Bar girls with clinic worker (third from left), waiting for health checks outside the Women Helping Women clinic in Angeles City. The Soroptimists are very committed to the idea of women helping women they asked us, is there something you can offer to create actual change? groups in the Philippines: Soroptimist International, a women s service organization; Angeles University Foundation; the Philippine National Police, which has special women s desks staffed by female officers often assigned to deal directly with prostitutes; the Supreme Court of the Philippines; and the Women s Education, Development, Productivity and Research Organization. It really did come as an inspired idea from our partners in the Philippines, says Edna Keeble, professor of political science and project director at Saint Mary s, who had earlier participated in an academic study of prostitution in the Philippines. The Soroptimists are very committed to the idea of women helping women, and they asked us, what is there beyond this? Is there something you can offer to create actual change? We looked around and thought that the UPCD might be a good fit continued on next page Février

12 Changing perceptions continued from previous page Coup d oeil suite de la page 7 Project directors Edda Flores and Edna Keeble at the Women Helping Women centre in the Phillipines. with the Soroptimists in Angeles City, as they are seen as a credible and legitimate organization within that community. For Canadian universities involved, the value is immense, she adds. We can be innovative as academics, and teach students how to effect change on an international level. Dr. Keeble s comments are echoed by project manager Maureen Woodhouse, also of Saint Mary s, who points out that the Angeles City collaboration is unique, in that a university is not the primary other partner. It shows that universities can go beyond our academic disciplines and deal with real situations and interact with members of the community in other parts of the world. The immediate goal of the project is to educate and train members of the judiciary, the police, the community and the prostituted women themselves in Angeles City.Workshops and training seminars are led by Fran McIntyre, a lawyer and Sexual Harassment and Fair Treatment Advocate at Mount Saint Vincent, and Steve Perrott, a psychology professor at Mount Saint Vincent, and attended by members of the Angeles City police force.these have already explored issues of human rights and violence against women and how members of the legal community can play a more positive role in the lives of vulnerable and povertystricken young girls by being more sensitive to the difficulty of their lives rather than condemning them as criminals. Program participants hope to move the police and judiciary toward seeing prostitution as the result of social inequities and finding less punitive mechanisms for dealing with it. Women police officers have been very enthusiastic, and we also have some male officers in training, says Ms. McIntyre. In September 2002, a delegation of judges, police and community workers also spent time in Halifax, further exploring the issues and gaining the perspectives offered by Canadian trainers from these two Halifax universities, as well as Dalhousie University s Law School, so that they, in turn, could train other colleagues once they returned home to the Philippines. What we are trying to teach is facilitation techniques, such as audience participation, which allow people to have a voice and present their views, says Ms. McIntyre. It allows the message of gender equality to be received much better. They can put their own spin on it. For the prostitutes themselves, the program has introduced innovative education techniques, such as participatory video and theatre workshops techniques that were pioneered in the developing countries (Brazil and India, for instance) and now used routinely in training and academic programs in Canada and other developed countries. It is transformational work, says Meredith Ralston, a women s studies professor at Mount Saint Vincent and project co-director. It is a way for marginalized people to use the camera and act out scenarios to show the violence of their lives to the community. When community members, such as the police, see how they are portrayed by the bar girls, it raises their awareness. Dr. Ralston has studied prostitution in Halifax for many years, but points out that the scope of problems facing women prostitutes is much larger in the Philippines, a lesson she wants to pass on to her Mount Saint Vincent students. I would have to say that doing this work has been a life-changing experience.we have a very insular, secure life in Canada.There is poverty and gender inequality, yes, but when you go to a place like Angeles City, you see it on a scale we cannot imagine here. I want my students to be exposed to that reality, to understand how women are treated in other countries, to find out what we really mean by oppression. Both Dr. Ralston and Dr. Keeble plan return visits to Angeles City this year, to help with theatre workshops and video production, as well as further community outreach and conferences that will bring all five project partners together. programme de collaboration en recherche indépendant, mais parallèle au programme d échange. University of Windsor Au cours de la dernière année, la University of Windsor a signé des ententes d articulation avec plusieurs établissements.toutes permettent aux étudiants des établissements suivants de terminer leur programme d études à la University of Windsor en accéléré : l Université de science et de technologie d Anshan (République populaire de Chine) pour un B.Sc. en économie; le Collège familial outremer (Singapour) pour un B.A. ou B.Sc., selon le cas; l Université baptiste de Hong Kong (République populaire de Chine) pour un baccalauréat; le Collège KDU (Malaisie) pour un baccalauréat; l Université du Brunéi Darussalam pour un B.Sc. en biotechnologie. L université a conclu des ententes visant à faciliter la recherche concertée et les échanges d étudiants aux cycles supérieurs et de professeurs avec les établissements suivants : l Institut N.M. Emanuel de physique biochimique; l Académie des sciences de Russie; le Centre national de recherche environnementale de l Université du Chili; la faculté de génie de l Université Jean Monnet (France); le département de physique de l Université d État M.V. Lomonosov de Moscou (Russie). Université York Le programme d études en développement international propose un diplôme de premier cycle stimulant offrant des possibilités d emploi intéressantes. En plus de parcourir les théories du développement, le programme expose les moyens qu utilisent les organismes de développement pour aider les pauvres et les gens dans le besoin. Comme le programme est axé sur les pratiques de développement, les étudiants ont aussi l occasion de lire des documents des organismes d aide internationaux, dont ceux de la Banque mondiale, et d apprendre à monter et à exécuter un projet de recherche ou d intervention en développement. Les étudiants aux cycles supérieurs devraient être des candidats de choix pour les organismes non gouvernementaux, les instituts de recherche, les organismes de développement international, les syndicats et divers groupes de citoyens qui s occupent de développement. En ce moment, environ 70 étudiants sont inscrits au programme. 12 UNIWORLD February 2003

13 Social workers needed for Vietnam s new social realities by Moira Farr For North Americans and Europeans, the baby boom began in 1945, when the Second World War ended anyone born in that immediate post-war era is now past age 50, causing social analysts to ponder the changing needs of an aging population. By contrast, in Vietnam post-war means after 1975, and the boom in births following that decisive year means that more than 50 per cent of the current Vietnamese population is under the age of 25.That, says Lan Gien, a professor at Memorial University s School of Nursing (who left Vietnam herself at the age of 16, in the early 60s), makes for a unique set of social challenges. Cocaine addiction, for example, is way up among the young, in both urban upgrading the skills of social-work teachers at the college, so that they can teach others, and establishing a clinical institute that will better meet the needs of vulnerable groups within the population, especially in rural areas. Although the war ended 28 years ago, the ravages of war are still seen, says Dr. Gien, a director of the joint program, pointing for example to the long-lasting effects of Agent Orange, the herbicide used by the U.S. military in Vietnam in the 1960s to defoliate the tropical forests where many communities were located. The known negative effects of the chemical compound on human health are still seen in Vietnam in the high number of abnormal fetuses and the damage to nervous systems in both children and adults. In Vietnam, the post-war baby boom since 1975 means that more than 50 percent of the country s population is under the age of 25. and rural parts of the country. Unfortunately, Vietnam is right in the drug-trade triangle, and it targets the young, explains Dr. Gien. As the country s market economy develops, the gap between rich and poor is increasing, with the poor having limited access to social benefits. Many families have both parents working. The educational system and the job market are so competitive. It s a very highstress environment for young people and many do turn to drugs. Although some limited rehabilitation programs are available now, Dr. Gien says the need for counsellors, trained to international social-work standards, is critical. Drug addiction among young Vietnamese is only one problem to be addressed by a new collaborative project bringing together Memorial University faculty from the Schools of Nursing and of Social Work and teachers and students at the College of Labour and Social Affairs in Hanoi.The aim of the project is to tackle tough social issues and reduce poverty in Vietnam by Veterans, orphans and the disabled all need specialized services. Most of those currently providing such help are government workers or war veterans themselves, who don t have social-work degrees but were trained under the Communist system in other disciplines, such as social psychology or political science. They have had no formal training, but now they want a bona fide degree and a curriculum that is recognized internationally, says Dr. Gien. The needs are huge in the area of health, and there is a lot of room for improvement in terms of leadership and management training. The program s first priority is to train the Hanoi college s teachers, the majority of them women, allowing roughly 60 to study in an eight-month program consisting of 10 courses in basic social-work skills. Among this group, six with adequate English skills will be admitted to the bachelor of social work degree program of Memorial University, with 16 courses taught in Vietnam by Memorial faculty members.these Canadians contribute by helping to expose the Vietnamese to current knowledge and skills in social work, new modes of teaching, independent studies and new knowledge on the Internet. (In turn, says Dr. Gien, Canadians are exposed to a system that partners educational institutions and the community to a greater degree, especially in rural areas.) English social-work textbooks are being translated, covering methods of counselling and other content that is standard in Western countries. We do have to be careful words such as advocacy and revolution have a different connotation there, Dr. Gien points out. Eventually, she says, about half a dozen of these students will take English upgrading courses and attend Memorial University to obtain master of social work degrees. Language can be a particular barrier because during the Communist era, the Vietnamese learned Russian, Chinese or even eastern European languages, but rarely English. Many of those holding key teaching positions are over 45 and find it difficult to learn a new language. Dr. Gien says it is likely that those who do come to Newfoundland to study will be among the youngest of these teachers. The program will take place over the next five years, and follows on the successful completion of a previous UPCD Tier 2 project that trained primary health-care workers in rural Vietnam (see Uniworld, October 2001).The ultimate goal of the current program is to build on the poverty-reduction efforts of the past with a network of trained workers in both Canada andvietnam, who will be qualified to provide social services and improve the standard of living, especially for the vulnerable elderly, women and children. Février

14 Formation en gestion de coopératives : une initiative de l'université de Sherbrooke porte ses fruits à Cuba par Geneviève-L. Picard Un réseau d'experts en gestion de coopératives est en train de se former à travers l île de Cuba, et ce, grâce à une initiative de l Institut de recherche et d'enseignement pour les coopératives de l Université de Sherbrooke (IRECUS) et du soutien financier de l ACDI. Le projet de l'irecus est venu combler un besoin pressant des Cubains. En effet, à cause du système politique particulier à Cuba, la majeure partie des fermes cubaines sont de type coopératif. Tous les secteurs de l économie cubaine ont été affectés par l effondrement du bloc soviétique, qui était le principal partenaire commercial de Cuba. Les coopératives agricoles n'ont pas été épargnées : en 1996, plus de la moitié des unidades basicas de producción cooperativa (unités de base de production coopérative) affichaient des pertes financières. La situation était particulièrement critique à cause de l embargo américain, en vigueur depuis quatre décennies, qui compliquait l importation de biens incluant les denrées alimentaires. Le réseau cubain de formation universitaire et technique, pourtant très développé, n offrait pas de formation en gestion de coopératives. Les employés des coopératives devaient donc développer de nouvelles compétences en gestion coopérative, en gestion des ressources humaines, en production et en mise en marché. En 1998, s inspirant d une expérience réussie avec le Costa Rica, l IRECUS a lancé un projet de coopération avec la principale université cubaine. Après qu une vingtaine de professeurs de La Havane aient suivi une formation tant au Canada qu à Cuba, l Universidad de La Habana lançait en 2001 un programme de maîtrise en formation en gestion et en développement des coopératives. Depuis ce lancement, une soixantaine de Cubains se sont inscrits au programme. La création d une maîtrise n était que l'une des parties de l entente entre les deux universités : le projet comprend également un service à la collectivité offert par les stagiaires cubains; l internationalisation des programmes des deux universités et des recherches participatives sur le terrain. C est ainsi que, tous les 15 jours, un groupe d étudiants et de professeurs se rendent à la coopérative de Pijuan, dans la province de Matanzas, afin d aider les membres de cette ferme de canne à sucre à développer des outils de gestion et à développer des programmes de formation des membres. Après certains ajustements logistiques, la collaboration est excellente avec notre homologue de La Havane, la professeure Beatriz Diaz, explique le directeur de l IRECUS, Denis Martel. Pour les étudiants participant aux stages, l approche est observatoire plutôt que participative. Les étudiants québécois sont jumelés à des étudiants cubains; ensembles, ils assistent à des conférences à l Universidad de La Habana et ils visitent des coopératives cubaines. On a formé des professeurs et le programme se donne maintenant de façon autonome là-bas. À droite : Violaine Royer et Marie-Annick Taillon, deux étudiantes de l IRECUS en stage à Cuba, Reynaldo Jiménez Guethon, professeur à l Universidad de la Habana ayant suivi sa formation de maîtrise à l IRECUS, ainsi qu un groupe d étudiants de la maîtrise à Cuba et qui font partie de l'ubpc Pijuan. De la même façon, les Cubains qui viennent ici rencontrent des représentants des principales organisations coopératives dans le domaine de la coopération internationale : Développement International Desjardins, la Société de coopération pour le développement international et la Direction générale des coopératives au ministère de l'industrie et du Commerce du Québec. Ils complètent leur séjour avec la visite de coopératives agricoles ou forestières québécoises, telle que la coopérative laitière Agropur de Granby, ou la coopérative Citadelle, à Plessisville, qui se spécialise dans les produits de l érable. Les Cubains sont particulièrement intéressés par les variantes de produits sucrés puisqu ils en produisent, eux aussi. L objectif prioritaire de l IRECUS pour les projets internationaux est toujours de promouvoir l autonomie des universités avec lesquelles il collabore. M. Martel dit être très satisfait de la façon dont se déroule le projet à Cuba. On a formé des professeurs et le programme se donne maintenant de façon autonome là-bas. Il est même offert en courtes périodes intensives pour des étudiants résidant à l extérieur de La Havane. Le projet de l IRECUS à Cuba, qui se poursuit jusqu à l'automne 2003, totalise un investissement de 1,3 million de dollars sur cinq ans. La moitié de cette somme représente la contrepartie des universités par la participation des gestionnaires et des professeurs, et a été assumée par les deux universités. Le reste du financement provient de l Agence canadienne de développement international par l entremise de l Association des universités et collèges du Canada, dans le cadre du programme de Partenariats universitaires en coopération et développement. Fondé en 1976, l IRECUS est très présent sur la scène internationale. En 2000, l institut a reçu un prix d excellence décerné par l ACDI pour un programme de coopération avec l Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, au Brésil. 14 UNIWORLD February 2003

15 Training in managing cooperatives: Université de Sherbrooke initiative pays off in Cuba by Geneviève-L. Picard Front: Violaine Royer and Marie-Annick Taillon, two IRECUS student interns in Cuba, Professor Reynaldo Jiménez Guethon of the Universidad de la Habana, who completed his master s courses at IRECUS, and a group of master s students in Cuba, who belong to a farm cooperative in Pijuan. Anetwork of experts in managing cooperatives is emerging across the island of Cuba through an initiative of the Institut de recherche et d'enseignement pour les coopératives (IRECUS) at Université de Sherbrooke, with financial support from CIDA. The IRECUS project meets a pressing need in Cuba. Most of the country s agricultural enterprises are cooperatives. All sectors of the Cuban economy were hard hit by the collapse of the Soviet bloc, Cuba s main trading partner. Farm cooperatives did not escape this trend: in 1996, more than half the 2,700 unidades basicas de producción cooperativa (basic cooperative production units) posted financial losses.the situation was especially critical because the American embargo of the past four decades has complicated the import of goods, including foodstuffs. Cuba s university and technical education system, although very highly developed, provided no training in managing cooperatives. Co-op employees needed to develop new skills in managing cooperatives, human resources, production and marketing. In 1998, bolstered by a successful experiment in Costa Rica, IRECUS launched a cooperative project with Cuba s leading university. After some 20 Cuban professors from Havana were trained in Canada and Cuba, the Universidad de La Habana launched a master s program in management and development of cooperatives in Since that time, some 60 Cubans have registered in the program. The creation of a master s program was just one part of the agreement between the two universities; the project also includes community service by the Cuban interns; the internationalization of the two universities programs; and participatory field research. Every two weeks, a group of students and professors travel to the Pijuan cooperative, in Matanzas province, to assist the members of this sugar cane farm in the development of management tools and member training programs. After some logistical adjustments, cooperation is now excellent with our counterpart in Havana, Professor Beatriz Diaz, says IRECUS director Denis Martel. For student interns, the approach is based on observation rather than participation. Quebec students are twinned with Cuban students, and together they attend conferences at the Universidad de La Habana and visit cooperatives in various provinces. Similarly, the Cubans travel to Canada to meet with the representatives of major cooperative organizations in the field of international cooperation: Développement International Desjardins, the Société de coopération pour le développement international, and la Direction générale des cooperatives au ministère de l Industrie et du Commerce du Québec.Their stay is rounded off with a visit to Quebec farming or forestry cooperatives, such as the Agropur dairy cooperative in Granby, or the Citadelle cooperative in Plessisville, which specializes in maple products. Naturally, the Cubans are particularly interested in the wide variety of sugar products. The main objective of IRECUS for international projects is to promote the independence of the universities it cooperates with. Mr. Martel says he is very satisfied with the progress achieved by the project in Cuba. We have trained professors and the program in Cuba is now totally self-sustaining. It is available for brief intensive periods for students who live outside Havana. The IRECUS project in Cuba, which continues until the fall of 2003, represents a total investment of $1.3 million over five years. Half is provided in kind by the participating universities through the involvement of managers and professors, with the costs covered by the two universities.the remainder of the funding is provided by the Canadian International Development Agency through the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, as part of its University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program. IRECUS, founded in 1976, is very active on the international scene. In 2000, the Institute received an award of excellence from CIDA for a cooperative program with the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco in Brésil. Février

16 AUCC President, Robert Giroux, on the continued strength of academic relations between Canada and Cuba Q: What was the purpose of your visit to Cuba last year? It was to meet a longstanding invitation that I had from education officials there to talk about common issues and to see their installations. They value their relationship with Canada, which goes a long way back, because we are strategically positioned with respect to the United States. So the purpose of the trip was for me to observe and for us to talk about future collaboration, which of course will lead to a visit that we are organizing right now of a number of Canadian university presidents and rectors and other university officials to Cuba in February of And I am sure that Cuban officials will come to Canada in the future as well. All of this will really feed our joint collaborations. Q: What were some of the things you observed there? I observed first of all that they have a welladvanced university system. Cuba is in the category of a developing country it s not a rich country, it s a poor country but one thing that amazes me is that everybody goes to school. University education is free, and everybody is assured of a health and medical system that is free.that s all being paid by the state, of course. It assures that you have a reasonably healthy population and a reasonably well-educated population. Second, they are making some very interesting progress in the area of biotechnology, environmental studies and engineering.they have some pretty advanced schools and faculties on that front. The purpose of the February visit is to encourage our own universities to enter into bilateral exchanges. It s already happening and we want to build on this.what helps a lot is the fact that since they have an infrastructure that is capable of engaging in what we call partnerships or collaborative programs, Cuba has succeeded in obtaining the largest number of University Partnership for Cooperation in Development projects of any developing country. Nine projects [eight Tier 2 one Tier 1]; some of them are finished, some ongoing.why is that? Whether you talk about public health or the environment, it s possible for our universities here to find a partner in Cuba who can provide a lot of substance to nurture a partnership.you don t just start from zero, you have a certain confidence that you have something you can build on. Q: Can you talk briefly about the history of academic relations between Canada and Cuba? It s quite evident that Cuba has always nurtured Canadian partnerships.we have to recognize, you know, that it was in the mid-70s that Prime Minister Trudeau went to Cuba and established very friendly relations.the United States didn t like that very much, but certainly this kind of openness at the political level set the stage for our negotiations over the years. If the U.S. changes its policies and becomes more open toward Cuba, it could change some of the dynamic between Canada and Cuba, but it wouldn t stop us from continuing to build our relationship, which has always been extremely valuable for both countries. Q: What protocol and outcomes do you expect from these partnerships? In terms of the AUCC in Cuba, it s very interesting.when I met with the minister of education in Cuba, he said, You know, when you deal with Canada, you don t have a national department of education. He said, I see the AUCC as my counterpart in the area of postsecondary education. We could certainly sign a protocol that would foster exchanges of information, provide the umbrella for future collaboration. On the other hand, we don t have any funding to pursue it. Our protocols, whether they be with Mexico, Chile or any other country, are really more a way of solidifying the relationship between our countries in order that these exchanges may take place.we use the mechanisms we have in place, including the UPCD program and other bilateral mechanisms through Canadian International Development Agency and government agencies to provide the necessary financial support.we also open doors for universities to maintain their own bilateral relations. Q: What benefits do you see in these relationships for Canadian institutions? Well, it s all part of our internationalization objective.we do these things so that institutions can provide their faculties and students with exposure to what s happening outside Canada, in Cuba as well as many other countries. From that point of view, through the various projects, we know that faculty and students will travel to Cuba, they will see what happens in a country like Cuba, they will make alliances and friendships which will certainly be useful to them in their future careers.that s part of sensitizing our students and faculty to international issues, to open up to the world, which we know is so important, particularly in today s globalization atmosphere. Q: And for the Cubans? We have Cuban faculty and students who come to Canada, and they get to know what we re all about.they meet people in our universities who will not necessarily travel to Cuba, but who will help develop a kind of synergy between our institutions and theirs.they know when they are dealing with us that they are dealing with a country that has essentially the same style of education as the United States. We are a North American system, not a European system, so in dealing with us, they can realize that our universities are just as good as American universities, the curricula are very similar.a lot of the research we do is in collaboration with colleagues in the U.S. It s an opportunity for them to relate to the North American context. Of course, they also do it because we ve got close relations with Mexico, which is a whole different context, but also very important. continued on page UNIWORLD February 2003

17 Le président-directeur général de l AUCC, Robert Giroux, sur la vigueur continue des relations universitaires entre le Canada et Cuba Q : Quel était le but de votre visite à Cuba l an dernier? Ma visite avait pour but de donner suite à une invitation de longue date reçue des responsables de l éducation du pays pour discuter de questions communes et visiter leurs installations. Ils attachent une grande importance aux rapports qu ils entretiennent avec le Canada depuis de nombreuses années, car notre pays occupe une position stratégique par rapport aux États-Unis. Je m y suis donc rendu pour observer et parler avec eux de notre collaboration future qui, de toute évidence, mènera à une visite à Cuba pour un certain nombre de présidents d université et de recteurs ainsi que d autres représentants d universités en février Je suis persuadé que des responsables cubains viendront également au Canada dans un avenir rapproché. Tous ces échanges alimenteront vraiment nos activités conjointes. Q : Parlez-nous de ce que vous avez observé là-bas. J ai d abord constaté que leur système universitaire est très avancé. Cuba est dans la catégorie des pays en développement ce n est certes pas un pays riche, c est même un pays pauvre mais ce qui m étonne, c est que tout le monde va à l école. Les études universitaires sont gratuites et chacun bénéficie d un système de santé et de soins médicaux gratuit.tous ces frais sont assumés par l État, ce qui permet, bien sûr, d avoir une population en assez bonne santé et relativement bien instruite. Ensuite, j ai remarqué que Cuba a fait des progrès très intéressants dans le domaine de la biotechnologie, des études environnementales et de l ingénierie. On y trouve des écoles et des facultés d un niveau relativement élevé à cet égard. Le but de la visite de février est d encourager nos propres universités à participer à des échanges bilatéraux. De tels échanges existent déjà et nous voulons les consolider. Ce qui aide beaucoup, c est que, du fait que Cuba possède une infrastructure lui permettant de s engager dans ce que nous appelons des partenariats ou des programmes de collaboration, il est le pays en développement qui a réussi à obtenir le plus grand nombre de projets dans le cadre du programme de Partenariats universitaires en coopération et développement (PUCD). Il participe à neuf projets (huit du Volet 2; un du Volet 1); certains d entre eux sont achevés et d autres se poursuivent. Comment expliquer cette situation? Que l on parle de santé publique ou d environnement, il est possible pour nos universités de trouver à Cuba un partenaire qui peut leur fournir un contenu substantiel pour soutenir un partenariat. Il n est pas nécessaire de partir de zéro et on est assuré, jusqu à un certain point, d avoir un fondement sur lequel bâtir. Q : Pouvez-vous nous parler brièvement de l histoire des relations universitaires entre le Canada et Cuba? Il est bien évident que Cuba a toujours encouragé les partenariats avec le Canada. Nous devons reconnaître, vous savez, que c est au milieu des années 70 que le premier ministre Trudeau est allé à Cuba et y a établi des relations amicales. Les États-Unis n étaient pas trop heureux de cette initiative, mais ce genre d ouverture sur le plan politique a préparé la voie à nos négociations au fil des ans. Si les États-Unis décident de changer leurs politiques et de faire preuve d une plus grande ouverture à l égard de Cuba, la dynamique entre le Canada et Cuba pourrait changer, mais cela ne nous empêcherait pas de continuer à consolider nos relations, qui ont toujours été très fructueuses pour les deux pays. suite à la page suivante Février

18 Le président suite de la page 17 Q:À votre avis, quel protocole d accord et quels résultats découleront de ces partenariats? En ce qui concerne la présence de l AUCC à Cuba, c est très intéressant. Quand j ai rencontré le ministre de l Éducation à Cuba, il a déclaré «Vous savez, quand on traite avec le Canada, on ne fait pas affaire avec un ministère de l Éducation national. Je vois l AUCC comme mon homologue dans le domaine de l éducation postsecondaire.» Nous pourrions sûrement signer un protocole qui favoriserait les échanges de renseignements et fournirait un cadre pour une collaboration future. Par contre, nous n avons pas les fonds nécessaires pour poursuivre cette initiative. Nos protocoles, que ce soit avec le Mexique, le Chili ou n importe quel autre pays, sont plutôt un moyen d affermir les relations entre nos pays afin que ces échanges puissent avoir lieu. Nous utilisons les mécanismes qui sont en place, y compris le programme de PUCD et d autres mécanismes bilatéraux par l entremise de l Agence canadienne de développement international et d organismes gouvernementaux, pour fournir le soutien financier nécessaire. Nous ouvrons également les portes pour permettre aux universités de maintenir leurs propres relations bilatérales. Q: Selon vous, quels avantages ces relations offrent-elles aux établissements canadiens? Eh bien! Cela fait partie de notre objectif d internationalisation. Ces activités permettent aux établissements d exposer leurs professeurs et leurs étudiants à ce qui se passe à l extérieur du Canada, à Cuba ainsi que dans de nombreux autres pays. De ce point de vue, nous savons que, grâce à ces divers projets, des professeurs et des étudiants se rendront à Cuba, verront ce qui se passe dans un pays comme Cuba, formeront des alliances et se lieront d amitié, ce qui leur sera sûrement utile dans leur avenir professionnel. Il s agit de sensibiliser nos professeurs et nos étudiants aux questions internationales, de nous ouvrir sur le monde extérieur, ce qui est si important, particulièrement dans le climat de mondialisation qui règne à l heure actuelle. Q : Et quels sont les avantages pour les établissements cubains? Certains professeurs et certains étudiants cubains viennent au Canada et apprennent à connaître notre pays. Ils rencontrent dans nos universités des personnes qui n iront pas nécessairement à Cuba, mais qui aideront à créer une certaine synergie entre nos établissements et les leurs. Ils savent que lorsqu ils traitent avec nous, ils font affaire avec un pays dont le type d éducation est essentiellement le même que celui des États-Unis. Notre système est nordaméricain et non européen, donc, quand ils font affaire avec nous, ils se rendent compte que nos universités sont tout aussi bonnes que les universités américaines et que les programmes d études sont très semblables. Comme une grande partie de nos recherches se fait en collaboration avec des collègues aux États-Unis, c est pour eux une occasion de se situer par rapport au contexte nord-américain. Bien sûr, ils le font aussi parce que nous entretenons des liens étroits avec le Mexique, un contexte tout à fait différent mais tout aussi important. Q : À votre avis, quel est l objectif principal de votre rencontre de février? L objectif est sans aucun doute de poursuivre les discussions et le dialogue et de sensibiliser un plus grand nombre de nos recteurs à ce qui se passe à Cuba et aux possibilités de relations bilatérales. Nous voulons également tenir un séminaire sur les leçons apprises des projets du programme des PUCD. Ce sera pour nous l occasion de faire part de nos connaissances, car notre expérience nous permet de comprendre ce qui donne de bons résultats et ce qui échoue, les avantages qui en découlent et ainsi de suite. Je suis persuadé que ce genre d échanges suscitera beaucoup d intérêt. Nous croyons que nous pourrons ainsi continuer à renforcer nos partenariats, dans toutes les disciplines, que ce soit dans le domaine de l administration publique, de l économie, de la sociologie ou d un secteur quelconque de la santé, ou dans tout autre domaine. Les Cubains sont également très forts dans le domaine des arts. Ils investissent dans des musées et des galeries d art et encouragent beaucoup d études dans ce secteur. Nous prévoyons également signer un protocole de collaboration bilatérale qui nous donnera une base solide sur laquelle nous appuyer à l avenir. La rencontre devrait être à la fois très productive et très enrichissante pour toutes les personnes qui y participeront. Training Cuba continued from page 8 access to medical care affects a population s health, but also at matters of lifestyle and environment. Using this approach in the Cuban context, Canadian academics are having an impact on both educational content and framework, as Cubans move from traditional pedagogy toward some of the interactive techniques that are hallmarks of Canadian higher education classes and workshops that employ roleplaying, problem-based learning and case-studies, and that send students into communities as part of their studies. These have gone over well, says Dr. Spiegel. The whole thing is very gratifying, because the Cubans actually use what we take down there. Many trainees are preparing graduate theses related directly to aspects of this program from evaluating the impact of the school s health diploma program in Cuba to defining indicators of the success of public health campaigns, such as the recent dengue fever campaign, which put into action the material taught. The program also allows Canadian students to travel to Cuba one graduate student is in Havana now studying the role of women in community health and Cuban students to spend time in Canada. Milagros Alegret, a biochemist representing a Santa Clara medical institute, spent this past fall at UBC as the program s pioneer doctoral student from Cuba, studying statistical methods and the use of databases that allow for effective forecasting of health problems and issues. I ve worked in public health all my life, says Dr.Alegret. It s very important to my country that we have the opportunity to improve our skills in this area. She looked forward to returning to Cuba and sharing her knowledge with professionals at medical institutes throughout the country. At all levels of training, the Canada-Cuba collaboration is a good fit, say Dr. Spiegel. Cuban students graduating from the diploma program at Havana s Instituto Nacional de Hygiene Epidemiología y Microbiología in June 2001 were gratified when Canadian ambassador to Cuba, Michael Small, presented the diplomas. They have a strong foundation to go forward, says Dr. Spiegel. And they are excited about the possibilities of continuing to build partnerships that lead to further capacity building in the Americas. 18 UNIWORLD February 2003

19 AUCC President continued from page 16 Q: What would you say is the main goal of your meeting in February? Certainly, to continue the discussions and the dialogue, and to get more of our university presidents to be aware of what s happening in Cuba and the possibilities for bilateral relations. We also want to have a seminar on lessons learned from UPCD projects.that will be an opportunity to share what we know, because we ve got enough experience that we can understand what works and what doesn t work, what are the benefits and so on. I m sure there will be a lot of interest in this.we think we will continue to gain strength in partnerships this way, in all disciplines, whether that is public administration, economics, sociology, other areas in the health field, whatever.they are very strong in the arts too, you know.they re investing in museums and art galleries, they are encouraging a lot of studies along those lines. And, we are planning to sign a bilateral protocol of cooperation that gives us a strong base to build on for the future. It should be a very productive and enlightening meeting for all of those involved. A Cuban-Canadian coalition goes into overtime by Tim Lougheed Cuba s educators are preparing their students for major challenges ahead. As the island gradually and carefully opens its markets to the world, the process is creating a profound demand for homegrown talent in a variety of fields, from business administration to biotechnology. That talent has its work cut out for it. Cuba is still reeling from the economic aftershocks of the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union, which had been its most reliable customer for agricultural products and a dependable source of manufactured goods. During the 1990s, key sectors, such as the sugar cane industry, saw their output fall by as much as half. This crisis formed the backdrop for a link with Carleton University, which in 1994 began offering a master of arts program in economics at the University of Havana.The curriculum was intended to change the way economics was taught, studied and practised, ultimately pointing the way to major reforms that will shape the future of the Cuban economy. Based on the success and promise of such cooperation, the two universities entered into a five-year, $5 million CIDA project in This extensive interaction has been aimed at supporting changes in teaching and applied research at Cuban universities, research institutes and other centres.the goal is to share Carleton's experience and expertise with students and professors at the University of Havana, thereby strengthening faculty knowledge, improving the quality of reference materials and enhancing teaching and research capacities. "It's a 'train the trainer' idea," says Ken McGillivray, Director of Carleton International. "In doing this, we are helping Cuba strengthen Taking care of business: Cuban and Canadian project participants at a meeting in Havana. the general capabilities of its economic and social policy." He adds that the project is being extended to the end of 2003, giving participants a chance to continue building on new undertakings that have emerged over the last few years. Enlisting some eight distinct academic components, the project has ambitious goals that are reflected in its title: Supporting Cuba s management of its transformation: enhancing the universities contribution. Reaching for those goals has taken the two institutions well beyond their original interaction in economics. Exchanges of people, the installation of equipment, co-teaching and general research activities over the last five years have addressed biotechnology, communications, management education, public administration, women s studies and applied language studies. Dr. McGillivray notes that the project fits the model of institutional capacity-building, training the trainers who will become the backbone of Cuba s postsecondary educational system. Since 1997, about 30 Cuban academics have come to Canada, where they have sat in on classes, taken part in administrative planning, attended workshops and forged ties with faculty at Carleton and other Canadian universities, as well as government departments and local companies. For Canadian academics, Cuba represents a unique political opportunity, a setting that has been left alone by the usual competition from large American institutions.the CIDA project has evolved in isolation from such influences, moving in directions that have begun to attract attention from places as far removed as Brazil and Australia. For Dr. McGillivray, the outcome testifies to all that can be accomplished through such projects. It s been very gratifying, he says. People became not only intellectually involved, but continued on next page Février

20 A Cuban-Canadian continued from previous page emotionally involved with the project as well, which really added another dimension. That passion can be seen in both Canadian and Cuban participants. Cuban researchers, for instance, would like to employ biotechnology to improve the calibre of the country s vital sugar cane crop, enhancing yields while minimizing the use of environmentally destructive fertilizers. But managing research for such purposes consists of much more than operating a laboratory efficiently; the task is as complex as running any kind of high-tech enterprise. A piece of science is now being looked at from a business standpoint, says Dr. McGillivray, noting that Canadian entrepreneurs continue to struggle with this task as much as the Cubans. Both are working to ensure that the technology developed is married to business acumen; wherever the project, it has to work technically, but it also has to be cost-effective. In fact, adds Manfred Bienefeld of Carleton s School of Public Policy and Administration, the enthusiasm of Canadian participants stems from engaging their Cuban counterparts in issues or problems that have no easy solution.a favourite example is the management of environmental issues at the local level, which remains one of the more difficult features of public policy in both countries. It s a fundamental problem, says Professor Bienefeld. How do you decentralize power but retain coherence at the level of the system as a whole? That s a question to which nobody has an answer. Cuba has recently formed a new level of Memories of Havana: hotel-rooftop workspace overlooking old Havana, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. local government authority with significant power that will allow people to make decisions on technological problems with a business perspective in mind. In wielding that power, says Professor Bienefeld, the country is abandoning Communist ideals about highly centralized control without necessarily placing complete faith in the advice of Western economists or the role of a free market. Graduates from the University of Havana s freshly minted master of public administration program will probably play a part in helping these new bodies find their way. Orlando Gutiérrez Castillo, a professor at that university s Centre for Studies of the Cuban Economy, says the program stemmed directly from the Carleton-Cuba CIDA project, integrating previously existing course offerings into a single, coherent curriculum. The impact was not just in Havana, says Dr. Castillo, who was visiting Carleton last fall along with Lourdes Taberes, vice-rector of the University of Havana, and Antonio Iglesias Morell, a professor with the university s Centro de Estudios de Técnicas de Dirección. Dr. Castillo notes that the program has attracted the attention and participation of other universities across the island. We created a network for studying public administration.the project enabled us to build this kind of network. Within the university, he adds, this work broke down many of the traditional academic silos that often interfere with interdisciplinary, interdepartmental activities. But just as important to him are the close working relations that have developed outside the country. After five years of coming here, my counterpart in Canada is my friend, he says. UniWorld is published twice a year as an insert in University Affairs by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada s international affairs branch. It provides news, features and commentary on the activities of Canadian universities working in international development and their partner universities in the South. UniMonde paraît deux fois par année comme un encart dans Affaires universitaires. Il est publié par la Direction des affairs internationales de l Association des universités et collèges du Canada. Cette publication fournit des nouvelles, des articles ainsi que des commentaires sur les activités des universités canadiennes en matière de développement international et sur leurs partenaires du Sud. Editor/Rédactrice Margaux Béland Assistant Editor/Rédactrice adjointe Darlene Gibbs Contributors/Rédacteurs Moira Farr Frederick J. Keenan Tim Lougheed Anne Mullens Geneviève-L. Picard Contributions and inquiries are welcome and should be addressed to the editor./les contributions et demandes de renseignements sont les bienvenues et devraient êtres addressées à : UniWorld/UniMonde AUCC Albert Ottawa, Ontario K1R 1B1 Tel./tél.: (613) ext./poste 306 Fax/téléc.: (613) /courriel : Articles may be reproduced in whole or in part provided credit is given to the source.the views expressed in the articles are solely the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of AUCC. AUCC gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the Canadian International Development Agency to this publication. Tout article d UniMonde peut être reproduit entièrement ou en partie, avec mention de la source. Les points de vue exprimés dans les articles sont ceux des auteurs et ne reflètent pas nécessairement ceux de l AUCC. L AUCC remercie vivement l Agence canadienne de développement international sa contribution à la publication d UniMonde. 20 UNIWORLD February 2003

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